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1

Toxin production by Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Two strains of Bacillus pumilus (M11 and M38) and one strain each of Bacillus cereus (M27), Bacillus subtilis (M67), and Enterobacter agglomerans (M14) were identified from the air of Lancashire cotton mills. These strains were tested for cytopathic effects in Vero cells; B pumilus and B cereus strains were also examined for haemolytic activity, lecithinase production, and proteolytic action on casein. Rounding and clumping of the Vero cells occurred after the addition of supernatants prepared from B pumilus and B cereus strains; finger-like projections developed in the cells treated with B pumilus supernatants. Minimal effects occurred with B subtilis and E agglomerans. After two hours of exposure B pumilus (M11) produced the greatest effect, but treatment with trypan blue showed that most cells exposed to the M11 strain were still alive after 96 hours of exposure; those exposed to the supernatant prepared from the M38 strain of B pumilus were dead. Sheep erythrocytes were lysed more rapidly by B cereus than by B pumilus, B cereus (strongly positive) had a greater effect on lecithin than either of the B pumilus strains (M38 weakly positive, M11 negative). All hydrolised casein but the effect was more rapid with one of the B pumilus (M11) strains. It is concluded that not only do the toxins of B pumilus differ from those of B cereus, but there are also differences between the toxins produced by the two strains of B pumilus (M11 and M38). PMID:2066422

Hoult, B; Tuxford, A F

1991-06-01

2

Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm

2012-01-01

3

ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper  

PubMed Central

Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in combination with BTH for increased induced resistance capacity under field conditions.

Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

4

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2009-07-01

5

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2009-07-01

6

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2010-07-01

7

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2010-07-01

8

78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0264; FRL-9389-2] Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption...requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or on all...maximum permissible level for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 under the...

2013-06-12

9

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2010-07-01

11

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2009-07-01

12

Genomic characterization of six novel Bacillus pumilus bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight bacteriophages infecting the local host Bacillus pumilus BL-8 were isolated, purified, and characterized. Nine genomes were sequenced, of which six were annotated and are the first of this host submitted to the public record. The 28 phages were divided into two groups by sequence and morphological similarity, yielding 27 cluster BpA phages and 1 cluster BpB phage, which is a BL-8 prophage. Most of the BpA phages have a host range restricted to distantly related strains, B. pumilus and B. simplex, reflecting the complexities of Bacillus taxonomy. Despite isolation over wide geographic and temporal space, the six cluster BpA phages share most of their 23 functionally annotated protein features and show a high degree of sequence similarity, which is unique among phages of the Bacillus genera. This is the first report of B. pumilus phages since 1981. PMID:23906709

Lorenz, Laura; Lins, Bridget; Barrett, Jonathan; Montgomery, Andrew; Trapani, Stephanie; Schindler, Anne; Christie, Gail E; Cresawn, Steven G; Temple, Louise

2013-07-30

13

Genomic Changes that May be Responsible for the Elevated UV Resistance of Bacillus Pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 whose spores are highly resistant to UV and the closely related B. pumilus ATCC-7061 that lacks this resistance are compared. Candidate genes are identified that may be responsible for the elevated resistance.

Tirumalai, M. R.; Rastogi, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Fox, G. E.

2010-04-01

14

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...tolerance is established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or on...

2013-07-01

15

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2013-07-01

16

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 180.1322 - Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1322 Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...tolerance is established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or...

2013-07-01

18

Antitrypanosomal alkaloids from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus isolated from the black coral Antipathes sp. led to the isolation of five compounds: cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro) (1), 3-hydroxyacetylindole (2), N-acetyl-?-oxotryptamine (3), cyclo-(L-Phe-L-Pro) (4), and 3-formylindole (5). The structures of compounds 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analyses, including HRESITOF-MS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). Compounds 2, 3 and 5 caused the inhibition on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), with IC50 values of 20.6, 19.4 and 26.9 ?M, respectively, with moderate cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Compounds 1-5 were found to be inactive when tested against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani, therefore showing selectivity against T. cruzi parasites. PMID:22990456

Martnez-Luis, Sergio; Gmez, Jos Flix; Spadafora, Carmenza; Guzmn, Hctor M; Gutirrez, Marcelino

2012-09-18

19

Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies. PMID:24031395

Figueiredo, Jos Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimares, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Corra; Bressan, Wellington

2009-09-01

20

Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies.

Figueiredo, Jose Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Correa; Bressan, Wellington

2009-01-01

21

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Pyrolysis Gas-Liquid Chromatography, Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hybridization, Biochemical Tests, and API Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight strains each of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus lichenifor- mis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were analyzed by using pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis with canonical variates gave four well-sep- arated groups, which represented the four species. Further analysis of the same strains by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization and API identification systems confirmed the discrimination obtained with pyrolysis gas- liquid chromatography.

A. G. O'DONNELL; J. R. NORRIS; R. C. W. BERKELEY; D. CLAUS; T. KANEK; N. A. LOGAN

22

Two cases of severe sepsis caused by Bacillus pumilus in neonatal infants.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is an environmental contaminant that has been rarely associated with clinical infections. Here, two cases of severe sepsis caused by B. pumilus are described in two full-term neonates; one in a female infant with no factors predisposing her to infection and the other in a male infant requiring mechanical ventilation and an intravenous catheter. In both cases, the micro-organism was recovered from repeated blood cultures and was identified using biochemical assays and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both infants were successfully treated with vancomycin. This report reveals the potential role of B. pumilus as a bloodstream pathogen during infancy. PMID:22174371

Kimouli, Maria; Vrioni, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Magdalini; Koumaki, Vasiliki; Petropoulou, Dimitra; Gounaris, Antonios; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tsakris, Athanassios

2011-12-15

23

Cloning, expression and molecular characterization of promoter elements from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoter elements from random chromosomal DNA of a rice epiphyticBacillus pumilus were cloned into promoter probe shuttle vector ECE7 and sequenced. The results showed that these elements were all new DNA\\u000a sequences. Six strong promoter elements were obtained by determination of CAT enzyme activity in bothE. coli andB. pumilus. Transcription start sites of thecat mRNA were located by primer extension

Qingyu Cao; Zhicai Qu; Youzhong Wan; Hongwei Zhang; Daleng Shen; Jiazhen Tan

2001-01-01

24

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS with high catalytic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described previously the potential use of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS as an effective additive in laundry detergent formulations [B. Jaouadi, S. Ellouz-Chaabouni, M. Ben Ali, E. Ben Messaoud, B. Naili, A. Dhouib, S. Bejar, A novel alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS having a high compatibility with laundry detergent and a high feather-degrading activity, Process

Bassem Jaouadi; Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni; Moez Rhimi; Samir Bejar

2008-01-01

25

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, c-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species. Principal Findings. The

Jason Gioia; Shailaja Yerrapragada; Xiang Qin; Huaiyang Jiang; Okezie C. Igboeli; Donna Muzny; Shannon Dugan-Rocha; Yan Ding; Alicia Hawes; Wen Liu; Lesette Perez; Christie Kovar; Huyen Dinh; Sandra Lee; Lynne Nazareth; Peter Blyth; Michael Holder; Christian Buhay; Madhan R. Tirumalai; Yamei Liu; Indrani Dasgupta; Lina Bokhetache; Masaya Fujita; Fathi Karouia; Prahathees Eswara Moorthy; Johnathan Siefert; Akif Uzman; Prince Buzumbo; Avani Verma; Hiba Zwiya; Brian D. McWilliams; Adeola Olowu; Kenneth D. Clinkenbeard; David Newcombe; Lisa Golebiewski; Joseph F. Petrosino; Wayne L. Nicholson; George E. Fox; Kasthuri Venkateswaran; Sarah K. Highlander; George M. Weinstock

2007-01-01

26

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, ?-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species.Principal FindingsThe genome of B.

Jason Gioia; Shailaja Yerrapragada; Xiang Qin; Huaiyang Jiang; Okezie C. Igboeli; Donna Muzny; Shannon Dugan-Rocha; Yan Ding; Alicia Hawes; Wen Liu; Lesette Perez; Christie Kovar; Huyen Dinh; Sandra Lee; Lynne Nazareth; Peter Blyth; Michael Holder; Christian Buhay; Madhan R. Tirumalai; Yamei Liu; Indrani Dasgupta; Lina Bokhetache; Masaya Fujita; Fathi Karouia; Prahathees Eswara Moorthy; Johnathan Siefert; Akif Uzman; Prince Buzumbo; Avani Verma; Hiba Zwiya; Brian D. McWilliams; Adeola Olowu; Kenneth D. Clinkenbeard; David Newcombe; Lisa Golebiewski; Joseph F. Petrosino; Wayne L. Nicholson; George E. Fox; Kasthuri Venkateswaran; Sarah K. Highlander; George M. Weinstock; Abraham Sonenshein

2007-01-01

27

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India  

PubMed Central

Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus.

Parvathi, Ammini; Krishna, Kiran; Jose, Jiya; Joseph, Neetha; Nair, Santha

2009-01-01

28

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India.  

PubMed

Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus. PMID:24031357

Parvathi, Ammini; Krishna, Kiran; Jose, Jiya; Joseph, Neetha; Nair, Santha

2009-06-01

29

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to

Xinqi Huang; Nan Zhang; Xiaoyu Yong; Xingming Yang; Qirong Shen

30

Molecular Docking of Bacillus pumilus Xylanase and Xylan Substrate Using Computer Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus xylanase was cloned and sequenced. Based on the tertiary structure that originated from homology modeling, the potential active pocket was searched and ligand-protein docking was performed using relative softwares. The information extracted from the molecular docking was analyzed; several amino acid residues that may play a vital role in the xylanase catalytic reaction were obtained to instruct the

Jin-Xia LIN; Liao-Yuan ZHANG; Guang-Ya ZHANG; Bai-Shan FANG

2007-01-01

31

Draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus BA06, a producer of alkaline serine protease with leather-dehairing function.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus BA06 was isolated from the proteinaceous soil and produced an extracellular alkaline protease with leather-dehairing function. The genome of BA06 was sequenced. The comparative genome analysis indicated that strain BA06 is different in genome from the other B. pumilus strains, with limited insertions, deletions, and rearrangements. PMID:23144411

Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Feng, Hong

2012-12-01

32

[Subtilisin like protease secreted in Bacillus pumilus KMM 62 on different growth stages].  

PubMed

A protease secreted in Bacillus pumilus KMM 62 culture liquid on different growth stages was isolated using ion-exchange chromatography. On the basis of pattern of specific chromogenic substrates hydrolysis and inhibitory analysis the protease was classified as subtilisin like serine protease. The molecular weight ofprotease is 31 kDa. Proteolytic activity towards Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNa substrate was maximal at pH 8-8.5. The optimal temperature for proteolytic activity was observed at a temperature of 30 degrees C, and the protein was stable within the pH range of 7.5-10.0. Bacillus pumilus KMM 62 subtilisin like serine protease was shown to have thrombolytic activity. PMID:22792728

Mardanova, A M; Malikova, L A; Balaban, N P; Zamaliutdinova, N M; Sharipova, M R

33

Inhibition of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Bacillus pumilus were tested for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus\\u000a NRRL 2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth. Aflatoxin production was inhibited in both simultaneous and deferred antagonism\\u000a assays, suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolite(s) produced in cell-free supernatant fluids\\u000a of cultured broth. The inhibition was not due to

Clestin Munimbazi; Lloyd B. Bullerman

1997-01-01

34

Sterilization of Bacillus pumilus spores using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide containing various modifier solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) with small amounts of chemical modifier(s) provides a very effective sterilization technique that should be useful for destroying microorganism on heat-sensitive devices such as instruments flown on planetary-bound spacecraft. Under a moderate temperature (50C) and pressure (100atm), spores of Bacillus pumilus strains ATCC 7061 and SAFR 032 can be effectively inactivated\\/eliminated from metal surfaces and

Edison Shieh; Andrzej Paszczynski; Chien M. Wai; Qingyong Lang; Ronald L. Crawford

2009-01-01

35

[Properties of Bacillus pumilus subtilisin like proteinase secreted from recombinant strain on different growth stages].  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus 3-19 glutamylendopeptidase has been isolated from culture liquid of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain on different growth stages: growth retardation (early enzyme) and stationary phase (late enzyme). The effect of purified proteinase of different growth stages on insulin beta-chain, protein and oligopeptide substrates has been studied. Comparative study of physicochemical properties of early and late proteinases was carried out. Two protein fractions were different in catalytic characteristics and demonstrated different sensitivity to the presence of metal cations. PMID:23844506

Balaban, N P; Danilova, Iu V; Shamsutdinov, T R; Mardanova, A M; Cheremin, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

36

Purification and Partial characterization of manganese peroxidase from Bacillus pumilus AND Paenibacillus sp.  

PubMed Central

The production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. was studied under absence and presence of the inducers indulin AT, guayacol, veratryl alcohol, lignosulfonic acid and lignosulfonic acid desulfonated. Indulin AT increased the activity of B. pumilus MnP up to 31.66 U/L after 8 h, but no improve was observed for Paenibacillus sp., which reached maximum activity (12.22 U/L) after 20 h. Both MnPs produced by these microorganisms were purified in phenyl sepharose resin and the proteins from crude extracts were eluted in two fractions. However, only the first fraction of each extract exhibited MnP activities. Tests in different pH and temperature values, from pH 5.0 to pH 10.0 and 30 C to 60 C, respectively, were carried out with the purified MnP. The maximum activity reached for B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. MnPs were 4.3 U/L at pH 8.0 and 25 C and 11.74 U/L at pH 9.0 and 35 C, respectively. The molar masses determined by SDS-PAGE gel eletrophoresis were 25 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively, for the purified enzyme from B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp.

de Oliveira, Patricia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lucia Regina

2009-01-01

37

Food poisoning associated with pumilacidin-producing Bacillus pumilus in rice.  

PubMed

Food poisoning caused by other Bacillus species than B. cereus has been described, but the toxins involved have rarely been isolated. Endospores will survive heat treatment and will germinate and multiply in cooked foods producing toxins under appropriate conditions. We describe a small food poisoning outbreak where three people became ill after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. Acute symptoms including dizziness, headache, chills and back pain developed during the meal, and a few hours later they got stomach cramps and diarrhoea which lasted for several days. Cooked, reheated rice was the prime suspect of the food poisoning, and from the rice large numbers of Bacillus pumilus were isolated. The isolated B. pumilus strain was found to produce a complex of lipopeptides known as pumilacidins with the highest amounts produced at 15 degrees C. This is the first report on isolation of a pumilacidin-producing B. pumilus strain from food implicated in food poisoning and characterization of the organism and the toxin complex involved. PMID:17275116

From, Cecilie; Hormazabal, Victor; Granum, Per Einar

2007-01-13

38

Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay  

SciTech Connect

The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. (Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Johnston, IA (USA))

1991-03-01

39

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

PubMed Central

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess whether new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat products. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. Both RAPD-PCR and fAFLP analyses demonstrated that a high genetic heterogeneity is present in the B. subtilis group even in strains harvested from the same source, making it possible to isolate 56 different biotypes. Moreover, fAFLP analysis made it possible to distinguish B. subtilis from B. pumilus strains. The strains were characterized for their toxigenic potential by molecular, physiological, and immunological techniques. Specific PCR analyses revealed the absence of DNA sequences related to HBL, BcET, NHE, and entFM Bacillus cereus enterotoxins and the enzymes sphingomyelinase Sph and phospholipase PI-PLC in all strains; also, the immunological analyses showed that Bacillus strains did not react with NHE- and HBL-specific antibodies. However, some isolates were found to be positive for hemolytic and lecithinase activity. The absence of toxigenic potential in Bacillus strains from the sausages analyzed indicates that these products can be considered safe under the processing conditions they were produced; however, great care should be taken when the ripening time is shortened, particularly in the case of traditional sausages, which could contain high amounts of Bacillus strains and possibly some B. cereus cells.

Matarante, Alessandra; Baruzzi, Federico; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Morea, Maria

2004-01-01

40

Endophytic bacteria in rice seeds inhibit early colonization of roots by Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the rhizoplane of Oryza sativa, vars. Morelos A-88 and Apatzingan, rice plantlets, we isolated two bacterial strains: Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus. By scanning electron microscopy, endophytic bacteria were frequently identified at the base of secondary roots, between the epidermis and the mucilaginous layer. Endophytes were also identified in the intercellular spaces when the mucilaginous layer was disrupted. These

M Bacilio-Jimnez; S Aguilar-Flores; M. V del Valle; A Prez; A Zepeda; E Zenteno

2001-01-01

41

Isolation, purification and characterisation of low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographies. Xylanases were isolated by novel purification protocol which includes the use of anion exchange matrix such as DEAE Sepharose CL 6B with less affinity towards enzyme protein. The purified B. pumilus SSP-34 have a molecular weight of 20 kDa, with optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50 C for 30 min. It showed remarkable stability at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9 when the reaction was carried out at 50 C. K (m) and V (max) values, determined with oats spelts xylan were 6.5 mg ml? and 1,233 ?mol min? mg? protein, respectively, and the specific activity was 1,723 U mg?. PMID:22350873

Subramaniyan, S

2012-02-17

42

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43.  

PubMed

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of B. pumilus SQR-N43 and its bio-organic fertilizer. Results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 induced hyphal deformation, enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles and cytoplasmic leakage in R. solani Q1 mycelia. A biofilm on the root surface was formed when the roots were inoculated with 10(7)-10(8)cells g(-1) of soil of GFP-tagged B. pumilus SQR-N43. In the pot experiment, the biocontrol reduced the concentration of R. solani. In contrast to applications of only B. pumilus SQR-N43 (N treatment), which produced control efficiencies of 23%, control efficiencies of 68% were obtained with applications of a fermented organic fertilizer inoculated with B. pumilus SQR-N43 (BIO treatment). After twenty days of incubation, significant differences in the number of CFUs and the percentage of spores of B. pumilus SQR-N43 were recorded between the N treatment (2.2010(7)CFU g(-1) of soil and 79%, respectively) and the BIO treatment (1.6710(8)CFU g(-1) of soil and 52%, respectively). The results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 is a potent antagonist against R. solani Q1. The BIO treatment was more effective than the N treatment because it stabilized the population and increased the active form of the antagonist. PMID:21775112

Huang, Xinqi; Zhang, Nan; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xingming; Shen, Qirong

2011-07-19

43

First report of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme produced by Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SG2 isolated from high salinity ecosystem in Iran produces two chitinases (ChiS and ChiL) and secretes them into the medium. In this study, chiS and chiL genes were cloned in pQE-30 expression vector and were expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli strain M15. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA column. The optimum pH and optimum temperature for enzyme activity of ChiS were pH 6, 50C; those of ChiL were pH 6.5, 40C. The purified chitinases showed antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Magnaporthe grisea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichoderma reesei, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sp. Moreover, purified ChiS was identified as chitinase/lysozyme, which are capable of degrading the chitin component of fungal cell walls and the peptidoglycan component of cell walls with many kinds of bacteria (Xanthomonas translucens pv. hordei, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Bacillus licheniformis, E. coli C600, E. coli TOP10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida). Strong homology was found between the three-dimensional structures of ChiS and a chitinase/lysozyme from Bacillus circulans WL-12. This is the first report of a bifunctional chitinase/lysozyme from B. pumilus. PMID:22112904

Ghasemi, Seyedhadi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Zeigler, Daniel R; Rahimian, Heshmatollah; Ghandili, Soheila; Naghibzadeh, Neda; Dehestani, Ali

2010-11-12

44

Surfactant activity of a naphthalene degrading Bacillus pumilus strain isolated from oil sludge.  

PubMed

We studied the growth, biosurfactant activities and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds utilisation of strain 28-11 isolated from a solid waste oil. The isolate was identified as Bacillus pumilus. It grew well in the presence of 0.1% (w/v) of crude oil and naphthalene under aerobic conditions and utilised these substances as carbon and energy source. The capacity of strain 28-11 to emulsify crude oil and its ability to remove hydrocarbons looks promising for its application in environmental technologies. PMID:15066763

Calvo, C; Toledo, F L; Gonzlez-Lpez, J

2004-04-29

45

Stability of Bacillus pumilus spore strips used for monitoring radiation sterilization.  

PubMed Central

Dried Bacillus pumilus spore strips had a stable D-value of 0.17 to 0.18 Mrad after 1 year at 5 or 25 C, but resistance was lost at 35 C. Refrigeration did not have an adverse effect on resistance to irradiation. The presence of water at the time of initial preparation increased this resistance to 0.23 to 0.25 Mrad. Proper drying is essential to achieve reproducible results in sterility tests using USP-type biological indicators.

Prince, H N

1976-01-01

46

Improved activity and thermostability of Bacillus pumilus lipase by directed evolution.  

PubMed

To improve enzymatic activity of Bacillus pumilus lipases, DNA shuffling was applied to two lipase genes from local B. pumilus isolates. Using a high-throughput activity assay, the mutant with highest activity was selected. This chimeric mutant (L3-3), carrying two crossover positions and three point mutations, has a specific activity 6.4 and 8.2 times higher than the two parent enzymes. The mutant also is more tolerant to various detergents and organic solvents, and has a 9 times longer half-life at 50 C. Homology modeling of mutant L3-3, based on the highly homologous B. subtilis lipase A, shows that the increased thermostability is likely due to structural rigidification and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Increased specific activity may result from the location of mutations close to the active site. Together, our results show that it is possible to evolve, by DNA shuffling, B. pumilus lipase variants with improved applicability as biocatalysts, even if the two parent enzymes are highly similar. PMID:23313890

Akbulut, Nagihan; Tuzlako?lu ztrk, Merve; Pijning, Tjaard; ??sever ztrk, Saliha; Gm?el, Fsun

2013-01-11

47

Bacillus pumilus in the induction of clindamycin-associated enterocolitis in guinea pigs.  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic-associated enterocolitis was induced in guinea pigs by the intraperitoneal injection of clindamycin. The colonic and cecal mucosa and feces of acutely ill animals were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on 5% sheep blood agar plates and on a selective and differential medium for Clostridium difficile. All morphologically distinct colony types were isolated in pure culture and identified. A sterile cell-free filtrate of each isolate was tested for ability to induce morphological changes in cultured monolayers of mouse adrenal cells. The filtrate of a predominant isolate, Bacillus pumilus, induced an alteration of cellular morphology; the sterile filtrate of other isolates were unreactive. Toxin contained in cell-free filtrates of B. pumilus caused a syndrome identical to clindamycin-associated enterocolitis when injected intracecally into guinea pigs. The toxin had a molecular weight of 6,500 daltons as determined by molecular sieve chromatography and was inactivated with pronase, lipase, and trypsin. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and vancomycin for B. pumilus were 50 micrograms/ml and less than or equal to 0.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. Images

Brophy, P F; Knoop, F C

1982-01-01

48

Chitinolytic and antifungal activity of a Bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The Bacillus pumilus SG2 chitinase gene (ChiS) and its truncated form lacking chitin binding (ChBD) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains were transformed to Arabidopsis plants and the expression, functionality and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were investigated. Results showed that while the two enzyme forms showed almost equal hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, they exhibited a significant difference in antifungal activity. Recombinant ChiS in plant protein extracts displayed a high inhibitory effect on spore germination and radial growth of hyphae in Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea, while the activity of the truncated enzyme was strongly abolished. These findings demonstrate that ChBD and FnIII domains are not necessary for hydrolysis of colloidal chitin but play an important role in hydrolysis of chitin-glucan complex of fungal cell walls. Twenty microgram aliquots of protein extracts from ChiS transgenic lines displayed strong antifungal activity causing up to 80% decrease in fungal spore germination. This is the first report of a Bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in plant system. PMID:20035370

Dehestani, Ali; Kazemitabar, Kamal; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Jelodar, Nadali Babaeian; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Seyedi, Mehdi; Rahimian, Heshmat; Ghasemi, Seyedhadi

2009-12-25

49

Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact\\u000a of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with\\u000a the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between

Yingwu ShiKai; Kai Lou; Chun Li

2010-01-01

50

CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies  

PubMed Central

The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of the 37-kDa subunit. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was readily expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was facilitated by the addition of a C-terminal six-histidine affinity purification tag. The tagged recombinant enzyme has Km and Vmax values similar to those published for the native enzyme. This is the first cyanide dihydratase from a gram-positive bacterium to be sequenced, and it is the first description of the structure of any member of this enzyme class. The putative amino acid sequence shares over 80% identity to the only other sequenced cyanide dihydratase, that of the gram-negative Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AK61, and is similar to a number of other bacterial and fungal nitrilases. This sequence similarity suggests that the novel short spiral structure may be typical of these enzymes. In addition, an active cyanide dihydratase from a non-cyanide-degrading isolate of B. pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site.

Jandhyala, Dakshina; Berman, Mark; Meyers, Paul R.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Willson, Richard C.; Benedik, Michael J.

2003-01-01

51

The supernatant of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 has antifungal activity towards Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

For clarification of the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 (N43) against Rhizoctonia solani Q1, production of antibiotics by N43 was determined, and the effect of the antibiotics on the pathogen mycelium was microscopically observed. Further more, the control efficiencies of the antifungal compounds on damping-off disease were investigated. The results obtained are listed as follows: N43 produced antibiotic substances towards R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. The antibiotics caused hyphal deformation and enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles in R. solani Q1 mycelia. 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate made a complete precipitation of the antibiotics in culture broth. When treated with protease K and trypsase, the activities of antibiotics were decreased by 79% and 53%, respectively, compared with control. The antibiotics were sensitive to high temperature and were alkaline stable. The molecular weights of the substances were about 500-1000 Da. The bio-control efficiencies of the antibiotics had no significant difference with that of N43 cell suspension. It is a first report that B. pumilus strain produced oligopeptides which had inhibitory effect on R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. PMID:23417338

Huang, Xinqi; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

2013-02-18

52

Optimization of chitin extraction from shrimp waste with Bacillus pumilus A1 using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Chitin extraction from shrimp shells by biological treatment, using the Bacilli Bacillus pumilus A1, is a non-polluting method and offers the opportunity to preserve the exceptional qualities of chitin and its derivatives. However, the major disadvantage of the fermentative way is the low efficiency of demineralization and deproteinization. The aim of this study is to improve the yield of extraction which depends on many factors, such as the medium composition and the physical parameters. In order to look for the optimal conditions, a Plackett and Burman design was carried out to screen eight factors influencing the deproteinization and demineralization efficiencies. The four most influencing variables were then examined to achieve the optimization using a central composite design. The results obtained showed that the optimal conditions were: shrimp shell concentration of 70g/l, glucose concentration of 50g/l, pH of 5.0 incubated with 0.225 OD of B. pumilus A1 inoculum, at 35C and 150rpm for 6 days in 500ml flask containing 100ml of working volume. These conditions led to 88% of demineralization and 94% of deproteinization. (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectral analysis of the chitin prepared was carried out and was found to be similar to that of the commercial ?-chitin. PMID:23831901

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Hajji, Sawssen; Younes, Islem; Chaabouni, Moncef; Nasri, Moncef; Jellouli, Kemel

2013-07-04

53

Metabolic flexibility of D-ribose producer strain of Bacillus pumilus under environmental perturbations.  

