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Sample records for endophyte-infected tall fescue

  1. Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. PMID:16346751

  2. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. = Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and before that, Festuca elatior L.) is a cool-season perennial grass that is well adapted in the upper transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropic...

  3. Grazing High Versus Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Reduces Contractility of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle that graze toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue are continuously exposed to a myriad of toxins that are known to negatively affect cardiovascular tissues. As part of a larger study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in growing cattle, the objective wa...

  4. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  5. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  6. Changes in bovine vascular contraction and constriction relative to time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (E+; Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (TF; Lolium arundinaceum) are exposed to ergot alkaloids when consuming forage. Ergot alkaloids induce constriction in vascular tissue of extremities of animals grazing TF leading to inability to regulate body tempera...

  7. Vasoactivity and vasoconstriction changes in cattle related to time off toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of ti...

  8. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D; Faeth, Stanley H; McCulley, Rebecca L; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar 'Retu' performed equally well as 'Kentucky-31' in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of 'Kentucky-31' plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype 'Kentucky-31' that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions. PMID:27284909

  9. Nematotoxicity of alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that the Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass association is provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores and insects due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning the involvement of toxins produced by th...

  10. Effects of fescue toxicosis induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on forestomach epithelial gene expression in Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous report demonstrated that steers exposed to an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract had altered rumen epithelial blood flow and decreased ruminal flux of VFA. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether there are differences in gene expression related to VFA absorption betwe...

  11. Effects of Storage Conditions on the Forage Quality Characteristics and Ergovaline Content of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the southern Ozark Highlands, endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] hay often is stored outdoors, without cover. At two research sites (Fayetteville and Batesville, AR), the effects of unprotected storage were assessed for large-round bales of tall fescue...

  12. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress. PMID:26024809

  13. Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alters Serotonin Receptor-Induced Contractility of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concurrent with grazing of endophyte-infected tall fescue is the consumption of toxic alkaloids that negatively affect cardiovascular function and result in fescue toxicosis. Vascular effects of ergopeptine alkaloids are mediated by stimulation of various biogenic amine receptors yet to be fully cha...

  14. Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

  15. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America

    PubMed Central

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D.; Faeth, Stanley H.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar ‘Retu’ performed equally well as ‘Kentucky-31’ in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of ‘Kentucky-31’ plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype ‘Kentucky-31’ that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions. PMID:27284909

  16. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  17. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticulo-ruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from a washed reticulorumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n = 8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+; 0.015 mg ergovaline•kg BW-1•d-1) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via r...

  18. Preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue grown adjacent to or at a distance from alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Friend, M A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue growing in monoculture at least 5 m away from alfalfa (fescue-middle (FM)) over endophyte-infected tall fescue growing adjacent (0.2 to 1 m; fescue-alfalfa (FA)) to alfalfa (FA), and the effect of legume scent on preference for endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Experiment 1, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered for 12 days a choice of freshly harvested FA and FM. On days 13 and 14, lambs were offered the same choice, except cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa were put in the feeders containing FA, whereas cages containing freshly harvested FM were included with the feeders containing FM. Forage intake was measured 1 h after feeding and at three consecutive 2-h intervals thereafter. FA contained greater (P<0.002) concentrations of the alkaloid ergovaline (360 ± 27 ppm) and CP (8 ± 0.4%) than FM (219 ± 27 ppm and 6 ± 0.4%, respectively). Lambs preferred (P<0.05) FA to FM during the 1st hour of feeding, but the differences became smaller and disappeared in later feeding periods (P<0.005). Lambs offered FA with alfalfa scent or FM with FM scent preferred (P<0.05) FA but only on the 2nd day. In Experiment 2, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered a choice of FM with cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa or FM for 8 days. During the following 4 days, FM in the cages was replaced with freshly harvested sainfoin. Preference was greater (P<0.05) for FM offered with alfalfa scent than for FM offered with FM scent only on days 4 and 8. When lambs were offered FM with alfalfa or sainfoin in cages, they preferred (P<0.05) tall fescue with sainfoin scent over fescue with alfalfa scent, but intake was variable across hours and days (P<0.001). It is concluded that (1) lambs adjusted their intake of and preference for FA and FM over successive feeding bouts within each day, likely owing to an attempt to balance

  19. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  20. Preference for tannin-containing supplements by sheep consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M; Maughan, B; Villalba, J J

    2013-07-01

    Tannins may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue and attenuate fescue toxicosis. To test this hypothesis, thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (8 lambs/treatment) in a 2 by 2 factorial design that included a basal diet of tall fescue hay [E+ or endophyte-free (E-)] supplemented with (TS) or without (CS) bioactive Quebracho tannins. The concentration of ergovaline in E+ fed in 2 successive phases was 65 ± 21 µg/kg (Phase 1) and 128 ± 4 µg/kg (Phase 2). After exposure to hays and supplements, all lambs were offered choices between TS and CS and between E+ and E- hays. During Phase 1, lambs offered E+ consumed more hay than lambs offered E- (P = 0.03). Lambs on E+/TS displayed the greatest intake of hay and the least intake of TS (P < 0.05). During Phase 2, when the concentration of ergovaline increased, lambs offered E+ consumed less hay than lambs fed E- (P < 0.0001). Lambs on E+/CS consumed less hay than lambs on E-/CS (P = 0.02), but hay intake by lambs on E-/TS and E+/TS did not differ (P = 0.96). Lambs preferred CS to TS during preference tests (P < 0.0001) and lambs on E+/TS ingested the least amounts of supplement TS and the greatest amounts of supplement CS (P = 0.001). Lambs offered E+ displayed greater body temperatures than lambs offered E- in both phases (P < 0.05). When offered a choice among the 3 hays, lambs previously exposed to E+ preferred E+ (low content of ergovaline) > E- > E+ (greater content of ergovaline; P < 0.001). Thus, decreased concentrations of ergovaline increased rectal temperatures, and affected intake of and preference for tannins and fescue hay. Quebracho tannins did not attenuate the effects of E+ on body temperature and feed intake. Ingestion of E+ reduced intake of quebracho tannins, suggesting that alkaloids in E+ antagonized ingestion of condensed tannins. PMID:23658337

  1. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  2. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  3. Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

  4. Metabolite and gene expression studies in endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue under water deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions, how endop...

  5. Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

  6. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  7. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  9. Lateral saphenous vein responses to serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptor agonists increase with time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (TF; Lolium arundinaceum). This study was conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response over...

  10. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  11. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  12. Chemotaxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue root extracts against Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protection against herbivores and insects in the Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass association is provided by toxic secondary metabolites. Root exudates in this relationship contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances released into the soil that are either stimulatory, inhibitory, or inactive...

  13. Ecophysiological responses of tall fescue genotypes to fungal endophyte infection and elevated temperature and precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence can benefit the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic and ecological impor...

  14. Soil microbial community function, structure, and glomalin in response to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and may alter soil microbial communities. A 60-week mesocosm study with a factorial arrangemen...

  15. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  16. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  17. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    PubMed

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally. PMID:26815170

  18. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

  19. Effects of consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue on growth, reproduction and lactation in mice selected for high fecundity.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, V B; Washburn, S P; Eisen, E J; Johnson, B H

    1994-01-01

    Effects of a diet containing endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (83% infected) were investigated using 2 lines of mice, one line selected for fecundity (L(+)) and the other a randomly selected control line (K). Treatments included a commercial stock diet (C), 50% stock plus 50% non-infected tall fescue seed (N), and 50% stock plus 50% infected tall fescue seed (I). The experiment was conducted using mice on respective treatments in 2 phases (successive generations), with 15 to 23 mated females per line and diet subgroups. Mated females of Phase 1 were assigned at random within line to experimental diets which were fed during gestation and through 21 d of lactation. Litters were standardized to 10 pups 1 d after birth. Stock diets were fed to all groups from Day 21 to weaning on Day 28. Weaned male and female pups were allotted to previous diets. Mated females in Phase 2 were managed as in Phase 1 through weaning at 28 d. Diets of males did not affect reproduction and data were pooled within female diets. Selected (L(+)) dams gave birth to more live pups than K dams (P<0.05) during both phases (+3.4 and +2.8 +/- 0.4 pups, respectively). Diet but not line affected littering rate of mated females in Phase 1 (71.3%, I; < 87.1%, C or 93.0%, N; P<0.05) and Phase 2 (82.1%, I < 93.8%, N or 97.1%, C; P<0.05). Diet had no effect on fecundity during Phase 1 but females on I diet had reduced (P<0.05) litter size by 1.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 pups compared with the females on N and C diets, respectively, in Phase 2. Feed consumption and weights of dams during lactation generally ranked C>N>I. Growth of pups during both phases also ranked C>N>I. Vaginal opening at 28 d differed by line (71.4%, K < 89.3%, L(+), P<0.05) and diet (56.8%, I < 92.0%, C or 92.2%, N, P<0.05). These results suggest both acute and chronic effects of consumption of endophyte-infected diets. Absence of line-by-diet interactions demonstrates that adverse effects were unrelated to genetic differences between lines

  20. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Harmon, D L; Brown, K R; Strickland, J R; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L

    2012-05-01

    .31). Extrapolated maximum response was greatest in the saphenous vein for ergovaline, least for E+EXT, and intermediate for ALK (P < 0.0001). The E-EXT did not induce a contractile response in any vessel tested (P > 0.1). Data from this study indicate that ergovaline is largely responsible for the locally induced vasoconstriction of bovine vasculature observed with endophyte-infected tall fescue. PMID:22147482

  1. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  2. Energy and protected protein supplements to lambs on endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Daura, M T; Reid, R L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of supplements on intake, digestibility, N retention, ADG and blood and body composition of growing lambs fed cut herbage or grazing KY 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures at two levels of N fertilization (92 and 318 kg/ha) was determined. Supplements were corn (C), corn with soybean meal (U-SBM) and corn with heat-treated SBM (H-SBM). Metabolism trials were run at three growth stages in the 1st yr with 24 lambs. Although all supplements increased total DMI and DM digestibility, they decreased NDF digestibility relative to grass (G), with no difference between supplements; C depressed apparent CP digestibility. Nitrogen retention increased from -2.5 g/d on G to -.4 g/d on C and 3.2 and 4.1 g/d on U-SBM and H-SBM, respectively, for combined periods and N rates. Blood urea N (BUN) concentrations differed (P less than .01) in the following order: G greater than U-SBM greater than H-SBM greater than C. In the 2nd yr, lambs (n = 64) grazed fescue pastures at the same N fertilizer rates and were given the same supplements. Gains were not different (P less than .05) on low-N (LN) and high-N (HN) pastures. Seasonal ADG were 80, 115, 122 and 130 g/d for G, C, U-SBM and H-SBM treatments, respectively, with no difference (P less than .05) between U-SBM and H-SBM. At slaughter, lambs from G had lower dressing percentages (P less than .05) and fat content (P less than .01) than lambs on C, U-SBM and H-SBM treatments, with no differences between supplements. Results indicated a better performance of growing lambs on fescue with both energy and protein supplements. Response to protected vs unprotected protein was small. PMID:2005030

  3. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  4. Effects of grazing stockpilied endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on growth and physiological indices of dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season grass grown on over 20 million acres of pasture land and hayfields in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. A grazing trial was conducted to determine the effects of stockpiled tall fescue on the physiological and...

  5. Supplemental protein and energy for beef cows consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Forcherio, J C; Catlett, G E; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Ellersieck, M R

    1995-11-01

    Effects of energy and protein supplementation of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected (E+) and noninfected (E-) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on forage intake, digestibility, N flow to the small intestine, and cow-calf productivity was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 10 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were fed either E- or E+ hay with four supplements or E- or E+ hay unsupplemented. Four supplements formulated with either cracked corn or soybean hulls with 100 or 200 g/d of ruminally undegraded intake protein (UIP) were compared. Levels of UIP were varied by adding soybean meal or blood meal. Hay OM intake was not affected (P > .20) by source of energy of level of UIP; however, intake of E- was greater (P < .05) than that of E+. True ruminal OM digestion tended to be greater (P < .12) for steers fed 200 g/d of UIP than for steers fed 100 g/d. Steers receiving 200 g/d of UIP had increased (P < .10) total N flow to the duodenum compared with steers receiving 100 g/d but similar (P > .20) microbial efficiencies. In Exp. 2, 30 cows (average initial BW 459 +/- 26 kg) and their calves (average initial BW 74 +/- 5 kg and 74 +/- 5 d of age) grazed an 8.1-ha E+ pasture from late May to late July. Cows were individually fed supplements used in Exp. 1 each day. Cows that received cracked corn lost .10 kg/d when fed 100 g/d of UIP but gained .33 kg/d when fed 200 g/d. Cows fed soybean hulls and 100 g/d of UIP gained .07 kg/d, whereas cows provided 200 g/d lost .10 kg/d. Calves nursing cows supplemented with 100 g/d of UIP gained more (P < .08) BW because of increased (P < .07) milk consumption and slightly greater (P < .19) forage intake than calves nursing cows supplemented with 200 g/d of UIP. PMID:8586603

  6. Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

  7. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue Gene Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. To d...

  8. The effects of a modified glucomannan on the performance of stocker cattle grazing endophyte infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the efficacy of a modified glucomannan to mitigate fescue toxicosis, 45 Angus cross (BW = 281 ± 7.0 kg) steer calves were randomly assigned to nine 2-ha pastures of endemically-infected tall fescue in March of 2 yr and allowed to graze for 133 d. The 3 treatments were: non supplemented (...

  9. Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

  10. Effects of Bale Diameter, Storage Location, and Sampling Depth on the Nutritive Value, Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of DM, and Concentrations of Ergovaline for Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Hay Packaged in Large Round Bale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2004, endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was packaged in large-round bales made at three diameters in Fayetteville (1.11, 1.35, or 1.59 m) and Batesville (1.14, 1.39, or 1.67 m), and then stored over winter either inside or outside on wooden pallets. Bales were then ...

  11. Effects of supplementing endophyte-infected tall fescue with sainfoin and polyethylene glycol on the physiology and ingestive behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2014-02-01

    Tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and attenuate toxicosis. If so, supplementing E+ with sainfoin will increase use of E+ by sheep, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-a polymer that selectively binds to tannins-will reduce such response. To test these predictions, thirty-six 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (12 lambs/treatment). During exposure, all lambs were individually penned and fed E+ supplemented with beet pulp (CTRL), fresh-cut sainfoin and beet pulp (SAIN), or fresh-cut sainfoin plus PEG mixed in beet pulp (SAIN+PEG). Feed intake was measured daily. Rectal temperatures and jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of exposure. After exposure, all lambs were offered choices between endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) and orchardgrass, and preference for E- was assessed. Then, all lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin or a monoculture of E+. The foraging behavior of lambs was recorded. When sainfoin was in mid-vegetative stage, lambs in SAIN ingested more E+ than lambs in CTRL (P = 0.05), but no differences were detected between lambs in SAIN+PEG and CTRL (P = 0.12). Sainfoin supplementation improved some physiological parameters indicative of fescue toxicosis. Lambs in SAIN had lower rectal temperatures (P = 0.02), greater numbers of leukocytes (P < 0.001) and lymphocytes (P = 0.03), and greater plasmatic concentrations of globulin (P = 0.009) and prolactin (P = 0.019) than lambs in CTRL. Some of these differences were offset by the SAIN+PEG treatment. When lambs were offered choices between E- and orchardgrass, only lambs in SAIN had greater intake of E- than lambs in CTRL (P < 0.001). When lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin, all treatments used E+ to the same extent (P > 0.05). On the other hand, when they grazed on a monoculture of E+, lambs in SAIN+PEG showed greater acceptance

  12. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  13. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  14. Disrupted hair follicle activity in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer insulates core body temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most plants of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes cattle to have rough hair coats during the summer and persistent vascular constriction that impedes heat dissipation via blood flow to peripheral tissues. Experi...

  15. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  16. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  17. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Nancy W.; Flythe, Michael D.; Aiken, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0–8.5 ng Eqs g−1 DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL−1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d−1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL−1, P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL−1, respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  18. Genetic x environment interactions on blood constituents of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and calves grazing common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Cole, N A; Brown, M A; Phillips, W A

    2001-05-01

    Over a 2-yr period, effects of genotype and forage on blood metabolites, enzymes, and minerals were determined in Angus, Brahman, Angus x Brahman (sire x dam), and Brahman x Angus cows, and 129 calves from these cows sired by Hereford bulls. Cows and calves continuously grazed either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue pastures throughout the year. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture in April, August, October (weaning), and November (after 30 d in a feedlot) of each year. Plasma urea N concentrations of cows and calves were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and FFA concentrations of cows were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). In calves, antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were not affected by forage but were affected by breed. Serum inorganic P concentrations of calves and cows were affected by forage (P < 0.05). Serum P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity of calves were affected by breed (P < 0.05). Calves grazing bermudagrass had higher (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of Fe and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). There was evidence of maternal heterosis for concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, Ca, Mg, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin, Fe, and TIBC. There was evidence of grandmaternal effects for plasma concentrations of urea N, cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that calves and cows grazing tall fescue are generally on a lower plane of nutrition than those grazing bermudagrass and that Brahman x Angus and Angus x Brahman crossbred cows and their calves seen to be more tolerant of the negative effects of tall fescue than the average of their purebred contemporaries. PMID:11374533

  19. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J L; Aiken, G E; Johnson, J M; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacologic profiling of serotonin (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline, 5HT, 5HT2A, and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT receptor activity of tall fescue alkaloids is affected by grazing endophyte-free (EF), wild-type [Kentucky-31 (KY31)], novel endophyte AR542-infected (MAXQ), or novel endophyte AR584-infected (AR584) tall fescue, contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing these different fescue-endophyte combinations were evaluated in presence or absence of antagonists for 5HT2A (ketanserin) or 5HT7 (SB-269970) receptors. Biopsies were conducted over 2 yr on 35 mixed-breed steers (361.5 ± 6.3 kg) grazing EF (n = 12), KY31 (n = 12), MAXQ (n = 6), or AR584 (n = 5) pasture treatments (3 ha) between 84 and 98 d (Yr 1) or 108 to 124 d (Yr 2). Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied, sliced into 2- to 3-mm cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Veins were exposed to increasing concentrations of 5HT, ergovaline, and ergovaline + 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin or + 1 × 10(-6) M SB-269970 in Yr 1. In Yr 2, ergotamine and ergocornine were evaluated in presence or absence of 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin. Contractile response data were normalized to a reference addition of 1 × 10(-4) M norepinephrine. In Yr 1, contractile response to 5HT and ergovaline were least (P < 0.05) in KY31 pastures and the presence of ketanserin greatly reduced (P < 0.05) the response to ergovaline in all pastures. However, presence of SB-269970 did not (P = 0.91) alter contractile response to ergovaline. In Yr 2, there was no difference in contractile response to ergotamine (P = 0.13) or ergocornine (P = 0.99) across pasture treatments, but ketanserin reduced (P < 0.05) the contractile response to

  20. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  1. Gene expression profiling indicates an increased capacity for proline, serine, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial mass by the liver of steers grazing high vs. low endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2015-12-01