PubMed

The metabolic reaction rate vector is a bridge that links gene and protein expression alterations to the phenotypic endpoint. We present a simple approach for the estimation of flux distribution at key branch points in the metabolic network by using substrate uptake, metabolite secretion rate, and biomass growth rate for transketolase (tkt) deficient Bacillus pumilus ATCC 21951. We find that the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and pseudo catabolic/anabolic branch points are flexible in the D: -ribose-producing tkt deficient strain of B. pumilus. The normalized flux through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) varied from 1.5 to 86% under different growth conditions, thereby enabling substantial extracellular accumulation of D: -ribose under certain conditions. Interestingly, the flux through PPP was affected by the extracellular phosphate concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration. This metabolic flexibility may have been the underlying reason for this strain being selected from thousands of others in a screening for D: -ribose producers conducted in the 1970s. PMID:22438109

Srivastava, Rajesh K; Maiti, Soumen K; Das, Debasish; Bapat, Prashant M; Batta, Kritika; Bhushan, Mani; Wangikar, Pramod P

2012-03-22

54

Pinus pinea L. seedling growth and bacterial rhizosphere structure after inoculation with PGPR Bacillus ( B. licheniformis CECT 5106 and B. pumilus CECT 5105)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inoculation with PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis CECT 5106 and B. pumilus CECT 5105) in enhancing growth of Pinus pinea plants, and the changes that occur in rhizosphere microbial communities were evaluated. Both Bacillus strains promoted the growth of P. pinea seedlings (probably by gibberellin production), but this biological effect was not found with

A. Probanza; J. A. Lucas Garc??a; M. Ruiz Palomino; B. Ramos; F. J. Gutirrez Maero

2002-01-01

55

Production of alkali tolerant cellulase free xylanase in high levels by Bacillus pumilus SV-205.  

PubMed

The fermentation conditions were optimized for hyper production of xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SV-205. The bacterium secretes high levels (7382.71200 IU/mL) of cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran led to 21.63 fold increase in activity. A combination of yeast extract and peptone stimulated highest xylanase production (2448.0 IU/mL) as compared to other combinations. The most important characteristic of the enzyme is its high pH stability (100%) over a broad pH range of 6-11 for 24h. Thermostability studies revealed that enzyme retained 65% activity after an incubation of 2h at 60C. The level of production is remarkable as compared to earlier reports. PMID:22227307

Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2011-12-29

56

Comparative effects of gamma rays and electron beams on spores of Bacillus pumilus  

SciTech Connect

The effects of [gamma] rays and electron beams on the germination, outgrowth and the synthesis of protein and RNA of Bacillus pumilus spores were investigated to clarify the difference in the effects of the two types of radiations on bacterial spores. Gamma irradiation facilitated the germination to a slightly larger degree than electron irradiation. The outgrowth, growth and the synthesis of protein and RNA were inhibited by [gamma] irradiation to a greater extent than electron irradiation, when the spores were irradiated at the same dose. However, the effects of the two types of radiations were the same when the spores were irradiated with electron beams at a dose 30% higher than [gamma] rays. The results indicate that the effects of electron beams on bacterial spores and those of [gamma] rays are qualitatively the same but quantitatively different. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko (National Food Research Institute, Kannondai (Japan)); Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo (Hokkaido Univ. (Japan))

1994-02-01

57

Initiation of Germination and Inactivation of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Hydrostatic Pressure  

PubMed Central

The effect of hydrostatic pressures as high as 1,700 atm at 25 C on the heat and radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus spores was studied. Phosphate-buffered spores were more sensitive to compression than spores suspended in distilled water. Measurements of the turbidity of suspensions, the viability, refractility, stainability, dry weight, and respiratory activity of spores, and calcium and dipicolinic acid release were made for different pressures and times. Initiation of germination occurred at pressures exceeding 500 atm and was the prerequisite for inactivation by compression. The rate of initiation increased with increasing pressure at constant temperature. This result is interpreted as a net decrease in the volume of the system during initiation as a result of increased solvation of the spore components.

Clouston, J. G.; Wills, Pamela A.

1969-01-01

58

Survival of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 in simulated Mars atmosphere in real space conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated habitats, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UVradiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions using the European Technology Exposure Platform and Experiment Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months exposure in the EuTEF facility under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10 to 40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85 to 100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated-Mars atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110nm) was exerted on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and conditions using the EuTEF, a ~7-log reduction in viability was noticed. However, the UV exposure still did not inactivate all the spores as 19 CFUs were later isolated via cultivation. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples but under simulated conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (~3-log reduction in viability for Mars UV, and ~4-log reduction in viability for Space UV). The data generated is important to assess the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival, microbial contaminants of risk for forward contamination, in situ life detection, and to safeguard the integrity of sample return missions.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Fox, George E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2010-08-01

59

Phenotypic subtyping and colonization studies of the maize endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic characteristics. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. Maize plants with endophytic bacterium al...

60

Bilirubin oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: a promising enzyme for the elaboration of efficient cathodes in biofuel cells.  

PubMed

A CotA multicopper oxidase (MCO) from Bacillus pumilus, previously identified as a laccase, has been studied and characterized as a new bacterial bilirubin oxidase (BOD). The 59 kDa protein containing four coppers, was successfully over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in one step. This 509 amino-acid enzyme, having 67% and 26% sequence identity with CotA from Bacillus subtilis and BOD from Myrothecium verrucaria, respectively, shows higher turnover activity towards bilirubin compared to other bacterial MCOs. The current density for O(2) reduction, when immobilized in a redox hydrogel, is only 12% smaller than the current obtained with Trachyderma tsunodae BOD. Under continuous electrocatalysis, an electrode modified with the new BOD is more stable, and has a higher tolerance towards NaCl, than a T. tsunodae BOD modified electrode. This makes BOD from B. pumilus an attractive new candidate for application in biofuel cells (BFCs) and biosensors. PMID:22410485

Durand, Fabien; Kjaergaard, Christian Hauge; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Gounel, Sbastien; Hadt, Ryan G; Solomon, Edward I; Mano, Nicolas

2012-02-25

61

Heterologous expression of the Bacillus pumilus endo--xylanase ( xynA ) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endo-#-xylanase-encoding gene (xynA) of Bacillus pumilus PLS was isolated from a genomic DNA library and the open reading frame (ORF) was inserted in expression vectors for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasmid pFN3 harboured the xynA ORF fused to the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor signal sequence (MFŋS) under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promotor (ADH2P) and terminator

Filip Nuyens; Willem H. van Zyl; Dirk Iserentant; Hubert Verachtert; Chris Michiels

2001-01-01

62

Detection of the organophosphate degrading gene opdA in the newly isolated bacterial strain Bacillus pumilus W1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of organophosphates to a wide range of organisms necessitates the study of their degradation. We designed a study\\u000a to isolate an organophosphate-degrading bacterium and to detect the gene involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphates. The\\u000a bacterial strain was isolated by the enrichment culture technique from organophosphate-contaminated soil, It was identified\\u000a as Bacillus pumilus W1 based on its biochemical

Muhammad Ali; Tatheer Alam Naqvi; Maria Kanwal; Faisal Rasheed; Abdul Hameed; Safia Ahmed

63

Enhancement of Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae growth and survival without water exchange using marine Bacillus pumilus and periphytic microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the possibility of using a consortium of marine bacterium and periphytic microalgae to improve the water\\u000a quality and increase the growth and survival of the shrimp Penaeus monodon in a hatchery system. Three treatments were evaluated for their effect on P. monodon postlarvae (PL) when the culture water was not changed: Bacillus\\u000a pumilus alone (B); periphytic microalgae

Sanjoy Banerjee; Helena Khatoon; Mohamed Shariff

2010-01-01

64

?-Glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS 12: Decoupling autoprocessing from catalysis and molecular characterization of N-terminal region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 (GGTBP) was cloned, expressed in pET-28-E. coli expression system as a heterodimeric enzyme with molecular weights of 45 and 20kDa for large and small subunit, respectively. It was purified by nickel affinity chromatography with hydrolytic and transpeptidase activity of 1.82U\\/mg and 4.35U\\/mg, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that GGTBP was most closely related to

N. Apurva Ratan Murty; Ekta Tiwary; Richa Sharma; Neha Nair; Rani Gupta

65

Production and characterization of alkaline protease from hemoglobin-degrading Bacillus pumilus NJM4 to produce fermented blood meal.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to isolate the hemoglobin-degrading bacterial strain to produce fermented blood meal and to characterize the protease produced by this strain. The strain NJM4, a kind of hemoglobin-degrading bacterial strain, was isolated by blood agar plates from slaughterhouse and identified as a Bacillus pumilus by physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacillus pumilus NJM4 could degrade hemoglobin up to 85% in 36h under the laboratory conditions. The optimal conditions for protease production was achieved at an initial pH level of 8.67, inoculum size of 4%, incubation temperature of 37C, and agitation rate 200rpm. The optimum pH and temperature of hemoglobin-degrading proteases were at 9.0 and 50C, respectively. The protease activity was slightly decreased in presence of Ca(2+) and DTT. It was significantly inhibited in the presence of PMSF and EDTA identifying it as alkaline serine-metalloproteinase. Bacillus pumilus NJM4 and hemoglobin-degrading proteases provide potential use for biotechnological process of fermentation and enzymolysis blood meal as animal feed supplement. PMID:24082276

Yao, Dawei; Qu, Jiao; Chang, Peiwei; Tao, Yanhua; Yang, Deji

2011-01-20

66

Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.  

PubMed

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110?nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ?7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (?3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ?4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants as risks for forward contamination and in situ life detection. PMID:22680694

Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

2012-05-01

67

Application of statistical experimental design for optimization of keratinases production by Bacillus pumilus A1 grown on chicken feather and some biochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new keratinolytic enzyme-producing bacterium was isolated from slaughter house polluted water and identified as Bacillus pumilus A1. Medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by B. pumilus A1 were optimized using two statistical methods: PlackettBurman design applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and central composite design used to

Nahed Fakhfakh-Zouari; Anissa Haddar; Noomen Hmidet; Fakher Frikha; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

68

Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme  

PubMed Central

The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, totheir corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavouring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a ?-barrel structure and two ?-helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the ?-barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Helene; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C. K.

2010-01-01

69

Purification and characterization of ferulate and p-coumarate decarboxylase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus PS213 isolated from bovine ruminal fluid was able to transform ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol, respectively, by nonoxidative decarboxylation. The enzyme responsible for this activity has been purified and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extract from a culture induced by ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid shows three bands that are not present in the crude extract of an uninduced culture, while the purified enzyme shows a single band of 23 kDa; the molecular mass calculated by size exclusion chromatography is 45 kDa. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5 and is not enhanced by any cation. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 1.03 mM and a Vmax of 0.19 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for ferulic acid and a Km of 1.38 mM and a Vmax of 0.22 mmol.min-1/mg.liter-1 for p-coumaric acid.

Degrassi, G; Polverino De Laureto, P; Bruschi, C V

1995-01-01

70

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

71

Pigmentation and sporulation are alternative cell fates in Bacillus pumilus SF214.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SF214 is a spore forming bacterium, isolated from a marine sample, able to produce a matrix and a orange-red, water soluble pigment. Pigmentation is strictly regulated and high pigment production was observed during the late stationary growth phase in a minimal medium and at growth temperatures lower than the optimum. Only a subpopulation of stationary phase cells produced the pigment, indicating that the stationary culture contains a heterogeneous cell population and that pigment synthesis is a bimodal phenomenon. The fraction of cells producing the pigment varied in the different growth conditions and occurred only in cells not devoted to sporulation. Only some of the pigmented cells were also able to produce a matrix. Pigment and matrix production in SF214 appear then as two developmental fates both alternative to sporulation. Since the pigment had an essential role in the cell resistance to oxidative stress conditions, we propose that within the heterogeneous population different survival strategies can be followed by the different cells. PMID:23634224

Manzo, Nicola; Di Luccia, Blanda; Isticato, Rachele; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio

2013-04-25

72

Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.  

PubMed

Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions. PMID:23715854

Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

2013-05-30

73

Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hlne; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K. (Biotech Res.)

2012-04-30

74

Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups

Jos Edson Fontes Figueiredo; Eliane Aparecida Gomes; Claudia Teixeira Guimares; Ubiraci Gomes de Paula Lana; Marta Aparecida Teixeira; Guilherme Vitor Corra Lima; Wellington Bressan

2009-01-01

75

EVALUATION OF GRAPEVINE ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FOR CONTROL OF PIERCE'S DISEASE Project Leader  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this reporting period we finished testing selected endophyte isolates for antagonism with our in vitro assay. Isolates of Bacillus pumilus, B. subtilis, Pantoea sp., and Pseudomonas sp. were the most effective inhibitors. In this year's movement assays we identified one more isolate, Kocuria sp, that could move into grape petioles. We subsequently used this isolate as one treatment in

Bruce Kirkpatrick; Margot Wilhelm

76

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS with high catalytic efficiency.  

PubMed

We have described previously the potential use of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS as an effective additive in laundry detergent formulations [B. Jaouadi, S. Ellouz-Chaabouni, M. Ben Ali, E. Ben Messaoud, B. Naili, A. Dhouib, S. Bejar, A novel alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS having a high compatibility with laundry detergent and a high feather-degrading activity, Process Biochem, submitted for publication]. Here, we purified this enzyme (named SAPB) and we cloned, sequenced and over-expressed the corresponding gene. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using salt precipitation and gel filtration HPLC. The pure protease was found to be monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 34598.19Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The NH2-terminal sequence of first 21 amino acids (aa) of the purified SAPB was AQTVPYGIPQIKAPAVHAQGY and was completely identical to proteases from other Bacillus pumilus species. This protease is strongly inhibited by PMSF and DFP, showing that it belongs to the serine proteases superfamily. Interestingly, the optimum pH is 10.6 while the optimum temperature was determined to be 65 degrees C. The enzyme was completely stable within a wide range of pH (7.0-10.6) and temperature (30-55 degrees C). One of the distinguishing properties is its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) calculated to be 45,265min(-1)mM(-1) and 147,000min(-1)mM(-1) using casein and AAPF as substrates, respectively, which is higher than that of Subtilisin Carlsberg, Subtilisin BPN' and Subtilisin 309 determined under the same conditions. In addition, SAPB showed remarkable stability, for 24h at 40 degrees C, in the presence of 5% Tween-80, 1% SDS, 15% urea and 10% H2O2, which comprise the common bleach-based detergent formulation. The sapB gene encoding SAPB was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rSAPB) has the same physicochemical and kinetic properties as the native one. SapB gene had an ORF of 1149bp encoding a protein of 383 aa organized into a signal peptide (29 aa), a pro-protein (79 aa) and a mature enzyme (275 aa). The deduced amino acid sequence inspection displays an important homology with other bacterial proteases. The highest homology of 98.1% was found with BPP-A protease from Bacillus pumilus MS-1, with only 8 aa of difference. PMID:18397761

Jaouadi, Bassem; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir

2008-03-20

77

Ultraviolet-radiation-resistant isolates revealed cellulose-degrading species of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (UVP1) and Bacillus pumilus (UVP4).  

PubMed

Among extremophiles, microorganisms resistant to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been known to produce a variety of metabolites (i.e., extremolytes). We hypothesized that natural microbial flora on elevated land (hills) would reveal a variety of UVR-resistant extremophiles and polyextremophiles with modulated proteins and enzymes that had biotechnological implications. Microorganisms Cellulosimicrobium cellulans UVP1 and Bacillus pumilus UVP4 were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing, and showed extreme UV resistance (1.03 10? and 1.71 10? J/m, respectively) from elevated land soil samples along with unique patterns of protein expression under UVR and non-UVR. A broad range of cellulolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose agar plates in C. cellulans UVP1 and B. pumilus UVP4 was revealed at varying pH, temperature, and inorganic salt concentration. Further, the microbial strain B. pumilus UVP4 showed the basic characteristics of a novel group: polyextremophiles with significance in bioenergy. PMID:23586916

Gabani, Prashant; Copeland, Erin; Chandel, Anuj K; Singh, Om V

2012-10-09

78

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.851.17 mM, 3.0110?60.21 Mmin?1 and 0.320.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal.

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

79

CotA, a multicopper oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, exhibits manganese-oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.851.17 mM, 3.0110(-6)0.21 Mmin(-1) and 0.320.02 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-04-05

80

Candidate genes that may be responsible for the unusual resistances exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.  

PubMed

The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061(T). 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061(T) and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

Tirumalai, Madhan R; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O'Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Fox, George E

2013-06-14

81

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores  

PubMed Central

The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work.

Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O'Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Fox, George E.

2013-01-01

82

Chemical characterization of root exudates from rice ( Oryza sativa) and their effects on the chemotactic response of endophytic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates represent an important source of nutrients for microorganisms in the rhizosphere and seem to participate in early colonization inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. We characterized the root exudates collected from rice plantlets cultured under hydroponic conditions and assessed their effects on the chemotaxis of two strains of endophytic bacteria, Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus, collected from the

Macario Bacilio-Jimnez; Sara Aguilar-Flores; Elsa Ventura-Zapata; Eduardo Prez-Campos; Stephane Bouquelet; Edgar Zenteno

2003-01-01

83

Production of an alkaline protease using Bacillus pumilus D3 without inactivation by SDS, its characterization and purification.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, protease-producing capacity of Bacillus pumilus D3, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated and optimized. Optimum growing conditions for B. pumilus D3 in terms of protease production were determined as 1% optimum inoculum size, 35?C temperature, 11 pH and 48?h incubation time, respectively. Stability studies indicated that the mentioned protease was stable within the pH range of 7-10.5 and between 30?C and 40?C temperatures. Surprisingly, the activity of the enzyme increased in the presence of SDS with concentration up to 5?mM. The protease was concentrated 1.6-fold with ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. At least six protein bands were obtained from dialysate by electrophoresis. Four clear protein bands with caseinolytic activity were detected by zymography. Dialysate was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography and the caseinolytic active fraction showed a single band between 29 and 36?kDa of reducing conditions. PMID:23638694

Ozelik, Burin; Aytar, P?nar; Gedikli, Serap; Yard?mc?, Ezgi; Cal??kan, Figen; Cabuk, Ahmet

2013-05-01

84

Bacillus pumilus of Palk Bay origin inhibits quorum-sensing-mediated virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to inhibit quoring-sensing(QS)-mediated virulence factors of representative Gram-negative bacteria by marine bacterial isolates. Bacteria isolated from Palk Bay sediments were screened for anti-QS activity. Eleven strains inhibited QS signals in Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and C. violaceum CV026. The marine bacterial strain S8-07 reduced the accumulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) and showed significant inhibition of LasA protease(76%), LasB elastase(84%), caseinase(70%), pyocyanin (84%), pyoverdin and biofilm formation(87%) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain S8-07 also showed highly significant reduction (90%) in prodigiosin, secreted casienase (92%), hemolytic activity (73%) and biofilm formation (61%) in Serratia marcescens. Strain S8-07, identified as Bacillus pumilus (accession number FJ584416), showed distinct profiles of inhibition against the virulence factors of both P. aeruginosa PAO1 (las, rhl) and S. marcescens (shl). Polar extraction and proteinase K treatment of the culture supernatant confirmed that the anti-QS activity of S8-07 was indeed due to a protein molecule. Acidification assay and HPLC analysis revealed that the degradation of AHL was not due to lactonase activity, but rather, was due to acylase activity of S8-07. Thus, novel anti-QS acylase activity is reported for the first time from a B. pumilus strain of marine origin. PMID:20381609

Nithya, Chari; Aravindraja, Chairman; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2010-04-08

85

A Novel Serine Metallokeratinase from a Newly Isolated Bacillus pumilus A1 Grown on Chicken Feather Meal: Biochemical and Molecular Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keratinolytic enzyme (KerA1) secreted by a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus strain A1 cultivated in medium containing chicken feather meal was purified and characterized, and the gene was isolated\\u000a and sequenced. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 34,000Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The optimum pH and temperature for

Nahed Fakhfakh-Zouari; Noomen Hmidet; Anissa Haddar; Safia Kanoun; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

86

Total solubilisation of the chicken feathers by fermentation with a keratinolytic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus A1, and the production of protein hydrolysate with high antioxidative activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feather protein hydrolysate was effectively produced using the keratinolytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain A1. In fact, complete feather degradation was achieved in medium containing up to 50g\\/l of raw feathers. Cultivation of 50g\\/l of feathers for two days, at 45C and at initial pH of 10.0, resulted in maximum production of amino acids and peptides (42.4g\\/l). The feather protein

Nahed Fakhfakh; Naourez Ktari; Anissa Haddar; Ibtissem Hamza Mnif; Ines Dahmen; Moncef Nasri

2011-01-01

87

?-Glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS 12: decoupling autoprocessing from catalysis and molecular characterization of N-terminal region.  

PubMed

Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 (GGTBP) was cloned, expressed in pET-28-E. coli expression system as a heterodimeric enzyme with molecular weights of 45 and 20 kDa for large and small subunit, respectively. It was purified by nickel affinity chromatography with hydrolytic and transpeptidase activity of 1.82 U/mg and 4.35 U/mg, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that GGTBP was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis GGT and had all the catalytic residues and nucleophiles for autoprocessing recognized from E. coli. It was optimally active at pH 8 and 60C. It exhibited pH stability from pH 6-9 and high thermostability with t(1/2) of 15 min at 70C. It had K(m), V(max) of 0.045 mM, 4.35 ?mol/mg/min, respectively. Decoupling of autoprocessing by co-expressing large and small subunit in pET-Duet1-E. coli expression system yielded active enzyme with transpeptidase activity of 5.31 U/mg. Though N-terminal truncations of rGGTBP upto 95 aa did not affect autoprocessing of GGT however activity was lost with truncation beyond 63 aa. PMID:22305170

Murty, N Apurva Ratan; Tiwary, Ekta; Sharma, Richa; Nair, Neha; Gupta, Rani

2011-09-01

88

Molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of dehairing Mn(2+) dependent alkaline serine protease (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55.  

PubMed

Leather industries release a large amount of pollution-causing chemicals which creates one of the major industrial pollutions. The development of enzyme based processes as a potent alternative to pollution-causing chemicals is useful to overcome this issue. Proteases are enzymes which have extensive applications in leather processing and in several bioremediation processes due to their high alkaline protease activity and dehairing efficacy. In the present study, we report cloning, characterization of a Mn2+ dependent alkaline serine protease gene (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55. The gene encoding the protease from B. pumilus TMS55 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. Our analysis showed that this polypeptide is composed of 29 residues N-terminal signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids. We performed bioinformatics analysis to compare MASPT enzyme with other proteases. Homology modeling was employed to model three dimensional structure for MASPT. Structural analysis showed that MASPT structure is composed of nine ?-helices and nine ?-strands. It has 3 catalytic residues and 14 metal binding residues. Docking analysis showed that residues S223, A260, N263, T328 and S329 interact with Mn2+. This study allows initial inferences about the structure of the protease and will allow the rational design of its derivatives for structure-function studies and also for further improvement of the enzyme. PMID:21592076

Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2011-10-01

89

Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.

Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

2012-01-01

90

Characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease from an alkaliphilic strain Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 and its applications.  

PubMed

This study describes the characterization and optimization of medium components for an extracellular detergent, surfactant, organic solvent and thermostable serine alkaline protease produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 strain isolated from Pulicat lake sediments, Tamil Nadu, India. The strain yielded maximum protease (2,214 U/ml) under optimized conditions: carbon source, citric acid-1.5 % (w/w); inducer, soyabean meal-2 % (w/w); pH 11.0; shaking condition 37 C for 48 h. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima of 9.0 and 60 C, respectively. The enzyme displayed the molecular mass of 36 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis study and exhibited activity at a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0) and thermostability (20-70 C). More than 70 % residual activity was observed when the enzyme was incubated with dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and H(2)O(2) for 30 min. The protease activity was also enhanced by divalent cations such as Ba(2+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and was strongly inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Sr(2+), Hg(2+) and urea. The enzyme retained more than 50 % of its initial activity after pre-incubation for 1 h in the presence of 5 % (v/v) organic solvents such as dimethyl sulphoxide and acetone. The protease could hydrolyse various native proteinaceous substrates (1 % w/v) such as bovine serum albumin, casein, skim milk, gelatine, azocasein and haemoglobin. Wash performance analysis of enzyme revealed that it could effectively remove blood stains from the cotton fabric, thus making it suitable to use as an effective detergent additive. The protease enzyme also exhibited promising result in the dehairing of goat skin. The potency of the eco-friendly enzyme without using any chemicals against washing and dehairing showed that the enzyme could be used for various industrial applications. PMID:23076563

Jayakumar, Renganathan; Jayashree, Shanmugam; Annapurna, Balumuri; Seshadri, Sundaram

2012-10-18

91

Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate produced by marine Bacillus pumilus MB 40.  

PubMed

Marine microorganisms represent a potential source for the production of biomedically useful compounds active against inflammation, cancer, diabetes, etc. Marine Bacillus pumilus MB 40 (GenBank accession no. HQ705771) isolated from deep sea water column (1000m depth) near Andaman and Nicobar islands produced a bioactive lead, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) with a molecular formula of C(6)H(4)(CO(2)C(8)H(17))(2) and a molecular ion at m/z 391 (M(+)). Anti proliferative effect of the isolated compound was examined by MTT assay in human erythroleukemic K562 cells and the IC(50) of BEHP was found to be 21?M. BEHP was able to induce apoptosis involving caspases pathway, besides regulating mitochondrial enzymes. Further, western blot analysis revealed the activation of caspases family proteins viz., caspase 8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. An increase in the expression of Bax mRNA concomitant with a decrease in mRNA of Bcl-2 in BEHP treated K562 cells was also observed. AO/EB staining of BEHP treated K562 cells further confirmed the progression of apoptosis as evidenced by morphological changes including nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Treatment of K562 cells with BEHP induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time dependent manner. This pattern appeared as a typical laddering distribution of DNA fragmentation due to intranucleosomal cleavage associated with apoptosis. Based on flow cytometric analysis it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at a sub G0/G1 phase. PMID:22155658

Moushumi Priya, A; Jayachandran, S

2011-12-03

92

Purification and mode of action of an alkali-resistant endo-1, 4-beta-glucanase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Alkaline endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase was secreted by Bacillus pumilus grown in submerged culture on a combination of oat spelt xylan and corn starch as carbon sources. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl S-200 and Q-Sepharose column chromatography. The protein corresponded to molecular mass and pI values of 67 kDa and 3.7, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0-8.0 and 60 degrees C and retained 50% of its optimum activity at pH 12. The most notable characteristic of the endoglucanase was its high stability up to pH 12 for 20 h at 30 degrees C. The enzyme hydrolyzed carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and cello-oligosaccharides but was inactive on cellobiose, cellotriose, Avicel, xylan, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucoside, 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-cellobioside, and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-d-xyloside. Analysis of reaction mixtures by HPLC revealed that the enzyme produced almost exclusively cellotriose when acted on CMC and appeared to hydrolyze cello-oligosaccharides by successively releasing cellotriose. The use of 4-methylumbelliferyl cello-oligosaccharides and the determination of bond cleavage frequency revealed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed the third glycosidic bond adjacent to the glycon. The enzyme mediated a decrease in the viscosity of CMC associated with a release of only small amounts of reducing sugar. The enzyme activity was not inhibited by metal ions, surfactants, and chelating agents used as components of laundry detergents. PMID:10087165

Christakopoulos, P; Hatzinikolaou, D G; Fountoukidis, G; Kekos, D; Claeyssens, M; Macris, B J

1999-04-01

93

Cyclic lipopeptide profile of the plant-beneficial endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis HC8.  