    Grazing -infected forages results in a variety of reduced animal performance parameters, collectively known as "fescue toxicosis." The initial, limited evaluations of hepatic mechanisms affected by fescue toxicosis have used transcriptomic expression profiling of experimental phenotypes developed by short-term feeding of concentrated ergot alkaloids or fescue seeds to rodents and steers. To assess the effects of fescue toxicosis in growing cattle using a commercially relevant phenotype, we induced fescue toxicosis in beef steers by summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a single high toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 10; BW = 267 ± 14.5 kg) vs. a low toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture (LE; 0.023 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 9; BW = 266 ± 10.9 kg). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had decreased BW (313 vs. 338 kg) and an increased potential for hepatic gluconeogenesis from AA-derived carbons. To gain a greater perspective into fescue toxicosis-induced hepatic metabolism and identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, the goal of the current research was to examine liver samples for changes in gene (mRNA) expression profiles using a Bovine Affymetrix microarray and selected reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses. The expression (false discovery rate < 10%; < 0.01) of 147 genes was increased (7 to 268%) and that of 227 was decreased (4 to 87%) in livers of HE vs. LE steers. The top (1) functional gene category was cell-mediated immune response (33 genes; ≤ 0.012), (2) canonical cell signaling pathway was primary immunodeficiency signaling (8 genes; ≤ 0.0003), and (3) canonical metabolic pathways were oxidative phosphorylation (5 genes; ≤ 0.016) and purine metabolism (8 genes; ≤ 0.029). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had increased ( ≤ 0.022) expression of genes critical for increased (1) Pro () and Ser () synthesis, (2) shunting of AA carbons

  2. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  3. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L.; Flythe, Michael D.; Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs–Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1 × 10−6 M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F; 1 × 10−6 M EXT + B; 1 × 10−6 M F + B; or 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F + B. After incubation for 2 h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12 M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F + B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P < 0.05) at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−7 and 5 × 10−7 M. Also, treatments containing B tended (P < 0.1) to have greater responses than treatments without B at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−6, 5 × 10−6, and 5 × 10−5 M. In mesenteric vein pretreated with EXT, treatments containing F had greater contractile responses to ERT at 1 × 10−5, 5 × 10−5, and 1 × 10−4 M (P < 0.05). These data indicated that F and B at 1 × 10−6 M and their

  4. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L; Flythe, Michael D; Klotz, James L

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1 × 10(-6) M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + F; 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + B; 1 × 10(-6) M F + B; or 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + F + B. After incubation for 2 h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12 M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F + B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P < 0.05) at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10(-7) and 5 × 10(-7) M. Also, treatments containing B tended (P < 0.1) to have greater responses than treatments without B at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10(-6), 5 × 10(-6), and 5 × 10(-5) M. In mesenteric vein pretreated with EXT, treatments containing F had greater contractile responses to ERT at 1 × 10(-5), 5 × 10(-5), and 1 × 10(-4) M (P < 0.05). These data indicated that F and B at 1 × 10(-6) M and their combination

  5. Using Orchardgrass and Endophyte-Free Fescue Versus Endophyte-Infected Fescue Overseeded on Bermudagrass for Cow Herds: I. Four-Year Summary of Forage Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systems trial was designed to evaluate forage characteristics within mixed-species pastures consisting of: i) endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; E+) mixed with common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and other forages; ii) endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) oversee...

  6. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  7. Nematotoxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue toxins and extracts to an in vitro bioassay using the nematode Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the Neotyphodium coenophialum-tall fescue grass symbiota are provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning this symbiotum and its toxicity to nematode species...

  8. Nematoxic effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue toxins and extracts to an in vitro bioassay using the nematode Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of Neotyphodium-tall fescue grass symbiota are provided with enhanced protection from grazing vertebrate herbivores and insects due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, considerable controversy exists concerning the involvement of the Neotyphodium coenophialum and tal...

  9. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparisons of Tall Fescue Gene Expression in Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In a...

  10. Case Study: Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroid Implants on the Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue in the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-two steers were assigned to six, 3.0-ha pastures of toxic tall fescue to study the effects that implant progesterone and winter hair coat retention during the summer, a symptom of fescue toxicosis, has on weight gain and body heat dissapation. Either ten clipped or ten unclipped steers were ra...

  11. Feeding soyhulls on toxic tall fescue is option for stockers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor weight gain and thriftiness of wean beef calves on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue has resulted in most the 15 million hectares of tall fescue in the USA to be utilized for cow-calf and not stocker production. An article was written that discusses results of a grazing experiment with toxi...

  12. Growth Performance and Immune Function of Fall-Born Beef Calves Weaned from Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [E+) should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to E+ toxins, but our previous research has not supported this hypothesis. Gelbvieh × Angus calves (n=238) were used in a 3-yr study to determine the optimal ti...

  13. Growth performance and immune function of fall-born beef calves weaned from endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on different dates in the spring.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.; E+) Darbysh.] should benefit from early weaning because of reduced exposure to fungal toxins, but our earlier work did not support this theory. A total of 238 Gelbvieh x Angus calves were used in a...

  14. Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Beef Steers Weaned from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier weaning of fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) in the spring should reduced exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. A total of 118 Gelbvieh ×...

  15. Tall fescue alkaloids cause vasoconstriction in equine medial palmar artery and vein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Recent work using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated that consumptio...

  16. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  17. Using Orchardgrass and Endophyte-Free Fescue Versus Endophyte-Infected Fescue Overseeded on Bermudagrass for Cow Herds: Four-Year Summary of Cow-Calf Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-yr trial was initiated in January 2000 to evaluate cow-calf performance on mixed-species pasture systems consisting of: i) endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+; Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) diluted by approximately 50% with common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and other forages; ii) e...

  18. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  19. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  20. Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

  1. Tall Fescue Grazing Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is a cool-season perennial grass that is well adapted in the upper transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropical southeast. Its adaptation in the “fescue belt” is primarily due to a fungal endophyte that imparts tolerance to drought, heat, and grazing stresses. Unfort...

  2. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

  3. Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue...

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Fractions Differ in Two Contrasting Tall Fescue Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for C sequestration in addition to forage production and soil conservation is of current interest. However, studies relating to the impacts of endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E-) tall fescue on soil organic matter fractions are few....

  5. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  6. Weaning and Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Calves Weaned on Different Dates from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures Managed with Two Different Rotation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have reported performance by spring-calving cows grazing Neotyphodium - infected fescue [E+, Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.], but post-weaning calf performance from the majority of those studies is limited. Furthermore, both pre- and post-weaning information pertaining t...

  7. Contractile response of bovine lateral saphenous vein to ergovaline serotonin2A a2A- and a2C-adrenergic receptor agonists relative to time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated differences in contractile responses to ergot alkaloids, serotonin (5HT), and adrenergic agonists by lateral saphenous veins collected from cattle that grazed either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected or endophyte-free tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum),...

  8. GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION FOR MATURE SIZE AND RATE OF MATURING FOR ANGUS, BRAHMAN, AND RECIPROCAL-CROSS COWS ON ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED FESCUE OR BERMUDAGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature weight (A) and rate of maturing (k) were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows grazing bermudagrass (BG) or endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximatel...

  9. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  10. Animal and pasture responses to grazing management of chemically suppressed tall fescue in mixed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] with metsulfuran-methyl can mitigate fescue toxicosis and enhance forage nutritive value by suppressing seedhead emergence. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers (2013) and heifers (2014) to evaluate a...

  11. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  12. Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

  13. Tall fescue persists and cattle perform well on a novel-endophyte association in the Southern Piedmont USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing and fertilization effects on long-term persistence of endophyte-free and novel-endophyte-infected tall fescue have not been well documented. A field study was conducted for 6 years to assess the persistence of tall fescue under grazing conditions and the production and performance of yearli...

  14. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  15. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Coping with tall fescue toxicosis: Solutions and realities.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L

    2015-12-01

    Beef cattle consume more tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] than any other perennial cool-season grass in North America. Tall fescue forms a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Morgan-Jones and W. Cams) C.W. Bacon & Schardl, comb. nov.; these plants are often referred to as endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agronomically, endophyte infection is good; endophyte-infected plants resist biotic and abiotic stresses better than do endophyte-free plants. However, tall fescue plants infected with a common toxic endophyte produce the ergot alkaloids that cause tall fescue toxicosis. Several agronomic practices can eliminate or reduce the effects of tall fescue toxicosis. Renovating tall fescue fields infected with a common toxic endophyte to new cultivars infected with a novel (or nontoxic) endophyte eliminates the problem for that field. Although the cost to renovate currently exceeds US$600/ha, most economic analyses show it to be a good long-term investment, especially on fields with high forage production potential. Less effective, but popular, methods of dealing with tall fescue toxicosis include adding clovers ( spp.) or other forage species to the pastures to dilute the effects of the toxins, avoiding the use of high rates of nitrogen fertilizers, feeding supplements, and rotating cattle to warm-season forages in summer. Also, the alkaloid concentration in forage can be reduced by making it (drying) into hay. Recent research shows that animal tolerance to tall fescue toxicosis is possible, although there is still much to learn about this topic. Tall fescue toxicosis is likely a reality in the beef industry for some time to come. We contend that renovation of the most productive fields to cultivars infected with a novel endophyte coupled with the prospect of using tolerant livestock in scenarios where renovation is not possible will give innovative producers a competitive edge. PMID:26641158

  16. Assessment of Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Lateral Saphenous Veins of Crossbreed Heifer Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is one response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively, the objective of this study was to begin to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA), ergov...

  17. Effects of Selected Combinations of Tall Fescue Alkaloids on the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Fescue-Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot...

  18. Contractile response of fescue-naïve bovine lateral saphenous veins to increasing concentrations of tall fescue alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue have been shown to elicit different effects in the grazing animal. As part of an ongoing characterization of vascular response generated by different alkaloids, the objective this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergono...

  19. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  20. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  1. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  2. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  3. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

  4. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus heifers (n = 22; 292 ± 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine the influence of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the physiological and acute phase responses of beef heifers ...

  5. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the metabolic response to a provocative immune challenge in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effect of endophyte-infected fescue on the metabolic response of beef heifers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, Angus heifers (n=22; 292 +/- 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for...

  6. Performance and physiology of yearling steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroidal horomones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) adversely affect cattle weight gain and physiology. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) KY-31 tall fescue for 77 days in 2007 and sixty steers were grazed for 86 ...

  7. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant cool-season perennial grass in the United States. It is widely used for both forage and turf purposes. This chapter describes a protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calli induced from caryopsis are used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain used is EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker, and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Calli resistant to hygromycin are obtained after 4-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown tall fescue plants can be regenerated 4-5 months after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PMID:25416272

  8. Effects of Tall Fescue and Its Fungal Endophyte on the Development and Survival of Tawny-Edged Skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L

    2016-02-01

    Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection. PMID:26405227

  9. Defoliation Management Effects on Meadow Fescue, Tall Fescue, and Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.] represents an alternative to temperate grasses typically used in forage-livestock systems. Our objective was to compare the productivity, nutritive value, and persistence of diverse meadow fescue cultivars with that of tall fescue [Lolium arund...

  10. Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

  11. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  12. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  13. Ergocryptine and Ergonovine Induced Contractile Responses in Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-Ergocryptine (ERP; ergopeptine alkaloid) and ergonovine (ERN; ergoline alkaloid) are two alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Various alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue have been shown to elicit different effects in the grazing animal. As part of an ongoing charact...

  14. Antagonism of 5-hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Results in Decreased Contractile Response of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Vein to Tall Fescue Alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  15. Growing steers grazing high versus low endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue have reduced serum enzymes increased hepatic glucogenic enzymes and reduced liver and carcass mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well established that grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected forages results in reduced weight gain and serum prolactin levels of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on carcass characteristics, bloo...

  16. Neural dopamine D2 receptors in rats fed endophyte-infected fescue seed.

    PubMed

    Mizinga, K M; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Edwards, G L

    1993-01-01

    To study the effect of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum) on hypothalamic and striatal dopamine D2 receptors, male rats (n = 14/group) were pair-fed diets containing 50% Rat Chow and 50% either endophyte-infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) seed for 21 days. Concentrations of ergovaline and saturated pyrrolizidines were 1.91 micrograms/g and 2.84 mg/g, respectively in E+, and undetectable in E- fescue seed. To monitor endophyte effects, rats were weighed weekly and serum derived from trunk blood (d 21) was analyzed for prolactin. Corpus striatum and hypothalamic tissue was assayed for dopamine D2 receptors using [3H]spiperone and [125I]epidepride, respectively. The endophyte depressed (P < .06) serum prolactin concentrations. Average daily gain during the study (21 d) was depressed (P < .0043) in rats fed E+ compared to controls. The endophyte increased (P < .03) striatal D2 receptor affinity (KD = 48.70 vs 54.95 pM) with no change (P > .28) in receptor density (Bmax = 25.59 vs 28.00 pmol/mg of tissue) in E+ and E- rats, respectively. Hypothalamic D2 receptor density (Bmax = 1.79 vs 1.57 pmol/mg of tissue) and affinity (KD = 17.5 vs 17.26 pM) were not (P > .66) different between E+ and E- rats, respectively. These data suggest changes in D2 receptor binding characteristics, particularly receptor affinity, may contribute to signs of fescue toxicosis. PMID:8404549

  17. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  18. Intake estimation of horses grazing tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) or fed tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Chavez, S J; Siciliano, P D; Huntington, G B

    2014-05-01

    Six mature geldings of light horse breeds (557 ± 37 kg) were randomly assigned to a nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue hay (n = 3) or pasture treatment (n = 3) in a crossover design with 14-d periods to estimate DMI with alkane markers and to compare DMI of hay and pasture. When fed pasture, horses were housed in stalls from 0700 to 1300 h daily with access to water and then grazed pasture as a group in a single 0.4 ha pasture from 1300 to 0700 h. When fed hay, horses were maintained individually in stalls and given access to hay ad libitum from 1300 to 0700 h. All horses were individually fed 225 g oats twice daily treated with hexatriacontane (C36; external marker) and fecal samples were collected at 0700 and 1900 h on d 10 to 14. Fecal samples were mixed, dried, subsampled, and analyzed for tritriacontane (C33) and hentriacontane (C31) as internal markers and C36 as the external marker using gas chromatography. Estimated hay DMI using either C33 (1.75 kg/100 kg BW) or C31 (1.74 kg/100 kg BW) as internal alkane marker did not differ (P = 0.55) from measured hay DMI (1.70 kg/100 kg BW). Pasture DMI and DM digestibility (DMD) estimated with C31 (2.24 kg/100 kg BW and 53.1 g/100 g DMI) or with C33 (2.34 kg/100 kg BW and 56.2 g/100 g DMI) was greater (P = 0.05) than hay DMI and DMD (1.74 kg/100 kg BW and 44.5 g/100 g DMI). Intake estimated with C33 or C31 did not differ (P = 0.35) during hay or pasture. In conclusion, alkanes can be used to estimate pasture or hay DMI and DMD, and pasture intake exceeded hay intake when offered ad libitum. PMID:24663171

  19. Identification of dihaploids in tall fescue utilizing capillary electrophresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovations in tall fescue selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two products are generated. These are tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid lines resulting from a parthenogenic, chromosome doubli...

  20. Ergovaline recovery from digested tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed heads typically contain high concentrations of ergot alkaloids, which makes them a highly toxic source of ergot alkaloids. Unfortunately, cattle selectively graze tall fescue seedheads. Seedheads were collected from pastures grazed by Angus-cross steers from early-May until mid-June. Pasture...

  1. Selection of Shade Tolerant Tall Fescue Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  2. Bioextraction of soil boron by tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Mackey, B; Wu, L; Zambrzuski, S; Akohoue, S

    1995-07-01

    High concentrations of soil B are detrimental to crop productivity in certain arid and semiarid regions of the western United States. Production of tall fescue on B-affected soils may be a viable strategy to reduce and maintain soil B concentrations at nontoxic levels for most agronomic crops. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study B uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) Schreb. cv. Au Triumph grown in soil containing potentially toxic levels of native soil B. The soil B concentrations (water-extractable B greater than 5 mg B liter-1) did not affect the dry matter (DM) yield of tall fescue. Boron concentrations in shoot tissue for both years ranged from 88 to 121 mg B kg-1 DM. whereas in root tissue, concentrations ranged from 50 to 60 mg B kg-1 DM. For both years of the study, soil samples were taken at depth of 0-45 and 45-90 cm at the beginning and end of the designated growing season and analyzed for water-extractable B. Summary data from all cropped plots at the two soil depths indicated that the mean water-extractable B concentrations were reduced by 35% after 2 years in the tall fescue plots, whereas losses of extractable B from bare plots did not exceed 13% for both years. Tall fescue apparently can be used as a component in an overall strategy to lower extractable soil native B levels in irrigated agriculture soils and potentially reduce leaching of B into shallow ground water. PMID:8521775

  3. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  4. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  5. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Brosi, Glade; McCulley, Rebecca L; Bush, L P; Nelson, Jim A; Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  6. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  7. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  8. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  9. Endophyte-infected fescue alters components of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Angus and 8 Hereford X Angus (334.7 +/- 10.7 kilograms body weight) heifers were stratified by sire breed, temperament (using weaning exit velocity), and body weight and randomly assigned within strata to either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine ...

  10. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands. PMID:26992401

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  12. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Stewart, Arthur J; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley; Waller, John C

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  13. Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay or corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, S R; Goetsch, A L; Nejad, H H; Murphy, G; Jones, A L; Mashburn, S; Beers, K W; Johnson, Z B; Piper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay (BG) or ground corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue (I) were studied. In Exp. 1, a Latin square study, five growing Holstein steers (158.1 kg) consumed I ad libitum and were offered 0, .3, .6, .9 or 1.2% body weight (BW) of BG daily. Total dry matter (DM) intake rose linearly (P less than .05) with increasing BG, although intake was numerically similar with .6, .9 and 1.2% BW of BG. Digestibility was constant with diet (P greater than .10). Six growing Holstein steers used in Exp. 2, a Latin square with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ingested I or noninfected (NI) fescue hay ad libitum with 0, .5 or 1.0% BW of ground corn. Total DM intake increased linearly as the level of corn rose (P less than .05). Total intake with I increased more with the first than with the second addition of corn, and the opposite occurred with NI (interaction between fescue infection and the quadratic effect of corn level, P less than .10). Organic matter digested (g/d) was greater for NI than for I and rose linearly with increasing corn ingestion (P less than .05). Ninety-six crossbred beef heifers and steers (184.2 kg avg initial live weight) were used in a 77-d fall grazing experiment (Exp. 3) with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Cattle grazed I or NI paddocks and were given no supplement or .34% BW of BG or .65% BW of ground corn on a daily basis (DM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3366707

  14. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  15. Effects of feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed to Holstein cows during the dry period on plasma nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and haptoglobin (Hp) status in newborn calves.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue toxicosis in cattle, caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected fescue (EIF), is associated with decreased feed intake, growth, milk production and reproductive efficiency as well as decreased resistance to heat, transportation and immune stress. Increased inflammatory response to immune chal...

  16. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

  17. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  18. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  19. Performance and digestion by steers grazing tall fescue and supplemented with energy and protein.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, J C; Cremin, J D; Faulkner, D B; Merchen, N R

    1998-06-01

    We studied the effects of different levels of protein and energy supplementation on BW gains and sites of nutrient digestion in steers grazing the primary growth of endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb cv. Kentucky 31). Angus steers (n = 168; mean BW = 246.8 +/- 15.0 kg) grazed tall fescue without supplementation (C) or were supplemented with 1.4 kg/d of cracked corn (CC1), 1.4 kg/d of corn gluten feed (CGF1), 2.8 kg/d of CC (CC2), 2.8 kg/d of CGF (CGF2), or .7 kg/d of cornstarch and .7 kg/d of corn gluten meal (CS-CGM) during an 85-d period in a randomized complete block design. Supplemented steers (S) had a higher (P = .03) ADG than the control steers (.64 vs .74 kg/d). There was an interaction (P = .02) between supplement type and level. Supplementation during the grazing period had no effect on subsequent feedlot ADG (average 1.3 kg/d). In a digestion study, Angus x Simmental steers (n = 4; 412 +/- 20.4 kg) fitted with cannulas in the esophagus, rumen, and duodenum grazed tall fescue (C), C + 3.1 kg/d CGF, C + 3.1 kg/d of cracked corn (CC), or C + 1.4 kg/d CS-CGM over four experimental periods in a Latin square design. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration tended to be higher (P < .09) in C than in CGF and in CC (21.9 vs 19.2 mg/dL), but ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ among treatments. Forage OM intakes were lower (P < .05) in steers supplemented with CC or CGF (an average of 7,570 g/d) than in C (9,658 g/d). Total OM intakes and digestibilities did not differ (P > .10) among treatments. Duodenal N flows and efficiencies of net ruminal microbial protein synthesis were not different (P > .10) among treatments. Supplementation of steers grazing primary growth of tall fescue improved animal gain but did not have a great effect on ruminal fermentation, OM digestion, or net ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:9655590

  20. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  1. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  2. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  3. Improving Tall Fescue Shade Tolerance: Identifying Candidate Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  4. Fungal Endophyte does not Enhance Cold Tolerance of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) has historically been of minor importance to livestock agriculture in cooler regions of the temperate zone. As its use in these regions expands, it becomes increasingly important to understand the effect of infection by its fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophial...

  5. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

  6. IMPROVING TALL FESCUE SHADE TOLERANCE: IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtaine...

  7. TALL FESCUE AND ASSOCIATED MUTUALISTIC TOXIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacon et al. (1977) proposed and Hoveland et al. (1980, 1986) substantiated that impaired health and performance of livestock grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum S. J. Darbyshire, formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] were associated with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum Glenn, Ha...

  8. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C. ); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

  9. Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte (HM4) that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids, and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

  10. Ergot Alkaloid-Induced Blood Vessel Dysfunction Contributes to Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many effects of fescue toxicosis in grazing animals may be explained by compromised blood vessel function which is linked to the presence of ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue. The body’s network of blood vessels provides for the removal of metabolic waste products and delivery of the...

  11. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  12. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheplick, G.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James K; Walker, Nathan R; Young, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  14. Tasco-Forage: II. Monocyte immune cell response and performance of beef steers grazing tall fescue treated with a seaweed extract.

    PubMed

    Saker, K E; Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Effects of applying Tasco-Forage, an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product prepared by a proprietary process, to endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in each of 3 yr (1995, 1996, and 1997) in Virginia and in 1996 and 1997 in Mississippi. There were 48 steers at each location in each year (n = 240) in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two replications at each location. Steers in Virginia were Angus and Angus x Hereford with initial weights of 245 kg (SD = 20), 234 kg (SD = 9), and 265 kg (SD = 5) in yr 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers in Mississippi were 3/4 Angus and 1/4 Brahman and weighed 230 kg (SD = 8) and 250 kg (SD = 2) in yr 2 and 3, respectively. Tasco (3.4 kg/ha) was dissolved in water and applied to pastures in April before grazing was begun and again in July at the same rate. The grazing period was from mid-April to late September or mid-October. Total gains were higher (P < 0.05) for steers grazing uninfected than for those grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Rectal temperatures were increased (P < 0.05) due to endophyte infection at both locations; Tasco application decreased temperature of steers grazing infected fescue in Virginia (interaction, P < 0.07) but increased temperatures of steers grazing infected fescue in Mississippi (interaction, P < 0.05). Presence of the endophyte resulted in rough hair coats and loss of hair color, but the effect was partially offset (P < 0.05) by Tasco application in Virginia in 1995. Both monocyte phagocytic activity (all years and locations) and major histocompatibility complex class II expression (1995 only) were decreased (P < 0.05) in steers due to endophyte infection, but this effect was reversed (P < 0.05) by application of Tasco to pastures. Application of the extract from A. nodosum seems to have use in alleviating adverse effects of endophyte on immune function

  15. Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DM intake without altering the quanti...

  16. Predicted Efficiency of Spaced Plant Selection to Indirectly Improve Tall Fescue Sward Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of spaced plant evaluation to determine sward performance of forage grasses has oft been questioned. This experiment studied the efficiency of spaced plant evaluation to indirectly improve sward yield and nutritional quality in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). A tall fescue ...

  17. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (599 ± 6.0 kg) were allocated randomly to one of eight 10-ha tall fescue pastures (subdivided into six 1.6-h...

  18. From the Lab Bench: Season Changes in Ergot Alkaloid Concentrations of Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss seasonal trends in ergot alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte that infects most plants of tall fescue. Tall fescue is the predominant grass utilized for forage in the U.S. transition zone between the temperature northeast and subtropical southeast; however, erg...

  19. Host suitability of an endophyte-friendly tall fescue grass to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no ...

  20. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  1. Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregate Distribution In Response to Tall Fescue Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the influences of tall fescue management on soil organic matter fractions and macro- and microaggregate distribution. Soil samples were collected from four paired adjacent fields consisting of five years of tall fescue mono and poly stands in Western Kentucky. Soi...

  2. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  3. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  4. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  5. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  6. Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  7. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  8. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  9. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  10. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  11. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  12. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Mian, MA Rouf; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Cheng, Xiaofei; Chen, Lei; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Dai, Xinbin; Mao, Chunhong; Cheung, Foo; Zhao, Xuechun; He, Ji; Scott, Angela D; Town, Christopher D; May, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI) has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp.), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens) will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-based molecular markers. PMID:18318913

  13. Relative effects of irrigation and intense shade on productivity of alley-cropped tall fescue herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The comparative effects of reduced irradiance and soil water on alley cropped herbage are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine effects of irrigation on herbage productivity when tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Festuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea Schreb.] ...

  14. A Simple Tall Fescue Seed Extraction and Partial Purification of Ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several substances present in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Lolium arundinaceum /Neotyphodium coenophialum) that have biological activity. These include the pyrrolizidine and ergot alkaloids plus peramine. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids have significant mammalian to...

  15. Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

  16. The Effect of Toxic Tall Fescue on Cellobiose-Utilizing Populations in the Bovine Rumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus Schreb. Dumort), and confers pest resistance through the production of alkaloids. Although, these alkaloids can reach concentrations that are toxic to livestock, their effects on the symbiotic rumen bacteri...

  17. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum (Schreb.) Dumort.] imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physio...

  18. Tall fescue management in the Piedmont: Sequestration of soil organic and total nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High quality soil-surface characteristics are important for developing environmentally sustainable agroecosystems. We evaluated the factorial combination of fertilization regime (inorganic and broiler litter) and tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]-endophyte association (free, nove...

  19. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  20. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle. Novel endophytes can sustain fescue persistence an...

  1. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

  2. Hair Coat and Ear Implant Effects on Physiological Measurements of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown cattle grazing toxic tall fescue have reduced weight gain, rough hair coats, and exhibit symptoms of heat stress during the summer. Sixty steers were grazed on toxic tall fescue to determine the effects of hair coats and steroidal ear implants on physiological measurements. Stee...

  3. USDA-Kentucky Report: Forage-Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) Investigations: Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Forage-Animal Production Research Unit is involved in several research projects addressing the problem of Tall Fescue toxicosis. This is a toxic situation in grazing cattle and other animals as they consume tall fescue grass which is infected with a fungus. Cattle will grow poorly and in sever...

  4. Fate of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella from Contaminated Manure Slurry Applied to Soil Surrounding Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella from soil fertilized with contaminated manure slurry into the tissue of tall fescue plants. Tall fescue plants (n = 50) were fertilized with a manure slurry inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmon...

  5. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  6. Cattle and pasture responses to poultry and tall fescue-endophyte association in the Southern Piedmont USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue pastures are an important part of the agricultural landscape in the southeastern USA. Tall fescue seed sources with low-ergot-alkaloid-producing strains of Neotyphodium endophyte have raised a number of questions regarding pasture ecology, animal performance, and nutrient cycling. We e...

  7. Effects of Tall Fescue Forage Mass on Steer Ingestive Behavior and Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] is a well adapted perennial pasture species utilized across the north-south transition zone of the United States and in similar environments worldwide. This 3-yr trial evaluated the influence of three forage masses (FM) on steer and pasture respons...

  8. Using tall fescue in a complementary grazing program for spring calving beef cows in southern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of endophyte toxicity in clover additions to tall fescue pastures used as a limit-grazed complement to warm-season grass pastures. Over 3 years, beef cows (n = 108, Year 1; n = 72, Year 2 and 3; initial fall body weight = 480 ± 8.6 kg, bo...

  9. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  10. High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

  11. Mg and K Effects on Cation Uptake and Dry Matter Accumulation in Tall Fescue (Festuca Arundinacea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HiMag tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire = Festuca arundinacea Schreb) was selected for high Mg concentration to reduce grass tetany risk to ruminants; however, the mechanism of increased Mg uptake into shoots is unknown. The objective was to determine cation concentrations ...

  12. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objec...

  13. Grazing evaluation of a novel endophyte tall fescue developed for the upper transition zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment determined that a late-maturing tall fescue developed by University of Kentucky has potential for grazing in the U.S. upper transition zone. Steers were grazed in a 2-yr experiment using variable stocking rates to compare steer performance and physiology, and forage productivit...

  14. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  15. TALL FESCUE RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES FOLLOWING SOIL AMENDMENT WITH TANNERY WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field plots were established in 1978 and 1979 on a Willamette sil in western Oregon to evaluate the effects of chrome tannery wastes on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and soil properties. Three rates of waste material were applied each year; N, Ca, Mg, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn in so...

  16. Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Selection Response, and Forage Production of Tall Fescue in Contrasting Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) usually correlates with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (water use efficiency) in C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to forage production is less clear. In a four year study of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at Pullman, WA and Ardmo...

  17. Toxicity of ergovaline, the tall fescue ergot alkaloid, to Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotyphodium infected tall fescue produces a variety of secondary metabolites that are toxic and/or grazing deterrents. Alkaloid production has been related to defense against vertebrate and insect pests, in particular plant-parasitic nematodes. The ergot and pyrrollizidine (loline) alkaloids are ...

  18. Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Selection Response, and Forage Production of Tall Fescue in Contrasting Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon isotope discrimination (') usually correlates with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (water use efficiency) in C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to forage production is less clear. In a four year study of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at Pullman, WA and Ardmor...

  19. Combining nitrogen fertilizer with poultry litter in a binary mixture of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem when poultry litter is applied to pastures in the southeastern USA is the buildup of soil P because of the difference in N-P-K ratio of the litter and plant requirements. This 2-yr study tested the theory that if the N requirement of a tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixture is only...

  20. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter and inorganic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is widely used as a fertilizer on tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire], but little is known of forage quality responses to litter. Field studies were conducted to determine (1) the trends in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and in vitro digest...

  1. Nutrient uptake of 'Jesup MaxQ' tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrients derived from organic or inorganic sources can affect tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)forage in various ways, including seasonal availability of macronutrients, and interaction with endophyte-produced metabolites, alkaloids, that can reduce animal performance. The cultivar, Jesu...

  2. Tall fescue ‘Jesup (Max-Q)’: Meloidogyne incognita development in roots and nematotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue cv. Jesup (Max-Q) was recently recommended as a preplant ground cover for managing plant-parasitic nematodes on peach trees in the southeastern United States. Jesup (Max-Q) is associated with a strain of the endosymbiotic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum that does not produce ergot alka...

  3. Hemodynamic Responses of the Caudal Artery to Toxic Tall Fescue in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or non-infected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to six pens and were fed...

  4. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infests tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] that imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing, but also produces ergot alkaloids that are toxic to grazing cattle. Novel endophytes have been developed that do not produce toxic ergot alka...

  5. Endophyte Effect on Seedling Vigor in 19 Half-sib Familes of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling mass and emergence force were studied in two greenhouse experiments using 19 half-sib families of ‘Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] each of which was produced from genotypes with or without the common toxic endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones ...

  6. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  7. Management of tall fescue pastures and nutrients in a Southern Piedmont environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures have replaced row-crop agriculture in many parts of the Southern Piedmont in response to soil and water conservation needs where tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a common pasture grass. However, nutrient losses from livestock manure and/or poultry fertilization can contribute to ...

  8. Arthropod abundance in tall fescue, Lolium arundinaceum, pastures containing novel ‘safe’ endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor livestock performance on tall fescue is linked to infection by a fungal endophyte that enhances grass resistance to stress, including erbivory, while producing ergot alkaloids toxic to vertebrate grazers. Novel ‘safe’ endophyte/grass associations produce no ergot alkaloids yet etain stand persi...

  9. Variable Performance of Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid on Neotyphodium-infected Wild Tall Fescue from Tunisia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent of Neotyphodium based resistance in wild fescue to bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) was determined by quantifying densities of this aphid on a series of Neotyphodium – infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tall fescue entries. Little or no aphid survival was observed on plants from ...

  10. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  11. Performance and physiology of steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroid hormones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment with steers grazing toxic tall fescue indicated that feeding pelleted soybean hulls in conjunction with steroid hormone implants can increase steer weight gain, and feeding soyben hulls can reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte...

  12. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  13. Interaction of isoflavones and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract on vasoactivity of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isof...

  14. Competitive ability of tall fescue against alfalfa as a function of summer dormancy, endophyte infection and soil moisture availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer-dormant cool-season grasses might be a viable component of pasture if Mediterranean and Mediterranean-type environments with relative mild winters and hot and dry summers. Management practices for summer-dormant forages are being developed, including production strategies with compatible leg...

  15. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  16. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  17. Performance by Spring-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows grazing 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] infected with its wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) generally display suboptimal performance. Recently, endophyte strains that do not produce compounds toxic to cattle have been incorporated into tall ...

  18. Steer Weight Gain and Physiological Responses to Feeding Soybean Hulls on Toxic Tall Fescue: Dilution of Ergot Alkaloids or Additive Effect on Weight Gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker cattle grazing toxic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) consume ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte that can lead to the “fescue toxicosis” malady. One approach to alleviating fescue toxicosis is to dilute the alkaloids by interseeding clovers or by feeding concentrates; however...

  19. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P < 0.05), and serum vitamin A (P < 0.13) and whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) tended to increase in lambs grazing Tasco-treated fescue. In Exp. 2,48 Angus and Angus x Hereford steers (initial BW 245 kg; SD = 20) grazed infected or uninfected tall fescue in Virginia that was treated (3.4 kg/ ha) or untreated with Tasco in April and July, 1995. Steers that grazed infected tall fescue had lower (P < 0.02) serum vitamin A and E and tended (P < 0.07) to have lower whole-blood Se in September compared with steers that grazed uninfected tall fescue. Tasco decreased (P < 0.06) serum vitamin E but tended to increase whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) in September and serum vitamin A in July (P < 0.12). During 1996 and 1997, the experiment was repeated in Virginia with Angus steers and was replicated at Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P < 0

  20. Ergovaline in tall fescue and its effect on health, milk quality, biochemical parameters, oxidative status, and drug metabolizing enzymes of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zbib, N; Repussard, C; Tardieu, D; Priymenko, N; Domange, C; Guerre, P

    2014-11-01

    Ergovaline (EV) produced by symbiotic association of Epichloë coenophiala with tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes toxicoses in livestock. In this study, 16 lactating ewes (BW 76.0 ± 0.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected (FE+) or endophyte free (FE-) tall fescue hay on animal health and performances and to investigate the putative mechanisms of action of EV. The mean EV concentrations in FE+ and FE- diets were 497 ± 52 and <5 µg/kg DM, respectively. Decreased hay consumption and BW were observed in the FE+ group. Prolactin (PRL) concentrations decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group from d 3 to 28 of the study compared to the FE- group, but no consequences were observed on milk quantity or quality. Skin temperature and the thermocirculation index were lower (P < 0.05) in the FE+ than in the FE- group from d 3 to 7, but this effect disappeared from d 14 to 28. Hematocrit, mineral and biochemical, and enzymatic analyses of plasma revealed no differences between the 2 groups. Measurement of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities revealed a decrease in the activities of plasma catalase (P < 0.05), kidney glutathione reductase and peroxidase and in kidney total glutathione and malondialdehyde contents (P < 0.02) in ewes fed FE+. Hepatic flavin monooxygenase enzyme activities decreased (P < 0.01) in ewes fed FE+, except for a marked increase in the demethylation of erythromycin. This activity is linked to cytochrome P4503A content and is known to be involved in ergot alkaloid metabolism. Glutathione S-transferase activity in the kidneys decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group, whereas no difference was observed in uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase activity in the liver or kidneys. The reversibility of the effect of FE+ hay on skin temperature and the increase in erythromycin N-demethylase activity may contribute to the relative resistance of ewes to EV toxicity. PMID:25253811

  1. Elucidating differences in gene expression of Epichloe coenophiala endophytic fungus in reproductive vs. vegetative tissues of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tall fescue – Epichloe coenophiala symbiotic system is the most extensively studied of any grass-microbe symbiosis, mainly because of its economic importance worldwide. This is also an extraordinarily stable and mutualistic symbiosis where the endophyte colonizes both vegetative and reproductive...

  2. Steer Performance and pasture productivity of a tall fescue-bermudagrass system compared with yellow bluestem and coastal panicgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round grazing in animal production systems has potential in the mid-Atlantic USA. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbysh.] is generally the cool-season perennial and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] the warm-season perennial in these systems. This study evaluated yel...

  3. NITROGEN METABOLISM OF BEEF STEERS FED ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE HAY: EFFECTS OF RUMINALLY PROTECTED METHIONINE SUPPLEMENTATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Level of nitrogen (N) intake and ruminally protected methionine supplementation were evaluated in 8 Angus growing steers (initial weight 253 21 kg, final weight 296 21 kg) in a replicated, 4X4 Latin square design. The steers were fed two endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hays tha...

  4. Does endophyte influence resource acquisition and allocation in defoliated tall fescue as a function of microsite conditions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) often benefits in terms of productivity and persistence when infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams], Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte, but the influence of novel non-ergogenic endophytes on these are unclear. We conducted a field...

  5. Variable response of non-ergot-producing strains of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue to lesion nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is mutualistically associated with the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum. The fungus confers resistance to several plant pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes, but also produces ergot alkaloids which are toxic to livestock when ingested. To all...