PubMed

In a previous study (Malfanova et al. in Microbial Biotech 4:523-532, 2011), we described the isolation and partial characterization of the biocontrol endophytic bacterium B. subtilis HC8. Using thin-layer chromatography, we have detected several bioactive antifungal compounds in the methanolic extract from the acid-precipitated supernatant of HC8. In the present study, we have further analyzed this methanolic extract using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the comparison of retention times and molecular masses with those of known antifungal compounds, we identified three families of lipopeptide antibiotics. These include four iturins A having fatty acyl chain lengths of C14 to C17, eight fengycins A (from C14 to C18 and from C15 to C17 containing a double bond in the acyl chain), four fengycins B (C15 to C18), and five surfactins (C12 to C16). Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the isolated lipopeptides showed that fengycins are the most active ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endophytic Bacillus subtilis producing all three major families of lipopeptide antibiotics containing a very heterogeneous mixture of homologues. The questions remain open which of these lipopeptides (1) are being produced during interaction with the plant and (2) are contributing to the biocontrol activity of HC8. PMID:22648052

Malfanova, Natalia; Franzil, Laurent; Lugtenberg, Ben; Chebotar, Vladimir; Ongena, Marc

2012-05-31

94

Endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia L.  

PubMed

The endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis strain GXJM08, isolated from roots of Podocarpus imbricatus B1. Enum. P1. Jav., in roots of the leguminous plant Robinia pseudoacacia L. was investigated. Ultrastructure observations showed that B.subtilis caused morphological changes in the root hair and colonised the plant through infected root hairs. The structure of the infection thread was similar to that of rhizobia, but the structure of infected cells was different. B.subtilis is also different from rhizobia and plant pathogens in terms of the formation of a peribacteroid membrane and the mode of penetration through the host cell wall. Our results provide a basis for studying development of the mutualistic symbiotic relationship between B.subtilis and plants, and a basis for studying the mechanism of the B.subtilis-plant interaction. PMID:21972966

Huang, B; Lv, C; Zhuang, P; Zhang, H; Fan, L

2011-03-08

95

Bacillus graminis sp. nov., an endophyte isolated from a coastal dune plant.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive endophytic bacterium, designated strain YC6957(T), was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of a halophyte (Elymus mollis Trin.) inhabiting coastal tidal flats of Namhae Island, located on the southern coast of Korea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods to coccoid rods, motile by a single flagellum. Strain YC6957(T) was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and able to grow in the presence of 0-8?% (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 4-5?% (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 15-45 C (optimal growth at 30-35 C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16?:?0) (11.3?%), iso-C(15?:?0) (19.2?%) and anteiso-C(15?:?0) (36.4?%). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus. Strain YC6957(T) exhibited high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest neighbours, Bacillus ruris LMG 22866(T) (96.14?%), Bacillus lentus NCIMB 8773(T) (95.97?%) and Bacillus galactosidilyticus LMG 17892(T) (95.91?%), and less than 95.84?% similarity to all other type strains in the genus Bacillus. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, it is suggested that strain YC6957(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus graminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6957(T) (?=?KACC 13779(T) ?=?DSM 22162(T)). PMID:20656804

Bibi, Fehmida; Chung, Eu Jin; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2010-07-23

96

Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.  

PubMed

Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings/plantlets production systems was discussed. PMID:23212670

Leite, Hianna Almeida Cmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fbio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, Jos Cludio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

2012-12-05

97

A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.  

PubMed

According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2013-01-01

98

Isolation and characterization of a co-producer of fengycinsand surfactins, endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES2, from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endophytic bacterium was isolated from Chinese medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The phylogenetic and physiological characzterization indicated that the isolate, strain ES-2, was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, which produced two families of secondary metabolites with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities. Culture filtrate of ES-2 displayed antagonism against some phytopathogenic, food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi owing to the existence of

Lijun Sun; Zhaoxin Lu; Xiaomei Bie; Fengxia Lu; Shengyuan Yang

2006-01-01

99

A marked enhancement in the production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 in submerged fermentation by using statistical methods.  

PubMed

The production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase of Bacillus pumilus was optimized in submerged fermentation using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Three fermentation variables (C:N ratio, K(2)HPO(4), and pH), which were identified to significantly affect pectinase production by Plackett-Burman design were further optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design (CCD). An over all 34- and 41-fold increase in enzyme production was achieved in shake flasks and lab fermenter by the optimization of variables using statistical approaches, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C, and selectively degraded only the noncellulosic gummy material of ramie (Boehmeria nivea) fibres causing 10.96% fibre weight loss, and therefore, the enzyme could find application in fibre processing industry. The use of the enzyme in fibre processing reduces the use of alkali, and the associated alkalinization of water bodies. PMID:15936940

Sharma, D C; Satyanarayana, T

2005-06-04

100

Toxic Bacillus pumilus from indoor air, recycled paper pulp, Norway spruce, food poisoning outbreaks and clinical samples.  

PubMed

Forty-four B. pumilus isolates of food poisoning, clinical, environmental and industrial origins were investigated for toxin production using the boar spermatozoan motility assay, previously shown to be a sensitive method for detecting non-protein toxins from B. cereus and B. licheniformis. The three toxic isolates originated from live tree, indoor air and recycled paper pulp and were more toxic than the previously described food poisoning isolates of B. licheniformis, whereas the B. pumilus food poisoning and clinical isolates were lower in toxicity. The type strain also produced inhibitory substances. The toxic substances were insensitive to heat (100 degrees C, 20 min), to pH 2 or pH 10 and to digestion with pronase. The substances were readily soluble in methanol and chloroform, but less soluble in toluene. Exposure of boar spermatozoa to 1-10 microg ml(-1) (EC50) of methanol soluble substance from the four strains disrupted the plasma membrane permeability barrier, induced abnormalities in the postacrosomal sheath, collapsed the mitochondrial and suppressed cytoplasmic NAD reduction. No change was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to concentrations of B. pumilus extract that affected spermatozoa. The toxin producing isolates were 99.4 to 99.6% similar in 16SrDNA (500 bp) to the type strain and could not be distinguished from the 41 non-toxic isolates by biochemical properties or whole cell fatty acid composition. PMID:11518331

Suominen, I; Andersson, M A; Andersson, M C; Hallaksela, A M; Kmpfer, P; Rainey, F A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

2001-07-01

101

Identification and characterization of the endophytic plant growth prompter Bacillus Cereus strain mq23 isolated from Sophora Alopecuroides root nodules  

PubMed Central

Endophytes MQ23 and MQ23R isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules were characterized by observing their ability to promote plant growth and employing molecular analysis techniques. Results showed that MQ23 and MQ23R are potential N2-fixing endophytes and belong to the same species as Bacillus cereus. MQ23 was shown to be able to produce siderophores, IAA, and demonstrate certain antifungal activity to plant pathogenic fungi. Co-inoculation with MQ23+MQ23II showed a more significant effect than inoculation alone in vitro for most of positive actions suggesting they have a cooperative interaction. Results of plant inoculation with endophytes indicated that the growth indexes of co-inoculated MQ23+MQ23II were higher than those of inoculated alone (p<0.05) (the exception being for root fresh weight) when compared to negative control. There have been little of any studies of nonrhizobial putative endophytes with growth-promotion attributes in S. alopecuroides root nodules. This could be exploited as potential bio-inoculants and biocontrol agents in agriculture.

Zhao, Longfei; Xu, Yajun; Sun, Ran; Deng, Zhenshan; Yang, Wenquan; Wei, Gehong

2011-01-01

102

Isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species  

PubMed Central

Background: Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species. Objective: This study was undertaken to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria associated with agarwood-producing seven (7) Aquilaria species from Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Botanical samples of seven Aquilaria species were collected, and endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized-tissue samples. The 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using PCR method, and endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity based method. Results: Culturable, 77 EBIs were analyzed, and results of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis suggest that 18 different types of endophytic bacteria are associated with (seven) Aquilaria species. From 77 EBIs, majority (36.4%) of the isolates were of Bacillus pumilus. Conclusion: These findings indicate that agarwood-producing Aquilaria species are harboring 18 different types of culturable endophytic bacteria.

Bhore, Subhash J.; Preveena, Jagadesan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

2013-01-01

103

Enhancement of heavy metal phytoremediation by Alnus firma with endophytic Bacillus thuringiensis GDB-1.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation shows potential for remediating mine tailing sites contaminated with heavy metals. Our aim was to isolate, characterize, and assess the potential of endophytic bacteria to enhance growth and metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator Alnus firma. A bacterial strain isolated from roots of Pinus sylvestris had the capacity to remove heavy metals from mine tailing and was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis GDB-1 based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. GDB-1 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, and P solubilization. The efficiency of GDB-1 to remove heavy metals was influenced by pH and initial metal concentration. Removal capacity (mg/l) was 77% for Pb (100), 64% for Zn (50), 34% for As (50), 9% for Cd (10), 8% for Cu (10), and 8% for Ni (10) during the active growth cycle in heavy metal-amended, mine tailing extract medium. Inoculating soil with GDB-1 significantly increased biomass, chlorophyll content, nodule number, and heavy metal (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) accumulation in A. firma seedlings. Results indicate that inoculating the native plant A. firma with B. thuringiensis GDB-1 improves its efficiency for phytoremediation of soil containing mine tailings contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23500429

Babu, A Giridhar; Kim, Jong-Dae; Oh, Byung-Taek

2013-02-18

104

Development of a high-efficient transformation system of Bacillus pumilus strain DX01 to facilitate gene isolation via gfp-tagged insertional mutagenesis and visualize bacterial colonization of rice roots.  

PubMed

A Tn5 transposition vector, pMOD-tet-egfp, was constructed and used for the random insertional mutagenesis of Bacillus pumilus. Various parameters were investigated to increase the transformation efficiency B. pumilus DX01 via Tn5 transposition complexes (transposome): bacterial growth phase, type of electroporation buffer, electric field strength, and recovery medium. Transformation efficiency was up to 3 10(4)?transformants/?g of DNA under the optimized electroporation conditions, and a total of 1,467 gfp-tagged transformants were obtained. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that all gfp-tagged bacterial cells expressed GFP, indicating that foreign DNA has been successfully integrated into the genome of B. pumilus and expressed. Finally, flanking DNA sequences were isolated from several transformants and colonization of rice roots by B. pumilus DX01 was also studied. The method developed here will be useful for creating an insertion mutant library of gram-positive bacteria, thus facilitating their molecular genetic and cytological studies. PMID:23334949

Shen, Xinqian; Chen, Yunpeng; Liu, Tong; Hu, Xiaolu; Gu, Zhenfang

2013-01-22

105

The overexpression of the SAPB of Bacillus pumilus CBS and mutated sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y alkaline proteases in Bacillus subtilis DB430: new attractive properties for the mutant enzyme.  

PubMed

The sapB gene encoding for Bacillus pumilus CBS protease (SAPB) and the triple mutated sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y gene were cloned and overexpressed in the protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 using an Escherichia coli-Bacillus shuttle vector pBSMuL2. The 34,625.13 and 34,675.11-Da enzymes were purified from the culture supernatant of B. subtilis expressing the wild-type and mutated genes, respectively. The purified proteases showed the same N-terminal sequences and biochemical properties of those expressed in E. coli. Further investigations demonstrated that, compared to wild-type and other proteases, SAPB-L31I/T33S/N99Y had the highest catalytic efficiency and the best degree of hydrolysis. The mutant enzyme was also noted to exhibit a number of newly explored properties that are highly valued in the marketplace, namely considerable stability to detergents, higher resistance towards organic solvents, and potent dehairing ability. Overall, the findings indicated that SAPB-L31I/T33S/N99Y is a promising candidate for future use in a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. PMID:22178490

Jaouadi, Nadia Zara; Jaouadi, Bassem; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

2011-12-03

106

Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 181), Mg2+ (1051 160), Ca2+ (832 125), and K+ (261 29), and the anions SO42-(5911993), ClO4-(53161767), Cl(17125) and F- (2.0 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773113) and NO2-(6.92.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to 5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative forward contaminants such as B. subtilis and B. pumilus under Earth laboratory conditions.

Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

2012-08-01

107

Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

108

Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

109

Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.  

PubMed

Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits. PMID:22814497

Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

2012-09-01

110

Optimization of microwave-assisted FeCl3 pretreatment conditions of rice straw and utilization of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus for production of reducing sugars.  

PubMed

In this study, Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment conditions of rice straw with respect to FeCl(3) concentration, microwave intensity, irradiation time and substrate concentration. When rice straw was pretreated at the optimal conditions of FeCl(3) concentration, 0.14 mol/L; microwave intensity, 160C; irradiation time, 19 min; substrate concentration, 109 g/L; and inoculated with Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus, the production of reducing sugars was 6.62 g/L. This yield was 2.9 times higher than that obtained with untreated rice straw. The microorganisms degraded 37.8% of pretreated rice straw after 72 h. The structural characteristic analyses suggest that microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment damaged the silicified waxy surface of rice straw, disrupted almost all the ether linkages between lignin and carbohydrates, and removed lignin. PMID:21561766

L, Jiliang; Zhou, Peijiang

2011-04-21

111

Endophytic Bacteria Improve Seedling Growth of Sunflower Under Water Stress, Produce Salicylic Acid, and Inhibit Growth of Pathogenic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacterxylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacilluspumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria\\u000a (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated\\u000a under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid

Gabriela Forchetti; Oscar Masciarelli; Mara J. Izaguirre; Sergio Alemano; Daniel Alvarez; Guillermina Abdala

2010-01-01

112

Purification and Mode of Action of an Alkali-Resistant Endo-1,4-?-glucanase from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline endo-1,4-?-d-glucanase was secreted byBacillus pumilusgrown in submerged culture on a combination of oat spelt xylan and corn starch as carbon sources. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl S-200 and Q-Sepharose column chromatography. The protein corresponded to molecular mass and pIvalues of 67 kDa and 3.7, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.08.0 and 60C and

Paul Christakopoulos; Dimitris G. Hatzinikolaou; George Fountoukidis; Dimitris Kekos; Marc Claeyssens; Basil J. Macris

1999-01-01

113

Lipopeptides from the Banyan Endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Library of Fengycins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometric analysis of a banyan endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1, extract showing broad spectrum antifungal activity revealed a complex mixture of lipopeptides, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins. Fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) facilitated a detailed analysis of fengycin microheterogeneity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric studies permitted the identification of several new fengycin variants. Four major sites of heterogeneity are identified: (1) N-terminus ?-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, where chain length variation and the presence of unsaturation occur, (2) position 6 (Ala/Val/Ile/Leu), (3) position 10 (Val/Ile) within the macrocyclic ring, and (4) Gln to Glu replacement at position 8, resulting in fengycin variants that differ in mass by 1 Da. Diagnostic fragment ions provide a quick method for localizing the sites of variation in the macrocycle or the linear segment. Subsequent establishment of the sequences is achieved by MS/MS analysis of linear fengycin species produced by hydrolysis of the macrocyclic lactone. Unsaturation in the fatty acid chain and the presence of linear precursors in the B. subtilis K1 extract are also established by mass spectrometry. The anomalous distribution of intensities within isotopic multiplets is a diagnostic for Gln/Glu replacements. High resolution mass spectrometry facilitates the identification of fengycin species differing by 1 Da by localizing the variable position (Gln8/Glu8) in the fengycin variants.

Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Haresh; Gupta, Kallol; Thakur, Suman S.; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2012-10-01

114

Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres  

PubMed Central

The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 11.8?Ug?1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1?:?1?:?0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1?:?2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24?h old inoculum, in 144?h at 40C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres.

Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

2012-01-01

115

Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants. PMID:22133352

Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

2011-11-09

116

Expression of the genes for guanyl-specific ribonucleases from Bacillus intermedius and Bacillus pumilus is regulated by the two component signal transduction system PhoP-PhoR in B. subtilis.  

PubMed

Promoters of the genes for guanyl-specific ribonucleases, secreted by B. intermedius (binase) and B. pumilus (Rnase Bp) in phosphate deficient conditions, contain regions similar to appropriate consensus sequences in promoters of the PHO regulated genes of B. subtilis. A number of genes expressed in response to phosphate starvation in B. subtilis are regulated by the two component signal transduction system PhoP-PhoR. Expression of recombinant genes for binase and RNase Bp in B. subtilis strains with mutations in the regulatory protein genes of the PHO regulon was studied. Their expression is strongly regulated by the regulatory proteins of the B. subtilis PHO regulon. PMID:10220898

Znamenskaya, L V; Vershinina, O A; Vershinina, V I; Leshchinskaya, I B; Hartley, R W

1999-04-01

117

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus=MTCC 5559) showed 8090% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

118

Investigation of the Molecular Mechanism of Thermal Tolerance in Bacillus Subtilis. Final Report, August 15, 1980-August 14, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have studied Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus caldolyticus to ascertain the molecular mechanism of the ability to growth at high temperatures. B. subtilus wild type strains grow in minimal salts medium at a mesophilic temperature (37 ex...

N. Yamamoto J. Alexander J. Ch'ih

1981-01-01

119

Induction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues Inoculated with Endophytic Bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural level using an in vitro system in which root-inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbacterized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissue including the vascular stele, whereas in prebacterized roots, pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex In these prebacterized roots, typical host reactions included strengthening the epidermal and cortical cell walls and deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. Wall appositions were found to contain large amounts of callose in addition to being infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with the gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged, bacterized roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and the intercellular spaces as well as at the surface or even inside of the invading hyphae of the pathogen. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing bacterized roots was preserved even when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations confirm that endophytic bacteria may function as potential inducers of plant disease resistance.

Benhamou, N.; Kloepper, J. W.; Quadt-Hallman, A.; Tuzun, S.

1996-01-01

120

Induction of defense-related proteins by mixtures of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria against Banana bunchy top virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial isolates from the roots and corms of banana were tested for their biocontrol efficiency against Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Molecular characterization using RAPD and microsatellite markers revealed genomic variability in the endophytic Pseudomonas and Bacillus isolates. Bio-formulations of mixtures of the rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) and endophytic Bacillus spp. (EPB22) were effective in reducing

S. Harish; M. Kavino; N. Kumar; P. Balasubramanian; R. Samiyappan

2009-01-01

121

Bacterial endophytes: Bacillus spp. from annual crops as potential biological control agents of black pod rot of cacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases are the most important factors limiting production of Theobroma cacao in South America. Because of high disease pressure and environmental concerns, biological control is a pertinent area of research for cacao disease management. In this work, we evaluated the ability of four Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable crops, for their ability to colonize T. cacao seedlings and reduce the

Rachel L. Melnick; Nina K. Zidack; Bryan A. Bailey; Siela N. Maximova; Mark Guiltinan; Paul A. Backman

2008-01-01

122

Endophytic bacteria improve seedling growth of sunflower under water stress, produce salicylic acid, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacter xylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid (SA) production by these strains in control medium or at ?a = -2.03 MPa, and to analyze effects of exogenously applied SA, jasmonic acid (JA), bacterial pellets, and bacterial supernatants on growth of pathogenic fungi Alternaria sp., Sclerotinia sp., and Verticillum sp. Growth response to bacterial inoculation was studied in two inbred lines (water stress-sensitive B59 and water stress-tolerant B71) and commercial hybrid Paraiso 24. Under both water stress and normal conditions, plant growth following inoculation was more strongly enhanced for Paraiso 24 and B71 than for B59. All three strains produced SA in control medium; levels for SF3 and SF4 were higher than for SF2. SA production was dramatically higher at ?a = -2.03 MPa. Exogenously applied SA or JA caused a significant reduction of growth for Sclerotinia and a lesser reduction for Alternaria and Verticillum. Fungal growth was more strongly inhibited by bacterial pellets than by bacterial supernatants. Our findings indicate that these endophytic bacteria enhance growth of sunflower seedlings under water stress, produce SA, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi. These characteristics are useful for formulation of inoculants to improve growth and yield of sunflower crops. PMID:20383767

Forchetti, Gabriela; Masciarelli, Oscar; Izaguirre, Mara J; Alemano, Sergio; Alvarez, Daniel; Abdala, Guillermina

2010-04-11

123

Endophytic bacteria in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): isolation, characterization, and production of jasmonates and abscisic acid in culture medium.  

PubMed

This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grown under irrigation and water stress (drought) conditions, to analyze growth of isolated bacteria under drought condition, and to evaluate the ability of bacteria isolated from plants cultivated under drought to produce jasmonates (JAs) and abscisic acid (ABA). Bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected when sunflower plants were at the end of the vegetative stage. A total of 29 endophytic strains were isolated from plants grown under irrigation or drought condition. Eight strains (termed SF1 through SF8) were selected based on nitrogen-fixing ability. All eight strains showed positive catalase and oxidase activities; five strains (SF2, SF3, SF4, SF5, SF7) solubilized phosphates; none of the strains produced siderophores. Strains SF2, SF3, SF4, and SF5, the ones with the highest phosphate solubilization ability, strongly inhibited growth of the pathogenic fungi Verticillum orense and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum but had less inhibitory effect on Alternaria sp. Among the eight strains, SF2 showed 99.9% sequence homology with Achromobacter xiloxidans or Alcaligenes sp., while the other seven showed 99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus. Strains SF2, SF3, and SF4 grown in control medium produced jasmonic acid (JA), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), and ABA. These three strains did not differ in amount of JA or OPDA produced. ABA content was higher than that of JA, and production of both ABA and JA increased under drought condition. The characteristics of these isolated bacterial strains have technological implications for inoculant formulation and improved growth of sunflower crops. PMID:17657487

Forchetti, G; Masciarelli, O; Alemano, S; Alvarez, D; Abdala, G

2007-07-27

124

Endophytic bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.  

PubMed

Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Of these, strain OS-9 was found to be antagonistic to R. solani, A. solani, F. solani, and C. lindemuthianum while OS-11 was found antagonistic against A. solani only. The growth-promoting benefits of the endophytes were initially evaluated in the glasshouse by inoculated seeds of O. sanctum. Treatment with endophytes OS-10 and OS-11 resulted in significant enhancement of growth as revealed by increase in fresh as well as dry weight. Further, field trials involving two genotypes OS Purple and CIM-Angana were conducted with strains OS-10 and OS-11. The growth-promoting effect was visible on both the genotypes tested as the endophytes significantly enhanced fresh herbage yield (t/ha). Interestingly, these endophytes increased the content of essential oil particularly in cultivar OS Purple and thereby increasing the total oil yields. Molecular characterization of strain OS-11 indicated the strain to be highly related to the type strain of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:19826860

Tiwari, Rashmi; Kalra, Alok; Darokar, M P; Chandra, Mahesh; Aggarwal, Nitin; Singh, A K; Khanuja, S P S

2009-10-14

125

Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use  

PubMed Central

Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use.

Duc, Le H.; Hong, Huynh A.; Barbosa, Teresa M.; Henriques, Adriano O.; Cutting, Simon M.

2004-01-01

126

Isolation, Purification and Characterization of a Surfactants, Laundry Detergents- and Organic Solvents-Resistant Alkaline Protease from Bacillus sp. HR08  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus sp. HR-08 screened from soil samples of Iran, is capable of producing proteolytic enzymes. 16S rDNA analysis showed that\\u000a this strain is closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus mojavensis, and Bacillus atrophaeus. The zymogram analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of five extracellular proteases. One of the proteases was\\u000a purified in three steps

Fatemeh Moradian; Khosro Khajeh; Hossein Naderi-Manesh; Majid Sadeghizadeh

2009-01-01

127

Electrotransformation of Bacillus mojavensis with fluorescent protein markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gram-positive endophytic bacteria are difficult to transform. To study endophytic interactions between Bacillus mojavensis and maize, a method was developed to transform this species by electroporation with three fluorescent protein expressing integrative plasmids: pSG1154, pSG1192, and pSG1193. The...

128

Characterization of Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the strains of the Bacillus mojavensis group, Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 (B. mojavensis KJS-3), which has been demonstrated to play a role in protecting plants against diseases as a bacterial endophyte and in\\u000a reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins generated by an endophytic fungus, was recently discovered in food waste. In this\\u000a study, the identification and characterization of B. mojavensis

Sang Mi Choi; Min Hi Park; Tae Sung Jung; Kyung Ho Moon; Kang Min Kim; Jae Seon Kang

2011-01-01

129

Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations.  

PubMed

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in the People's Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations. The pellet formulation significantly reduced disease (incidence and disease index) and increased plant dry mass, while the wrap formulation significantly reduced disease incidence and significantly increased plant dry mass at both field locations. Mean seed yield per 120 plants with both formulations of isolate Tu-100 was significantly greater than the appropriate controls, but at only one of the locations. Both formulations provided stable B.subtilis Tu-100 biomass (?10(5) CFUg(-1)) and seed germination (?85%) over a 6month period at room temperature. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis identified ituC and ituD, and bacAB and bacD in the genome of isolate Tu-100. These genes are involved in the biosynthesis of iturin and bacilysin. Iturin was detected in culture filtrates from isolate Tu-100, with thin layer chromatography. Detection of bacilysin was not attempted. Experiments reported here indicate the commercial viability of B.subtilis Tu-100 for suppression of S.sclerotiorum on oilseed rape. PMID:21767217

Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Maul, Jude E; Emche, Sarah E; Liao, Xing; Guo, Xuelan; Liu, Yeying; McKenna, Laurie F; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Liu, Shengyi

2011-07-18

130

Fungal endophytes of Elymus canadensis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides an isolated culture of a Neotyphodium endophyte of an Elymus canadensis host plant, wherein the endophyte reproduces asexually and enhances the agronomic characteristics of the host plant. Methods for inoculating the host plant with the endophyte, for propagating the host-endophyte combination, and for detecting the presence of the endophyte and of its metabolites within a host plant are also described.

Young; Carolyn (Ardmore, OK); Hopkins; Andy (Ardmore, OK)

2011-02-22

131

TRICHODERMA ENDOPHYTES OF SAPWOOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichoderma endophytes occur in sapwood of trunks of Theobroma spp., Cola spp., Fagus sylvatica, Scalesia pedunculata, and in the woody liana Ancistroderma korupensis. Trichoderma is a genus of soil fungi; thus trunks of trees represent a new niche for soil fungi. Trichoderma endophytes are rare in ...