  6. Temperature influences the ability of tall fescue to control transpiration in response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability for turfgrass systems is often limited, and likely to become more so in the future. These experiments examined the ability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to control transpiration with increasing vapor pressure deficit and whether control was influenced by temperature...

  7. Growth performance, ruminal fermentation profiles, and carcass characteristics of beef steers grazing tall fescue without or with nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of finishing beef cattle grazed on tall fescue (TF) pasture without or with N fertilization on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics. In each grazing season, 18 Angus crossbred steers were arranged based on...

  8. Testing for variation in animal preference for Jesup tall fescue hays with wild-type, novel, or no fungal endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important source of forage for herbivores across the North/South transition zone but a fungal endophyte can result in decreased animal performance in response to alkaloids. Removing the endophyte can reduce agronomic performance. An improved cultivar...

  9. EFFECT OF SOURCE AND RATE OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILIZER ON YIELD, QUALITY, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF STOCKPILED TALL FESCUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field research was conducted for 2 yr to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) source and rate effects on stockpiled tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forage yield, quality, and mineral content at different harvest dates. High lysine fertilizer (HLF), which contains approximate...

  10. Tall fescue-Epichloë coenophiala associations affect belowground fungi and host, symbiont response to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants interact with myriad microorganisms, which influence ecosystem processes and can regulate ecosystem response to global change. One important symbiosis occurs between the grass, tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), and the asexual fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophiala. Because the common to...

  11. Competition between tall fescue and plantago under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Impact of endophytic fungi and mineral N inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is one of the most important perennial grasses as forage and turfgrass. It is usually associated with a systemic endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams). The endophytic fungus often increases the host resistance to stresses, thus e...

  12. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  13. Lead Accumulation by Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Grown on a Lead-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Begonia, M. T.; Begonia, G. B.; Ighoavodha, M.; Gilliard, D.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of some plants as phytoextraction species. From one of our preliminary studies, we found that tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Spirit) can tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of lead (Pb) in its shoots when grown in Pb-amended sand. To further evaluate the suitability of tall fescue as one of the potential crop rotation species for phytoextraction, a study was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone or in combination with acetic acid can further enhance the shoot uptake of Pb. Seeds were planted in 3.8 L plastic pots containing top soil, peat, and sand (4:2:1, v:v:v) spiked with various levels (0,1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead. At six weeks after planting, aqueous solutions (0, 5 mmol/kg dry soil) of EDTA and acetic acid (5 mmol/kg dry soil) were applied to the root zone, and all plants were harvested a week later. Results revealed that tall fescue was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb as shown by non-significant differences in root and shoot biomass among treatments. An exception to this trend however, was the slight reduction in root and shoot biomass of plants exposed to the highest Pb level in combination with the two chelates. Root Pb concentration increased with increasing level of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. Translocation index, which is a measure of the partitioning of the metal to the shoots, was significantly enhanced with chelate addition especially when both EDTA and acetic acid were used. Chelate-induced increases in translocation indices

  14. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S. Ray

    2014-01-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22°C, 5°C, and −20°C for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 h, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 h. All sub-samples stored at 22°C, 5°C, and −20°C lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 h of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (−20°C) after the first 24 h up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22°C and 5°C. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at −20°C until analysis. PMID:25250308

  15. Hemodynamic responses of the caudal artery to toxic tall fescue in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Kirch, B H; Strickland, J R; Bush, L P; Looper, M L; Schrick, F N

    2007-09-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to 6 pens and were fed chopped alfalfa hay for 5 d and chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E-tall fescue seed for 9 d during an adjustment period. An 11-d experimental period followed, with animals in 3 pens fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+ seed and those in the other 3 pens fed chopped hay plus concentrate with E E- seed. Color Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, stroke volume, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (baseline measures) and during the experimental period. Three baseline measures were collected on d 3, 5, and 6 during the adjustment period for comparison to post E+ seed exposure. Statistical analyses compared the proportionate differences between baseline and response at 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 172, and 268 h from initial feeding of E+ seed. Serum prolactin concentrations on both diets were lower (P <0.001) than baseline beginning at 4 h from the start of the experimental period. However, trends in serum prolactin concentrations for heifers on the E- diet suggested ambient temperature was affecting these concentrations. Caudal artery area in E+ heifers had declined (P <0.10) from baseline by 4 h and was consistently lower (P <0.05) for the remainder of the period. Heart rates for E+ heifers were lower than the baseline rate from 4 (P <0.10) to 100 (P <0.001) h, but were similar (P >0.10) to the baseline for 172 and 268 h measures. Blood flow in E+ heifers was consistently lower than the baseline from 4 (P <0.05) to 172 (P <0.001) h, but was similar to the baseline at 268 h when heart rate was similar to the baseline rate

  16. Growth and metabolism of growing beef calves fed tall fescue haylage supplemented with protein and(or) energy.

    PubMed

    Smith, W L; Gay, N; Boling, J A; Muntifering, R B

    1987-10-01

    Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 2) fescue haylage plus .4 kg/d of SBM; 3) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and 4) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and .4 kg/d of SBM. Daily gains and dry matter (DM) intakes during the 91-d trial were .52, 4.58; .51, 5.22; .59, 6.06; and .63, 6.18 kg for treatments 1 through 4, respectively. Daily gains of calves fed corn silage plus SBM and fescue haylage plus SBM were not different (P greater than .05). However, a difference (P less than .05) existed between treatments 1 and 2 vs 3 and 4. Feed conversion was improved (P less than .05) in calves fed corn silage. Calves in a metabolism trial were fed either 1) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage or 2) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn. Digestibility of DM, N-free extract (NFE) and TDN did not differ (P greater than .05) between treatments. Ether extract digestibility was greater (P less than .05) for the added corn diet, while that of CP was greater (P less than .05) for the fescue haylage diet. Nitrogen retained was higher (P less than .05) for calves fed added corn. A follow-up trial with 96 growing calves (190 kg) compared September- and November-harvested fescue haylages supplemented with either 1.3 or 2.6 kg corn/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667454

  17. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Coe, Brenda L; Smith, Lori L; Huo, Cheng-Jun; Dougherty, Charles T; Strickland, James R

    2008-07-23

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino acids (Phenomenex EZ:faast) and validated for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Extraction in ethanol/water (80:20, v/v) at ambient temperature yielded detectable amounts of GABA. Clean separation from other amino acids in 28 min was achieved by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID), using a 30 m, 5% phenyl/95% dimethylpolysiloxane column. The identity of the putative GABA peak was confirmed by GC with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The relatively small effects of the sample matrix on GABA measurement were verified by demonstrating slope parallelism of GABA curves prepared in the presence and absence of fescue extracts. Limits of quantification and detection were 2.00 and 1.00 nmol/100 microL, respectively. Method recoveries at two different spike levels were 96.4 and 94.2%, with coefficients of variation of 7.3 and 7.2%, respectively. PMID:18558696

  18. SOLiD-SAGE of Endophyte-Infected Red Fescue Reveals Numerous Effects on Host Transcriptome and an Abundance of Highly Expressed Fungal Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Belanger, Faith C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue–endophyte symbiosis. PMID:23285269

  19. Does modification of tall fescue leaf texture and forage nutritive value for improved livestock performance increase suitability for a grass-feeding caterpillar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass breeders are developing new forage-type tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort = Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., formerly known as Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] cultivars with smoother texture, improved nutritive value, and reduced fiber for improved livestock performanc...

  20. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  1. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  2. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of

  3. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP) and spike weight (SW). However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K) was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single-associated markers were

  4. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanhong; Hu, Longxing; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP) and spike weight (SW). However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K) was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single-associated markers were

  5. Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality. PMID:23185628

  6. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality. PMID:26641162

  7. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  8. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  9. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. II. Alteration of quality constituents. [Festuca arundinacea

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine whether ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) might alter forage quality parameters of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Alta). Plants were exposed weekly to four O/sub 3/ treatments, 0, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ..mu..L L/sup -1/; with or without 0.10 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/, 6 h d/sup -1/ for 12 weeks. Ozone had a much greater impact on forage quality than did SO/sub 2/. Ozone increased protein content on a g kg/sup -1/ basis and decreased protein on a weight per plant basis. Ozone reduced crude fat, crude fiber, and total nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the forage. Crude ash content increased due to O/sub 3/ exposure. On a weight per plant basis, O/sub 3/ decreased the forage concentration of Ca, Mg, and P. Ozone increased Ca concentration of herbage. Sulfur dioxide increased ash content of the forage. Phosphorus concentration and weight per plant of Mg and P were all reduced by SO/sub 2/ Significant pollutant interactions occurred for crude fiber, crude ash, total Mg, and total P contents of forage. While treatments resulted in some apparent increases in forage quality, these were at the expense of yield. The most adverse effects on forage quality were an increase in ash content which resulted from an interaction of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/, and a reduction in soluble carbohydrate content of shoots due to O/sub 3/.

  10. Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg−1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  11. Effects of ozone on the regrowth and energy reserves of a ladino clover-tall fescue pasture

    SciTech Connect

    Rebbeck, J.; Blum, U.; Heagle, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A ladino clover and tall fescue pasture was established in September 1983 to determine the impact of ozone and available soil moisture on plants grown in open-top field chambers and exposed for 12 h daily to ozone (O{sub 3}) from April through October in 1984 and 1985. Samples were removed periodically to measure above- and below-ground biomass and energy reserves of the clover and fescue. At the final harvest, clover was the dominant species in below-ambient O{sub 3} while fescue was the dominant species at ambient and above-ambient O{sub 3} concentrations. Ladino clover shoot and root biomass was reduced by O{sub 3} for all harvest when compared to clover grown in the charcoal-filtered-air. Statistically-significant O{sub 3} effects were observed on clover shoots prior to roots. For most harvests, the energy reserves of ladino clover roots were suppressed by increasing O{sub 3} concentrations. Clover shoot starch levels were not greatly affected by O{sub 3} or moisture.

  12. Effects of fescue type, sampling date, and grazing by dairy replacement heifers on nitrogen partitioning and in situ disappearance kinetics of N for autumn-stockpiled tall fescue forages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forages, one containing a novel endophyte (HM4), and the other containing the Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte (E+), were autumn stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with 56 kg N/ha. Beginning on 4 Dec 2003, sixteen 361 ± 56.4-kg re...

  13. Effects of Fescue Type, Sampling Date, and Grazing by Dairy Replacement Heifers on the Nutritive Value and In Situ Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of DM and NDF for Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forages, one containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other containing the wild-type endophyte (E+), were autumn stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with N. Beginning o...

  14. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  15. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates He-Ne laser-induced adaptive responses in salt stressed-tall fescue leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Limei; Han, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous nitric oxide in protective effects of He-Ne laser on salt stressed-tall fescue leaves. Salt stress resulted in significant increases of membrane injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, polyamine accumulation, and activities of SOD, POD, and APX, while pronounced decreases of antioxidant contents, CAT activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in seedlings leaves. He-Ne laser illumination caused a distinct alleviation of cellular injury that was reflected by the lower MDA amounts, polyamine accumulation and ROS levels at the stress period. In contrast, the laser treatment displayed a higher Ca(2+) concentration, antioxidant amounts, NO release, antioxidant enzyme, and NOS activities. These responses could be blocked due to the inhibition of NO biosynthesis by PTIO (NO scavenger) or LNNA (NOS inhibitor). The presented results demonstrated that endogenous NO might be involved in the progress of He-Ne laser-induced plant antioxidant system activation and ROS degradation in order to enhance adaptive responses of tall fescue to prolonged saline conditions. PMID:27309569

  16. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  17. Comparative study of diversity based on heat tolerant-related morpho-physiological traits and molecular markers in tall fescue accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Xie, Yan; Bi, Yufang; Liu, Jianping; Amombo, Erick; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is a critical challenge to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in many areas of the globe and variations in genetic structure and functional traits is for the efficient breeding programs on developing heat tolerant cultivars. Tolerant-related morpho-physiological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to survey genetic diversity in greenhouse and growth chamber trials. 100 tall fescue accessions, including 8 commercial cultivars and 92 natural genotypes, showed a high variation in phenotypic performance under heat stress. Based on standardized heat tolerant-related morpho-physiological data, all tall fescue accessions were clustered into five groups. The accessions with similar heat tolerance were likely to be clustered in the same group. The highest genetic diversity was obtained for accessions from Africa judged by Nei’s gene diversity (0.2640) and PIC (0.2112). All grass accessions could be divided into three major groups based on SSR markers, which was partially congruous to the geographical regions and history of introduction. A low correlation was found between morpho-physiological traits and SSR markers by Mantel test. The patterns in morpho-physiological trait variations and genetic diversity associated with heat tolerance were useful to design breeding programs for developing heat stress resistance in tall fescue. PMID:26666506

  18. Performance and Physiology of Steers Following Grazing of Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls on Pasture and Post-Graze Steroid Implantation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment was conducted for 2 yr using a pasture phase to evaluate effect of feeding soybean hulls (SBH) on weight gain by steers grazing toxic tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)]. To evaluate carryover effects of feeding SBH on pasture and effect of post-graze steroid impla...

  19. A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Neotyphodium endophytes in seed and plant tissue from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and perennial (Lolium perenne L.) ryegrasses was developed. Based on DNA mixture tests and bulk seed anal...

  20. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1900s, before tall fescue was introduced to the USA, meadow fescue was a major pasture crop east of the Mississippi River, with millions of acres of seed production in the mid-south. Most of those acres are long gone with the spread of its high-yielding cousin, tall fescue. We have d...

  1. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Seeds of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Karl; Collette, Vern; Hancock, Kerry R

    2016-09-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are forage species of the grass family (Poaceae) that are key components of temperate pasture-based agricultural systems. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric flavonoids that, when provided as part of a farm animal's diet, have been reported to improve animal production and health. Up to now, forage grasses have been deemed not to produce PAs. This paper reports for the first time the detection of polymerized PAs in aqueous methanolic extracts of seed tissue of both perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, using LC-MS/MS. We have determined the structure of the PAs to be trans-flavan-3-ol-based, consisting predominately of afzelechin and catechin and linked primarily by B-type bonds. Investigations into the leaf tissue of both species failed to detect any PAs. This discovery opens the possibility of using genetic engineering tools to achieve tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. PMID:27532250

  2. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; < 0.0001), and the additional dietary protein in the tub groups resulted in greater serum urea N concentrations ( < 0.0001; 8.15 vs. 10.4 mg/dL for mineral and protein tub, respectively). Forage utilization efficiency was greater for normal than extra forage allocation (74.7 vs. 65.8%, respectively; < 0.0001). Main effects of both treatments on ADG were significant ( < 0.0001; 0.28, 0.43, 0.43, and 0.51 kg·heifer·d for FM, FT, EM, and ET, respectively). There was

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Phragmites australis Phytochelatin Synthase (PaPCS) and Achieving Cd Tolerance in Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cuizhu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Fengning

    2014-01-01

    The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation. PMID:25133575

  4. Growth Rates and Assimilate Partitioning in the Elongation Zone of Tall Fescue Leaf Blades at High and Low Irradiance 1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades elongated 33% faster at continuous low than at continuous high irradiance (60 versus 300 micromoles per second per square meter photosynthetic photon flux density) when temperature of the leaf elongation zone was held constant at 21°C. Increased rate of elongation was associated with a near proportional increase in length of the elongation zone (+38%). In contrast, growth in width and thickness was decreased at low irradiance, resulting in only a 12% increase in leaf area production and 5% less total growth-associated water deposition than at high irradiance. At low irradiance dry matter (DM) import into the elongation zone was 28% less, and 55% less DM was used per unit leaf area produced. DM use in synthesis of structural components (i.e. DM less water-soluble carbohydrates) was only 13% less at low irradiance, whereas water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) deposition was 43% less. The lower rate of WSC deposition at low irradiance was associated with a higher net rate of monosaccharide deposition (+39%), whereas net deposition rates for sucrose (−27%) and fructan (−56%) were less than at high irradiance. Still, at low irradiance, net fructan accumulation accounted for 64% of WSC deposition, i.e. 25% of DM import, demonstrating the high sink strength of the leaf elongation zone. PMID:16666873

  5. Cloning and characterization of a Phragmites australis phytochelatin synthase (PaPCS) and achieving Cd tolerance in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cuizhu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Fengning

    2014-01-01

    The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation. PMID:25133575

  6. Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Forge, T. A.; Bittman, S.; Kowalenko, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil. PMID:19262862

  7. Responses of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand: xenobiotic stress versus water stress.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Chapman, Mark M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    The adaptations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) arising from growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dry weight (dw)) were investigated in the contexts of xenobiotic stress and water stress. The transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the root endodermis was investigated using the hydrophobic Nile red stain as a PAH homologue. Nile red was applied to the epidermis of a living root to visualise uptake into the root through the transpiration stream, and the distance travelled by the stain into the root tissues was investigated using epi-fluorescence microscopy (Nikon Eclipse 90i). The results showed that the Nile red applied to the roots grown in naphthalene-contaminated sand was unable to penetrate the roots beyond the endodermis, whereas those grown in 'clean' sand showed evidence of uptake into the xylem vessels beyond the endodermis. Furthermore, partial collapse was observed in the cortex of naphthalene-treated roots, suggesting drought stress. Interestingly, the treated plants showed visual resilience to drought stress whilst the leaves of the control plants showed signs of wilting. PMID:25874421

  8. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed; Rottinghaus, George E.; Spiers, Donald E.

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  9. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in response to high-temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Shu-Qian; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jin-Min

    2015-01-01

    When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as “stress memory”. However, there is insufficient information about plants' stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP) genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4) relative to the first stress (S1), and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2, and R3). Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose), amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine), and one fatty acid (butanoic acid) in pre-acclimated plants. These observations involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process. PMID:26136755

  10. Effects of Nitrogen on Mesophyll Cell Division and Epidermal Cell Elongation in Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) in grasses is dependent on epidermal cell supply (number) and on rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increases LER. Longitudinal sections from two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), which differ by 50% in LER, were used to quantify the effects of N on the components of epidermal cell elongation and on mesophyll cell division. Rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation were determined by using a relationship between cell length and displacement velocity derived from the continuity equation. Rate of epidermal cell elongation was exponential. Relative rates of epidermal cell elongation increased by 9% with high N, even though high N increased LER by 89%. Duration of cell elongation was approximately 20 h longer in the high- than in the low-LER genotype regardless of N treatment. The percentage of mesophyll cells in division was greater in the high- than in the low-LER genotype. This increased with high N in both genotypes, indicating that LER increased with cell supply. Division of mesophyll cells adjacent to abaxial epidermal cells continued after epidermal cell division stopped, until epidermal cells had elongated to a mean length of 40 micrometers in the high-LER and a mean length of 50 micrometers in the low-LER genotype. The cell cycle length for mesophyll cells was calculated to be 12 to 13 hours. Nitrogen increased mesophyll cell number more than epidermal cell number: in both genotypes, the final number of mesophyll cells adjacent to each abaxial epidermal cell was 10 with low N and 14 with high N. A spatial model is used to describe three cell development processes relevant to leaf growth. It illustrates the overlap of mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation, and the transition from epidermal cell elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:16666581

  11. Determination of the Ergot Alkaloid Ergovaline in Tall Fescue Seed and Straw Using a QuEChERS Extraction Method with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen; Duringer, Jennifer; Craig, A Morrie

    2015-04-29

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the symbiotic endophyte Epichloë coenophiala, which can colonize varieties of the cool-season grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). It is the principle toxicant responsible for the vasoconstrictive and reproductive sequelae seen in "fescue toxicosis" in livestock which consume forage exceeding the threshold of toxicity established for this compound. A new method for extraction of ergovaline from tall fescue seed and straw was optimized and validated, on the basis of the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method, with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Fourteen extraction solvents were tested; 2.1 mM ammonium carbonate/acetonitrile (50/50, v/v) had the highest and most consistent recovery (91-101%). Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy,and intra- and interday precisions for tall fescue seed and straw were 100-3500 μg/kg, 37 and 30 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg, 98%, 3.0 and 1.6%, and 3.8 and 1.0%, respectively. When the currently used solid-phase extraction (SPE) and QuEChERS methods were applied to 17 tall fescue straw samples, there was good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.9978). The QuEChERS method achieved the goals of eliminating chlorinated solvents and developing a fast, efficient, reliable method for quantitating ergovaline in tall fescue forage that can be applied in a high-throughput food safety laboratory. PMID:25811236

  12. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing (‘K-31’), and a dwarf cultivar (‘Bonsai’) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of ‘K-31’ was 63% greater than that of ‘Bonsai’, which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  13. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing ('K-31'), and a dwarf cultivar ('Bonsai') of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of 'K-31' was 63% greater than that of 'Bonsai', which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  14. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  15. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantification of Target Gene Expression with Quantitative Real-time PCR for Tall Fescue under Four Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species. PMID:25786207

  16. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses. PMID:27148288

  17. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses.

    PubMed

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses. PMID:27148288

  18. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: A meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at reducing the impact of fescue toxicosis on cattle weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, M S; Hawley, J; Beck, P A; Jennings, J A; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at recovering cattle production losses attributed to toxic endophyte-infected [ (Morgan-Jones & Gams.) Glenn, Bacon, & Hanlin comb. Nov.] tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. The strategies presented include those 1) applied with forage systems, 2) based on pharmacological compounds and functional foods, and 3) based on supplemental dietary nutrients. Cattle BW gain and DM intake was the dependent response evaluated. Among the forage systems reviewed, studies with nontoxic, endophyte-infected tall fescue as a total replacement forage system demonstrated the greatest improvement in per-hectare (152 ± 27.5 kg/ha) and per-animal (0.29 ± 0.03 kg/d) BW gain. Studies with interseeded legumes have exhibited a small and highly variable BW gain effect size per hectare (52 ± 24.1 kg/ha) and per animal (0.11 ± 0.03 kg/d). The legume response was seasonal, with summer exhibiting the greatest benefit. Studies with chemicals that suppress plant growth demonstrated BW gain responses (0.17 ± 0.06 kg/d) equal to or greater than the response observed with legume studies. Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue responded well to anthelmentics, antimicrobial feed additives, and steroid implants, and the use of these technologies may additively help recover production losses. As a group, functional foods have not improved BW gain ( = 0.85). Studies with cattle supplemented with highly digestible fiber supplements observed a 0.15 kg greater BW gain compared with studies using starch- and sugar-based supplements ( < 0.05). Weight gain was positively impacted by the level of supplementation (0.06 kg/DM intake as percent BW). Supplement feed conversion was estimated at 6:1 for the highly digestible fiber supplements compared with 11:1 for starch-based supplements. Tall fescue forage DM intake was predicted to maximize at a supplemental feeding rate of 0.24% BW with a breakpoint at 0.5% BW

  19. Forage Fescues in the Northern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue and meadow fescue are important components of livestock agriculture and soil conservation programs in Wisconsin. Meadow fescue was likely introduced into Wisconsin in sometime in the 1800s or early 1900s. Anecdotal, survey, and DNA evidence from the driftless region of southwestern Wis...

  20. Practical Grazing Management and Feed Strategies to Alleviate Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue has tolerances to drought, low fertility, and over-grazing that are attributed to a fungal endophyte which infects most tall fescue plants. Unfortunately, these advantages of tall fescue that livestock producers appreciate are offset by reduced calving percentages and calf weight gains cause...

  1. Impact of Rotation Frequency and Weaning Date on Forage Availability and Nutrient Composition, Species Composition, and Growth Performance by Cows and Calves Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures Overseeded with Cra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing study was initiated in April 2000 and continued through three calving and weaning cycles (ending July 2003) to investigate the effects of rotational grazing management (twice monthly [2M] vs. twice weekly [2W]) and weaning date (mid-April [EARLY] vs. early June [LATE]) on production of fal...

  2. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  3. Changes in the abundance of sugars and sugar-like compounds in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) due to growth in naphthalene-treated sand.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-04-01

    The hydrophilic metabolome of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) adapted to grow in naphthalene-treated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dw) was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and peaks corresponding to the more abundant compounds were tentatively identified from analysis of their mass spectral features and reference to the NIST Mass Spectral Database. Particular attention was paid to sugars as they are known to play important roles as stress regulators in plants. The results showed that the abundance of sugars was greater in the roots but lesser in the shoots of treated plants when compared to their control counterparts. The results for indole acetic acid (IAA) were notable: IAA was prominently less in the treated roots compared to shoots, and in treated shoots, IAA was particularly subdued compared to untreated shoots consistent with IAA degradation in treated plant tissues. The differences in the molecular phenotype between control and treated plants were expressed in root structural differences. The treated roots were modified to have greater suberisation, enhanced thickening in the endodermis and distortions in the cortical zone as demonstrated through scanning electron and epi-fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25391233

  4. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  5. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. “K-31”) plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2− content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water

  6. Cow and Calf Performance While Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant. Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred cows (n = 52; 1,023 lb initial BW) were allocated random...

  7. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2007-05-01

    Eighteen Angus steers (438 +/- 4 kg of BW) were supplemented with varying levels of corn oil (0 g/kg of BW, none; 0.75 g/kg of BW, MED; or 1.5 g/kg of BW, HI) on rotationally stocked, endophyte-free tall fescue to determine the effect of supplemental oil level on in vivo digestibility, intake, performance, and carcass traits. Pelleted cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the oil supplements, and all supplements were offered to steers using Calan gate feeders for individual intake determination. On d 49, each steer was dosed with a controlled-release capsule containing chromium sesquioxide, and fecal samples were obtained 12 d later over a 7-d period to estimate fecal output that, with forage, supplement, and fecal indigestible NDF concentration, was used to estimate DMI and in vivo total diet digestibility. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the 116-d grazing period, and carcass data were collected at 24 h postmortem. Total fatty acid intake linearly increased with corn oil supplementation, and forage DMI, total DMI, and total DE intake were linearly decreased (P < 0.01). The decrease in total DMI was reflected in forage substitution rates greater (P < or = 0.01) than 1, with a trend (P = 0.09) for a greater substitution rate in HI than in MED. In vivo DM, OM, and NDF digestibility were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) by corn oil supplementation. Average daily gain and final BW tended (P = 0.09) to increase linearly in response to oil level. Oil conversion (0.36 kg of BW gain/kg of corn oil) was greater (P < or = 0.05) than zero and did not differ (P = 0.15) between MED and HI. Dressing percent (P = 0.09), carcass weight (P = 0.01), and carcass backfat thickness (P = 0.01) increased linearly with oil supplementation. No treatment effect was observed for carcass LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, or yield grade (P > 0.10). Oil supplementation to grazing steers linearly reduced forage DMI intake; however, animal performance was maintained and tended to

  8. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-eight Angus (289 +/- 3.8 kg) steers were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of isocaloric supplementation of 2 different energy sources to steers rotationally grazing tall fescue pastures for 197 d in comparison to positive and negative controls. Steers were supplemented with either corn grain (0.52% BW on a DM basis; PC) or soybean hulls plus corn oil (0.45% BW on a DM basis + 0.10% BW on an as-fed basis; PO) using Calan gates for individual intake measurement. Negative, pasture only (PA), and positive, high-concentrate control diets (85% concentrate:15% roughage on DM basis; C) were also included in the study. Steers on PC, PO, and PA treatments were managed together under a rotational grazing system, whereas C steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for the final 113 d using Calan gates. Forage DMI and apparent DM and NDF digestibility for the grazing treatments were evaluated using Cr(2)O(5) and indigestible NDF as digesta markers. Energy supplementation decreased (P = 0.02) forage DMI (% of BW) with respect to PA, but not (P = 0.58) total DMI. There were no differences (P = 0.53) among grazing treatments on apparent total DM digestibility. However, NDF digestibility was less (P < or = 0.05) in PC than in PO and PA; the latter 2 treatments did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented, regardless of type, than in nonsupplemented grazing treatments. During the final 113 d, ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in C than in the grazing treatments. Overall supplement conversion did not differ (P = 0.73) between supplement types and was less (P = 0.006) than C. Carcass traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between energy sources. Dressing percentage and HCW were greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented cattle than in PA. Fat thickness and KPH percentage for PA were less (P < 0.05) than for PO but did not differ (P > 0.14) from PC. Marbling score, LM area, and quality grade did not differ (P > 0.05) between grazing

  9. Equine fescue toxicosis: signs and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Redmond, L M; Strickland, J R

    1995-03-01

    Gravid mares grazing endophyte-infested (E+) tall fescue exhibit increased gestation lengths, agalactia, foal and mare mortality, tough and thickened placentas, weak and dysmature foals, increased sweating during warm weather, reduced serum prolactin and progesterone, and increased serum estradiol-17 beta levels. Also, E+ tall fescue hay is less digestible than endophyte-free (E-) hay. Unlike many other species, horses consuming E+ tall fescue do not exhibit increased body temperature. Young horses consuming only E+ pasture do not gain as well as those consuming E- pasture. There is little difference in gain when the pasture is supplemented with enough concentrate to meet NRC requirements for growth. Neither selenium injections nor supplementing with corn at 50% of the NRC requirements for energy reduces the effects of toxic tall fescue on reproduction and lactation in gravid mares. It seems that the alkaloids of E+ tall fescue are serving as D2 dopamine receptor agonists. This activity would explain their prolactin-lowering effect. Domperidone, a dopamine receptor antagonist, is effective in preventing the signs of tall fescue toxicosis in horses without neuroleptic side effects. PMID:7608025

  10. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  11. Fertilizer placement to maximize nitrogen use by fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method of fertilizer nitrogen(N) application can affect N uptake in tall fescue and therefore its yield and quality. Subsurface-banding (knife) of fertilizer maximizes fescue N uptake in the poorly-drained clay–pan soils of southeastern Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if knifed N r...

  12. Meadow fescue - What is this grass and why are we interested in it?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue is a bunch-type grass native to northern Europe and Central Asia. It was introduced to the United States in the late 1800’s but its use declined after tall fescue became popular. It is very palatable and high quality, with fine, light green leaves. It establishes slower than tall fe...

  13. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  14. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  15. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

  16. Does toxic fescue decrease bull fertility?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the detrimental effects of toxic tall fescue on bull reproductive performance is minimal. In natural breeding, reduced bull performance could decrease the pregnancy rate of the cowherd. Scientists from ARS in Booneville, AR, and the University of Arkansas investigated the influence of f...

  17. Post-graze recovery of blood circulation in steers exhibiting fescue toxicosis as influenced by seed head suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed heads of tall fescue can be chemically suppressed and eliminated as a source of toxic ergot alkaloids, but a reduction in alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction has not been determined in seed head suppressed tall fescue. A preliminary pen experiment was conducted with 30 steers to compare vasoconst...

  18. Nitrogen Fertilization Rates for Meadow Fescue, Tall Fescue, and Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen has a greater effect on grass growth than any other factor except moisture and temperature. As N costs continue to increase, understanding grass response to N will help determine the most appropriate application rate. Five N rates of 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 lb N/acre were split-applied t...

  19. Orchardgrass, Tall Fescue, and Meadow Fescue Response to Nitrogen Rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen has a greater effect on pasture grass growth than any other input except moisture, but the cost of fertilizing pastures with N has risen significantly. Although seeding legumes or applying manure can increase pasture productivity, a producer may be unable or unwilling to grow legumes, lack...

  20. Performance of beef heifers grazing stockpiled fescue as influenced by supplemental whole cottonseed.

    PubMed

    Poore, M H; Scott, M E; Green, J T

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the composition of stockpiled fescue from December through February over 2 yr and to determine the performance of heifers grazing stockpiled fescue with or without supplemental whole cottonseed. In early December, 36 heifers (initial BW 277 +/- 0.70 kg, yr 1; 266 +/- 2.2 kg, yr 2; and initial BCS of 5.0 +/- 0.04) were assigned randomly to 6 groups. Each group was assigned randomly to a 2.4-ha tall fescue pasture (98% endophyte infected), which had received 76 kg of N/ha on September 1. Group was the experimental unit for all measures. Forage DM available during grazing (to ground level) averaged 3,913 and 5,370 kg/ha in yr 1 and 2, respectively. The pasture was strip-grazed for 83 d, with daily forage allocation. Three groups were fed whole cottonseed (0.90 kg of DM/heifer; 24.4% CP, DM basis) daily at 0.33% of BW, and a small amount of a corn-based concentrate (0.19 kg of DM/heifer) to assure complete cottonseed consumption. Nutritive value of forage (dry basis) was determined each week by sampling each pasture to the 5-cm target grazing height. Forage disappearance was estimated every 2 wk from pre- and postgraze forage mass. Forage CP was 16.8% in yr 1 and 12.6% in yr 2. In vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) was 82.0 and 71.9%, and ADF was 25.9 and 30.7% in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Most indicators of forage quality declined slightly through the winter, although they recovered in late winter in yr 1. The proportion of fescue that was green declined (P < 0.05) from December (79% in yr 1 and 64% in yr 2) to February (62% in yr 1 and 52% in yr 2). Green tissue averaged 20.4 and 15.2% CP, 91 and 87% IVTOMD, and 22.1 and 23.3% ADF in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Brown tissue averaged 10.3 and 8.5% CP, 64 and 62% IVTOMD, and 35.7 and 37.4% ADF in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Shrunk ADG (0.46 vs. 0.56 kg/d in yr 1 and 0.23 vs. 46 kg/d in yr 2) and change in BCS (- 0.03 vs. 0.33 in yr 1 and 0.13 vs. 0.5 in yr 2) was

  1. Validation of Right Ruminal Vein and Artery as Models of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces alkaloids that have been associated with peripheral vasoconstriction in grazing animals and ingestion of these alkaloids may effect splanchnic vasculature. Because of significant differences in morphological an...

  2. A vascular contractility bioassay using bovine right ruminal artery and vein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that are associated with peripheral vasoconstriction in grazing animals and ingestion of these alkaloids may affect splanchnic vasculature. Because of significant differences in morphological an...

  3. Generation of paternal dihaploids in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for modern breeding approaches in the Lolium/Festuca genus to facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars and take advantage of modern molecular based mapping methods. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are ...

  4. [Effects of methyl jasmonate treatments and endophyte infection on growth of Achnatherum sibiricum].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun-hua; Lu, Yu; Li, Xia; Zhou, Yong; Ren, An-zhi; Gao, Yu-bao

    2015-04-01

    We used Achnatherum sibiricum, a native grass as test material and application of methyl jasmonate (MJ) to simulate herbivory, and compared the growth and physiological characters of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) plants. The results showed that MJ treatment significantly decreased the shoot growth, but significantly increased the concentrations of defensive substances such as total phenolic and lignin, and decreased the size of aphid population. Endophyte infection significantly increased the tiller number, total phenolic and lignin contents in the shoot. As for shoot biomass and total phenolic in the root, they were affected by MJ treatment. Without MJ treatment, no significant differences were found in shoot biomass or root phenolic content whether the plants were infected by endophyte or not. With MJ treatment, the shoot biomass was significantly lower and the shoot phenolic content was significantly higher in EI plants than in EF plants. Endophyte infection significantly increased resistance of the host plant to aphids, and the beneficial effect was enhanced by MJ treatments, after three applications with MJ, there were no aphids on EI plants. Overall, endophyte infection could alter the allocation pattern of the host plant between growth and defense, and MJ treatments further strengthened the defensive ability of the host plant at the cost of growth. PMID:26259457

  5. Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pierre-Yves; Eaton, Carla J; Wargent, Jason J; Fechtner, Susanne; Solomon, Peter; Schmid, Jan; Day, Robert C; Scott, Barry; Cox, Murray P

    2015-12-01

    Beneficial associations between plants and microbes play an important role in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. For example, associations between fungi of the genus Epichloë, and cool-season grasses are known for their ability to increase resistance to insect pests, fungal pathogens and drought. However, little is known about the molecular changes induced by endophyte infection. To study the impact of endophyte infection, we compared the expression profiles, based on RNA sequencing, of perennial ryegrass infected with Epichloë festucae with noninfected plants. We show that infection causes dramatic changes in the expression of over one third of host genes. This is in stark contrast to mycorrhizal associations, where substantially fewer changes in host gene expression are observed, and is more similar to pathogenic interactions. We reveal that endophyte infection triggers reprogramming of host metabolism, favouring secondary metabolism at a cost to primary metabolism. Infection also induces changes in host development, particularly trichome formation and cell wall biogenesis. Importantly, this work sheds light on the mechanisms underlying enhanced resistance to drought and super-infection by fungal pathogens provided by fungal endophyte infection. Finally, our study reveals that not all beneficial plant-microbe associations behave the same in terms of their effects on the host. PMID:26305687

  6. Efficacy of a Fescue Seed Extract in Inducing Toxicosis in Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake. This study was conducted to develop a repeatable model that would prevent a reduction in intake altering the quantity of alkaloids present in the animal over the course of the experiment. A tall fes...