132

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

133

Paenibacillus a predominant endophytic bacterium colonising tissue cultures of woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High densities of endophytic bacteria were found in plant material from poplar, larch and spruce that had been micropropagated\\u000a for at least 5years. The majority of these bacteria were assigned to the genus Paenibacillus based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Other endophytic bacteria such as Methylobacterium, Stenotrophomonas or Bacillus could also be found but only in some

Kristina Ulrich; Thomas Stauber; Dietrich Ewald

2008-01-01

134

Effects of inoculation with PGPR Bacillus and Pisolithus tinctorius on Pinus pinea L. growth, bacterial rhizosphere colonization, and mycorrhizal infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of co-inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius and a PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis CECT 5106 and Bacillus pumilus CECT 5105) in enhancing growth of Pinus pinea plants and the changes that occurred in rhizosphere microbial communities and the degree of mycorrhization were evaluated.\\u000a Both bacterial strains of Bacillus promote the growth of Pinus pinea seedlings, but

A. Probanza; J. L. Mateos; J. A. Lucas Garcia; B. Ramos; M. R. de Felipe; F. J. Gutierrez Manero

2001-01-01

135

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology and Taxonomy of the Genus Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic relationships among 56 strains of 16 species of the genus Bacillus were studied by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -DNA hybridization. In general, no significant DNA homology was detected between two strains of different species, except for a group of species consisting of B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. lichenifonis, and B. pumilus and for another group of species including B.

TATSUJI SEKI; CHI-KWAN CHUNG; HIDETADA MIKAMI; YASUJI OSHIMA

1978-01-01

136

Fungal endophytes of grasses.  

PubMed

Epichloae endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with temperate grasses and confer on the host a number of bioprotective benefits through production of fungal secondary metabolites and changed host metabolism. Maintenance of this mutualistic interaction requires that growth of the endophyte within the host is restricted. Recent work has shown that epichloae endophytes grow in the leaves by intercalary division and extension rather than tip growth. This novel pattern of growth enables the fungus to synchronise its growth with that of the host. Reactive oxygen species signalling is required to maintain this pattern of growth. Disruption of components of the NADPH oxidase complex or a MAP kinase, result in a switch from restricted to proliferative growth and a breakdown in the symbiosis. RNAseq analysis of mutant and wild-type associations identifies key fungal and plant genes that define the symbiotic state. Endophyte genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are only expressed in the plant and under conditions of restricted growth. PMID:22465162

Tanaka, Aiko; Takemoto, Daigo; Chujo, Tetsuya; Scott, Barry

2012-03-30

137

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in medicinally important Nepenthes species  

PubMed Central

Background: Nepenthes species are used in traditional medicines to treat various health ailments. However, we do not know which types of endophytic bacteria (EB) are associated with Nepenthes spp. Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate and to identify EB associated with Nepenthes spp. Materials and Methods: Surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissues from nine Nepenthes spp. collected from Peninsular Malaysia were used to isolate EB. Isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence similarity based method. Results: Cultivable, 96 isolates were analyzed; and the 16S rDNA sequences analysis suggest that diverse bacterial species are associated with Nepenthes spp. Majority (55.2%) of the isolates were from Bacillus genus, and Bacillus cereus was the most dominant (14.6%) among isolates. Conclusion: Nepenthes spp. do harbor a wide array of cultivable endophytic bacteria.

Bhore, Subhash J.; Komathi, Vijayan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

2013-01-01

138

Comparative assessment of selenite (SeIV) detoxification to elemental selenium (Se0) by Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Exiguobacterium sp., which were resistant up to 20 mg Na(2)SeO(3)/ml in nutrient broth and 40 mg/ml on nutrient agar plates, were isolated from contaminated soil and water. They grew from 25 to 45 degrees C and pH 5 to 9. They had multiple metal and antibiotic resistances. All strains reduced selenite (SeIV) to elemental selenium (Se0) aerobically with a maximum reduction of 97% by B. pumilus after 144 h with Na(2)SeO(3) at 500 microg/ml. PMID:20455073

Ikram, Madiha; Faisal, Muhammad

2010-05-09

139

The role of endophytic bacteria during seed piece decay and potato tuberization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kennebec were found to be internally colonized by non-pathogenic bacterial populations originating from root zone soil. These endophytic bacteria were categorized, on the basis of bioassays, as plant growth promoting (PGP), plant growth retarding (PGR) and plant growth neutral (PGN). Genera isolated from tubers included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Actinomyces and Acinetobacter. The

A. V. Sturz

1995-01-01

140

DETERMINATION OF PHB GROWTH QUANTITIES OF CERTAIN BACILLUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 40 bacteria were isolated from six different soil samples which were taken from grasslands of Ankara in Turkey. As a result of the identification tests, 27 strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. firmus, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis , B. pumilus. PHB was found in all strain. The higest percent yield of PHB was observed

Belma Aslim; Zehra Nur; Yavuz Beyatli

141

The occurrence and taxonomic value of PBS X-like defective phages in the genus Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

72 strains of 24 Bacillus species were induced with mitomycin C. The lysates were examined for the presence of defective phages resembling PBS X in morphology. All strains tested of B. amyloliquefaciens. B, licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. subtilis contained such phages. Five morphological types of defective, PBS X-like phage could be distinguished, differing in their tail lengths and in

H. Y. Steensma; L. A. Robertson; J. D. VAN ELSAS

1978-01-01

142

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

2010-01-01

143

A PCR test to identify Bacillus subtilis and closely related species and its application to the monitoring of wastewater biotreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR test based on the 16S rRNA gene was set up that could identify any of the five species of the 'Bacillus subtilis group' (B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. atrophaeus, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens). The test was directly applicable to single colonies and showed excellent specificity. In the mixed population context of wastewater analysis, direct detection of the

P. Wattiau; M.-E. Renard; P. Ledent; V. Debois; G. Blackman; S. N. Agathos

2001-01-01

144

Bacillus coagulans  

MedlinePLUS

... It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for ... B. Coagulans, Bacillus Bacteria, Bacillus Probiotics, Bactries Bacilles, ... en Forme de Btonnet, Gram Positive Spore-Forming Rod, L. Sporogenes, ...

145

Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control.  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 10(8) conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E

2013-04-11

146

Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms ...  

Treesearch

Title: Endophytic fungal communities of Bromus tectorum: Mutualisms, ... However, its success is likely influenced by a variety of other mechanisms including symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

147

Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)  

PubMed Central

The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talism, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talism cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araujo, Elza Fernandes

2012-01-01

148

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

149

Isolation of micropropagated strawberry endophytic bacteria and assessment of their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristematic tissues of three varieties of strawberry cultivated in vitro,\\u000a and further identified, by FAME profile, into the genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis. The strains were also characterized according to indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and potential for\\u000a plant growth promotion. Results showed that 15 strains produced high levels of IAA and all

Armando C. F. Dias; Francisco E. C. Costa; Fernando D. Andreote; Paulo T. Lacava; Manoel A. Teixeira; Laura C. Assumpo; Welington L. Arajo; Joo L. Azevedo; Itamar S. Melo

2009-01-01

150

Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.  

PubMed Central

Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.60.9??m wide by 1.72.0??m long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic bacterium produced 2.37??Mol/mL of indole acetic acid and siderophore as it metabolites. This strain could solubilize phosphate molecules and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was inoculated into four different plants under in vitro method to analyse its growth-promoting activity and role inside the host plants. The growth of endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants were highly significant than the uninoculated control explants. Root hairs and early root development were observed in the endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants.

Janarthine, S. Rylo Sona; Eganathan, P.

2012-01-01

151

Molecular identification and pectate lyase production by Bacillus strains involved in cocoa fermentation.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the implication of Bacillus in the production of pectinolytic enzymes during cocoa fermentation. The objective of this work was to identify the Bacillus strains isolated from cocoa fermentation and study their ability to produce pectate lyase (PL) in various growth conditions. Ninety-eight strains were analyzed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). Four different banding patterns were obtained leading to the clustering of the bacterial isolates into 4 distinct ARDRA groups. A subset of representative isolates for each group was identified by 16S rRNA gene partial sequencing. Six species were identified: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, together with Bacillus fusiformis which was isolated for the first time from cocoa fermentation. The best PL producers, yielding at least 9 U/mg of bacterial dry weight, belonged to B. fusiformis, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus species while those belonging to B. sphaericus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis generally showed a low level of activity. Two kinds of PL were produced, as revealed by isoelectrofocusing: one with a pI of 9.8 produced by B. subtilis and B. fusiformis, the other with a pI of 10.5 was produced by B. pumilus. Strains yielded about 2 fold more PL in a pectic compound medium than in glucose medium and maximum enzyme production occurred in the late stationary bacterial growth phase. Together all these results indicate that PL production in the bacilli studied is modulated by the growth phase and by the carbon source present in the medium. PMID:21056768

Ouattara, Honor G; Reverchon, Sylvie; Niamke, Sbastien L; Nasser, William

2010-08-14

152

Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.  

PubMed

A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while that of the isolates from nonplant sources were inhibited or unaffected by HTE, suggesting an affinity or dependence of the endophytes on the host and the prospect of an HTE-based assay for discriminating the nonendophytes from endophytes. PMID:19633807

Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

2009-07-25

153

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers.

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

154

Plant-endophyte-herbivore interactions  

PubMed Central

A recent paper by Rasmussen et al., (New Phytol 2007; 173:78797) describes the interactions between Lolium perenne cultivars with contrasting carbohydrate content and the symbiotic fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii at different levels of nitrogen supply. In a subsequent study undertaken by Rasmussen et al., (Plant Physiol 2008; 146:144053) 66 metabolic variables were analysed in the same material, revealing widespread effects of endophyte infection, N supply and cultivar carbohydrate content on both primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we link insect numerical responses to these metabolic responses using multiple regression analysis.

Parsons, Anthony J; Popay, Alison; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

2008-01-01

155

bac genes for recombinant bacilysin and anticapsin production in Bacillus host strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding the biosynthesis of the dipeptide bacilysin and its antibiotic constituent anticapsin were isolated from several strains of Bacillus subtilis as well as B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus. The ywfBCDEF genes of B. subtilis 168 were shown to carry the biosynthetic core functions and were renamed bacABCDE. Mutation of the bacD gene or transformation of the bacABC genes

Gerhard Steinborn; Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei; Jrgen Hofemeister

2005-01-01

156

Endophytes in Forest Management: Four Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In spite of exciting, new research, endophytes remain more of a potentiality than an actuality in forestry. Of many upcoming\\u000a challenges to endophyte applications in forestry, four are discussed in this chapter: (1) the assay-based, selection problem,\\u000a (2) the question of replacement dynamics within complex, endophytic communities, (3) the need to complement the objectives\\u000a of tree improvement programs, and (4)

George Newcombe

157

High energy biofuel from endophytic fungi?  

PubMed

A paper entitled 'The production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072)' (Strobel et al., Microbiology 154, 3319-3328, 2008) demonstrated for the first time that a fungal endophyte can produce volatile hydrocarbons, which are major constituents of diesel fuel. The possible implications of this finding with regards to potential commercial applications and the ecological role of volatiles in endophyte-host relationships are discussed. PMID:19556159

Stadler, Marc; Schulz, Barbara

2009-06-24

158

Interactions among fungal endophytes, grasses and herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two species often depends on the presence or absence of a third species. One widespread three-species\\u000a interaction involves fungal endophytes infecting grasses and the herbivores that feed upon them. The endophytes are allied\\u000a with the fungal family Clavicipitaceae and grow systemically in intercellular spaces in above-ground plant tissues including\\u000a seeds. Like relatedClaviceps species, the endophytes produce a

Keith Clay

1996-01-01

159

Rapid inactivation of seven Bacillus spp. under simulated Mars UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven Bacillus spp. were exposed to simulations of Mars-normal UV fluence rates in order to study the effects of UV irradiation on microbial survival. A UV illumination system was calibrated to deliver 9.78 W m -2 (35.2 kJ m -2 h -1) of UVC + UVB irradiation (200-320 nm) to microbial samples, thus creating a clear-sky simulation (0.5 optical depth) of equatorial Mars. The Bacillus spp. studied were: B. licheniformis KL-196, B. megaterium KL-197, B. nealsonii FO-092, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. subtilis 42HS1, and B. subtilis HA101. The bacteria were prepared as thin monolayers of endospores on aluminum coupons in order to simulate contaminated spacecraft surfaces. Bacterial monolayers were exposed to Mars UV irradiation for time-steps of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. The surviving endospores were then assayed with a Most Probable Numbers (MPN) procedure and with a culture-based assay that utilized a bacillus spore germination medium. Results indicated that B. pumilus SAFR-032 was the most resistant, and B. subtilis 42HS-1 and B. megaterium were the most sensitive of the seven strains exposed to martian UV fluence rates. Bacillus subtilis 42HS1 and B. megaterium were inactivated after 30 min exposure to Mars UV, while B. pumilus SAFR-032 required 180 min for full inactivation in both assays. Spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited significantly different inactivation kinetics suggesting that this wild type isolate also was more resistant than the standard dosimetric strain, B. subtilis HA101. Although the various Bacillus spp. exhibited diverse levels of UV resistance, none were immune to UV irradiation, and, thus, all species would be expected to be inactivated on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces within a few tens-of-minutes to a few hours on sol 1 under clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars. The inactivation kinetics of all seven Bacillus spp. support the conclusion that significant levels of bioload reductions are possible on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces in very short time periods under clear-sky conditions on Mars. However, the presence of UV resistant microbes on spacecraft surfaces rapidly covered in dust during landing operations, and non-Sun-exposed surfaces of spacecraft remain concerns that must continue to be addressed through adequate spacecraft sanitizing procedures prior to launch.

Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeff T.; Newcombe, David A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2006-03-01

160

[Synthesis of extracellular phythohormones by Bacillus strains isolated from different ecological sources].  

PubMed

Synthesis of extracellular phytohormones by bacteria strains of the genus Bacillus isolated from different ecological sources (soil and plant) has been researched. It has been shown that phytohormone's synthesis ability of the endophytic and free-living Bacillus strains is significantly different as regards the level and spectrum of synthesized compounds. It was concluded that such differences in synthesis of extracellular phytohormones by bacilli are associated with different type of interactions between the studied microorganisms and host plant. PMID:23866585

Drahovoz, I V; Leonova, N O; Lapa, S V; Piskova, O V; Kriuchkova, L O; Avdieieva, L V

161

Endophytic bacterial community living in roots of healthy and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'-infected apple (Malus domestica, Borkh.) trees.  

PubMed

'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation (AP) disease, is a quarantine pathogen controlled by chemical treatments against insect vectors and eradication of diseased plants. In accordance with the European Community guidelines, novel strategies should be developed for sustainable management of plant diseases by using resistance inducers (e.g. endophytes). A basic point for the success of this approach is the study of endophytic bacteria associated with plants. In the present work, endophytic bacteria living in healthy and 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali'-infected apple trees were described by cultivation-dependent and independent methods. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed the presence of the groups Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae, and Firmicutes. In detail, library analyses underscored 24 and 17 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in healthy and infected roots, respectively, with a dominance of Betaproteobacteria. Moreover, differences in OTUs number and in CFU/g suggested that phytoplasmas could modify the composition of endophytic bacterial communities associated with infected plants. Intriguingly, the combination of culturing methods and cloning analysis allowed the identification of endophytic bacteria (e.g. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia) that have been reported as biocontrol agents. Future research will investigate the capability of these bacteria to control 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' in order to develop sustainable approaches for managing AP. PMID:22752594

Bulgari, Daniela; Bozkurt, Adem I; Casati, Paola; Ca?layan, Kadriye; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

2012-06-30

162

Diversity of bacterial endophytes in roots of Mexican husk tomato plants (Physalis ixocarpa) and their detection in the rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacterial diversity was estimated in Mexican husk tomato plant roots by amplified rDNA restriction analysis and sequence homology comparison of the 16S rDNA genes. Sixteen operational taxonomic units from the 16S rDNA root library were identified based on sequence analysis, including the classes Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli. The predominant genera were Stenotrophomonas (21.9%), Microbacterium (17.1%), Burkholderia (14.3%), Bacillus (14.3%), and Pseudomonas (10.5%). In a 16S rDNA gene library of the same plant species' rhizosphere, only common soil bacteria, including Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas, were detected. We suggest that the endophytic bacterial diversity within the roots of Mexican husk tomato plants is a subset of the rhizosphere bacterial population, dominated by a few genera. PMID:21157706

Marquez-Santacruz, H A; Hernandez-Leon, R; Orozco-Mosqueda, M C; Velazquez-Sepulveda, I; Santoyo, G

2010-12-07

163

[Study on identification, colonization and reorganization of rice endophytic bacteria].  

PubMed

Endophytic SR-15, SR-25 and SL-37 strains screened from rice hybrid D you 527 in Sichuan were analyzed. Through penetration and microscopic test, the strains were found be mainly located in the cell gap, vacuole and cytoplasm. PUC18 transferring and ERIC-PCR showed that the recombination strain SR-15 could grow in the plant stably. The strain was identified as Bacillus halmapalus based on its chemical components of cell wall, physiological and biochemical characters. It was also shown that the strain was not injurious to rice plant, instead, it promoted rice plant growth by penetration. The Cry1Ac gene was transferred into the stain and verified by Southern analysis. Cry1Ac-transferred SR-15 was toxic to the Chilo suppressalis, brought about death ratio as high as 84.2%. PMID:16416963

Zheng, Ai Ping; Sun, Hui Qing; Li, Ping; Tan, Fu Rong; Zheng, Xiu Li; Li, Zhuang

2005-12-01

164

Endophytic fungi in forest trees: are they mutualists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest trees form symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi which live inside healthy tissues as quiescent microthalli. All forest trees in temperate zones host endophytic fungi. The species diversity of endophyte communities can be high. Some tree species host more than 100 species in one tissue type, but communities are usually dominated by a few host-specific species. The endophyte communities in

Thomas N. Sieber

2007-01-01

165

[Identification and antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites from Taxus endophytic fungus].  

PubMed

We isolated three secondary metabolites by silica gel column chromatography from endophytic fungus 12.3.2 that was isolated from Taxus yunnanensis and could produce taxanes. They were identified as cembrene (3,7,11-trimethyl-14-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,6,10-cyclotetradecatetraene), diisooctyl phthalate (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctylester) and ethyl oleate (9-octadecenoic acid-ethyl ester) by infrared spectra (IR), mass spectra (MS) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were examined. Results show that all of the three compounds could inhibit the growth of those pathogenic bacteria. Especially, cembrene showed stronger inhibition to S. aureus, B. subtilis and C. albicans. This is the first report on cembrene produced by plant endophytic fungus. PMID:19621576

Chen, Shujuan; Liu, Jiajia; Gong, Hanxiang; Yang, Dongliang

2009-03-01

166

Molecular phylogenetic diversity of Bacillus community and its temporal-spatial distribution during the swine manure of composting.  

PubMed

In order to obtain the diversity and temporal-spatial distribution of Bacillus community during the swine manure composting, we utilized traditional culture methods and the modern molecular biology techniques of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and -denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Bacillus species were firstly isolated from the composting. Based on temperature changes, the temporal-spatial characteristics of total culturable Bacillus were remarkable that the number of the culturable Bacillus detected at the high-temperature stage was the highest in each layer of the pile and that detected in the middle layer was the lowest at each stage of composting respectively. The diversity of cultivated Bacillus species isolated from different composting stages was low. A total of 540 isolates were classified by the RFLP method and partial 16S rDNA sequences. They affiliated to eight species including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus circulans. The predominant species was B. subtilis, and the diversity of culturable Bacillus isolated in the middle-level samples at temperature rising and cooling stages was the highest. The DGGE profile and clone library analysis revealed that the temporal-spatial distribution of Bacillus community was not obvious, species belonging to the Bacillus were dominant (67%) with unculturable bacteria and B. cereus was the second major culturable Bacillus species. This study indicated that a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches could be very useful for monitoring the diversity and temporal-spatial distribution of Bacillus community during the composting process. PMID:21701982

Yi, Jing; Wu, Hua-Yu; Wu, Jian; Deng, Chang-Yan; Zheng, Rong; Chao, Zhe

2011-06-24

167

Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).  

PubMed

The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talism, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10(2) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU g(-1) of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talism cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Arajo, Elza Fernandes

2012-06-01

168

Endophytic microbial diversity in coffee cherries of Coffea arabica from southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The microbiota associated with coffee plants may play a critical role in the final expression of coffee quality. However, the microbial diversity in coffee cherries is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in cherries of Coffea arabica by using culture-independent approaches to identify the associated microbes, ultimately to better understand their ecology and potential role in determining coffee quality. Group-specific 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA genes polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library sequencing showed that the endophytic community is composed of members of the 3 domains of life. Bacterial sequences showing high similarity with cultured and uncultured bacteria belonged to the Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. Phylogenetic analyses of cloned sequences from Firmicutes revealed that most sequences fell into 3 major genera: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Paenibacillus. Archaeal sequences revealed the presence of operational taxonomic units belonging to Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla. Sequences from endophytic yeast were not recovered, but various distinct sequences showing high identity with filamentous fungi were found. There was no obvious correlation between the microbial composition and cultivar or geographic location of the coffee plant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating internal tissue colonization of plant fruits by members of the Archaea domain. The finding of archaeal small-subunit rRNA in coffee cherries, although not sufficient to indicate their role as active endophytes, certainly expands our perspectives toward considering members of this domain as potential endophytic microbes. PMID:23586745

Oliveira, Marcelo N V; Santos, Thiago M A; Vale, Helson M M; Delvaux, Jlio C; Cordero, Alexander P; Ferreira, Alessandra B; Miguel, Paulo S B; Ttola, Marcos R; Costa, Maurcio D; Moraes, Clia A; Borges, Arnaldo C

2013-01-22

169

Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized. PMID:23648849

Yan, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Han, Bei-Zhong; Han, Jian-Shu; Nout, M J Robert; Chen, Jing-Yu

2013-05-01

170

[Diversity of endophytic fungi from Cistanche deserticola].  

PubMed

To study the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Cistanche deserticola, samples were collected from two planting bases in Inner Mongolia and Ningxia autonomous regions separately in spring and autumn. As a result, 618 strains of endophytic fungi had been isolated from samples. It was identified that 453 of the strains which accounted for 73.30% were spore strains, respectively belonging to 24 genera, and Fusarium (25.89%) and Acremonium (16.99%) were determined as dominant species. Number and species of endophytic fungi from C. deserticola showed a great diversity, and the differences of parts, localities and seasons were demonstrated. PMID:21657067

Yu, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xia; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Tongning

2011-03-01

171

Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma rays, converted X rays (bremsstrahlung) and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1 % glycerin on glass fiber filters. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased.

Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-10-01

172

Molecular detection of a bacterial contaminant Bacillus pumilus in symptomless potato plant tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aberrant random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker in genomic DNA of tissue culture plantlets was frequently observed during a comparison of DNA fingerprints derived from potato germplasm grown in tissue culture and the field. The RAPD marker was cloned, sequenced and determined to be of bacterial origin. A bacterial contaminant was isolated from the tissue culture plants and identified

D. A. Isenegger; P. W. J. Taylor; K. Mullins; G. R. McGregor; M. Barlass; J. F. Hutchinson

2003-01-01

173

An enrichment isolation procedure for minor Bacillus populations.  

PubMed

In general, spores of B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. Sphaericus and B. subtilis strains germinated uniformly within a short time of incubation in a germination medium. In contrast, spores of B, circulans, B. brevis, B. laterosporus, B. pulvifaciens, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis and B. coagulans strains were usually slow and/or uneven germinators under the same conditions of incubation. The former group of Bacillus strains occur frequently in soils as the predominant population and the latter group of Bacillus species are found in many cases as minor populations. The minor populations of Bacillus were isolated with difficulty by the standard dilution-plate technique, but could easily be enriched by treating the soil sample in a germination medium for 2 to 3 hours at 30 to 35 degrees C, followed by heating it at 65 degrees C for 10 minutes ("minor-shifted isolation"). Using this technique, the minor Bacillus strains could be isolated from samples containing 100- to 1,000-fold more of the rapid germinators of Bacillus. PMID:7096200

Wakisaka, Y; Koizumi, K

1982-04-01

174

Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal parts of Aquilaria sinensis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi from the stem tissue which can produce fragrant ingredients in Aquilaria sinensis (also called agarwood) to determine their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-eight fungal endophytes were isolated from agarwood by strict sterile sample preparation and were classified into 14 genera and 4 taxonomic classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, and Zygomycetes) based on molecular identification. Of the 28 isolates, 13 (46.4%) showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains by the agar well diffusion method, and 23 isolates (82.1%) displayed antitumor activity against at least one of five cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The diameters of inhibition zones of YNAS07, YNAS14, HNAS04, HNAS05, HNAS08, and HNAS11 were equal to or higher than 14.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and B. subtilis, respectively. The inhibition rates of YNAS06, YNAS08, and HNAS06 were not less than 60% to 293-T, 293-T, and SKVO3 cells, respectively. These results suggest that the endophytic fungi associated with agarwood will provide us with not only useful micro-ecological information, but also potential antimicrobial and antitumor agents. PMID:21528493

Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Xiao, Pei-gen

2011-05-01

175

Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal parts of Aquilaria sinensis *  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi from the stem tissue which can produce fragrant ingredients in Aquilaria sinensis (also called agarwood) to determine their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-eight fungal endophytes were isolated from agarwood by strict sterile sample preparation and were classified into 14 genera and 4 taxonomic classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, and Zygomycetes) based on molecular identification. Of the 28 isolates, 13 (46.4%) showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains by the agar well diffusion method, and 23 isolates (82.1%) displayed antitumor activity against at least one of five cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The diameters of inhibition zones of YNAS07, YNAS14, HNAS04, HNAS05, HNAS08, and HNAS11 were equal to or higher than 14.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and B. subtilis, respectively. The inhibition rates of YNAS06, YNAS08, and HNAS06 were not less than 60% to 293-T, 293-T, and SKVO3 cells, respectively. These results suggest that the endophytic fungi associated with agarwood will provide us with not only useful micro-ecological information, but also potential antimicrobial and antitumor agents.

Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Xiao, Pei-gen

2011-01-01

176

Novel Natural Products From Rainforest Endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic microorganisms are found in virtually every higher plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues\\u000a of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to pathogenic. Endophytes may contribute\\u000a to their host plant by producing a plethora of substances that provide protection and survival value to the plant. Ultimately,\\u000a these compounds,

Gary Strobel; Bryn Daisy; Uvidelio Castillo

177

Anti Candida metabolites from endophytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged cultures of some 1500 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota isolated from their fruit-bodies or as soil-borne, coprophilous or endophytic fungi were screened for activity against Candida albicans and a range of other pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. Considerably more Ascomycota (1116%) than Basidiomycota (3.5%) produced metabolites with activity against C. albicans. From five species of endophytes, six bioactive compounds were isolated and

Roland W. S. Weber; Reinhard Kappe; Thomas Paululat; Eva Msker; Heidrun Anke

2007-01-01

178

Examining endophyte interactions within fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cryptic endophyte consortia associated with embryonic tissues of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) are believed to serve mutualistic functions. However, the complexity of these endophyte communities makes cause-and-effect relationships difficult to establish. In fourwing saltbush, cryptic endo...

179

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence of fungal endophyte: (1) Prepare...contain fungal endophyte: (1) Select seeds at random and germinate. (2) Examine seedlings from the sample germinated...

2010-01-01

180

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence of fungal endophyte: (1) Prepare...contain fungal endophyte: (1) Select seeds at random and germinate. (2) Examine seedlings from the sample germinated...

2009-01-01

181

Bioactive Endophytes Warrant Intensified Exploration and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Background A key argument in favor of conserving biodiversity is that as yet undiscovered biodiversity will yield products of great use to humans. However, the link between undiscovered biodiversity and useful products is largely conjectural. Here we provide direct evidence from bioassays of endophytes isolated from tropical plants and bioinformatic analyses that novel biology will indeed yield novel chemistry of potential value. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated and cultured 135 endophytic fungi and bacteria from plants collected in Peru. nrDNAs were compared to samples deposited in GenBank to ascertain the genetic novelty of cultured specimens. Ten endophytes were found to be as much as 1530% different than any sequence in GenBank. Phylogenetic trees, using the most similar sequences in GenBank, were constructed for each endophyte to measure phylogenetic distance. Assays were also conducted on each cultured endophyte to record bioactivity, of which 65 were found to be bioactive. Conclusions/Significance The novelty of our contribution is that we have combined bioinformatic analyses that document the diversity found in environmental samples with culturing and bioassays. These results highlight the hidden hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi and the urgent need to explore and conserve hidden microbial diversity. This study also showcases how undergraduate students can obtain data of great scientific significance.

Smith, Stephen A.; Tank, David C.; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol A.; Eisenman, Kaury; Kingery, David; Babbs, Beatrice; Fenn, Kathleen; Greene, Joshua S.; Hann, Bradley D.; Keehner, Jocelyn; Kelley-Swift, Elizabeth G.; Kembaiyan, Vivek; Lee, Sun Jin; Li, Puyao; Light, David Y.; Lin, Emily H.; Ma, Cong; Moore, Emily; Schorn, Michelle A.; Vekhter, Daniel; Nunez, Percy V.; Strobel, Gary A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Strobel, Scott A.

2008-01-01

182

Genetic Compatibility Determines Endophyte-Grass Combinations  

PubMed Central

Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

Saikkonen, Kari; Wali, Piippa R.; Helander, Marjo

2010-01-01

183

Grasses and Neotyphodium endophytes: co-adaptation and adaptive breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium endophytes profoundly affect the biology of their host grasses, including the important forage species perennial ryegrass,\\u000a tall fescue and meadow fescue. The endophytic association is finely balanced, involving adaptation in each associate. The\\u000a evidence for co-adaptation is discussed. The presence of endophyte, and the difference between endophyte strains, can affect\\u000a some plant properties more than genetic variation intrinsic to

Herrick Sydney Easton

2007-01-01

184

Endophytic Bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and Their Yield Enhancing Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host\\u000a plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria\\u000a OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz.

Rashmi Tiwari; Alok Kalra; M. P. Darokar; Mahesh Chandra; Nitin Aggarwal; A. K. Singh; S. P. S. Khanuja

2010-01-01

185

Seed Maturity, Germination, and Endophyte Relationships in Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

siderable negative attention from a seed quality point of view. Thus, efforts were made to remove endophytes Endophytic fungi were once considered detrimental components from the host species to alleviate toxicosis syndromes of cool season pasture grass seed because of their association with toxic compounds. Development of new cultivars of forage grasses of grazing livestock. infected with nontoxic endophytes suggests

N. S. Hill; J. H. Bouton; E. E. Hiatt; B. Kittle

2005-01-01

186

Temporal variation in endophyte assemblages of Plumeria rubra leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal pattern of endophyte infection in the leaves of Plumeria rubra, a tropical deciduous tree, was studied by sampling the leaves of an individual tree for a period of one year. Endophytes could be isolated from the leaves throughout the study period. Older leaves were more densely colonised than the younger leaves. Hyphomycetes dominated the endophyte assemblage of the

T. S. Suryanarayanan; S. Thennarasan

187

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN SOYBEAN ( GLYCINE SP.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any harm to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present investigation was carried out to analyse the phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the bacterial endophytes of two species of soybean viz. Glycine max and G. soja . A total of 65 bacterial endophytes were isolated from three tissues: stem, root

Pham Quang Hung; K. Annapurna

188

Genetic diversity and potential for promotion of plant growth detected in nodule endophytic bacteria of soybean grown in Heilongjiang province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 98 non-symbiotic endophytic bacterial strains isolated from soybean root nodules were classified into eight rDNA types in ARDRA analysis and 21 BOX types in BOX-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA identified these strains as Pantoea, Serratia, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Agrobacterium, and Burkholderia. Limited genetic diversity was revealed among these bacteria since most of the strains (85.7%) were

Ji Hong Li; En Tao Wang; Wen Feng Chen; Wen Xin Chen

2008-01-01

189

Genetic diversity and characterization of heavy metal-resistant-endophytic bacteria from two copper-tolerant plant species on copper mine wasteland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of endophytic bacteria from the copper-tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens and Commelina communis was evaluated by using cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the Cu-resistant isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were predominant among the Cu-resistant isolates. Sequence analysis from the 16S rDNA clone

Le-Ni Sun; Yan-Feng Zhang; Lin-Yan He; Zhao-Jin Chen; Qing-Ya Wang; Meng Qian; Xia-Fang Sheng

2010-01-01

190

Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes residing in the internal tissues of living plants occur in almost every plant on earth from the arctic to the tropics. The endophyte-host relationship is described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism. This overview will highlight selected aspects of endophyte diversity, host specificity, endophyte-host interaction and communication as well as regulation of secondary metabolite production with emphasis on advanced genomic methods and their role in improving our current knowledge of endophytic associations. Furthermore, the chemical potential of endophytic fungi for drug discovery will be discussed with focus on the detection of pharmaceutically valuable plant constituents as products of fungal biosynthesis. In addition, selected examples of bioactive metabolites reported in recent years (2008-2010) from fungal endophytes residing in terrestrial plants are presented grouped according to their reported biological activities. PMID:21523479

Aly, Amal Hassan; Debbab, Abdessamad; Proksch, Peter

2011-04-27

191

Lysozyme as a barrier to growth of Bacillus anthracis strain Sterne in liquid egg white, milk and beef.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the role of lysozyme on the viability of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) in egg white (EW), ground beef and milk. At 35C in EW, growth rates (GR) for B.cereus, B.subtilis, B.pumilus and B.anthracis were 0.005,-0.018,-0.028 and-0.029 OD(600)/h, respectively. Heat-treating EW at 55 and 60C reduced the inactivating effect of EW by 3.1 and 10.5-fold, respectively. Addition of lysozyme (2mg/ml) to 60C-treated EW increased the inactivation rate 5.76-fold, indicating involvement of lysozyme in B.anthracis inactivation. B.anthracis inactivation was influenced by pH, as shown by a progressive increase in inactivation rate from 0.25 to-4.42logsCFU/h over a pH range of 6.0-8.5. Adding 2mg/ml lysozyme to milk and ground beef also suppressed the growth of B.anthracis 3.3 and 6.5-fold, respectively. These data indicate that lysozyme, as a natural component of EW or potential additive in other foods, could reduce biothreat risks presented by bioterror agents. PMID:21645824

Sung, Kidon; Khan, Saeed A; Nawaz, Mohamed S; Cerniglia, Carl E; Tamplin, Mark L; Phillips, Robert W; Kelley, Lynda Collins

2011-03-11

192

Sensitivity of aerobic spore-forming species of the genus Bacillus to the pteridine compound O129.  

PubMed

Discs containing the pteridine compound O129 at various concentrations may be useful in differentiating the following closely related species belonging to the genus Bacillus, viz. B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus; B. polymyxa and B. macerans; together with B. cereus and its subspecies B. cereus var. mycoides. At concentrations of 10 micrograms O129, the ATCC type strain of B. subtilis was resistant whereas B. licheniformis and B. pumilus were sensitive. However, B. subtilis was sensitive to O129 at 150 micrograms. Similar reactions differentiated the ATCC type strains of B. polymyxa and B. macerans. The ATCC type strain of B. cereus was resistant to O129 at both 150 micrograms and 10 micrograms, but its subspecies B. cereus var. mycoides (ATCC 28) was partially sensitive at 150 micrograms concentration. When clinical isolates of B. cereus var. mycoides were subsequently tested, this partial sensitivity was found to be a variable characteristic. PMID:9345787

O'Brien, J R; George, N M

1997-01-01

193

Bioactive metabolites from an endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. inhabiting Clidemia hirta.  

PubMed

An endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. was isolated from Clidemia hirta and analyzed for its secondary metabolites that lead to the isolation of three bioactive molecules. The compounds were purified from the culture broth of the fungus and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods as (R)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-4-one (1), 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)pentan-1-one (2) and (Z)-1-(2-(2-butyryl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybut-2-en-1-one (3). Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the human leukemia cell line, HL-60 with an IC50 of 4?g/ml. This compound induced G2 arrest of the HL-60 cell cycle significantly. In addition, out of these compounds, 2 and 3 were active against several bacterial pathogens. Compound 2 was active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with IC50 values varying from 18 to 30?g/ml, and compound 3 displayed activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens with an IC50 value of 6?g/ml. Compounds 2 and 3 are novel whereas compound 1 was reported earlier but the stereochemistry of its C-2 methyl is established for the first time. PMID:23870821

Zilla, Mahesh K; Qadri, Masroor; Pathania, Anup S; Strobel, Gary A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Kumar, Sunil; Guru, Santosh K; Bhushan, Shashi; Singh, Sanjay K; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ali, Asif

2013-07-17

194

Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

195

Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

Weiss, Michael; Skorov, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-02-15

196

Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes  

PubMed Central

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as endophytes have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

Weiss, Michael; Sykorova, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

197

Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

198

Natural products with antitumor activity from endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi are a seemingly inexhaustible source of novel bioactive natural products. Currently, more than 140 fungal metabolites have shown confirmed activity in tumor cell line bioassays. We present the chemical structures of these antitumor metabolites, their corresponding fungal endophytes and host plants, and the activities they exhibited, and briefly discuss some of their action mechanisms. This review emphasizes the role of endophytic fungi as an important source of leads for drug discoveries. PMID:21861806

Wang, L-W; Zhang, Y-L; Lin, F-C; Hu, Y-Z; Zhang, C-L

2011-10-01

199

Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: Effects and potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to\\u000a various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained.\\u000a Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and

W. M. M. S. Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S. A. Kulasooriya

2006-01-01

200

Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.  

PubMed

The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi. PMID:23923629

Aly, A H; Debbab, A; Proksch, P

2013-07-01

201

Chemical ecology of endophytic fungi: origins of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Endophytes constitute a remarkably multifarious group of microorganisms ubiquitous in plants and maintain an imperceptible association with their hosts for at least a part of their life cycle. Their enormous biological diversity coupled with their capability to biosynthesize bioactive secondary metabolites has provided the impetus for a number of investigations on endophytes. Here, we highlight the possible current and future strategies of understanding the chemical communication of endophytic fungi with other endophytes (fungi and bacteria) and with their host plants, which might not only allow the discovery and sustainable production of desirable natural products but also other mostly overlooked bioactive secondary metabolites. PMID:22840767

Kusari, Souvik; Hertweck, Christian; Spiteller, Michael

2012-07-27

202

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in GenBank. Although 95% of the endophytes in needles from mature trees belonged to the Rhytismataceae, 82 unique ITS sequences were obtained from at least 21 genera and 10 different orders of fungi. Significantly, none of the endophytes in seed were rhytismataceous (chi(2) = 180; P < 0.001). Similarly, needles of greenhouse seedlings yielded only non-rhytismataceous isolates, whereas seedlings of the same age that had naturally regenerated near older white pines in roadless areas were colonized by rhytismataceous endophytes almost to the same extent as in mature trees. Only one of 17 rhytismataceous isolates were able to grow on a medium containing only 0.17% nitrogen, whereas 25 of 31 non-rhytismataceous endophytes grew. Rhytismataceous endophytes are dominant in needles of P. monticola, but they appear to be absent in seed, and unlikely colonists of nitrogen-limiting host tissues such as the apoplast. PMID:16492396

Ganley, Rebecca J; Newcombe, George

2006-02-21

203

Genomics of Bacillus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

kstad, Ole Andreas; Kolst, Anne-Brit

204

Endophytic bacterial communities in ginseng and their antifungal activity against pathogens.  

PubMed

Plant roots are associated with diverse communities of endophytic bacteria which do not exert adverse effects. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng roots cultivated in three different areas in Korea was investigated. Sixty-three colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng roots. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGCGPB), low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGCGPB), and the Proteobacteria. The dominant species at the three different ginseng growing areas were: HGCGPB at Ganghwa (55.0%), LGCGPB at Geumsan (45.5%), and Proteobacteria at Jinan (61.9%). Most cellulase-, xylanase-, and pectinase-producing colonies among the isolates belong to the LGCGPB group, except for Pectobacterium carotovora which belonged to the Proteobacteria. The 13 isolates belonging to LGCGPB and Proteobacteria were assessed for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani. Among them, Paenibacillus polymyxa GS01, Bacillus sp. GS07, and Pseudomonas poae JA01 show potential activity as biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Finally, most of the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria with antifungal activity against phytopathogenic microorganisms showed cellulolytic enzyme activity while some Proteobacteria with the antifungal activity and the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria did not show any cellulolytic activity. PMID:17492474

Cho, Kye Man; Hong, Su Young; Lee, Sun Mi; Kim, Yong Hee; Kahng, Goon Gjung; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

2007-05-11

205

Elimination of ergovaline from a grass-Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte.  

PubMed

The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of ergopeptines requires the activities of two peptide synthetases, LPS1 and LPS2. A peptide synthetase gene hypothesized to be important for ergopeptine biosynthesis was identified in C. purpurea by its clustering with another ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene, dmaW. Sequence analysis conducted independently of the research presented here indicates that this gene encodes LPS1 [Tudzynski, P., Holter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N. & Keller, U. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133-141]. We have cloned a similar peptide synthetase gene from Neotyphodium lolii and inactivated it by gene knockout in Neotyphodium sp. Lp1. The resulting strain retained full compatibility with its perennial ryegrass host plant as assessed by immunoblotting of tillers and quantitative PCR. However, grass-endophyte associations containing the knockout strain did not produce detectable quantities of ergovaline as analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergovaline in endophyte-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock. PMID:11592979

Panaccione, D G; Johnson, R D; Wang, J; Young, C A; Damrongkool, P; Scott, B; Schardl, C L

2001-10-09

206

A novel antibacterial and antifungal phenolic compound from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.  

PubMed

A novel phenolic compound, 4-(2,4,7-trioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-yl) phenol (1), was isolated from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, an endophytic fungus associated with Mangifera indica Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (UV, IR, H-, C- and 2D-NMR, as well as HRESI-MS). Compound (1) shows potent antibacterial and antifungal activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The transmission electron microscope study for the mode of inhibition of compound (1) on bacterial pathogens revealed the destruction of bacterial cells by cytoplasm agglutination with the formation of pores in cell wall membranes. PMID:22950879

Subban, Kamalraj; Subramani, Ramesh; Johnpaul, Muthumary

2012-09-06

207

Diversity of fungal endophytes in leaves and stems of wild rubber trees ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi isolates from foliage and sapwood of Hevea brasiliensis were studied to determine the total diversity of endophytes inhabiting leaves and sapwood, and differences between respective endophyte communities found in leaves and sapwood. Endophytes were recovered from 72% (161) of the 225 samples, with a total of 175 isolates. Sequence data from ITS and LSU nrDNA revealed 58 distinct

Romina Gazis; Priscila Chaverri

2010-01-01

208

Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root

Lobna Abdellatif; Sadok Bouzid; Susan Kaminskyj; Vladimir Vujanovic

2009-01-01

209

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

210

BACTRIAS ENDOFTICAS COMO AGENTES PROMOT ORES DO CRESCIMENT O DE PLANT AS DE TOMATEIRO E DE INIBIO IN VITRO DE Ralstonia solanacearum 1 Endophytic bacteria as agents of plant growth promotion in tomato and inhibition in vitro of Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of one hundred and fifty isolates of endophytic bacteria from leaves, stems and roots of healthy tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), fifty three showed ability to promote tomato plant growth, among these, ten isolates UFV-E17, UFV-E22, UFV- E25, UFV-E26, UFV-E27, Bacillus cereus (UFV-E29), UFV-E49, UFLA 06-LS, UFLA 08-LS and UFLA 11-LS, provided the largest plant growth promotion. Weekly assessment of

Patrcia Baston Barretti; Ricardo Magela de Souza; Edson Amplio Pozza

211

Overexpression and characterization of thermostable chitinase from Bacillus atrophaeus SC081 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The chitinase-producing strain SC081 was isolated from Korean traditional soy sauce and identified as Bacillus atrophaeus based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence and a phenotypic analysis. A gene encoding chitinase from B. atrophaeus SC081 was cloned in Escherichia coli and was named SCChi-1 (GQ360078). The SCChi-1 nucleotide sequences were composed of 1788 base pairs and 596 amino acids, which were 92.6, 89.6, 89.3, and 78.9% identical to those of Bacillus subtilis (ABG57262), Bacillus pumilus (ABI15082), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (ABO15008), and Bacillus licheniformis (ACF40833), respectively. A recombinant SCChi-1 containing a hexahistidine tag at the amino- terminus was constructed, overexpressed, and purified in E. coli to characterize SCChi-1. H(6)SCChi-1 revealed a hydrolytic band on zymograms containing 0.1% glycol chitin and showed the highest lytic activity on colloidal chitin and acidic chitosan. The optimal temperature and pH for chitinolytic activity were 50C and pH 8.0, respectively. PMID:21429298

Cho, Eun Kyung; Choi, In Soon; Choi, Young Ju

2011-03-01

212

Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.  

PubMed

Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation. PMID:18759238

Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, Joo L; Arajo, Welington L

2008-10-01

213

Plant-derived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant endophytic fungi are an important and novel resource of natural bioactive compounds with their potential applications in agriculture, medicine and food industry. In the past two decades, many valuable bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities have been successfully discovered from endophytic fungi. During the long period of co-evolution, a friendly relationship was formed between each endophyte and its host plant. Some endophytes have the ability to produce the same or similar bioactive compounds as those originated from their host plants. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing plant-derived bioactive compounds such as paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, camptothecine, vinblastine, hypericin, and diosgenin. The relations between endophytic fungi and their host plants, biological activities and action mechanisms of these compounds from endophytic fungi, some available strategies for efficiently promoting production of these bioactive compounds, as well as their potential applications in the future will also be discussed. It is beneficial for us to better understand and take advantage of plant endophytic fungi. PMID:21222580

Zhao, J; Shan, T; Mou, Y; Zhou, L

2011-02-01

214

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica).  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M; de Santana, Charles N; Duarte, Carlos M; Marb, Nria

2012-09-21

215

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marba, Nuria

2012-01-01

216

Mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the distributions and functions of mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are present in the Arctic and Antarctic to 82 N and 63 S, respectively, with fine endophyte being the dominant form of AM in roots at higher latitudes. Ecto- (ECM) and ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizas both occur in the Arctic to 79

K. K. Newsham; R. Upson; D. J. Read

2009-01-01

217

Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes were frequently isolated from mountain birch (Betula pubescens var. tortuosa (Ledeb.) Nyman) leaves at a subarctic site where natural air pollution is low. We tested whether simulated acid rain had any influence on the occurrence of endophytes. Dry controls with only ambient rain and irrigated controls treated with spring water of pH 6 were compared with acid treatments at

M. L. Helander; S. Neuvonen; T. Sieber; O. Petrini

1993-01-01

218

Model systems in ecology: dissecting the endophyte-grass literature.  

PubMed

Model systems can facilitate and focus research efforts but ill-chosen or inapt ones can distract or impede scientific progress. In this Opinion article, we pose the question: how can the literature provide appropriate general conclusions if the model systems upon which the literature is based are unrepresentative of the relevant biological diversity? A good example of this problem is the endophyte-grass symbiosis, which is considered to be a classic example of mutualistic interactions. Meta-analysis of the primary literature demonstrates that the conceptual framework for endophyte-grass interactions has largely been based on endophyte-plant-herbivore studies of two agricultural grass species, tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Consistent with conventional wisdom, the meta-analysis indicates that endophytes slightly increase grass resistance to herbivores. By contrast, endophytes appear not to affect plant performance or competitive ability. The positive effects of endophytes appear to be dependent on genetic variation in the host and endophyte, and on nutrient availability in soils. Thus, the agronomic grass model systems fail to capture the breadth of variability inherent in wild grass-endophyte populations and communities. PMID:16890473

Saikkonen, Kari; Lehtonen, Pivi; Helander, Marjo; Koricheva, Julia; Faeth, Stanley H

2006-08-04

219

Anti Helicobacter pylori substances from endophytic fungal cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an aetiological agent for chronic active gastritis and a significant determinant in peptic and duodenal ulcer diseases. Endophytic metabolites are being recognized as a versatile arsenal of antimicrobial agents, since some endophytes have been shown to possess superior biosynthetic capabilities owing to their presumable gene recombination with the host,

Y. Li; Y. C. Song; J. Y. Liu; Y. M. Ma; R. X. Tan

2005-01-01

220

Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

2002-01-01

221

Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oxytropis glabra DC. is an important poisonous plant species in Inner Mongolia steppe. In this research the endophytic fungi from O. glabra DC. were studied both by microbiological and molecular biological techniques. The results showed as follows: The in vitro cultured endophytic fungi displ...

222

Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

2013-04-01

223

Temperature Influences on Endophyte Growth in Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is the predominant pe- rennial cool-season grass grown in the USA. Typically, tall fescue is infected with the endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams, which produces alkaloids that are toxic to grazing animals. Nontoxic endophyte-infected cultivars of tall fescue have been developed, but to maximize their utility for profitable livestock production a better understanding

H.-J. Ju; N. S. Hill; T. Abbott; K. T. Ingram

2006-01-01

224

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloe Endophytes of Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloeand Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte- infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed

Damien J. Fleetwood; Barry Scott; Aiko Tanaka; Richard D. Johnson

2007-01-01

225

Fungal Epiphytes and Endophytes of Coffee Leaves ( Coffea arabica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffeaarabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities,

Johanna Santamara; Paul Bayman

2005-01-01

226

Bioactive natural products from endophytes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes, microorganisms that reside in the internal tissues of living plants without causing any immediate overt negative\\u000a effects, have been found in every plant species examined to date and recognized as potential sources of novel natural products\\u000a for exploitation in medicine, agriculture, and industry with more and more bioactive natural products isolated from the microorganisms.\\u000a In this review, we focus

B. Guo; Y. Wang; X. Sun; K. Tang

2008-01-01

227

Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plantbacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2, produce volatile and non-volatile organic acids, and reduce rock particle size to form mineral

M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

2009-01-01

228

Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria in Forest Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A group of studies on the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees is presented in terms of host plant species variety\\u000a and the number of reports. Many host tree species are underrepresented in these studies: Trees in the tropics as well as some\\u000a important temperate tree species, such as those belonging to the genera of Alnus and Fagus, have

Hironari Izumi

229

Anti-Candida metabolites from endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Submerged cultures of some 1500 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota isolated from their fruit-bodies or as soil-borne, coprophilous or endophytic fungi were screened for activity against Candida albicans and a range of other pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. Considerably more Ascomycota (11-16%) than Basidiomycota (3.5%) produced metabolites with activity against C. albicans. From five species of endophytes, six bioactive compounds were isolated and identified, viz. cerulenin (1), arundifungin (2), sphaeropsidin A (3), 5-(1,3-butadiene-1-yl)-3-(propene-1-yl)-2-(5H)-furanone (4), ascosteroside A (formerly called ascosteroside; 5) and a derivative of 5, ascosteroside B (6). 1, 3 and 5 were isolated from fungi belonging to different orders than previously described producers. Antifungal activities of 2 and 4-6 in the agar diffusion test were comparable with those of amphotericin B. Compound 6 exhibited a similar antifungal activity as 5 but its cytotoxicity towards Hep G2 cells was considerably lower. This study points to endophytic fungi related to hemibiotrophic or latent plant pathogens as an important source of bio- and chemodiversity. PMID:17286994

Weber, Roland W S; Kappe, Reinhard; Paululat, Thomas; Msker, Eva; Anke, Heidrun

2007-02-06

230

RED Facts: 'Bacillus thuringiensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0247, Bacillus thuringiensis. Bacillus thuringiensis is a group of similar bacteria that act as insecticides wich are used on gorwing agricultural corps, harvested crop...

1998-01-01

231

Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010.

Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

2010-01-01

232

Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue  

PubMed Central

The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts.

Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

1985-01-01

233

PREVALENCE OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS AMONGST ASEXUAL FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES OF GRASSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epichloe endophytes are fungal symbionts of grasses that span a continuum including asexual mutualists (vertically transmitted), obligately sexual pathogens (horizontally transmitted), and mixed-strategy symbionts with both mutualistic and pathogenic capabilities. This paper shows that the processe...

234

Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit ...  

Treesearch

Colonisation of host trees by an endophytic herbivore, the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis ... These oral secretions inhibited the growth of fungi except A. nomius , and disrupted the morphology of the latter. ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

235

Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi?  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation.

Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Nunez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Nunez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

2011-01-01

236

Endophytic fungi assemblages from 10 Dendrobium medicinal plants (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium is the largest genus of tropical epiphytic orchid, some of which are traditional Chinese medicinal plants. The therapeutic\\u000a components varied significantly among species. Endophytic microbes (fungi) hidden in medicinal plants may play an important\\u000a effect on the overall quality of herb. Investigation of fungal composition in host plants is the first step toward elucidating\\u000a the relationship endophyte-therapeutic content of

Juan Chen; Ke-Xing Hu; Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

237

Endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Theobroma cacao pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes isolated from healthy Theobroma cacao tissues were screened in vitro for antagonism against major pathogens of cacao. Of tested endophytic morphospecies, 40% (21\\/52), 65% (28\\/43) and 27% percent (4\\/15) showed in vitro antagonism against Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot), Phytophthora palmivora (black pod rot) and Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches broom), respectively. The most common antagonistic mechanism was simple competition

Luis C. Meja; Enith I. Rojas; Zuleyka Maynard; Sunshine Van Bael; A. Elizabeth Arnold; Prakash Hebbar; Gary J. Samuels; Nancy Robbins; Edward Allen Herre

2008-01-01

238

Isolation of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from wetland rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are believed to contribute substantial amounts of N to certain gramineous crops. We have been interested to find (a) a diazotroph(s) in rice which can aggressively and stably persist and fix nitrogen in interior tissues and (b) unique rice-diazotrophic endophyte combinations. To achieve these objectives, it has been essential to find an efficient method to surface sterilize

W. L. Barraquio; L. Revilla; J. K. Ladha

1997-01-01

239

A potential antioxidant resource: Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies\\u000a have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal\\u000a plant extracts. However, no information is available on whether such a relationship also exists in their endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites. We investigated the relationship between TAC and

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

2007-01-01

240

Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area. PMID:23537875

Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Mller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina

2013-01-30

241

Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their\\u000a impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and\\u000a fruit quality parameters and their

Diana Rocio Andrade-Linares; Rita Grosch; Silvia Restrepo; Angelika Krumbein; Philipp Franken

2011-01-01

242

Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytic Bacteria for Improved Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interior of plants provides habitat for a wide range of bacteria and fungi (endophytes) that benefit the plant host in\\u000a a variety of ways including by phytohormone production, pollutant degradation, increasing nutrient acquisition, stress tolerance,\\u000a and pathogen resistance. The use of nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) endophytes has the potential of decreasing our dependency\\u000a on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that has a number

Sharon Lafferty Doty

243

Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypic diversity of indigenous bacterial endophytes within stems and roots of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was determined in field trials throughout one growing season. Strains were isolated from surface-disinfested tissues and identified by fatty acid analysis. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 70.5% of the endophytic bacteria and 27 of the 36 genera identified. The most

John A. McInroy; Joseph W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

244

ENHANCEMENT OF CHILE BIOMAS, FRUIT QUALITY, AND DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE BY INOCULATION WITH NATIVE PLANT ENDOPHYTES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recognition of the important contributions endophytes make to plant stress tolerance, defense, and production has grown exponentially with improvements in detection of unculturable microorganisms in plant tissues. Recently, the ability to manipulate host-endophyte combinations has provided a powerf...

245

Genetic characterization of uncultured fungal endophytes from Bouteloua eriopoda and Atriplex canescens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes form cryptic communities in vascular plants which can defy detection and isolation by microscopic examination of reproductive structures. Molecular detection by PCR amplification of fungal DNA sequences alone is insufficient, since target endophyte sequences are unknown a...

246

Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts. Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance of herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits are well established in infected int...

247

Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.  

PubMed

As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

2009-12-09

248

Positive association between mycorrhiza and foliar endophytes in Poa bonariensis , a native grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between mycorrhiza and leaf endophytes (Neotyphodium sp.) was studied in three Poa bonariensis populations, a native grass, differing significantly in endophyte infection. The association between endophytes and mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi colonisation was assessed by analysing plant roots collected from the field. We found that roots from endophyte-infected\\u000a populations showed a significantly higher frequency of colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi and

M. Victoria Novas; Leopoldo J. Iannone; Alicia M. Godeas; Daniel Cabral

2009-01-01

249

Antimicrobial Activity and Biodiversity of Endophytic Fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and\\/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in\\u000a D. devonianum were categorized into

Yong-Mei XingJuan; Juan Chen; Jin-Long Cui; Xiao-Mei Chen; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

250

Diversity of endophytic bacteria within nodules of the Sphaerophysa salsula in different regions of Loess Plateau in China.  

PubMed

A total of 115 endophytic bacteria were isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Sphaerophysa salsula grown in two ecological regions of Loess Plateau in China. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of the strains were revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Their symbiotic capacity was checked by nodulation tests and analysis of nifH gene sequence. This is the first systematic study on endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsula root nodules. Fifty of the strains found were symbiotic bacteria belonging to eight putative species in the genera Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, harboring similar nifH genes; Mesorhizobium gobiense was the main group and 65 strains were nonsymbiotic bacteria related to 17 species in the genera Paracoccus, Sphingomonas, Inquilinus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Staphylococcus, Lysinibacillus and Bacillus, which were universally coexistent with symbiotic bacteria in the nodules. Differing from other similar studies, the present study is the first time that symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria have been simultaneously isolated from the same root nodules, offering the possibility to accurately reveal the correlation between these two kinds of bacteria. These results provide valuable information about the interactions among the symbiotic bacteria, nonsymbiotic bacteria and their habitats. PMID:21303396

Deng, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Long Fei; Kong, Zhao Yu; Yang, Wen Quan; Lindstrm, Kristina; Wang, En Tao; Wei, Ge Hong

2011-03-01

251

BAM: Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Enterotoxin  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM: Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Enterotoxin. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 15 Bacillus cereus Diarrheal Enterotoxin. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

252

Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes - fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease - are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ibaez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

2013-09-16

253

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibanez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

254

Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

255

Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. METHODS: Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number

Nurul AMN Hazalin; Kalavathy Ramasamy; Siong Meng Lim; Ibtisam Abdul Wahab; Anthony LJ Cole; Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed

2009-01-01

256

Improved Colonization of East African Highland Musa Tissue Culture Plants by Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum inoculated into banana (Musa spp.) tissue culture plants can provide protection against banana weevils (Cosmopolites sordidus) and nematodes (Radopholus similis). The degree of control probably depends, in part, upon the level of endophyte establishment following inoculation. In this study, we compared three methods of inoculating endophytic fungi into eight week-old tissue culture plants: (1) Dipping the

P. Paparu; T. Dubois; C. S. Gold; B. Niere; E. Adipala; D. L. Coyne

2006-01-01

257

Host suitability of an endophyte-friendly tall fescue grass to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Mesocriconema xenoplax and Pratylenchus vulnus in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no ...

258

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF SOME ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM PAPUA NEW GUINEA SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the stalks of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum, growing in Papua New Guinea. Endophytic bacterial communities from extracted juice averaged 6x 104 cfu\\/ml, which is 25 times greater than the number of endophytic bacteria found in commercial varieties in South Africa. Sixty isolates, representing the different colony morphology types, were used for in vitro inhibition tests against

J OMARJEE; T VAN ANTWERPEN; J BALANDREAU; L KUNIATA; S RUTHERFORD

2004-01-01

259

ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM SEEDS OF NICOTIANA TABACUM CAN REDUCE CADMIUM PHYTOTOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although endophytic bacteria seem to have a close association with their host plant, little is known about the influence of seed endophytic bacteria on initial plant development and on their interactions with plants under conditions of metal toxicity. In order to further elucidate this close relationship, we isolated endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized Nicotiana tabacum seeds that were collected from

Chiara Mastretta; Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Alessio Mengoni; Francesca Galardi; Christina Gonnelli; Tanja Barac; Jana Boulet; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld

2009-01-01

260

Interactions between Meloidogyne incognita and endophytic bacteria in cotton and cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse studies with cotton and cucumber were made to determine the effects of inoculation of the parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita on population dynamics of indigenous bacterial endophytes and introduced endophytic bacterial strains JM22 (Enterobacter asburiae) and 89B-61 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) applied as seed treatments. Internal communities of endophytic bacteria in roots were generally largest in the presence of M. incognita. Recovery

J. Hallmann; A. Quadt-Hallmann; R. Rodr??guez-Kbana; J. W. Kloepper

1998-01-01

261

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize

Denise K. Zinniel; Patricia A. Lambrecht; N. Beth Harris; Zhengyu Feng; Daniel Kuczmarski; Phyllis Higley; Carol A. Ishimaru; Alahari Arunakumari; Raul G. Barletta; Anne M. Vidaver

2002-01-01

262

Leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material that is relatively low in fungal endophyte content. Such a preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in thei...

263

USE OF NOVEL ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE FOR COW-CALF PRODUCTION IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to examine pregnancy, calving rates, and calf growth in cow-calf pairs on endophyte-free (EF; Kentucky 31), novel endophyte-infected (NE; Jesup), and endophyte-infected (EI; Kentucky 31) tall fescue. Angus and Angus x Hereford cows grazed EF, NE (n = 20/16 ha), or EI (n = 30/24ha)...

264

Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant in Saudi Arabia desert and their antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and beneficial characteristics of endophytic microorganisms have been studied in Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant. However, information regarding naturally occurring P. tenuiflorus plant associated endophytes among different organs of host is limited. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stem, and leaves of P. tenuiflorus plant. Among 28 endophytic bacterial isolates from different organs of P. tenuiflorus plant, 8 isolates

Bahig El-Deeb; Khalaf Fayez; Youssuf Gherbawy

2012-01-01

265

Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic fungi play in the galls induced by the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). PMID:22732600

Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

2012-06-01

266

Diverse bacteria inhabit living hyphae of phylogenetically diverse fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

Hoffman, Michele T; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2010-04-30

267

Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes?  

PubMed Central

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

268

Bacillus pseudomycoides sp. nov.  

PubMed

Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains identified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other, an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides strains. Also determined was the second group's 16S RNA gene sequence. The 36 B. mycoides strains studied segregated into two genetically distinct groups showing DNA relatedness of about 30%; 18 strains represented the species proper and 18 the second group with intragroup DNA relatedness for both groups ranging from 70 to 100%. DNA relatedness to the type strains of presently recognized species with G+C contents of approximately 35 mol% (Bacillus alcalophilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus sphaericus) ranged from 22 to 37%. Although shown to be genetically distinct taxa, the two B. mycoides groups exhibited highly similar (98%) 16S RNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both B. mycoides and the second group clustered closely with B. cereus. Although not distinguishable by physiological and morphological characteristics, the two B. mycoides groups and B. cereus were clearly separable based on fatty acid composition. The data established that the second B. mycoides group merits recognition as a new species for which the name Bacillus pseudomycoides is proposed. The type stain is NRRL B-617(T). PMID:9734060

Nakamura, L K

1998-07-01

269

Heat-stable toxin production by strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex and Bacillus licheniformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Bacillus cereus can produce a heat-stable toxin (cereulide). In this study, 101 Bacillus strains representing 7 Bacillus species were tested for production of heat-stable toxins. Strains of B. megaterium, B. firmus and B. simplex were found to produce novel heat-stable toxins, which showed varying levels of toxicity. B. cereus strains (18 out of 54) were positive for toxin

Janice M. W. Taylor; Alastair D. Sutherland; Kofi E. Aidoo; Niall A. Logan

2005-01-01

270

Recombination between compatible plasmids containing homologous segments requires the Bacillus subtilis recE gene product.  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pSL103 was previously constructed by cloning a Trp fragment (approximately 2.3 X 10(6) daltons) from restriction endonuclease EcoRI-digested chromosome DNA of Bacillus pumilus using the neomycin-resistance plasmid pUB110 (approximately 2.8 X 10(6) daltons) as vector and B. subtilis as transformation recipient. In the present study the EcoRI Trp fragment from pSL103 was transferred in vitro to EcoRI fragments of the Bacillus plasmid pPL576 to determine the ability of the plasmid fragments to replicate in B. subtilis. Endonuclease EcoRI digestion of pPL576 (approximately 28 X 10(6) daltons) generated three fragments having molecular weights of about 13 X 13(6) (the A fragment), 9.5 X 10(6) (B fragment, and 6.5 X 10(6) (C fragment). Trp derivatives of pPL576 fragments capable of autonomous replication in B. subtilis contained the B fragment (e.g., pSL107) or both the B and C fragments (e.g., pSL108). Accordingly, the B fragment of pPL576 contains information essential for autonomous replication. pSL107 and pSL108 are compatible with pUB110. Constructed derivatives of the compatible plasmids pPL576 and pUB110, harboring genetically distinguishable EcoRI-generated Trp fragments cloned from the DNA of a B. pumilus strain, exhibited relatively high frequency recombination for a trpC marker when the plasmid pairs were present in a recombination-proficient strain of B. subtilis. No recombination was detected when the host carried the chromosome mutation recE4. Therefore, the recE4 mutation suppresses recombination between compatible plasmids that contain homologous segments.

Keggins, K M; Duvall, E J; Lovett, P S

1978-01-01

271

Efficacy of using harmless Bacillus endospores to estimate the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water.  

PubMed

The need to use complex in vitro cell culture, expensive equipment, and highly-trained technicians that are available only to specialist laboratories has significantly limited studies assessing the potential of pulsed UV light (PUV) to inactivate the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum in drinking water. This constitutes the first study to report on the use of different non-pathogenic Bacillus endospores as potential surrogate organisms to indicate the PUV inactivation performance of a C. parvum oocyst suspended in water. Findings showed that PUV effectively inactivated approximately 5 log10 CFU/ml Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus endospores suspended in water at a UV dose of 9.72 ?J/cm(2) that also inactivated statistically similar levels of C. parvum oocysts (P < 0.05), as determined by combined in vitro HCT-8 cell culture and quantitative PCR. Specifically, this study demonstrated that B. megaterium exhibited greater or similar PUV-inactivation kinetic data compared to that of similarly treated C. parvum over the UV dose range 6.4 to 12.9 ?J/cm(2). Therefore, the former may be used as an indicator organism for safely investigating the PUV-inactivation performance of this chlorine-resistant, waterborne parasite at the waste-water treatment plant level. Findings presented will impact positively on future water quality studies and on public health. PMID:23145570

Garvey, Mary; Clifford, Eoghan; O'Reilly, Edmond; Rowan, Neil J

2012-11-12

272

The utilization of RAPD-PCR for identifying thermophilic and mesophilic Bacillus species.  

PubMed

A random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay has been optimized that is able to discriminate between numerous thermophilic and mesophilic bacillus species and strains. Included in the analyses are thermophilic (able to grow at 55 degrees C) strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus, B. kaustophilus, B. coagulans, B. sphaericus, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermocatenulatus, B. thermoleovorans, B. licheniformis, B. brevis, B. thermoglucosidasius, B. caldolyticus, B. caldotenax, B. caldovelox, B. thermocloacae and B. smithii. Mesophilic strains of B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. circulans, B. cereus and B. mycoides can also be used for fingerprinting with the assay. Increasing the concentration of primer from 0.2 to 2.0 microM is shown to have a significant effect on increasing the number of amplification products that can be used for the discrimination or identification of individual strains or species. It is suggested that this may be a general way of improving the resolution of a RAPD protocol. The optimized conditions have been used successfully to trace B. stearothermophilus, B. licheniformis and other bacillus species and strains in an industrial setting. PMID:9037767

Ronimus, R S; Parker, L E; Morgan, H W

1997-02-01

273

The effects of fungal root endophytes on plant growth: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Fungal root endophytes are plant associates that colonize root tissue internally without causing any obvious harm to their host. Although ubiquitous, this relationship is not well understood. Our objectives were to determine the effects of fungal root endophyte inoculation on plant biomass and nitrogen concentration by conducting an extensive meta-analysis. We also explored the effects of experimental conditions on the host-endophyte relationship. We performed analyses weighted with non-parametric variance on plant response to root endophytes from the Ascomycetes (excluding the Clavacipitaceae), including categorical analyses of 21 experimental factors, ranging from the identity of the host and the endophyte, to the composition of the growing medium. The response of total biomass to endophyte inoculation was 18% lower than non-inoculated controls, while individually, root biomass, shoot biomass, and nitrogen concentration responses to endophyte inoculation were neutral. The identities of both the host and the endophyte had an influence, as did the original source of the endophyte (whether or not the isolate used originated from the same host species). Experimental conditions also influenced the plant-endophyte relationship, with the most important being the availability and sources of carbon and organic nitrogen, particularly peat moss. Although our analysis demonstrates that overall plant biomass and nitrogen concentration responses to ascomycetous root endophyte inoculation is neutral to negative, these results are somewhat confounded by among-study differences in experimental conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to the high levels of variability in plant response seen in the literature. PMID:22983627

Mayerhofer, Michael S; Kernaghan, Gavin; Harper, Karen A

2012-07-21

274

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic Acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-09-24

275

Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

276

Culturable endophytes of medicinal plants and the genetic basis for their bioactivity.  

PubMed

The bioactive compounds of medicinal plants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plants collected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinal plants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential. PMID:22430508

Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A

2012-03-21

277

Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Growing Shoot Tips of Banana ( Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the Affinity of Endophytes to the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a\\u000a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and\\u000a to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central\\u000a core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient

Pious Thomas; Thyvalappil A. Soly

2009-01-01

278

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis---One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most

ERLENDUR HELGASON; O. A. Okstad; DOMINIQUE A. CAUGANT; HENNING A. JOHANSEN; AGNES FOUET; MICHELE MOCK; IDA HEGNA; A.-B. Kolsto

2000-01-01

279

[Screening and identification of steroidal saponins-producing endophytes from Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Franch].  

PubMed

Two endophytic strains SS01 and SS02 with the potential for producing steroidal saponins were isolated from the underground stems of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Franch. The TLC comparison indicated that there are 3 sports with similar R(f) between the metabolites of SS01 and the saponins of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Franch. And there are 2 sports with similar R(f) between the metabolites of SS02 and the saponins of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis The and that biochemical SS01 Franch. characteristics of morphology, physiological belonged showed to Enterobacteriaceae and SS02 belonged to Bacillus sp.. The 16S rDNA of SS01 and SS02 were PCR and sequenced. The accessions of GenBank are AY842143 and AY842144, respectively. The two 16S rDNA phylogenetic trees were constructed by comparing with the published 16S rDNA sequences of the relative bacteria species. In the first phylogenetic tree SS01 and Cedecea davisae DSM 4568 was the closest relative with 98.9% sequence similarity, and in the second phylogenetic tree SS02 and Paenibacillus daejeonensis was the closest relative with 97.7% sequence similarity. According to the phylogenetic analysis they were identified as Cedecea davisae SS01 and Paenibacillus daejeonensis SS02, respectively. PMID:16342775

Zhao, Ming; He, Sheng-rong; Chen, Xiao-jing; Huang, Chun-ping; Wang, Yi-ding; Zhang, Xiao-jie; Feng, Ding-sheng

2005-10-01

280

Toxin-Producing Ability among Bacillus spp. Outside the Bacillus cereus Group  

PubMed Central

A total of 333 Bacillus spp. isolated from foods, water, and food plants were examined for the production of possible enterotoxins and emetic toxins using a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cells, the boar spermatozoa motility assay, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Eight strains produced detectable toxins; six strains were cytotoxic, three strains produced putative emetic toxins (different in size from cereulide), and one strain produced both cytotoxin(s) and putative emetic toxin(s). The toxin-producing strains could be assigned to four different species, B. subtilis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus, or B. fusiformis, by using a polyphasic approach including biochemical, chemotaxonomic, and DNA-based analyses. Four of the strains produced cytotoxins that were concentrated by ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis, and two strains produced cytotoxins that were not concentrated by such a treatment. Two cultures maintained full cytotoxic activity, two cultures reduced their activity, and two cultures lost their activity after boiling. The two most cytotoxic strains (both B. mojavensis) were tested for toxin production at different temperatures. One of these strains produced cytotoxin at growth temperatures ranging from 25 to 42C, and no reduction in activity was observed even after 24 h of growth at 42C. The strains that produced putative emetic toxins were tested for the influence of time and temperature on the toxin production. It was shown that they produced putative emetic toxin faster or just as fast at 30 as at 22C. None of the cytotoxic strains produced B. cereus-like enterotoxins as tested by PCR or by immunological methods.

From, Cecilie; Pukall, Rudiger; Schumann, Peter; Hormazabal, Victor; Granum, Per Einar

2005-01-01

281

Toxin-producing ability among Bacillus spp. outside the Bacillus cereus group.  

PubMed

A total of 333 Bacillus spp. isolated from foods, water, and food plants were examined for the production of possible enterotoxins and emetic toxins using a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cells, the boar spermatozoa motility assay, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Eight strains produced detectable toxins; six strains were cytotoxic, three strains produced putative emetic toxins (different in size from cereulide), and one strain produced both cytotoxin(s) and putative emetic toxin(s). The toxin-producing strains could be assigned to four different species, B. subtilis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus, or B. fusiformis, by using a polyphasic approach including biochemical, chemotaxonomic, and DNA-based analyses. Four of the strains produced cytotoxins that were concentrated by ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis, and two strains produced cytotoxins that were not concentrated by such a treatment. Two cultures maintained full cytotoxic activity, two cultures reduced their activity, and two cultures lost their activity after boiling. The two most cytotoxic strains (both B. mojavensis) were tested for toxin production at different temperatures. One of these strains produced cytotoxin at growth temperatures ranging from 25 to 42 degrees C, and no reduction in activity was observed even after 24 h of growth at 42 degrees C. The strains that produced putative emetic toxins were tested for the influence of time and temperature on the toxin production. It was shown that they produced putative emetic toxin faster or just as fast at 30 as at 22 degrees C. None of the cytotoxic strains produced B. cereus-like enterotoxins as tested by PCR or by immunological methods. PMID:15746316

From, Cecilie; Pukall, Rudiger; Schumann, Peter; Hormazbal, Vctor; Granum, Per Einar

2005-03-01

282

Endophytic fungi: the treasure chest of antibacterial substances.  

PubMed

Over more than 20 years, the endophytic fungi have been explored as "biofactories" of novel bioactive substances, and they have not disappointed. Among the extracts and pure substances obtained from the culture broths or fungal biomass, some have exerted antibacterial activity ranging from moderate to powerful when tested on the bacterial strains resistant to the antibiotics currently in use. In this article we review the accumulated data on endophytic fungi isolated from plants that produce metabolites with antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23079233

Radi?, Nataa; Strukelj, Borut

2012-10-16

283

Relationships among non-Acremonium sp. fungal endophytes in five grass species.  

PubMed

Many cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae) possess maternally transmitted fungal symbionts which cause no known pathology and often enhance the ecological fitness and biochemical capabilities of the grass hosts. The most commonly described endophytes are the Acremonium section Albo-lanosa spp. (Acremonium endophytes), which are conidial anamorphs (strictly asexual forms) of Epichlo typhina. Other endophytes which have been noted are a Gliocladium-like fungus in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and a Phialophora-like fungus in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Here, we report the identification of additional non-Acremonium sp. endophytes (herein designated p-endophytes) in three more grass species: Festuca gigantea, Festuca arizonica, and Festuca pratensis. In each grass species, the p-endophyte was cosymbiotic with an Acremonium endophyte. Serological analysis and sequence determinations of variable portions of their rRNA genes indicated that the two previously identified non-Acremonium endophytes are closely related to each other and to the newly identified p-endophytes. Therefore, the p-endophytes represent a second group of widely distributed grass symbionts. PMID:8517749

An, Z Q; Siegel, M R; Hollin, W; Tsai, H F; Schmidt, D; Schardl, C L

1993-05-01

284

Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack  

PubMed Central

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host.

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Haggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttila, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

285

Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens.

Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

286

A multiphasic approach for the identification of endophytic bacterial in strawberry fruit and their potential for plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

This study used a multiphasic approach, characterized by the simultaneous use of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, to investigate endophytic bacterial communities in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit. A total of 92 bacterial endophytes were isolated and initially grouped by their repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR banding pattern and biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 45 representatives showed that the isolates belonged to the species Bacillus subtilis (eight isolates), Bacillus sp. (seven isolates), Enterobacter sp. (seven isolates), Enterobacter ludwigii (six isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (six isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (five isolates), Pantoea punctata (three isolates), and Curtobacterium citreum (three isolates). Nucleic acids were extracted from the strawberry fruit and subjected to 16S rRNA gene directed polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA PCR-DGGE). The species B. subtilis, Enterobacter sp., and Pseudomonas sp. were detected both by isolation and DGGE. The DGGE fingerprints of total bacterial DNA did not exhibit bands corresponding to several of the representative species isolated in the extinction dilution (L. plantarum, C. citreum, and P. punctata). In contrast, bands in the DGGE profile that were identified as relatives of Arthrobacter sp. and one uncultivable Erythrobacter sp. were not recovered by cultivation techniques. After isolation, the nitrogen fixation ability and the in vitro production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) equivalents and siderophores were evaluated. A high percentage of isolates were found to possess the ability to produce siderophores and IAA equivalents; however, only a few isolates belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter showed the ability to fix nitrogen. Plant growth promotion was evaluated under greenhouse conditions and revealed the ability of the Bacillus strains to enhance the number of leaves, shoot length, root dry weight, and shoot dry weight. The activity of the bacterial isolate identified as B. subtilis NA-108 exerted the greatest influence on strawberry growth and showed a 42.8% increase in number of leaves, 15.26% for high shoot, 43.5% increase in root dry weight, and a 77% increase in shoot dry weight when compared with untreated controls. PMID:21837472

de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vincius; Magalhes, Karina Teixeira; Lorenzetii, Emi Rainildes; Souza, Thiago Pereira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2011-08-12

287

Distribution of heterogeneous and homologous plasmids in Bacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

A total of 75 strains (including 5 reference strains) of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. sphaericus, B. subtilis, and B. thuringiensis and 36 species-unidentified Bacillus strains were surveyed for plasmids by cesium chloride-ethidium bromide equilibrium centrifugation of cell lysates in a study of antibiotic resistance in host cells. Of the 111 strains, 13 (including 3 reference strains) were found to harbor plasmids, and 5 of the 13 showed antibiotic resistance. This antibiotic resistance appeared not to be due to the plasmids, however, because the trait was not cured by cultivation of cells in nutrient medium containing ethidium bromide (1 microgram/ml), sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.2 micrograms/ml), or novobiocin (1 microgram/ml), except in one strain, in which kanamycin and streptomycin resistances were cured by novobiocin. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, S294, was found to harbor a plasmid, pFTB14, which differed from the plasmid species of classes 1 to 6 in B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, as determined by restriction analysis and DNA contour length determination. However, in DNA-DNA hybridization on a filter after Southern blotting from an agarose gel, the pFTB14 DNA hybridized with plasmids of classes 1 to 5. Three strains of B. thuringiensis each carried at least 4 to 11 plasmid species, whereas no plasmids were detected in four strains of B. cereus, which, in relation to B. thuringiensis, is closely related taxonomically and has highly homologous DNA sequences. The plasmid DNAs prepared from species other than B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens did not hybridize with that of pFTB14. Images

Yoshimura, K; Yamamoto, O; Seki, T; Oshima, Y

1983-01-01

288

Interspecies Transformation Between Bacillus Subtilis and Bacillus Licheniformis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interspecies transformation was obtained between Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis for the streptomycin resistance marker in both directions. A comparison of the reciprocal crosses indicates at least a 2-log difference in efficiency of transfor...

I. D. Goldgerg D. D. Gwinn C. B. Thorne

1966-01-01

289

Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus biopesticides production.  

PubMed

The long residual action and toxicity of the chemical insecticides have brought about serious environmental problems such as the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in many species of vectors, mammalian toxicity, and accumulation of pesticide residues in the food chain. All these problems have highlighted the need for alternative biological control agents. Entomo-pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) are two safe biological control agents. They have attracted considerable interest as possible replacements for the chemical insecticides. Although microbial insecticides based on Bt and Bs are available for use, their high cost makes large-scale application impracticable in developing countries. This review focuses on the economic production of these two microorganisms by submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation using agro-industrial by-products and other wastes. PMID:16598830

el-Bendary, Magda A

2006-01-01

290

Using Orchardgrass and Endophyte-Free Fescue Versus Endophyte-Infected Fescue Overseeded on Bermudagrass for Cow Herds: I. Four-Year Summary of Forage Characteristics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A systems trial was designed to evaluate forage characteristics within mixed-species pastures consisting of: i) endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.; E+) mixed with common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and other forages; ii) endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) oversee...

291

Observations on the Amino Acid Composition of Hydrolyzates of Bacillus larvae (White) (Spostrzezenia nad Skladem Aminokwasowym Hydrolizatow Bacillus larvae (White)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The composition of acid hydrolyzates of nine strains Bacillus larvae, Bacillus alvei 816, Bacillus thuringiensis 818, Bacillus cereus 817, Bacillus subtilis 879, 880, and Bacillus megatherium 493 was investigated by means of paper electrochromatography. O...

T. Kostarz Z. Glinski

1974-01-01

292

Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.

Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Butehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

1999-01-01

293

Beauveria bassiana: Endophytic colonization and plant disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto

Bonnie H. Ownley; Mary R. Griffin; William E. Klingeman; Kimberly D. Gwinn; J. Kevin Moulton; Roberto M. Pereira

2008-01-01

294

Bioactive metabolites from the plant endophyte Pestalotiopsis fici  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant endophytes, Pestalotiopsis spp., are prolific producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Chemical studies on the fungus, Pestalotiopsis fici, have provided over 70 new natural products from different biosynthetic routes. Some metabolites have shown biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-HIV effects. This review covers the structure, bioactivities and putative biosynthetic pathways of selected metabolites published by us over the

Ling Liu

2011-01-01

295

Endophytic microorganisms-promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented. PMID:24048641

St?pniewska, Z; Ku?niar, A

2013-09-19

296

Antifungal metabolites from fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of five foliar fungal endophytes isolated from Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) that showed antifungal activity in disc diffusion assays were selected for further study. From these strains, the aliphatic polyketide compound 1 and three related sesquiterpenes 24 were isolated and characterized. Compound 2 is reported for the first time as a natural product and the E\\/Z conformational

Mark W. Sumarah; Julie R. Kesting; Dan Srensen; J. David Miller

2011-01-01

297

Piriformospora indica, a cultivable plant-growth-promoting root endophyte  

PubMed

Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems. PMID:10347070

Varma; Savita; Sudha; Sahay; Butehorn; Franken

1999-06-01

298

Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants?  

PubMed Central

The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential.

Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

2010-01-01

299

Endophytic insect communities of two prairie perennials (Asteraceae: Silphium spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the biology of most insects that are endemic to prairie ecosystems of North America, with the exception of large and conspicuous species. In particular, species that are sequestered within plant tissues are commonly overlooked. In this paper, we assess the biodiversity of endophytic insects that inhabit stems of Silphium laciniatum L. and S. terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae),

John F. Tooker; Lawrence M. Hanks

2004-01-01

300

Penicillium species endophytic in coffee plants and ochratoxin A production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues from Coffea arabica, C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. liberica collected in Colombia, Hawaii and at a local plant nursery in Maryland were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized tissues including roots, leaves, stems and various berry parts were plated on yeast-malt agar. DNA was extracted from a set of isolates visually recognized as Penicillium, and

Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Posada; Stephen W. Peterson; Thomas J. Gianfagna; Fabio Chaves

2006-01-01

301

[Isolation of endophytic fungi from Huperzia serrata and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity].  

PubMed

A total of 127 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, branches and leaves of Huperzia serrata. These strains were identified into 19 genera based on morphological characters and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, there into Penicillium, Aspergillus and Podospora were dominant populations in H. serrata. From analysis results we found some endophytic fungi showed a certain degree of tissue preference. The isolation rate and colonization rate of stems were both larger than those of leaf and roots. After testing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of these endophytic fungi, a total of 39 endophytic fungi belonging to 15 genera showed AChE inhibition. Eleven endophytic fungi showed potent AChE inhibition, 7 of which were isolated from leaf. The research not only provided theoretical basis for developing and utilizing the resources of endophytic fungi in H. serrata but also showed a new path for searching medicines resource which has AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:21710741

Wang, Ya; Zeng, Qinggui; Zhang, Zhibin; Yan, Riming; Wang, Lingyun; Du, Zhu

2011-03-01

302

Some endophytic fungi reduce the density of pustules of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in wheat.  

PubMed

The interaction between Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici (now widely referred to as P. triticina) and endophytic fungi in wheat was examined in laboratory experiments to determine whether the presence of fungal endophytes suppresses leaf rust disease caused by this fungus. Endophytes and cell-free washings from culture plates of the endophytes reduced the density and size of pustules in a susceptible cultivar when inoculated 3, 7 and 14 d prior to the pathogen. Disease at 12 d was reduced when the endophytes were inoculated simultaneously up to 50 mm from the fungus. Interactions between endophytes and this Puccinia are most probably mediated by defence mechanisms induced in the host plant. PMID:12825500

Dingle, Juliet; McGee, Peter A

2003-03-01

303

Fungal endophytes in five medicinal plant species from Kudremukh Range, Western Ghats of India.  

PubMed

Eighteen species of endophytic fungi were isolated from bark, stem and leaf segments of five medicinal plant species growing within the Kudremukh range in the Western Ghats of India. The dominant endophytic fungal species isolated from these plant species were Curvularia clavata, C. lunata, C. pallescens and Fusarium oxysporum. The highest species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was found in the leaf segments, rather than the stem and bark segments, of the host plant species. The greatest number of endophytic fungal species were found within Callicarpa tomentosa (11 species), whereas Lobelia nicotinifolia harbored the lowest number of fungal endophytes (5 species). This study provides evidence that fungal endophytes are host and tissue specific. PMID:15900544

Raviraja, N S

2005-01-01

304

Bacterial endophytes from seeds of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria from wooden plants and especially seed-associated endophytes are not well studied. Fresh seeds collected from four Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) from different locations in the Slovene subalpine region were surface-sterilised and dissected into a seed coat, embryo and endosperm. The presence of endophytes was detected by culturing methods and by direct amplification of the eubacterial 16S rDNA

Katarina Cankar; Hojka Kraigher; Maja Ravnikar; Maja Rupnik

2005-01-01

305

Asparaginase production by endophytic fungi from Thai medicinal plants: cytoxicity properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 194 fungal endophytes were isolated from wild medicinal plants in Thailand. Cancer-inhibitory asparaginases from 15 selected endophytic strains were tested for their anti-proliferation activity against two cancer cell lines. The endophytic fungi were asparaginase sources which were devoid of glutaminase activity. In vitro experiments showed that asparaginase from the most important strain Colletotrichum sp. E5T9 completely decreased

Teerayut Theantana; Kevin D Hyde; Saisamorn Lumyong

306

Detection of indigenous endophytic bacteria in Eucalyptus urophylla in vitro conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of indigenous endophytic bacteria in aseptically grown seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla germinated from surface sterilized seeds was investigated using dilution plating, microscopy, and PCR detection. No culturable\\u000a endophytic bacteria could be detected in suspensions of ground plant tissue incubated on solid or in liquid cultivation media.\\u000a However, a large number of endophytic bacterial cells, mostly rod-shaped and measured

Hongmiao Shen; Zhengnan Li; Dangyue Han; Fenghuan Yang; Qiuxian Huang; Longxian Ran

2010-01-01

307

Endophytic Bacteria in Tree Shoot Tissues and Their Effects on Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interactions between the plant and endophytic bacteria in the shoots likely differ to some extent from those in the roots.\\u000a Shoot endophytic bacteria are typically isolated during plant tissue culture started from shoot tips (buds) or embryos. With\\u000a methods such as in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, endophytic bacteria have been localized in buds,\\u000a seeds, and flowers of

Anna Maria Pirttil

308

Dark Septate Endophytes and Mycorrhizal Fungi of Trees Affected by Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microorganisms are involved in metal biogeochemistry through a variety of processes that promote the bioavailability and uptake\\u000a of metals and minerals by plants. Among the microorganisms that have the most intimate relationships with plants are mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi and other fungal endophytes, like dark septate endophytes. These microorganisms populate the rhizosphere and plant roots.\\u000a Many endophytic fungi can survive in high

Matev Likar

309

Effects of fungal endophytes on grass and non-grass litter decomposition rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes on grass decomposition rates has been studied through field and laboratory\\u000a experiments. However, the effects of endophytes on decomposition rates of non-grass species are unclear. This paper reviews\\u000a research data related to the effects of fungal endophytes on decomposition rates of three litter types: grass, non-grass leaf\\u000a litter (including spruce needle litter) and non-grass

Witoon Purahong; Kevin D. Hyde

2011-01-01

310

Screening of taxol-producing endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 38 endophytic fungus strains were isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei by the aseptic technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from isolated endophytic fungi and subjected to polymerase chain reaction\\u000a (PCR) analysis for the presence of the Taxus taxadiene synthase (TS) gene, a rate-limiting enzyme gene in the taxol biosynthetic pathway. Twelve out of 38 isolated endophytic fungus

X. Zhou; Z. Wang; K. Jiang; Y. Wei; J. Lin; X. Sun; K. Tang

2007-01-01

311

Generic and functional diversity in endophytic actinomycetes from wild Compositae plant species at South Sinai - Egypt.  

PubMed

The diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with wild Compositae plants is scantily explored. In this study, one hundred and thirty one endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from ten Compositae plant species collected from South Sinai in Egypt. Microscopic and chemotaxonomic investigation of the isolates indicated fourteen genera. Rare genera, such as Microtetraspora, and Intrasporangium, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were identified. Each plant species accommodated between three to eight genera of actinobacteria and unidentified strains were recovered from seven plant species. The generic diversity analysis of endophytic assemblages grouped the plant species into three main clusters, representing high, moderate and low endophytic diversity. The endophytes showed high functional diversity, based on forty four catabolic and plant growth promotion traits; providing some evidence that such traits could represent key criteria for successful residence of endophytes in the endosphere. Stress-tolerance traits were more predictive measure of functional diversity differences between the endophyte assemblages (Shannon's index, p=0.01). The results indicate a potential prominent role of endophytes for their hosts and emphasize the potency of plant endosphere as a habitat for actinobacteria with promising future applications. PMID:23541473

El-Shatoury, Sahar A; El-Kraly, Omnia A; Trujillo, Martha E; El-Kazzaz, Waleed M; Gamal El-Din, El-Sayeda; Dewedar, Ahmed

2013-03-26

312

Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?  

PubMed

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichlo/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

2013-01-10

313

Fungal endophytes from the three-leaved caper, Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. (Capparidaceae).  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from Crataeva magna, a medicinal plant growing along the streams and rivers, constituting riparian vegetation in Karnataka, southern India. Fresh bark and twig pieces were used for the isolation using standard methods. Ninety-six endophytic fungal isolates were isolated from 800 bark and twig segments. Mitosporic fungi represented as a major group (85%) followed by zygomycetes (10%) and ascomycetes (5%). Bark samples contained more endophytes than twig samples. Verticillium, Nigrospora oryzae and Fusarium verticilloides were the dominant fungal endophytes. PMID:15770450

Nalini, Monnanda S; Mahesh, Basavanna; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Prakash, Harischandra S; Subbaiah, Ven; Kini, Kukkundur R; Shetty, Huntrike S

2005-02-01

314

In planta reduction of maize seedling stalk lesions by the bacterial endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to autoinfection and alloinfection, maize is susceptible to infection by Fusarium verticillioides resulting in diseases and contamination of maize kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. Attempts at controlling this fungus are currently being done with biocontrol agents such as bacteria and this...

315

Study of the anti-sapstain fungus activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 associated with Ginkgo biloba and identification of its active components.  

PubMed

An endophytic bacterium, designated strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 was isolated from Chinese medicinal Ginkgo biloba collected from Xuzhou, China. Both the filtrate and the ethyl acetate extract of strain CGMCC 5569 showed growth inhibition activity against the sapstain fungi Lasiodiplodia rubropurpurea, L. crassispora, and L. theobromae obviously (>65%) based on the comparison of the length of zones on the petri dish. From the ethyl acetate extract of the filtrate, the antifungal compounds were obtained as a series of lipopeptides, which including series of fengycin, surfactin and bacillomycin. It showed strong growth inhibition activity in vitro against the L. rubropurpurea, L. crassispora and L. theobromae by about 70.22%, 69.53% and 78.76%, respectively. The strong anti-sapstain fungus activity indicated that the endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 and its bioactive components might provide an alternative bio-resource for the bio-control of sapstain. PMID:22520222

Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhe; Qin, Sheng; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Feng, You-Jian; Wei, Li-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2012-03-28

316

Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.  

PubMed

Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82%, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Franoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Jolle; Declerck, Stphane

2012-08-18

317

Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates

Karen K. Hill; Lawrence O. Ticknor; Richard T. Okinaka; Michelle Asay; Heather Blair; Katherine A. Bliss; Mariam Laker; Paige E. Pardington; Amber P. Richardson; Melinda Tonks; Douglas J. Beecher; John D. Kemp; A.-B. Kolsto; Amy C. Lee Wong; Paul Keim; Paul J. Jackson

2004-01-01

318

Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspic- uous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the

Cliff S. Han; Gary Xie; Jean F. Challacombe; Michael R. Altherr; Smriti S. Bhotika; N. Brown; Connie S. Campbell; M. L. Campbell; Olga Chertkov; Mira Dimitrijevic; N. A. Doggett; J. J. Fawcett; Lynne A. Goodwin; Penny Hitchcock; Paul J. Jackson; Avinash Ramesh Kewalramani; Jon Longmire; Kim McMurry; Linda J. Meincke; M. Misra; B. L. Moseman; Richard T. Okinaka; B. Parson-Quintana; Donna L. Robinson; P. Richardson; E. Rubin; E. Saunders; Nina Thayer; Linda S. Thompson; Patti L. Wills; L. O. Ticknor; T. S. Brettin; P. Gilna

2006-01-01

319

Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus mycoides differentiation using a PCR-RE technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to differentiate between Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis using the polymerase chain reaction combined with a restriction endonuclease (PCR-RE) technique. This fast and simple protocol, applied to pure culture strains, was developed using the gyrB DNA sequence, as previously proposed by other authors. Strains from international collections were used to optimize the method which

Marisa Manzano; Luca Cocolin; Carlo Cantoni; Giuseppe Comi

2003-01-01

320

Disruption of Microbial Biofilms by an Extracellular Protein Isolated from Epibiotic Tropical Marine Strain of Bacillus licheniformis  

PubMed Central

Background Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. Methodology/Principal Findings B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275) derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.6 g/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 g/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. Conclusion/Significance We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent.

Dusane, Devendra H.; Damare, Samir R.; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S.

2013-01-01

321

Evaluation of different systems for the identification of Bacillus strains isolated from Spanish fermented sausages.  

PubMed

Sixty-nine isolates obtained during the manufacture and ripening of Spanish fermented sausages were identified to species level using the Vitek Bacillus biochemical card, the dichotomous key and table proposed by Berkeley et al. ((1984). In Methods in Microbiology, Vol. 16. Academic Press, London, p. 291), morphological and physiological tests and the API 20E miniaturized system. None of the tested systems was entirely satisfactory and the final identification was mainly done on the basis of cellular morphology and the table of test results. Our isolates belonged to the species: B. subtilis (37), B. megaterium (22), B. pumilus (5), B. circulans (3) and unidentified (2). Forty-five cultures (65.2%) were accurately identified with the dichotomous key. A similar figure for the Vitek Bacillus biochemical card was 36%. The results of the API 20E system were very reproducible, especially those of the Voges-Proskauer test. Most of the strains of B. megaterium were misidentified as B. subtilis with the dichotomous key. On the other hand, a high percentage of the cultures belonging to B. subtilis were misidentified as B. megaterium with the Vitek system. PMID:22060678

Encinas, J P; Sanz-Gmez, J; Garca-Lpez, M L; Garca-Armesto, M R; Otero, A

1996-01-01

322

Purification and some properties of an alkaline xylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain 41M-1.  

PubMed Central

An alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain, 41M-1, isolated from soil produced multiple xylanases extracellularly. One of these xylanases was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The moleculr mass of this enzyme (xylanase J) was 36 kDa, and the isoelectric point was pH 5.3. Xylanase J was most active at pH 9.0. The optimum temperature for the activity at pH 9.0 was around 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable up to 55 degrees C at pH 9.0 for 30 min. Xylanase J was completely inhibited by the Hg2+ion and N-bromosuccinimide. The predominant products of xylan hydrolysate were xylobiose, xylotriose, and higher oligosaccharides, indicating that the enzyme was an endoxylanase. The apparent Km and Vmax values on xylan were 3.3 mg/ml and 1,100 micromol-1 mg-1, respectively. Xylanase J showed high sequence homology with the xylanases from Bacillus pumilus and Clostridium acetobutylicum in the N-terminal region. Xylanase J acted on neither crystalline cellulose nor carboxymethyl cellulose, indicating a possible application of the enzyme in biobleaching processes. Images

Nakamura, S; Wakabayashi, K; Nakai, R; Aono, R; Horikoshi, K

1993-01-01

323

Interactions between host plants, endophytic fungi, and a phytophagous insect in an oak ( Quercus grisea x Q. gambelii ) hybrid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined interactions between host plants, endophytic fungi, and leaf-mining moths (Phyllonorycter sp.) in an oak (Quercus grisea x Q. gambelii) hybrid zone. The community of endophytic fungi and two common endophyte species examined responded to host plant hybridization. Total fungal frequency (TFF) and frequency of Gnomonia cerastis were lowest on hosts resembling Q. grisea, and increased linearly towards those

Eric S. Gaylord; Ralph W. Preszler; William J. Boecklen

1996-01-01

324

Bacillus pseudomycoides sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous DNA relatedness studies showed that strains identified as Bacillus mycoides segregated into two genetically distinct yet phenotypically similar groups, one being B. mycoides sensu stricto and the other, an unclassified taxon. In the present study, the taxonomic position of this second group was assessed by measuring DNA relatedness and determining phenotypic characteristics of an increased number of B. mycoides

L. K. Nakamura

1998-01-01

325

The tubercle bacillus  

PubMed Central

A series of lectures on the tubercle bacillus by eminent authorities from various countries was organized at the Institut d'Hygine et de Bactriologie of the University of Lausanne by Professor Paul Hauduroy, from 22 to 25 April 1949. Through the kindness of Professor Hauduroy it has been possible for the World Health Organization to publish in the Bulletin summaries of these lectures. *

1949-01-01

326

Essential Bacillus subtilis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively

K. Kobayashi; S. D. Ehrlichb; A. Albertini; G. Amati; K. Asaig Arnaudf; M. Arnaud; K. Asai; S. Ashikaga; S. Aymerich; P. Bessieres; F. Boland; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; K. Bunai; J. Chapuis; L. C. Christiansen; A. Danchin; M. Dbarbouill; E. Dervyn; E. Deuerling; K. Devine; S. K. Devine; O. Dreesen; J. Errington; S. Fillinger; S. J. Foster; Y. Fujita; A. Galizzi; R. Gardan; C. Eschevins; T. Fukushima; K. Haga; C. R. Harwood; M. Hecker; D. Hosoya; M. F. Hullo; H. Kakeshita; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; F. Kawamura; K. Koga; P. Koski; R. Kuwana; D. Imamura; M. Ishimaru; S. Ishikawa; I. Ishio; D. Le Coq; A. Masson; C. Maul; R. Meima; R. P. Mellado; A. Moir; S. Moriya; E. Nagakawa; H. Nanamiya; S. Nakai; P. Nygaard; M. Ogura; T. Ohanan; M. O'Reilly; M. O'Rourke; Z. Pragai; H. M. Pooley; G. Rapoport; J. P. Rawlins; L. A. Rivas; C. Rivolta; A. Sadaie; Y. Sadaie; M. Sarvas; T. Sato; H. H. Saxild; E. Scanlan; W. Schumann; J. F. Seegers; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; M. Simon; P. Stragier; R. Studer; H. Takamatsu; T. Tanaka; M. Takeuchi; H. B. Thomaides; V. Vagner; J. M. van Dijl; K. Watabe; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; M. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H. Yoshikawa; U. Zuber; N. Ogasawara

2003-01-01

327

Endophytic fungi as models for the stereoselective biotransformation of thioridazine.  

PubMed

The stereoselective kinetic biotransformation of thioridazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug, by endophytic fungi was investigated. In general, the sulfur of lateral chain (position 2) or the sulfur of phenothiazinic ring (position 5) were oxidated yielding the major human metabolites thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide. The quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied among the 12 endophytic fungi evaluated. However, mono-2-sulfoxidation occurred in higher ratio and frequency. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation: Phomopsis sp. (TD2), Glomerella cingulata (VA1), Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4), and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12). Both enantiomers of thioridazine were consumed by the fungi; however, the 2-sulfoxidation yielded preferentially the R configuration at the sulfur atom. PMID:17876580

Borges, Keyller Bastos; Borges, Warley De Souza; Pupo, Mnica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

2007-09-18

328

Heat-stable toxin production by strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex and Bacillus licheniformis.  

PubMed

Strains of Bacillus cereus can produce a heat-stable toxin (cereulide). In this study, 101 Bacillus strains representing 7 Bacillus species were tested for production of heat-stable toxins. Strains of B. megaterium, B. firmus and B. simplex were found to produce novel heat-stable toxins, which showed varying levels of toxicity. B. cereus strains (18 out of 54) were positive for toxin production. Thirteen were of serovar H1, and it was of interest that some were of clinical origin. Two were of serovars 17B and 20, which are not usually implicated in the emetic syndrome. Partial purification of the novel B. megaterium, B. simplex and B. firmus toxins showed they had similar physical characteristics to the B. cereus emetic toxin, cereulide. PMID:15621453

Taylor, Janice M W; Sutherland, Alastair D; Aidoo, Kofi E; Logan, Niall A

2005-01-15

329

Altitude and forest edges influence the density and distribution of pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus).  

PubMed

In this study, we examine how high-altitude ecology and anthropogenic edges relate to the density and distribution of pygmy tarsiers. Pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus) are extremely small-bodied primates (55 g) that are endemic to high-altitude forest and exhibit several differences from lowland Sulawesian tarsier species. From June to September 2010 and January to March 2012, we conducted a population census of pygmy tarsiers across multiple altitudes. Sampling took place within a 1.2 km(2) area encompassing altitudes of 2,000-2,300 m a.s.l. on Mt. Rore Katimbu in Lore Lindu National Park, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We observed 22 individuals, with an estimated population density of 92 individuals per 100 ha. These results indicate that pygmy tarsiers live at a lower density than lowland Sulawesian tarsier species. Lower density was associated with decreased resources at higher altitudes, including decreased tree size, tree density, and insect biomass. Within the sample area, we found pygmy tarsiers in only 8 of 24 (33%) quadrats, suggesting a nonrandom distribution that probably overinflated this population density estimate. Pygmy tarsiers exhibited a clumped distribution near anthropogenic edges that were associated with increased insect abundance and biomass. Airborne insects were more abundant along forest edges than within the forest interior, and pygmy tarsiers were observed to forage along edges where there was a higher abundance of Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. Tarsiers may mitigate the decreased availability of insects at high altitudes by adjusting their ranging patterns to remain near forest edges. PMID:23325720

Grow, Nanda; Gursky, Sharon; Duma, Yulius

2013-01-16

330

Endophyte-mediated disease suppression induced by application of metalaxyl-m to potato foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year field study was undertaken to examine the effect of the systemic fungicide metalaxyl-m (the R enantiomer of metalaxyl) on endophytic populations of bacteria in tubers of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) 'Russet Burbank'. The frequency (population density) of bacterial endophytes with antibiosis activity against Phytophthora erythroseptica and Fusarium avenaceum was not independent of fungicide regime, according to Fisher's exact test

A. V. Sturz; R. D. Peters

2007-01-01

331

Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.  

PubMed

Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

2012-05-22

332

A mixed culture of endophytic fungi increases production of antifungal polyketides.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites produced by endophytic microorganisms can provide benefits to host plants, such as stimulating growth and enhancing the plant's resistance toward biotic and abiotic factors. During its life, a host plant may be inhabited by many species of endophytes within a restrictive environment. This condition can stimulate secondary metabolite production that improves microbial competition and may consequently affect both the neighboring microorganisms and the host plant. The interactions between the endophytes that co-habit the same host plant have been studied. However, the effect of these interactions on the host plant has remained neglected. When using mixed microbial cultures, we found that the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima significantly increased the production of some polyketides, including antifungal stemphyperylenol in response to the endophytic Nigrospora sphaerica. Biological activity assays revealed that stemphyperylenol can cause cytotoxic effects against N. sphaerica, although no phytotoxicity was observed in the host plant Smallanthus sonchifolius, even at concentrations much higher than those toxic to the fungus. The polyketides produced by A. tenuissima may be important for the ecological relationships between endophyte-endophyte and endophytes-host plants in the natural environment. PMID:24114180

Chagas, Fernanda O; Dias, Lus G; Pupo, Mnica T

2013-10-11

333

Isolation and characterization of new plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Those bacterial endophytes that also provide some benefit to plants may be considered to be plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and can facilitate plant growth by a number of different mechanisms. In the work that is reported here, soil samples from several locales around the world were used as a starting point for the isolation of new endophytes. Subsequently, those newly

Shimaila Rashid; Trevor C. Charles; Bernard R. Glick

334

Fungal endophytes from the three-leaved caper, Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. (Capparidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes were isolated from Crataeva magna, a medicinal plant growing along the streams and rivers, constituting riparian vegetation in Karnataka, southern India. Fresh bark and twig pieces were used for the isolation using standard methods. Ninety-six endophytic fungal isolates were isolated from 800 bark and twig segments. Mitosporic fungi represented as a major group (85%) followed by zygomycetes (10%)

Monnanda S. Nalini; Basavanna Mahesh; Mysore V. Tejesvi; Harischandra S. Prakash; Ven Subbaiah; Kukkundur R. Kini; Huntrike S. Shetty

2005-01-01

335

Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71. PMID:21887636

Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

2011-09-02

336

Are we ready for industrial production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites utilizing endophytes?  

PubMed

The prospect of endophytes capable of producing associated plant natural products with therapeutic potential is undeniable. However, the unyielding struggle so far to transform these potential sources into sustainable microbial manufacturers on a commercial scale has been disappointing. In this Viewpoint, we address this trade-off between endophyte discovery and viable industrial application. PMID:21629952

Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael

2011-06-01

337

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF UNCULTURED FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES FROM BOUTELOUA ERIOPODA AND ATRIPLEX  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes form cryptic communities in vascular plants which can defy detection and isolation by conventional methods. Molecular detection by PCR amplification of fungal DNA sequences alone is insufficient, since target endophyte sequences are unknown and quite similar to sequences ...