  7. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  8. Lolitrem B residue in fat tissues of cattle consuming endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass straw.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Ishizaki, Ikumi; Ishizaka, Masumi; Kanbara, Tadashi; Ishiguro-Takeda, Yuriko

    2004-07-01

    Lolitrems are neurotoxins found in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass. Lolitrems, primarily lolitrem B, are the causative agents of ryegrass staggers in livestock. To guarantee the safety of meat produced from cattle consuming endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass, lolitrem B concentrations in tissues of Japanese Black cattle were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lolitrem B was not detected in muscle, liver, kidney, or cerebrum of a Japanese Black cow with signs of ryegrass staggers. In contrast, perirenal fat contained 210 ppb lolitrem B. Three cows that received half as much perennial ryegrass straw as the cow with ryegrass staggers showed no clinical signs of ryegrass staggers. However, low concentrations of lolitrem B (less than 150 ppb) were detected in their fat tissue. These observations indicate that human exposure to the neurotoxic effect of lolitrem B through beef is unlikely. The amount of lolitrem B consumed by cattle can be estimated by the determination of lolitrem B in fat tissue. PMID:15305749

  9. Summer-Long Grazing of High vs. Low Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-Infected Tall Fescue by Growing Beef Steers Results in Distinct Temporal Blood Analyte Response Patterns, with Poor Correlation to Serum Prolactin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua J.; Lindemann, Merlin D.; Boling, James A.; Matthews, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the effects of fescue toxicosis on developing Angus-cross steer growth, carcass, hepatic mRNA, and protein expression profiles of selected serum proteins, and blood clinical and chemical profiles, after summer-long grazing (85 days) of high endophyte (HE)- vs. low endophyte (LE)-infected fescue pastures. We now report the temporal development of acute, intermediate, and chronic responses of biochemical and clinical blood analytes determined at specified time intervals (period 1, day 0–36; period 2, day 37–58; and period 3, day 59–85). Throughout the trial, the alkaloid concentrations of the HE forage was consistently 19–25 times greater (P ≤ 0.002) than the concentration in the LE forage, and HE vs. LE steers had continuously lower (P ≤ 0.049) serum prolactin (85%), cholesterol (27%), and albumin (5%), but greater red blood cells (7%). The HE steers had decreased (P = 0.003) ADG only during period 1 (−0.05 vs. 0.4 kg/day). For period 1, HE steers had reduced (P ≤ 0.090) numbers of eosinophils (55%) and lymphocytes (18%), serum triglyceride (27%), and an albumin/globulin ratio (9%), but an increased bilirubin concentration (20%). During period 2, serum LDH activities were 18% lower (P = 0.022) for HE vs. LE steers. During period 3, serum levels of ALP (32%), ALT (16%), AST (15%), creatine kinase (35%), glucose (10%), and LDH (23%) were lower (P ≤ 0.040) for HE steers. Correlation analysis of serum prolactin and other blood analytes revealed that triglycerides (P = 0.042) and creatinine (P = 0.021) were moderately correlated (r ≤ 0.433) with HE serum prolactin. In conclusion, three HE-induced blood analyte response patterns were identified: continually altered, initially altered, and subsequently “recovered,” or altered only after long-term exposure. Blood analytes affected by length of grazing HE vs. LE forages were either not or poorly correlated with serum prolactin. These data

  10. Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for “fescue toxicosis” in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for “ryegrass staggers”. In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the “sleepy grass” and “drunken horse grass” diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity. PMID:25756954

  11. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi of the genus Epichloë.

    PubMed

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for "fescue toxicosis" in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for "ryegrass staggers". In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the "sleepy grass" and "drunken horse grass" diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity. PMID:25756954

  12. Ergovaline disappearance from a ruminally incubated buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) is an alkaloid present in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) that is thought to contribute to fescue toxicosis in cattle. To determine the disappearance of ERV in the temporarily washe reticulorumen, steer (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ...

  13. Ergovaline-induced vasoconstriction in an isolated bovine lateral saphenous vein bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been proposed as a toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue. As many of the symptoms of fescue toxicosis are a result of compromised circulation, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergovaline and a more documented ergopeptine, ergota...

  14. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  15. Steers Grazing Toxic Neotyphodium Coenophialum-Infected Forages Have Increased Hepatic Gluconeogenic Capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired growth performance and clinical parameters constituting “summer slump” in cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue are well documented. To test the hypothesis that fescue toxicity affects carbon chain and amino acid N metabolism in the liver of cattle grazing this forage, 19 Ang...

  16. From the Lab Bench: Soy Hulls: A Special Feed for Cattle on Toxic Endophyte Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy hulls have a nutritive value that is comparable to a moderate quality hay and is often fed as a hay substitute. However, based on results of published research we conducted, it may offer more than the typical hay if fed to cattle grazing toxic endophyte tall fescue. A grazing experiment was co...

  17. Alteration of basal metabolic rate in Holstein steers during fescue toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of this study indicate that consumption of E+ tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate. Six ruminally cannulated steers were weight-matched and pair-fed during a two period crossover experiment. Each period consisted of two temperatures (22°C and 30°C). During...

  18. Runoff Under Natural Rainfall from Small Fescue Catchments in the Georgia Piedmont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental outcomes of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] pastures managed with different levels of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infection and alkaloid production are not known. Rainfall-runoff relationships need to be established as a first step in this evaluation....

  19. New Hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clavicipitalean fungi consist of a relatively small group of genera that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi consist of five genera including Claviceps, Epichloe, and Balansia, all of which are biotrophic and some are mutualistic, and endophytic in their association with grasses. Seve...

  20. Additional hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clavicipitalean fungi consist of a group of closely related species that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi are biotrophic and regarded as mutualist since they argument the hosts defenses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. The fungi consisted of species of Epichloe and Balansia...

  1. Temporal Changes in Tall Fescue Straw Residue Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In grass seed agriculture, straw residue is a byproduct. Traditionally it has been thought of as a “waste” product yielding little additional net income to the grower. Straw residue can be baled and sold to Asian or local markets, open field burned, or flailed and left on the soil surface or incorpo...

  2. Gamete selection for forage quality improvement in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Festuca-Lolium genome complex there is a need for modern breeding approaches that facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are labor intensive and time consuming. The use ...

  3. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  4. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  5. Nitrogen Fertilization of Orchardgrass, Tall Fescue, and Meadow Fescue - How Much is Enough?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen has greater influence on temperate grass growth than any other factor except temperature and moisture. As N fertilizer costs increase, understanding grass response to N will help producers determine the most appropriate application rate. Five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 lb/acre) were ap...

  6. Meadow Fescue, Tall Fescue, and Orchardgrass Response to Nitrogen Application Rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen has a greater effect on grass growth than any other input except moisture. As N costs continue to increase, understanding grass response to nitrogen will help producers determine the most appropriate application rate. Five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 lb/acre) were split-applied to meado...

  7. Toxicity of endophyte-infected ryegrass hay containing high ergovaline level in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zbib, N; Repussard, C; Tardieu, D; Priymenko, N; Domange, C; Guerre, P

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic association of var. (formerly named ) with perennial ryegrass () leads to the production of ergovaline (EV) and lolitrem B (LB) that are toxic for livestock. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected ryegrass (SE+) hay on 16 lactating ewes (BW 80 ± 10 kg) in comparison with endophyte-free ryegrass (SE-) hay to investigate the putative mechanisms of action of EV and LB and to evaluate their persistence in milk and animal tissues. The mean EV and LB concentrations in SE+ hay were 851 and 884 μg/kg DM, respectively, whereas these alkaloids were below the limit of detection in SE- hay. No effect of SE+ was observed on animal health and skin temperature whereas prolactin decreased and significant differences between hays were observed from d 7 to 28 of the study ( < 0.03) but had no effect on milk production. Hematocrit and biochemical analyses of plasma revealed no significant difference between SE+ and SE-, whereas cortisol concentration differed significantly on d 28 ( = 0.001). Measurement of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidneys revealed a slight increase in some enzyme activities involved in defense against oxidative damage in the SE+ fed ewes. Slight variations in the activities of hepatic and kidney flavin monooxygenase enzymes were observed, whereas in the kidney, glutathione -transferase activity decreased significantly ( = 0.002) in the SE+ fed ewes, whereas uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity increased ( = 0.001). After 28 d of exposure of ewes to the SE+ hay, low EV and LB concentrations were measured in tissues. The highest concentration of EV was observed in the liver (0.68 μg/kg) whereas fat contained the highest concentration of LB (2.39 μg/kg). Both toxins were also identified at the trace level in milk. PMID:26440189

  8. Effect of domperidone supplementation of fescue-fed heifers on plasma and follicular fluid fatty acid composition and oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; King, S S

    2009-07-01

    This study continues a series of investigations evaluating fescue endotoxin exposure in beef heifer production. The objectives were to evaluate fatty acid compositions in plasma and follicular fluid, and to assess oocyte quality from cattle fed fescue diets. The ability of domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, to mitigate these variables was also assessed. Thirty heifers were divided into 3 treatment groups (n = 10/group) and administered treatment regimens for 24 d, at which time blood samples were collected. The treatment regimens were a diet with endophyte-free fescue (EF), a diet with endophyte-infected fescue (EI), or EI supplemented with daily subcutaneous injections of domperidone (0.44 mg/kg of BW; EID). Three heifers/group were administered treatments for an additional 10 d, at which time their luteal phase ovarian follicular fluid and oocytes were collected. Plasma and follicular fluid samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid concentrations. Oocytes were matured in vitro to assess quality. In addition, abattoir oocytes were cultured in plasma from treated heifers. In plasma, arachidonic acid was less (P < 0.001) in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Decreased (P < 0.05) total n-6 fatty acid concentration was observed in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Similarly, the EF-containing diets decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and C22:5n-3 (P < 0.05) compared with EI-containing diets. Domperidone supplementation increased (P < 0.05) C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C17:1n-7, and several C18:1 isomers compared with the diet with EI and no supplementation. No differences between fescue endophyte groups were detected in any of the fatty acid concentrations analyzed in follicular fluid from small follicles. In follicular fluid from large follicles, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3 concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in EI-fed compared with EF-fed heifers. Oocytes cultured in serum (control) or plasma from EF-, EI-, or EID-fed cattle did not differ

  9. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect vasoactivity of these compounds. Objectives were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in mesenteric artery and vein and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue affec...

  10. Equine palmar artery, palmar vein and uterine artery express different populations of vasoactive biogenic amine receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed by horses causes constriction of the palmar artery (PA), palmar vein (PV) and reduced blood flow to the corpus luteum that can be measured in vivo by Doppler ultrasonography. In addition, myograph st...

  11. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  12. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  13. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  14. Genetic effects for reproductive performance of straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano and Angus cows in a temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to: 1) estimate heterosis and breed direct effects for cow reproduction traits of Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in a temperate climate, and 2) assess the effects of the type of forage grazed (bermudagrass, endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue) durin...

  15. Identification and Quantification of Loline-Type Alkaloids in Endophyte-Infected Grasses by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Khem B; Boelt, Birte; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-08-10

    Lolines, fungal metabolites of the grass-endophyte association, were identified and quantified using newly developed LC-MS/MS methods in endophyte-infected grasses belonging to the Lolium and Festuca genera after extraction with three different solvents using two extraction methods. The shaking extraction method with isopropanol/water was superior to the other methods due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy (recovery within or close to the range of 80-120%), and high precision (coefficient of variation of <10%). Seven loline alkaloids were identified and quantified using our newly established LC-MS/MS methods, and N-formylloline was the most abundant (5 mg/g dry matter), followed by N-acetylloline. These LC-MS/MS methods used the shortest sample handling time and the fewest sample preparation steps and proved to be good alternatives to existing GC and GC-MS analytical methods without compromising analytical efficiency. In conclusion, we developed for the first time a highly sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method for the accurate and reproducible quantification and a LightSight-assisted LC-QTRAP/MS qualitative method for the tentative identification of loline-type alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses. PMID:27434508

  16. Advantages of endophyte infection for irrigated pastures of semiarid, cold-desert environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little research has evaluated possible endophyte benefits to adaptation and production of grasses in the irrigated pastures of the semiarid, cold-desert environments of the western USA. Severe irrigation shortages are common; however, production demands are increasing, necessitating maximizing tall ...

  17. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  18. The Tall Tale Ladies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of tall tales for children and focuses on tall tale heroines that have become more prevalent and offer models of strong, resourceful, undaunted women. Includes examples of popular tall tale heroines and offers suggestions for class activities. (LRW)

  19. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics oas an index of tall fescue–endophyte association response to light availability and defoliation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is adapted to diverse growing conditions occurring in humid, temperate agro-ecosystems. A mutualistic endophytic symbiont (Neotyphodium coenophialum, [Morgan-Jones et Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) contributes to this resilience, but at t...

  20. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue–fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    •Climate change (altered CO2, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant–microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum–Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. •To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing c...

  1. Carbon isotope discrimination characteristics of tall fescue–endophyte associations as a function of defoliation intensity and light availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum, Schreb. S. J. Darbyshire] in terms of productivity and persistence in agro-ecosystems arises in part from association with Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams, Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte. The influence of novel, non-ergogenic endo...

  2. Physiological basis of fescue toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue Toxicosis” continues to be a major syndrome in temperate climates of the world in terms of economic loss to animal producers. Studies with forage-animals over the past three decades have provided insight concerning the pathophysiological effects of the alkaloids present in toxic endophyte-in...

  3. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  4. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K.; Andrae, John G.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E−; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E−. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E−. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  5. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  6. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  7. American Hyperbole: The Tall Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Combs, Christine M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the historic derivation and the format and characteristics of traditional tall tales, and modern adaptations of these stories. Describes a selection of tall tales for modern young adult readers; notes titles and authors of original tall tales and those with female heroes. Discusses the enduring appeal of traditional and modern tall…

  8. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  9. Meadow Fescue in the Driftless Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified meadow fescue on over 250 farms in the driftless region of SW Wisconsin, NW Illinois, NE Iowa, and SE Minnesota. Most plants are similar in appearance and their habitats range from wet bottomlands to dry hilltops, dense monocultures to highly degraded pastures with few meadow fes...

  10. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J.; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China’s grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  11. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China's grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  12. The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, Heather M.; Calcatera, Samantha M.; Dimmick, Marcy A.; Andrae, John G.; Duckett, Susan K.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  13. Sport for tall.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T

    1983-09-10

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests. PMID:6412804

  14. Sport for tall.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, T

    1983-01-01

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests. PMID:6412804

  15. Tiller production in cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) growing along a light gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture managers seek to balance leaf appearance with leaf utilization to meet livestock nutritional needs and sustain sward productivity. Achieving this balance when managing forages in silvopasture, requires techniques that account for the influence of light and defoliation on tiller appearance a...

  16. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is being developed that permits the evaluation of contractile responses of ruminal arteries and veins to various compounds, with particular interest in ergot alkaloids. Because these blood vessels are different from peripheral vessels that have been previously investigated, certain asp...

  17. Effects of seasonal nitrogen on binary mixtures of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrients in broiler litter, especially N, should be applied in phase with crop demands to reduce the potential for nutrient loss. A 2-yr field experiment studied broiler litter and inorganic N application timing effects on seasonal dry matter (DM) yield, total nutrient uptake, and soil P in mix...

  18. Urea Metabolism in Beef Steers Fed Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, or Gamagrass Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess effects of endophyte treatments (Exp. 1), forage species, and supplementation (Exp. 2) on urea production, excretion, and recycling in beef steers. Infusion of 15,15N-urea and enrichment of urea in urine samples were used to calculate urea N entry and recyc...

  19. Soil and water quality with tall fescue management in the Southern Piedmont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management not only affects plant and animal productivity, but also soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water quality. These additional ecosystem services need to be evaluated under a diversity of management approaches, including how nutrients are supplied (i.e. inorganic or broiler litt...

  20. Chapter 11. Nutritive Value. Tall Fescue for the Twenty First Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritive value of a forage is associated with subsequent animal daily performance. Generally, forages with greater concentration of cell solubles, including Crude Protein (CP), will have reduced concentration of cell walls and will be positively associated with animal daily performance. The o...

  1. Preplanting tall fescue grass for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in a young peach orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. in peach in the southeastern United States. The current preplant nematicides recommended for managing Meloidogyne spp. in peach include the soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium. Because the econo...

  2. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  3. Host susceptibility of tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach in the Southeast. In recent years growers have faced economic hardships, making it difficult to afford costs associated with these chemicals. Finding an alternative to control...

  4. Forage yield, weed suppression and fertilizer nitrogen replacement value (FNRV) of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adding plant diversity to forage systems may help growers deal with increasing fertilizer costs and a more variable climate. Maintaining highly diverse forage mixtures in forage-livestock production is difficult and may warrant a closer reexamination of simpler grass-legume mixtures to achieve simi...

  5. Stocker performance and production in mixed tall fescue-bermudagrass pastures of the Southern Piedmont USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker performance and production from mixed cool- and warm-season perennial pastures are important determinants of agricultural sustainability that can be influenced by management. We evaluated the factorial combination of three sources of nutrient application (inorganic only, organic + inorganic...

  6. RESPONSE OF TALL FESCUE, BUSH BEAN, AND MAIZE TO CHROME TANNERY SLUDGE IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tannery sludge was compared with commercial nitrogen fertiliser to investigate its potential use as an alternative to commercial fertiliser. Soils containing 38% and 7% organic carbon and with nitrogen contents of 1-3% and 0-2%, respectively, were amended with either commercial N...

  7. Environmental and production responses from tall fescue-endophyte associations in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation reports on the 2011 activities from a long-term research experiment conducted at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Watkinsville GA. Our general objective was to determine the dynamics of nutrient cycling, soil quality, and soil microbial biomass, activity, and community st...

  8. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11 characteristics of…

  9. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  12. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs....1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil...

  14. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  15. How tall is too tall? On the ethics of oestrogen treatment for tall girls.

    PubMed

    Louhiala, P

    2007-01-01

    Oestrogen treatment for girls, to prevent psychosocial problems due to extreme tallness, has been available for almost 50 years but uncertainty about its position prevails. The ethical problems of this treatment are focused on in this paper. After a brief overview on historical and medical aspects, ethical issues such as the general justification of oestrogen treatment, evaluation of its success and ethical concerns related to research in this subject are dealt with in detail. PMID:17209112

  16. Effect of Feeding Fescue Seed Containing Ergot Alkaloid Toxins on Stallion Spermatogenesis and Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fayrer-Hosken, R; Stanley, A; Hill, N; Heusner, G; Christian, M; Fuente, R De La; Baumann, C; Jones, L

    2012-01-01

    Contents The cellular effects of tall fescue grass–associated toxic ergot alkaloids on stallion sperm and colt testicular tissue were evaluated. This was a continuation of an initial experiment where the effects of toxic ergot alkaloids on the stallion spermiogram were investigated. The only spermiogram parameter in exposed stallions that was affected by the toxic ergot alkaloids was a decreased gel-free volume of the ejaculate. This study examined the effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilling and freezing of the stallion sperm cells. The effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilled extended sperm cells for 48 h at 5 °C was to make the sperm cells less likely to undergo a calcium ionophore–induced acrosome reaction. The toxic ergot alkaloids had no effect on the freezability of sperm cells. However, if yearling colts were fed toxic ergot alkaloids, then the cytological analysis of meiotic chromosome synapsis revealed a significant increase in the proportion of pachytene spermatocytes showing unpaired sex chromosomes compared to control spermatocytes. There was little effect of ergot alkaloids on adult stallions, but there might be a significant effect on yearling colts. PMID:22524585

  17. WT1 mutations in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Valeria; Mansour, Marc R; Barnes, Kelly; Paganin, Maddalena; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Jenkinson, Sarah; Allen, Christopher G; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Palomero, Teresa; Real, Pedro; Murty, Vundavalli; Yao, Xiaopan; Richards, Susan M; Goldstone, Anthony; Rowe, Jacob; Basso, Giuseppe; Wiernik, Peter H; Paietta, Elisabeth; Pieters, Rob; Horstmann, Martin; Meijerink, Jules P P; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2009-07-30

    The molecular mechanisms involved in disease progression and relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are poorly understood. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis to analyze paired diagnostic and relapsed T-ALL samples to identify recurrent genetic alterations in T-ALL. This analysis showed that diagnosis and relapsed cases have common genetic alterations, but also that relapsed samples frequently lose chromosomal markers present at diagnosis, suggesting that relapsed T-ALL emerges from an ancestral clone different from the major leukemic population at diagnosis. In addition, we identified deletions and associated mutations in the WT1 tumor suppressor gene in 2 of 9 samples. Subsequent analysis showed WT1 mutations in 28 of 211 (13.2%) of pediatric and 10 of 85 (11.7%) of adult T-ALL cases. WT1 mutations present in T-ALL are predominantly heterozygous frameshift mutations resulting in truncation of the C-terminal zinc finger domains of this transcription factor. WT1 mutations are most prominently found in T-ALL cases with aberrant rearrangements of the oncogenic TLX1, TLX3, and HOXA transcription factor oncogenes. Survival analysis demonstrated that WT1 mutations do not confer adverse prognosis in pediatric and adult T-ALL. Overall, these results identify the presence of WT1 mutations as a recurrent genetic alteration in T-ALL. PMID:19494353

  18. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  19. Evaluating the Potential of Meadow Fescue for Grazing Lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has potential for grazing-based livestock systems, but producer knowledge of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that it has excellent intake compared to other pasture grasses, and winter-hardy, disease-resistant varieties have been...

  20. The fescue toxicosis symposium: introduction to the proceedings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue Toxicosis was a symposium presented at the 2008 joint meetings of the Amercian Forage and Grssland Council and the Society for Range Management in Louisville, Kentucky. The purpose of the symposium was to: 1) provide updated information on toxic and non-toxic endophyte interactions with her...

  1. Meadow Fescue in the Driftless Region, Part Two

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified meadow fescue on over 250 farms in the driftless region of SW Wisconsin, NW Illinois, NE Iowa, and SE Minnesota. Most plants are similar in appearance and their habitats range from wet bottomlands to dry hilltops, dense monocultures to highly degraded pastures with few meadow fes...

  2. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  3. Influence of Poultry Litter Application Methods on the Longevity of Nutrient and E. coli in Runoff from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant quantities of the broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced in the U.S. are being applied to pasture lands. The traditional surface- broadcast application of animal manure onto permanent pasture, however, may lead to high concentration of nutrients and pathogenic micro...

  4. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  5. Effects of pseudo-microgravity on symbiosis between endophyte, Neotyphodium, and its host plant, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hiraishi, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Shinozaki, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Endophyte is a group of microbes that symbiotically live in plant body Endophyte provides host plant its metabolites that protect the plant from insect pests In addition to this host plants are resistive against environmental stress In general endophyte lives in seeds to seeds of the infected plants through multiple generations The infection of fungi has never been observed and their original pathway is still unknown in nature The aim of this study is to examine whether this stable symbiosis between endophytes and its host plant would be modified under pseudo-microgravity or not We also aim to observe the infection under an exotic environment in terms of gravity We found that the internal hyphae of both the incubated plant under pseudo-microgravity and the ground control became indistinct with the number of incubation days A part of the endophyte in the seed under its autolysis was suggested because the amount of fungi in the base of the shoot that was observed with the incubated plant under the ground control was far less than that in the seed before sowing Hyphae began to grow in the germinating seed after a 3-day incubation period However a lot of aggregated fungi still existed in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity Moreover hyphae in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity were more indistinctly than that under the ground control The fungi were observed in the boundary of the seed and the shoot of the 5-day incubated seed under the ground control but not under pseudo-microgravity By this observation it was suggested that

  6. Broiler Litter Application Method and Runoff Timing Effects on Nutrient and Escherichia coli Losses from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 85% of broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter applied in the U.S. is being applied to pasture lands year-round. Runoff from litter-applied land has the potential to transport nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms to nearby surface water. Many studies have indicated the advant...

  7. A method to differentiate summer-dormant from summer-active tall fescue and orchardgrass accessions at germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer-dormant, cool-season perennial grasses are being used in place of traditional, summer-active cultivars for high quality winter forage. One reason for this change is the ability of cultivars with summer-dormant attributes to tolerate increasing annual temperature, decreasing precipitation, an...

  8. Heat Shock Factor Genes of Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass in Response to Temperature Stress by RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Dai, Ya; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jia-Zhen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are important regulators of stress-response in plants. However, our understanding of Hsf genes and their responses to temperature stresses in two Pooideae cool-season grasses, Festuca arundinacea, and Lolium perenne, is limited. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses of plant leaves exposed to heat or cold stress for 10 h. Approximately, 30% and 25% of the genes expressed in the two species showed significant changes under heat and cold stress, respectively, including subsets of Hsfs and their target genes. We uncovered 74 Hsfs in F. arundinacea and 52 Hsfs in L. perenne, and categorized these genes into three subfamilies, HsfA, HsfB, and HsfC based on protein sequence homology to known Hsf members in model organisms. The Hsfs showed a strong response to heat and/or cold stress. The expression of HsfAs was elevated under heat stress, especially in class HsfA2, which exhibited the most dramatic responses. HsfBs were upregulated by the both temperature conditions, and HsfCs mainly showed an increase in expression under cold stress. The target genes of Hsfs, such as heat shock protein (HSP), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS), and galactinol synthase (GOLS1), showed strong and unique responses to different stressors. We comprehensively detected Hsfs and their target genes in F. arundinacea and L. perenne, providing a foundation for future gene function studies and genetic engineering to improve stress tolerance in grasses and other crops. PMID:26793208

  9. Extremely tall convection: characteristics and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, S. W.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tall continental convective structures are observed in several climatological regions, and have been shown to be related with severe weather and extreme hydrologic events. Recent work has defined tall convection as regions with precipitation structures observed with spaceborne radar echo extending into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. While these climatological regions are known for these tall convective structures (subtropical South America, equatorial Africa, southcentral USA, South Asia), not all observed convective eventsin these regions contain strong structures, and the characteristics of the meteorological environments, including sounding profiles, that dictate the strength of the spectrum of convective systems are poorly constrained. In this study, precipitation radar (PR) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellites will be examined alongside composites of atmospheric reanalysis data to examine the structural and meteorological environments surrounding observed tall convective systems. Environments of convective systems of various vertical extents will be contrasted with less extreme convection to infer physical causal mechanisms and to examine issues of predictability of these events.

  10. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  11. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of

  12. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) in Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy

  13. DNA Markers and Sequences Reveal Multiple Introductions of Meadow Fescue (Schedonorus pratensis) During European Settlement in the Paleozoic Plateau of the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.] was introduced from Europe to North America during European migrations of the 18th and 19th centuries. Meadow fescue was the dominant fescue species during the first half of the 20th century, averaging approximately 100,000 kg of seed producti...

  14. Charlemagne was very tall, but not robust.

    PubMed

    Rühli, Frank J; Blümich, Bernhard; Henneberg, Maciej

    2010-07-01

    The left tibia of Charlemagne, the Medieval "Father of Europe" has been X-rayed and CT scanned to determine his still highly debated stature. We found the healthy bone to be long (430 mm) but rather not robust (total mid-shaft cross-sectional area 473 mm(2), cortical area 352 mm(2)). Reconstructed stature of 1.84 m falls at about 99% of Medieval heights, which would be ca. 1.95 m in present-day Europe. Thus, tall stature indeed could have contributed to the success of "Charles the Great" as a king emperor and soldier. PMID:20153271

  15. Endophytic Fungal β-1,6-Glucanase Expression in the Infected Host Grass1

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Melinda; Li, Huaijun Michael; Sullivan, Ray; White, James F.; Belanger, Faith C.

    2002-01-01

    Mutualistic fungal endophytes infect many grass species and often confer benefits to the hosts such as reduced herbivory by insects and animals. The physiological interactions between the endophytes and their hosts have not been well characterized. Fungal-secreted proteins are likely to be important components of the interaction. In the interaction between Poa ampla and the endophyte Neotyphodium sp., a fungal β-1,6-glucanase is secreted into the apoplast, and activity of the enzyme is detectable in endophyte-infected plants. Sequence analysis indicates the β-1,6-glucanase is homologous to enzymes secreted by the mycoparasitic fungi Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens. DNA gel-blot analysis indicated the β-1,6-glucanase was encoded by a single gene. As a secreted protein, the β-1,6-glucanase may have a nutritional role for the fungus. In culture, β-1,6-glucanase activity was induced in the presence of β-1,6-glucans. From RNA gel blots, similar β-1,6-glucanases were expressed in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. subsp. fallax [Thuill] Nyman) infected with the endophyte species Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae, respectively. PMID:12427996

  16. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on milk protein in Herd 1 cows; CC cows grazing bermudagrass had greater milk protein percentage in relation to other cows in the herd. In Herd 2, BC and genotype × BC tended (p < 0.10) to influence follicle size and Julian calving date respectively. Diameter of the largest follicle tended to be larger in moderate BC than in low-BC cows; whereas, CC and CG cows in moderate BC and homozygous (CC and GG) cows in low BC tended to calve 14 days earlier in relation to CG cows in low BC. In Herd 3, there was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on calving per cent, Julian calving date and calf weaning weight. In this study, genetic alterations (G allele at C994G) coupled with nutritional factors (low BC and toxic tall fescue) resulted in overall lower productivity in cows. PMID:21668515

  17. Larger than Life: Reading and Writing Tall Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The genre of tall tales is characterized by fictional, often intentionally ridiculous, stories that provide a reason for or origin of a natural phenomenon. Tall tales are often based on characters who are unusually adept or powerful; they are particularly appealing to children who are cognitively capable of understanding the tongue-in-cheek humor…

  18. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  19. Resistance of closely-mown fine fescue and bentgrass species to snow mold pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is the primary species used on golf courses in temperate regions but requires prophylactic fungicide treatment to prevent snow mold diseases. We hypothesized that fine fescues (Festuca spp.) and colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) have superior resistance to...

  20. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  1. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 348±26kg) were weight matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two segments, one each at...

  2. Effect of fescue toxicosis on ruminal kinetics, nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of ruminal kinetics, as well as N and energy balance during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=217 ±7 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and pair-fed throughout a cross-over design experiment with a 2x2 factorial treatment str...

  3. Back to the future: the “discovery” and potential value of meadow fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The landscape for temperate grass selection for management-intensive rotational grazing systems in North America is changing, partly due to the rediscovery of meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.]. This grass was introduced from Europe to North America during European migrations of...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF A TILLETIA SP. IN CHEWINGS FESCUE FIELDS IN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An undescribed species of Tilletia with reticulate teliospores was recently reported in a shipment of fine fescue seed from the U.S. to China (1). This fungus has also been detected in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) seed from Australia, although naturally infected plants have not yet been obser...

  5. Effect of fescue toxicosis on nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals consuming infected fescue exhibit reduced weight gain and feed intake, with the most severe effects occurring during summer months. Heat stress and plane of nutrition have independent effects on metabolic activity (Birkelo, et al., 1991; O’Brien, et al., 2010). While, ergot alkaloids reduce ...

  6. Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. 7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Belowground carbon trade among tall forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf; Koerner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Just imagine one tree could hand over large quantities of carbon to another tree. How would that change our thinking about carbon relations of forests, the single biggest biological C reservoir on earth? If such a tree-to-tree C shuttle would exist, it required a demand-supply gradient and a pipeline. Here we show that exactly this unthinkable does occur in overlapping root spheres of tall trees in a mixed temperate forest. Using canopy scale stable carbon isotope labelling applied from a construction crane, we demonstrate that carbon assimilated by spruce is traded over to neighbouring beech, larch, and pine in amounts so large that fine roots almost equilibrate the carbon source signature. The isotope mixing ratio indicated that the interspecific transfer accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon, which is ca. 280 kg ha-1 a-1. This is the first forest scale evidence of a large flux of carbon among mature trees from evolutionary distant taxa. Carbon transfer most likely occurred through common ectomycorrhiza networks, which also exhibited the labelled carbon signal. These observations indicate that while competition for resources (e.g. light, water, nutrients) is often considered the dominant tree-tree interaction in a forest, trees actually interact in more complex pathways including a massive carbon exchange.

  10. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  11. Broiler Litter Application Method and Antecedent Time to Runoff Initiation Effect on Nutrient and E. coli Losses from Tall Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many studies have indicated the advantages of manure incorporation into soil in contrast to broadcast application to reduce nutrient losses. However, subsurface application of poultry litter through injection banding into a perennial forage system has not been evaluated. We used rainfall simulations...

  12. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATAION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  16. Flow Sorting and Sequencing Meadow Fescue Chromosome 4F1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kopecký, David; Martis, Mihaela; Číhalíková, Jarmila; Hřibová, Eva; Vrána, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kopecká, Jitka; Cattonaro, Federica; Stočes, Štěpán; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jiří; Šimková, Hana; Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Baird, James H.; Navrátil, Petr; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Kubaláková, Marie; Šafář, Jan; Mayer, Klaus; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of large genomes is hampered by a high proportion of repetitive DNA, which makes the assembly of short sequence reads difficult. This is also the case in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), which is known for good abiotic stress resistance and has been used in intergeneric hybridization with ryegrasses (Lolium spp.) to produce Festulolium cultivars. In this work, we describe a new approach to analyze the large genome of meadow fescue, which involves the reduction of sample complexity without compromising information content. This is achieved by dissecting the genome to smaller parts: individual chromosomes and groups of chromosomes. As the first step, we flow sorted chromosome 4F and sequenced it by Illumina with approximately 50× coverage. This provided, to our knowledge, the first insight into the composition of the fescue genome, enabled the construction of the virtual gene order of the chromosome, and facilitated detailed comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using GenomeZipper, we were able to confirm the collinearity of chromosome 4F with barley chromosome 4H and the long arm of chromosome 5H. Several new tandem repeats were identified and physically mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization. They were found as robust cytogenetic markers for karyotyping of meadow fescue and ryegrass species and their hybrids. The ability to purify chromosome 4F opens the way for more efficient analysis of genomic loci on this chromosome underlying important traits, including freezing tolerance. Our results confirm that next-generation sequencing of flow-sorted chromosomes enables an overview of chromosome structure and evolution at a resolution never achieved before. PMID:24096412

  17. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  18. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  19. Tall structure lightning induced by sprite-producing discharges.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, M. A.; Heavner, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The large and rapid charge transfer of some +CGs can initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures while simultaneously initiating downward positive streamers below the base of the ionosphere in the form of sprites . Structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders, the presence of which is readily detected later if a dart leader propagates down the channel to ground, generating a -CG return stroke. Such tall structures can be repeatedly struck if, as often happens, sprite-producing +CGs repeatedly occur .

  20. Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.R.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-08-31

    A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A power supply applies an electrical potential between the electrodes. The downstream electrode is connected to earth ground. It has been found that this earth ground connection provides substantial improvements in the quality and quantity of recovered tall oil soap.

  1. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  3. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  4. 13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building in the background on the right is the Metals Bank Building (1906), designed by Cass Gilbert. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids,...

  15. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States. The hub heights of modern turbines used for wind farm projects are now 70 meters (m) to 100 m above ground and some advanced turbines under development for deployment during the second half of this decade are rated at 2-5 megawatts of energy generation with rotor diameters near 100 m and hub heights of 100-120 m. These advanced turbines will take advantage of the higher wind speeds aloft to generate more wind energy. Specific knowledge of important wind shear characteristics near and at turbine hub height is needed to optimize turbine design and wind farm layout. Unfortunately, wind speed shear measurements at heights of 80-120 m were virtually nonexistent a few years ago and are still quite uncommon today. The Central Plains is a prime wind energy development region and knowledge about the wind shear characteristics will reduce uncertainty about the resource and enhance wind farm design. Previous analyses of tall tower data (Schwartz and Elliott, 2005) concentrated on data from specific states. The wind energy community has recognized the need to fill the gap of direct wind speed measurements at levels 70 m and higher above the ground. Programs instituted during the last 5 years at the state level and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) State Energy Program initiative have placed anemometers and vanes at several levels on existing tall (70 m+) communication towers. The Central Plains has a fairly high concentration of tall tower sites. The distribution of tall tower sites varies among the states in the Central Plains, because the tall tower program is new and the available state and federal funding to establish tall towers is variable. Our wind resource assessment group at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has obtained much of these necessary measurement data from both individual state sources and regional

  16. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  17. XYY syndrome: a 13-year-old boy with tall stature.

    PubMed

    Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-09-01

    When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out. PMID:26512355

  18. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sarah J.; Mack, Ethan A.; Rome, Kelly S.; Pajcini, Kostandin V.; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Faryabi, Robert B.; Pear, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes. PMID:27191957

  19. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sarah J; Mack, Ethan A; Rome, Kelly S; Pajcini, Kostandin V; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P P; Faryabi, Robert B; Pear, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes. PMID:27191957

  20. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  1. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, C. J.

    1985-07-02

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  2. Short and tall stature: a new paradigm emerges

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jeffrey; Sävendahl, Lars; De Luca, Francesco; Dauber, Andrew; Phillip, Moshe; Wit, Jan M.; Nilsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the growth hormone (GH) – insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis was thought to be the central system regulating childhood growth and therefore responsible for short stature and tall stature. However, recent findings have revealed that the GH-IGF-I axis is just one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis in the growth plate, the biological process that drives height gain. Consequently, normal growth in children depends not only on GH and IGF-I but on multiple hormones, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and intracellular proteins that regulate growth plate chondrocytes. Mutations in genes encoding many of these local proteins cause short stature or tall stature. Similarly genome-wide association studies have revealed that the normal variation in height appears to be due largely to genes outside the GH-IGF-I axis that affect growth at the growth plate through a wide variety of mechanisms. These findings point to a new conceptual framework for understanding short and tall stature, which is centered not on two particular hormones but rather on the growth plate, the structure responsible for height gain. PMID:26437621

  3. Free vibration analysis for tube-in-tube tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wen-Hae

    2007-06-01

    An approximate solution procedure is formulated for free vibration analysis of tube-in-tube tall buildings in this paper. The governing partial differential equation of motion is reduced to an ordinary differential equation with variable coefficients on the assumption that the transverse displacement is a harmonic vibration. A power-series solution which represents the mode shape function of tube-in-tube tall buildings is derived. Applying the boundary conditions yields the boundary value problem, from which the frequency equation is established and solved through a numerical process to determine the natural frequencies. Two numerical examples are performed and compared with results available in the published literature to show the accuracy of the proposed method. Care has been exercised to retain sufficient terms in power series in evaluating natural frequencies of accepted accuracy. The influences of the factors including flexural rigidity, mass per unit length and building height to the natural frequency are discussed. The method proposed herein enables one to calculate as an alternative the natural frequency of tube-in-tube tall buildings with good accuracy associated by calculators and hand, prior to use of the complicated computer programs.

  4. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature.

    PubMed

    Egert, A M; Kim, D H; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L; Klotz, J L

    2014-04-01

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect the vasoactivity of these compounds. The objectives of this study were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in bovine mesenteric artery (MA) and vein (MV) and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue seed affected vasoactivity of ergocryptine (ERP), ergotamine (ERT), ergocristine (ERS), ergocornine (ERO), ergonovine (ERN), lysergic acid (LSA), ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; serotonin). Ruminally cannulated Angus steers (n = 12; BW = 547 ± 31 kg) were paired by weight and randomly assigned to 6 blocks. Steers were ruminally dosed daily with 1 kg of either endophyte-infected (E+; 4.45 mg ergovaline/kg DM) or endophyte-free (E-; 0 mg ergovaline/kg DM) tall fescue seed for 21 d before slaughter. Branches of MA and MV supporting the cranial portion of the ileum were collected after slaughter on d 22, placed in a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer on ice, cleaned, sectioned, and mounted in a multimyograph chamber. Contractile response was normalized to a maximum KCl response. Inner diameter (P = 0.04) and outer diameter (P = 0.02) of MA were smaller for E+ steers than E- steers. Maximum contractile responses to 120 mM KCl were not different between seed treatments in MA (P = 0.33; E-: 2.67 ± 0.43 g; E+: 3.33 ± 0.43 g) or MV (P = 0.26; E-: 2.01 ± 0.18 g; E+: 1.81 ± 0.18 g). Steers receiving E+ had a smaller (P < 0.01) MA contractile response than E- steers to ERP, ERT, ERS, ERO, ERN, EXT, and 5HT. Steers receiving E+ had a smaller (P < 0.05) MV contractile response than E- steers to ERP, ERT, ERS, ERN, EXT, and 5HT. Lysergic acid failed to induce a contractile response in MA and MV. The contractile response in MA and MV of E- steers produced by 5HT was very large. The EXT was the most potent (P < 0.05) agonist in MV and MA of E+ steers. These data showed that ergot alkaloids were

  5. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  6. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  7. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  8. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  9. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  10. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  11. Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J.; Montanyà, J.; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J. A.; Gaztelumendi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site.

  12. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  13. 75 FR 23209 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan... with the Tall Ships Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that...

  14. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  15. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes (78 FR 25410), proposing to.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration...

  16. 75 FR 34936 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Tall Ships Fireworks, Chicago, IL in the Federal Register (75 FR 23209). We received 0 comments on the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Michigan within Chicago Harbor, Chicago,...

  17. Wind interference effect on an octagonal plan shaped tall building due to square plan shaped tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Rony; Dalui, Sujit Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The variation of pressure at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped tall building due to interference of three square plan shaped tall building of same height is analysed by computational fluid dynamics module, namely ANSYS CFX for 0° wind incidence angle only. All the buildings are closely spaced (distance between two buildings varies from 0.4 h to 2 h, where h is the height of the building). Different cases depending upon the various positions of the square plan shaped buildings are analysed and compared with the octagonal plan shaped building in isolated condition. The comparison is presented in the form of interference factors (IF) and IF contours. Abnormal pressure distribution is observed in some cases. Shielding and channelling effect on the octagonal plan shaped building due to the presence of the interfering buildings are also noted. In the interfering condition the pressure distribution at the faces of the octagonal plan shaped building is not predictable. As the distance between the principal octagonal plan shaped building and the third square plan shaped interfering building increases the behaviour of faces becomes more systematic. The coefficient of pressure (C p) for each face of the octagonal plan shaped building in each interfering case can be easily found if we multiply the IF with the C p in the isolated case.

  18. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season fescue/legume pastures: I. System development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, W.R.; Carlson, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co.`s ({open_quotes}P&M{close_quotes}) Midway Mine lies 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas, straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. P&M actively mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres of surface mined land were topsoiled and revegetated to cool season fescue/legume pasture. Various pasture management methods are being utilized to meet reclamation success standards and achieve final bond release. The effectiveness and costs of various cool season fescue/legume pasture management methods are evaluated and contrasted. These methods include sharecropping, bush hogging, burning and livestock grazing. It presents guidelines used to develop a site specific rotational livestock grazing programs with land owners or contractors, and local, state and federal agencies. Rotational grazing uses both cow/calf or feeder livestock operations. Key managerial elements used to control grazing activities, either by the landowner or a contractor, are reviewed. Methods used to determine stocking levels for successful rotational grazing on this type of pasture are presented. Rotational grazing of livestock has proven to be the most effective method for managing established cool season fescue/legume pastures at this site. Initial stocking rates of 1 A.U.M. per 5 acres have been modified to a current stocking rate of 1 A.U.M. per 2.5 acres. Supporting physical and chemical data are presented and discussed.

  19. The watering of tall trees--embolization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films. PMID:25602527

  20. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange. PMID:27081070

  1. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  2. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  4. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  5. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  6. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  9. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  10. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest. PMID:26604009

  11. Chemical composition of tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Wong, A.; Monnier, J.

    1993-12-31

    Tall oil is a co-product of the manufacture of kraft softwood pulp. The principal constituents of tall oil are unsaturated C{sub 18} fatty acids, resin acids and unsaponifiables such as diterpenic alcohols/aldehydes. Tall oil has been shown to be an economical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancer for diesel fuels, using the proprietary CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) technology. Under a joint R&D project between Arbokem Inc./BC Chemicals Ltd. and CANMET, pilot plant tests were conducted recently at the CANMET Energy Research Labs. in Ottawa. The results showed that tall oil could by hydroprocessed efficiently to yield a valuable fuel blending agent. When this product was mixed with conventional diesel fuel, the cetane number of the diesel fuel increased linearly with the addition of the product. Chemical analysis including chromatography-mass spectrometry has confirmed high conversion of tall oil components into straight-chain alkanes. A small amount of cyclic hydrocarbons and sulphur components were present in the tall oil-based diesel enhancer. Preliminary results indicate that this type of cetane enhancer would provide additional technical benefits. The low aromatics content of the tall oil-based cetane enhancer would significantly reduce aromatics in the final diesel fuel blend. Diesel engines operating on such fuel blends would have a lower propensity to form particulates and NO{sub x}.

  12. Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

    2003-05-01

    The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

  13. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    PubMed

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-01-01

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type. PMID:26909966

  14. Significance of various soil amendments to borrow pit reclamation with loblolly pine and fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.; Marx, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings with ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally occurring Thelephora terrestris (Tt) were planted on a borrow pit in South Carolina in plots with no amendment; with fertilizer plus dolomitic limestone alone and with pine bark or bottom ash or bark and ash together; or with dried sewage sludge alone and with bark or ash or bark and ash together. All plots were subsoiled, disked, and seeded to fescue grass before planting pine seedlings. Naturally occurring Pt formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on all Tt seedlings by the end of the first season, precluding any specific ectomycorrhizal fungus effect for the duration of the study. Sewage sludge alone or with bark or ash amendments dramatically improved pine seedling growth and grass biomass in comparison with other soil treatments. Mean seedling volume (D/sup 2/H) was 28 times greater and grass biomass was five times greater in the sludge plots than on nonsludge plots. Generally, soil amended with sludge contained more N, P, organic matter, and had a higher cation exchange capacity than soil of other treatments. Foliage of pine seedlings in sludge-amended soil also contained more N and less Ca than other seedlings. The significance of these results to reclamation of borrow pits is discussed.

  15. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  16. Tall stature as presenting symptom in a girl with triple X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, B U; Rohrer, T R; Singer, H; Doerr, H G

    2003-02-01

    An 11 year-old girl presented with 47,XXX karyotype. Our report emphasizes the fact that triple X syndrome has also to be considered in girls presenting with tall stature that is not explained by parental heights. PMID:12713263

  17. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  18. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  19. Planetary Boundary-Layer Modelling and Tall Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simiu, Emil; Shi, Liang; Yeo, DongHun

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) strongly affect the design of tall structures. PBL modelling in building codes, based as it is on empirical data from the 1960s and 1970s, differs significantly from contemporary PBL models, which account for both "neutral" flows, and "conventionally neutral" flows. PBL heights estimated in these relatively sophisticated models are typically approximately half as large as those obtained using the classical asymptotic similarity approach, and are one order of magnitude larger than those specified in North American and Japanese building codes. A simple method is proposed for estimating the friction velocity and PBL height as functions of specified surface roughness and geostrophic wind speed. Based on published results, it is tentatively determined that, even at elevations as high as 800 m above the surface, the contribution to the resultant mean flow velocity of the component V normal to the surface stress is negligible and the veering angle is of the order of only 5°. This note aims to encourage dialogue between boundary-layer meteorologists and structural engineers.

  20. Phenology of host Chondrus ocellatus with filamentous green endophyte infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hang Gil; Kim, Changsong; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Soon Jeong; Park, Myoung Ae; Nam, Ki Wan

    2015-09-01

    Monthly variations in gametophyte and tetrasporophyte biomass of Chondrus ocellatus Holmes, a commercial carragenophyte alga, were examined at wave-exposed and sheltered shore stations of Jungdori, Wando, Korea from September, 2013 to August, 2014. The frequency of infection of the fronds with a green filamentous endophyte was investigated and the endophyte was identified using tufA analysis. Biomass of C. ocellatus was significantly greater at the exposed shore (331.84 g wet wt. m-2) than at the sheltered shore (181 g wet wt. m-2); the average biomass was 259 g wet wt. m-2. Gametophyte biomass of C. ocellatus accounted for 64.25% of the total biomass (259 g wet wt. m-2); tetrasporophyte biomass was 93.05 g wet wt. m-2 (35.93%). Biomass was minimal in winter and maximal in summer at both stations and similar patterns were found for gametophyte and tetrasporophyte biomass. Frond lengths and weights of C. ocellatus were slightly greater at the exposed shore than at the sheltered shore. Fronds of C. ocellatus were infected by a green endophytic species, which grew in between the cortical and medullar tissue and was identified as Ulvella ramosa by tufA analysis. We conclude that the optimal harvesting period of the C. ocellatus field population in terms of biomass might be autumn, after the rapid growth period. Additional in-depth research on the endophytes, such as infection mechanism and frequency, should be performed in order to maintain and manage the field populations of C. ocellatus.

  1. On the ethics of oestrogen treatment for tall girls: an update.

    PubMed

    Louhiala, P

    2009-11-01

    New empirical evidence on the long-term effects of oestrogen treatment for tall adolescent girls has shown that the intended psychosocial benefit of the treatment may not have been realised. This paper describes recent trends in the prevalence of the treatment and the results of a large Australian cohort study evaluating girls assessed between 1959 and 1993 for excessive growth. The paper concludes that oestrogen treatment to prevent extreme tallness should belong to the past, not to the future. PMID:19880711

  2. Pegylated arginase I: a potential therapeutic approach in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Claudia P.; Morrow, Kevin; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis A.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Sierra, Rosa; Velasco, Cruz; Cole, John

    2010-01-01

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic T cell leukemia (T-ALL) have a very poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Therefore, novel therapies that increase the efficacy of the treatments and that prolong T-ALL patient survival are needed. Malignant T cells require high concentrations of nutrients to sustain their increased rate of proliferation. In this study, we determined whether L-Arginine depletion by the pegylated form of the L-Arginine-metabolizing enzyme arginase I (peg-Arg I) impairs the proliferation of malignant T cells. Our results show that peg-Arg I depleted L-Arginine levels in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment of malignant T-cell lines with peg-Arg I significantly impaired their proliferation, which correlated with a decreased progression into the cell cycle, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, peg-Arg I impaired the expression of cyclin D3, a fundamental protein in T-ALL proliferation, through a global arrest in protein synthesis. Injection of peg-Arg I plus chemotherapy agent Cytarabine prolonged survival in mice bearing T-ALL tumors. This antitumoral effect correlated with an inhibition of T-ALL proliferation in vivo, a decreased expression of cyclin D3, and T-ALL apoptosis. The results suggest the potential benefit of L-Arginine depletion by peg-Arg I in the treatment of T-cell malignancies. PMID:20407034

  3. Severe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune disease in TALL-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sanjay D.; Sarosi, Ildiko; Xia, Xing-Zhong; McCabe, Susan; Miner, Kent; Solovyev, Irina; Hawkins, Nessa; Kelley, Michael; Chang, David; Van, Gwyneth; Ross, Larry; Delaney, John; Wang, Ling; Lacey, David; Boyle, William J.; Hsu, Hailing

    2000-01-01

    TALL-1/Blys/BAFF is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Here, we describe B cell hyperplasia and autoimmune lupus-like changes in transgenic mice expressing TALL-1 under the control of a β-actin promoter. The TALL-1 transgenic mice showed severe enlargement of spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches because of an increased number of B220+ cells. The transgenic mice also had hypergammaglobulinemia contributed by elevations of serum IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE. In addition, a phenotype similar to autoimmune lupus-like disease was also seen in TALL-1 transgenic mice, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and immune complex deposits in the kidney. Prolonged survival and hyperactivity of transgenic B cells may contribute to the autoimmune lupus-like phenotype in these animals. Our studies further confirm TALL-1 as a stimulator of B cells that affect Ig production. Thus, TALL-1 may be a primary mediator in B cell-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:10716715

  4. Effect of fescue toxicosis on whole body energy and nitrogen balance, in situ degradation and ruminal passage rates in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of ruminal kinetics, as well as N and energy balance during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=217 ±7 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and pair-fed throughout a cross-over design experiment with a 2x2 factorial treatment str...

  5. Hemodynamics are altered in the caudal artery of beef heifers fed different ergot alkaloid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N

    2009-06-01

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) noninfected (E-, 0 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), a 1:1 mixture of endophyte-infected and E- (E+E-; 0.39 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), or endophyte-infected (E+, 0.79 microg of ergovaline/g of DM) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers [345 +/- 19 kg (SD)] were assigned to individual pens and fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E- tall fescue seed for 7 d during an adjustment period. A 9-d experimental period followed with feeding treatments of chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+, E-, or E+E- seed being assigned randomly to pens. Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery luminal area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (3 baseline measures) and during the experimental period (7 measures). Statistical analyses compared proportionate differences between baseline and responses at 3, 27, 51, 75, 171, and 195 h from initial feeding of the experimental diets. Serum prolactin concentrations for E+ and E+E- diets were less (P < 0.001) than baseline concentrations beginning at 27 and 51 h, respectively, from initial feeding of the diets. Although baseline measures were taken when ambient temperatures were likely below thermoneutrality, caudal artery luminal cross-sectional area in E+ heifers had declined (P = 0.004) from baseline by 27 h and remained less (P < 0.02) until 195 h, and caudal artery luminal area declined (P = 0.004) in E+E- heifers from baseline by 51 h and remained less (P < 0.07) until 171 h. Blood flow rate was slower than the baseline rate at 51 h for E+ (P = 0.058) and E+E- (P = 0.02 heifers, but blood flow remained slower in E+E- heifers for 48 h, whereas it remained slower in E+ heifers for 96 h

  6. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  7. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    PubMed

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers. PMID:23079410

  8. Influence of canopy foliage on turbulence above tall deciduous vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkalijevski, Metodija; Moene, Arnold; Ouwersloot, Huug; Patton, Edward; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the role of tree phenology on the atmospheric turbulence over tall vegetation is investigated. Our aim is to study dimensionless mean gradients, variances, and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the roughness sublayer (RSL), and their dependence on the leaf state of the canopy and the stability regimes. To do this, we analyse observations, that are continuously collected over a whole season above and in a walnut tree orchard during the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) field experiment near Dixon, California. To support this data analysis, we compare profiles of vertical fluxes and co-variances, as well as vertical gradients of mean wind, temperature and humidity, with empirically derived dimensionless gradients from previous studies and results from a second-order closure turbulence diagnostic model. In doing so, we study the differences in the calculation of the dimensionless gradients between recently developed model approaches that account for the RSL effects on these gradients against representations that omit those effects. The observations and model results are non-dimensionalized using atmospheric surface layer scaling, paying special attention to the displacement height. The latter is calculated from the observations and depends on the variable under consideration and the leaf state. Our results for the dimensionless gradients of momentum, heat and moisture show a reduction of these variables closer to the canopy top compared to the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for both unstable and near neutral conditions. We find that the reduction is larger for canopy with leaves than for leafless canopy. This confirms the applicability of the aforementioned RSL models. Their results are in better agreement with the observations for the fully vegetated canopy then for the leafless canopy. With regard to the TKE-budget, our analysis shows that turbulent transport is increasingly important term of the budget when

  9. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  10. Hemodynamics are Altered in the Caudal Artery of Beef Heifers Fed Different Ergot Alkaloid Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is a cool-season perennial grass that is widely utilized for grazing in a region covering the transition zone between the temperate northeast and the subtropical southeast Although tall fescue is well adapted to the climate and soils in the region, an endophytic fungus infects fescue pla...

  11. Transcriptomes of Lolium/Schedonorus/Festuca species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ESTs from normalized cDNA libraries of tall fescue with Neotyphodium coenophialum and meadow fescue with Epichloë festucae have been sequenced. The meadow fescue libraries were from RNA isolated from immature tillers of meadow fescue symbiotic with E. festucae, displaying normal inflorescences and ...

  12. Transcriptomes of Lolium/Schedonorus/Festuca Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ESTs from normalized cDNA libraries of tall fescue with Neotyphodium coenophialum and meadow fescue with Epichloë festucae have been sequenced. The meadow fescue libraries were from RNA isolated from immature tillers of meadow fescue symbiotic with E. festucae, displaying normal inflorescences and ...

  13. Drivers of tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the Dempster Highway, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Emily A.; Lantz, Trevor C.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of climate warming and more frequent disturbances. Disturbances can have particularly large effects on high-latitude ecosystems when ecosystem structure and function is controlled by strong feedbacks between soil conditions, vegetation, and ground thermal regime. In this study we investigated the impact of road construction and maintenance on vegetation structure and biomass along the Dempster Highway where it crosses the Peel Plateau in the Northwest Territories. To explore drivers of tall shrub proliferation and to quantify shrub proliferation in this region of continuous permafrost, greyscale air photos (1975) and Quickbird satellite imagery (2008) were used to map landcover change within two 0.6 km2 belts next to the road and two 0.6 km2 belts 500 m away from the road. Maps showing areas where: 1) tall shrubs expanded, and 2) dwarf shrub tundra resisted invasion were then used to select field sites where a suite of biophysical variables were measured. Rapid tall shrub proliferation and greater biomass adjacent to the road indicate that disturbance can facilitate vegetation change in tundra environments. Our field data also suggests that increased shrub proliferation adjacent to the road was caused by greater soil moisture. Tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the road occurred at lower elevation sites characterized by wetter soils with thicker organic layers. Areas that resisted tall shrub encroachment were located at higher elevations and had drier soils with thin organic layers. Our observations also support previous work illustrating that tall shrub expansion next to the highway promotes strong positive feedbacks to ongoing shrub growth and proliferation.

  14. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment of the design of a tall buildings under the extreme load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes some experiences from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the safety of the tall building structure. There are presented the methods and requirements of Eurocode EN 1990, standard ISO 2394 and JCSS. The uncertainties of the model and resistance of the structures are considered using the simulation methods. The MONTE CARLO, LHS and RSM probabilistic methods are compared with the deterministic results. On the example of the probability analysis of the safety of the tall buildings is demonstrated the effectiveness of the probability design of structures using Finite Element Methods.

  16. Browse evaluation of tall shrubs based on direct measurement of a management objective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of Geyer willow was based on the following management objective: Browsing will prevent fewer than 50 percent of Geyer willow shrubs from growing taller than 3 m . Three questions were addressed: (1) Is browsing a potential factor? (2) If so, can young plants grow taller than 3 meters? (3) If not, is browsing the dominant factor? All shrubs were intensely browsed. With a post-browsing growth rate of 5.0 cm per yr, no shrub could grow 3 m tall. Analyses of stem growth rate excluded dominant roles for climate and plant vigor. Browsing and stem age were the dominant factors that limited growth to 3 m tall.

  17. 78 FR 54574 - Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show, Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show... safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Presque Isle Bay during the Tall Ships...

  18. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  19. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  20. EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...