338

Endophytic actinomycetes from Pinus thunbergii and their antifungal activity against Cylindrocladium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inside of Pinus thunbergii could be a reliable screening source for a useful agent in controlling plant disease. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from P. thunbergii and their potential as biocontrol agents against the plant pathogen Cylindrocladium sp. were investigated. Two endophytic actinomycetes, Streptomyces sp. and Microbispora sp., were isolated from surface-sterilised root tissues of P. thunbergii seedlings. The recovery

Ryota Kataoka; Kazuyoshi Futai

2011-01-01

339

Muscodor yucatanensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During a study on the fungal endophytic associations with some trees of the secondary forest of El Eden Ecological Reserve located in the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a new fungal species was isolated as an endophyte of a tree named chakah, chachah or hukp (Bursera simaruba) by indigen...

340

Leaf chemistry and co-occurring species interactions affecting the endophytic fungal composition of Eupatorium adenophorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endophytic fungal composition of healthy leaves from an invasive plant (Eupatorium adenophorum) in China was investigated. Six morphologically different endophytes were found to inhabit the leaves. Based on a phylogenetic\\u000a analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS), four morphotypes were close to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis, and Didymella, respectively, while two morphotypes were close to unidentified fungi. The frequency

Huan Jiang; Yun-Tao Shi; Zhen-Xin Zhou; Chen Yang; Yun-Jiao Chen; Li-Min Chen; Ming-Zhi Yang; Han-Bo Zhang

341

Quantitative assessment of in planta distribution of metabolic activity and gene expression of an endophytic fungus.  

PubMed

Using perennial ryegrass infected with an Acremonium transformant carrying the Escherichia coli beta-D-glucuronidase gene (gusA) (GUS system) under control of a constitutive promoter, we have developed methods for the quantitative extraction of endophyte-associated GUS activity from plant material. Fluorometric assays of these extracts allow quantitative assessment of the distribution of endophyte-associated GUS activity within single plants (tillers) with high resolution. Fluorescence microscopy with the dye Imagene Green can in addition visualize individual GUS-expressing hyphae. Since the transformant expresses the GUS gene constitutively, GUS activity can be used as an indicator of in planta endophyte metabolic activity. Using this approach we found that (i) the concentration of endophyte metabolic activity in plant tissue decreases with increasing plant size, (ii) approximately 70% of endophyte metabolic activity present in a plant is located in the leaf sheaths, (iii) basal-apical gradients and lateral (younger to older tissue) gradients of endophyte metabolic activity exist and (iv) basal-apical gradients are established early in leaf development. Our data suggest that the concentration of endophyte in each part of the plant is regulated so that a predetermined threshold of total endophyte activity per plant is not exceeded and a consistent distribution pattern is maintained. PMID:10627142

Herd, S; Christensen, M J; Saunders, K; Scott, D B; Schmid, J

1997-01-01

342

Detrimental effects of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. on survival and development of Spodoptera litura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes have been known to confer resistance to host plants against insect herbivores mediated by fungal alkaloids. In this study we have isolated an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) from a native plant Tinospora cordifolia. To assess anti-insect potential, we tested to what extent the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest, was affected when

Abhinay Thakur; Sanehdeep Kaur; Amarjeet Kaur; Varinder Singh

2012-01-01

343

Detrimental effects of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. on survival and development of Spodoptera litura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes have been known to confer resistance to host plants against insect herbivores mediated by fungal alkaloids. In this study we have isolated an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) from a native plant Tinospora cordifolia. To assess anti-insect potential, we tested to what extent the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a polyphagous pest, was affected when

Abhinay Thakur; Sanehdeep Kaur; Amarjeet Kaur; Varinder Singh

2011-01-01

344

Site and species-specific differences in endophyte occurrence in two herbaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Endophyte fungi exist within the living tissues of all plants, but compared with grasses and trees, remarkably little is known about their ecology in herbaceous species. These fungi produce an array of metabolites in culture and there is some evidence that they can increase the resistance of plants to herbivorous insects. 2 As herbaceous plant endophytes are thought

ALAN C. GANGE; SOMA DEY; AMANDA F. CURRIE; BRIAN C. SUTTON

2007-01-01

345

REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RAM LAMBS FED ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of endophyte-infected tall fescue on reproductive development and function and carcass characteristics of ram lambs. Hampshire and Suffolk rams, 214 d of age, were fed individually a diet of endophyte-free (EF; n = 8) or infected (EI; n = 9) ...

346

Artificial inoculation of banana tissue culture plantlets with indigenous endophytes originally derived from native banana plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium wilt disease of banana is one of the most harmful fungal diseases affecting banana production worldwide. We hypothetically proposed that the loss of indigenous endophytes in tissue culture propagation of banana might be related to increased disease severity on banana plants. In the present study, a mixture of uncultivated endophytes, which was originally derived from native healthy banana plant

Lian Jie; Wang Zifeng; Cao Lixiang; Tan Hongming; Inderbitzin Patrik; Jiang Zide; Zhou Shining

2009-01-01

347

Endophytic fungi from Musa acuminata and their reintroduction into axenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen fungal taxa were isolated from 2400 leaf fragments of mature Musa acuminata plants collected from three different localities in So Paulo State, Brazil. The most frequently found endophytic fungi were Xylaria sp., Colletotrichum musae and Cordana musae. The standard distribution of endophytes was similar in the three localities. Spontaneous resistant mutants to the fungicides thiabendazole (thi-1) and benomyl (ben-5),

J. O. Pereira; M. L. Carneiro Vieira; J. L. Azevedo

1999-01-01

348

Associations between microfungal endophytes and roots: do structural features indicate function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots encounter a plethora of microorganisms in the soil environment that are either deleterious, neutral, or ben- eficial to plant growth. Root endophytic fungi are ubiquitous. These include dark septate endophytes whose role in plant growth and the maintenance of plant communities is largely unknown. The objectives of this review were to assess the structural features of the interactions between

R. Larry Peterson; Cameron Wagg; Michael Pautler

2008-01-01

349

Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Strain ENHKU01  

PubMed Central

Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01 is a Gram-negative endophyte isolated from a diseased pepper (Capsicum annuum) plant in Hong Kong. This is the first complete genome sequence report of a plant-endophytic strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae.

Liu, Wing-Yee; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Wong, Chi-Fat; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hi

2012-01-01

350

Insecticidal effect of recombinant endophytic bacterium containing Pinellia ternata agglutinin against white backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

White backed planthopper (WBPH; Sogota furcifera Horvath) has become the major threat to rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a virus vector. Here, we developed a novel method for biologically controlling WBPH by using endophytic bacterium to express anti-pest plant lectins. Strain SJ-10 of an endophytic bacterium, characterized as Enterobacter cloacae

XianFang Zhang; Jingjing Li; Gaofu Qi; Kai Wen; Jinzhong Lu; Xiuyun Zhao

2011-01-01

351

Complete genome sequence of the endophytic Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01.  

PubMed

Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain ENHKU01 is a Gram-negative endophyte isolated from a diseased pepper (Capsicum annuum) plant in Hong Kong. This is the first complete genome sequence report of a plant-endophytic strain of E. cloacae subsp. cloacae. PMID:23045485

Liu, Wing-Yee; Chung, Karl Ming-Kar; Wong, Chi-Fat; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hi; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

2012-11-01

352

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens.  

PubMed

Interactions among the component members of different symbioses are not well studied. For example, leaf-cutting ants maintain an obligate symbiosis with their fungal garden, while the leaf material they provide to their garden is usually filled with endophytic fungi. The ants and their cultivar may interact with hundreds of endophytic fungal species, yet little is known about these interactions. Experimental manipulations showed that (i) ants spend more time cutting leaves from a tropical vine, Merremia umbellata, with high versus low endophyte densities, (ii) ants reduce the amount of endophytic fungi in leaves before planting them in their gardens, (iii) the ants' fungal cultivar inhibits the growth of most endophytes tested. Moreover, the inhibition by the ants' cultivar was relatively greater for more rapidly growing endophyte strains that could potentially out-compete or overtake the garden. Our results suggest that endophytes are not welcome in the garden, and that the ants and their cultivar combine ant hygiene behaviour with fungal inhibition to reduce endophyte activity in the nest. PMID:19364739

Van Bael, Sunshine A; Fernndez-Marn, Hermgenes; Valencia, Mariana C; Rojas, Enith I; Wcislo, William T; Herre, Edward A

2009-04-01

353

Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Lib; Yoav Bashan

354

Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid,

Rodrigo Mendes; Aline A. Pizzirani-Kleiner; Welington L. Araujo; Jos M. Raaijmakers

2007-01-01

355

Endophytic bacteria of red clover as agents of allelopathic clover-maize syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early growth effects of red clover endophytic bacteria on maize seedlings were examined in greenhouse trials. We found that endophytic bacteria from preceding clover (Trifolium pratense L.) crops can be causal agents of the inhibitory allelopathic clover-maize syndrome. The effect was shown to be both direct (as in imbibition studies with bacterial suspensions of individual isolates) and indirect (as

A. V. Sturz; B. R. Christie

1996-01-01

356

Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-years old were colonized by 2, 6, 8, and 5 species of fungal endophytes, respectively. While Phoma radicina was the most frequent fungal endophyte in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, Fusarium solani was the dominant endophyte in 1-year-old ginseng roots. The colonization frequencies (CF) varied with the host age. The CF were 12%, 40%, 31%, and 40% for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, respectively. We found a variety of fungal endophytes that were distributed depending on the age of ginseng plants.

Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

357

Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (EG; n ...

358

Effects of fungal endophytes on the seed and seedling biology of Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many grasses are infected by endophytic fungi that grow intercellularly in leaves, stems, and flowers and are transmitted maternally by hyphal growth into ovules and seeds. The seed biology and seedling growth of endophyte-infected and uninfected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The percentage of filled seeds produced by infected tall

1987-01-01

359

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. RESULTS: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is

Marcelo Bertalan; Rodolpho Albano; Vnia de Pdua; Luc Rouws; Cristian Rojas; Adriana Hemerly; Ktia Teixeira; Stefan Schwab; Jean Araujo; Andr Oliveira; Leonardo Frana; Viviane Magalhes; Sylvia Alqures; Alexander Cardoso; Wellington Almeida; Marcio Martins Loureiro; Eduardo Nogueira; Daniela Cidade; Denise Oliveira; Tatiana Simo; Jacyara Macedo; Ana Valado; Marcela Dreschsel; Flvia Freitas; Marcia Vidal; Helma Guedes; Elisete Rodrigues; Carlos Meneses; Paulo Brioso; Luciana Pozzer; Daniel Figueiredo; Helena Montano; Jadier Junior; Gonalo de Souza Filho; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; Beatriz Ferreira; Alan Branco; Paula Gonzalez; Heloisa Guillobel; Melissa Lemos; Luiz Seibel; Jos Macedo; Marcio Alves-Ferreira; Gilberto Sachetto-Martins; Ana Coelho; Eidy Santos; Gilda Amaral; Anna Neves; Ana Beatriz Pacheco; Daniela Carvalho; Letcia Lery; Paulo Bisch; Shaila C Rssle; Turn rmnyi; Alessandra Rael Pereira; Rosane Silva; Edson Rondinelli; Wanda von Krger; Orlando Martins; Jos Ivo Baldani; Paulo CG Ferreira

2009-01-01

360

PLANT INOCULATION WITH OBLIGATE ENDOPHYTES FROM ARID RANGELAND GRASSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER USAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endophytic inoculation of grasses can result in significant agronomic advantages including increased drought tolerance and disease resistance as well as enhanced water and nutrient uptake. While some endophytes can increase plant toxicity, others are thought to be strictly beneficial. New attempts...

361

Antibiosis, mycoparasitism, and colonization sucess for endophytic Trichoderma isolates with biological control potential in Theobroma cacao  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theobroma cacao (cacao) suffers severe yield losses in many major production areas due to fungus-induced diseases. Cacao supports a complex endophytic microbial community that offers candidates for biocontrol of cacao diseases. Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from the live s...

362

Kakadumycins, novel antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30566, an endophyte of Grevillea pteridifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An endophytic streptomycete (NRRL 30566) is described and partially characterized from a fern-leaved grevillea (Grevillea pteridifolia) tree growing in the Northern Territory of Australia. This endophytic streptomycete produces, in culture, novel antibiotics the kakadumycins. Methods are outlined for the production and chemical characterization of kakadumycin A and related compounds. This antibiotic is structurally related to a quinoxaline antibiotic, echinomycin.

Uvidelio Castillo; James K Harper; Gary A Strobel; Joseph Sears; Kara Alesi; Eugene Ford; Janine Lin; Michelle Hunter; Michelle Maranta; Haiyan Ge; Debbie Yaver; James B Jensen; Heidi Porter; Richard Robison; D Millar; Wilford M Hess; Margret Condron; David Teplow

2003-01-01

363

Molecular characterization of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri in Ecuador  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy stems and pods of Theobroma gileri, an alternative host of the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Identification of sporulating isolates was undertaken; however, many of the endophytes isolated could not be identified morphologically as they were non-sporu...

364

Do the costs and benefits of fungal endophyte symbiosis vary with light availability?  

PubMed

Here, we examined whether fungal endophytes modulated host plant responses to light availability. First, we conducted a literature review to evaluate whether natural frequencies of endophyte symbiosis in grasses from shaded habitats were higher than frequencies in grasses occupying more diverse light environments. Then, in a glasshouse experiment, we assessed how four levels of light and the presence of endophyte symbioses affected the growth of six grass species. In our literature survey, endophytes were more commonly present in grasses restricted to shaded habitats than in grasses from diverse light environments. In the glasshouse, endophyte symbioses did not mediate plant growth in response to light availability. However, in the host grass, Agrostis perennans, symbiotic plants produced 53% more inflorescences than nonsymbiotic plants at the highest level of shade. In addition, under high shade, symbiotic Poa autumnalis invested more in specific leaf area than symbiont-free plants. Finally, shade increased the density of the endophyte in leaf tissues across all six grass species. Our results highlight the potential for symbiosis to alter the plasticity of host physiological traits, demonstrate a novel benefit of endophyte symbiosis under shade stress for one host species, and show a positive association between shade-restricted grass species and fungal endophytes. PMID:20955417

Davitt, Andrew J; Stansberry, Marcus; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2010-09-06

365

Charting the Isophasic Endophyte of Dwarf Mistletoe Arceuthobium douglasii (Viscaceae) in Host Apical Buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium; Viscaceae) are highly specialized dioecious angiosperms parasitic on many gymnosperm hosts in the northern hemisphere. Several dwarf mistletoe species are capable of inducing an unusual form of isophasic infection in which the internal (endophytic) system proliferates even into the apical buds of its hosts. Studies of the internal endophytic system have, for the most

DAVID LYE

2006-01-01

366

Endophytes: exploiting biodiversity for the improvement of natural product-based drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes, microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species, create a huge biodiversity with yet unknown novel natural products, presumed to push forward the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel, endophyte research has yielded potential drug lead compounds with antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, insulin mimetic, anti-neurodegenerative and immunosuppressant properties. Furthermore, while being implicated in

Agata Staniek; Herman J. Woerdenbag; Oliver Kayser

2008-01-01

367

An extracellular glucoamylase produced by endophytic fungus EF6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of endophytic fungus EF6 isolated from Thai medicinal plants was found to produce higher levels of extracellular\\u000a glucoamylase. This strain produced glucoamylase of culture filtrate when grown on 1% soluble starch. The enzyme was purified\\u000a and characterized. Purification steps involved (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Final purification fold was 14.49 and the yield obtained\\u000a was

P. Tangngamsakul; A. Karnchanatat; P. Sihanonth; P. Sangvanich

2011-01-01

368

Endophytic root colonization of gramineous plants by Herbaspirillum frisingense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbaspirillum frisingense is a diazotrophic betaproteobacterium isolated from C4-energy plants, for example Miscanthus sinensis. To demonstrate endophytic colonization unequivocally, immunological labeling techniques using monospecific polyclonal antibodies against two H. frisingense strains and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fluorescence tagging were applied. The polyclonal antibodies enabled specific in situ identification and very detailed localization of H. frisingense isolates Mb11 and GSF30T within roots

Michael Rothballer; Barbara Eckert; Michael Schmid; Agnes Fekete; Michael Schloter; Angelika Lehner; Stephan Pollmann; Anton Hartmann

369

Bioactive secondary metabolites from endophytes and associated marine derived fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes and fungi that are associated with marine invertebrates or with algae are of growing importance as promising sources\\u000a of structurally unprecedented biologically active natural products. This review covers the literature published in 2010 and\\u000a highlights new bioactive metabolites and known compounds for which hitherto novel biological activities have been reported.\\u000a The compounds are grouped according to their reported biological

Abdessamad Debbab; Amal H. Aly; Peter Proksch

2011-01-01

370

Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise. PMID:15471817

Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

2004-01-01

371

Diversity of endophytic fungi of Taxus globosa (Mexican yew)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was the isolation and taxonomic characterization of endophytic fungi from Taxus globosa at the Sierra Alta Hidalguense, Mexico. A total of 116 fungi were isolated from the bark, branches, leaves and roots of healthy\\u000a yew trees. Based on morphological characteristics 57 were selected for taxonomic characterization through phylogenetic analysis\\u000a of their 28S rDNA sequences. The

Flor N. Rivera-Ordua; Roberto A. Suarez-Sanchez; Zoila R. Flores-Bustamante; Jorge N. Gracida-Rodriguez; Luis B. Flores-Cotera

2011-01-01

372

Piriformospora indica , a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piriformospora indica is a wide-host root-colonizing endophytic fungus which allows the plants to grow under extreme physical and nutrient stress.\\u000a The fungus can be cultivated on complex and minimal substrates. It belongs to the Sebacinales in Basidiomycota. P. indica has a vast geographical distribution and is reported from Asia, South America and Australia. The fungus is interesting for\\u000a basic research

Ralf Oelmller; Irena Sherameti; Swati Tripathi; Ajit Varma

2009-01-01

373

Masking of antibiotic-resistance upon recovery of endophytic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

During studies on internal plant colonization by rhizosphere bacteria and endophytic bacteria over several years, we frequently\\u000a observed lack of growth of rifampicin-resistant mutants (rif+) on tryptic soy agar amended with rifampicin (RTSA). Following\\u000a seed treatment of cucumber with 6 species of rif+ rhizosphere bacteria in one experiment, all strains were recoverable on\\u000a RTSA when external root colonization was monitored.

John A. McInroy; George Musson; Gang Wei; Joseph W. Kloepper

1996-01-01

374

Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from mangrove fungal endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to select endophytic fungi from mangrove plants that produced antimicrobial substances. Minimal inhibitory\\u000a concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) or minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of crude extracts\\u000a from 150 isolates were determined against potential human pathogens by a colorimetric microdilution method. Ninety-two isolates\\u000a (61.3%) produced inhibitory compounds. Most of the extracts (2832%) inhibited

Jirayu Buatong; Souwalak Phongpaichit; Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul; Jariya Sakayaroj

375

Fungal endophyte communities reflect environmental structuring across a Hawaiian landscape.  

PubMed

We surveyed endophytic fungal communities in leaves of a single tree species (Metrosideros polymorpha) across wide environmental gradients (500-5,500 mm of rain/y; 10-22 C mean annual temperature) spanning short geographic distances on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai'i. Using barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing at 13 sites (10 trees/site; 10 leaves/tree), we found very high levels of diversity within sites (a mean of 551 134 taxonomic units per site). However, among-site diversity contributed even more than did within-site diversity to the overall richness of more than 4,200 taxonomic units observed in M. polymorpha, and this among-site variation in endophyte community composition correlated strongly with temperature and rainfall. These results are consistent with suggestions that foliar endophytic fungi are hyperdiverse. They further suggest that microbial diversity may be even greater than has been assumed and that broad-scale environmental controls such as temperature and rainfall can structure eukaryotic microbial diversity. Appropriately constrained study systems across strong environmental gradients present a useful means to understand the environmental factors that structure the diversity of microbial communities. PMID:22837398

Zimmerman, Naupaka B; Vitousek, Peter M

2012-07-25

376

Fungal endophyte communities reflect environmental structuring across a Hawaiian landscape  

PubMed Central

We surveyed endophytic fungal communities in leaves of a single tree species (Metrosideros polymorpha) across wide environmental gradients (5005,500 mm of rain/y; 1022 C mean annual temperature) spanning short geographic distances on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii. Using barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing at 13 sites (10 trees/site; 10 leaves/tree), we found very high levels of diversity within sites (a mean of 551 134 taxonomic units per site). However, among-site diversity contributed even more than did within-site diversity to the overall richness of more than 4,200 taxonomic units observed in M. polymorpha, and this among-site variation in endophyte community composition correlated strongly with temperature and rainfall. These results are consistent with suggestions that foliar endophytic fungi are hyperdiverse. They further suggest that microbial diversity may be even greater than has been assumed and that broad-scale environmental controls such as temperature and rainfall can structure eukaryotic microbial diversity. Appropriately constrained study systems across strong environmental gradients present a useful means to understand the environmental factors that structure the diversity of microbial communities.

Zimmerman, Naupaka B.; Vitousek, Peter M.

2012-01-01

377

Endophytic nifH gene diversity in African sweet potato.  

PubMed

A cultivation-independent approach was used to identify potentially nitrogen-fixing endophytes in seven sweet potato varieties collected in Uganda and Kenya. Nitrogenase reductase genes (nifH) were amplified by PCR, and amplicons were cloned in Escherichia coli. Clones were grouped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and representative nifH genes were sequenced. The resulting sequences had high homologies to nitrogenase reductases from alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria and low G+C Gram positives, however, about 50% of the sequences derived from rhizobia. Several highly similar or even identical nitrogenase reductase sequences clustering with different bacterial genera and species, including Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. NGR234, Rhizobium etli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Paenibacillus odorifer, could be detected in different plants grown in distinct geographic locations. This suggests that these bacterial species preferentially colonize African sweet potato as endophytes and that the diazotrophic, endophytic microflora is determined only to a low degree by the plant genotype or the soil microflora. PMID:14608421

Reiter, Birgit; Brgmann, Helmut; Burg, Kornel; Sessitsch, Angela

2003-09-01

378

Thielavins A, J and K: ?-Glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All three compounds inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisieae ?-glucosidase (?GHY) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 23.8, 15.8, and 22.1?M, respectively. Their inhibitory action was higher than that of acarbose (IC50=545?M), used as a positive control. Kinetic analysis established that the three compounds acted as non-competitive inhibitors with ki values of 27.8, 66.2 and 55.4?M, respectively (?=1.0, 1.2, 0.7, respectively); acarbose behaved as competitive inhibitor with a ki value of 156.1?M. Thielavin J inhibited the activity of ?-glucosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (?GHBs) with an IC50 of 30.5?M, being less active than acarbose (IC50=0. 015?M); in this case, compound (2) (ki=20.0?M and ?=2.9) and acarbose (ki=0.008?M and ?=1.9) behaved as non-competitive inhibitors. Docking analysis predicted that all three thielavins and acarbose bind to homologated ?GHBs and to ?GHY (PDB: 3A4A) in a pocket close to the catalytic site for maltose and isomaltose, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties of thielavin K (3) were corroborated in vivo since it induced a noted antihyperglycemic action during an oral sucrose tolerance test (3.1, 10.0 and 31.6mg/kg) in normal and nicotinamide-streptozotocin diabetic mice. In addition, at a dose of 10mg/kg, it provoked a moderate hypoglycemic activity in diabetic mice. PMID:23809634

Rivera-Chvez, Jos; Gonzlez-Andrade, Martn; Gonzlez, Mara del Carmen; Glenn, Anthony E; Mata, Rachel

2013-06-26

379

Population Structure and Evolution of the Bacillus cereus Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Representative strains of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, including Bacillus anthracis (11 isolates), B. cereus (38 isolates), Bacillus mycoides (1 isolate), Bacillus thuringiensis (53 isolates from 17 serovars), and Bacillus weihenstephanensis (2 ...

F. G. Priest M. Barker L. W. Baillie E. C. Holmes M. C. Maiden

2004-01-01

380

Inside the root microbiome: Bacterial root endophytes and plant growth promotion.  

PubMed

Bacterial root endophytes reside in a vast number of plant species as part of their root microbiome, with some being shown to positively influence plant growth. Endophyte community structure (species diversity: richness and relative abundances) within the plant is dynamic and is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors such as soil conditions, biogeography, plant species, microbe-microbe interactions and plant-microbe interactions, both at local and larger scales. Plant-growth-promoting bacterial endophytes (PGPBEs) have been identified, but the predictive success at positively influencing plant growth in field conditions has been limited. Concurrent to the development of modern molecular techniques, the goal of predicting an organism's ability to promote plant growth can perhaps be realized by more thorough examination of endophyte community dynamics. This paper reviews the drivers of endophyte community structure relating to plant growth promotion, the mechanisms of plant growth promotion, and the current and future use of molecular techniques to study these communities. PMID:23935113

Gaiero, Jonathan R; McCall, Crystal A; Thompson, Karen A; Day, Nicola J; Best, Anna S; Dunfield, Kari E

2013-08-08

381

Endophytic Fusarium verticillioides reduces disease severity caused by Ustilago maydis on maize.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. We used endophytic isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis DC (Corda). Endophytic F. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto maize seedlings before, simultaneously, or after inoculation with U. maydis, and the effects on smut disease severity and on plant growth were assessed. When F. verticillioides is simultaneously coinoculated with U. maydis, smut disease severity is significantly decreased and plant growth is increased, compared with other treatments. Controls show that F. verticillioides by itself does not have measurable effects on plant growth. Together, our results suggest that a commonly occurring fungal endophyte on maize, F. verticillioides, ameliorates the effects of a host-specific pathogen, U. maydis, by interfering with the early infection process and limiting disease development, resulting in increased plant growth. PMID:19694816

Lee, Keunsub; Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

2009-07-10

382

Endophyte-mediated resistance to herbivores depends on herbivore identity in the wild grass Festuca subverticillata.  

PubMed

Understanding factors that affect the context dependency of species interactions has been identified as a critical research area in ecology. The presence of symbionts in host plants can be an important factor influencing the outcome of plant-insect interactions. Similarly, herbivore identity can alter the outcome of plant-symbiont interactions. Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes confer resistance to herbivores in economically important agronomic grasses, in part through the production of alkaloids. Although endophytes are common in nature, relatively little is known about their effects on herbivores of native, wild grass species, and a recent meta-analysis suggested that endophytes are only beneficial in agronomic settings. In this study, we performed choice trials for five insect species and a greenhouse experiment with one species to assess effects of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium sp. on herbivores of the wild grass Festuca subverticillata. In feeding trials, endophyte presence altered the preference of all five insect species tested. However, the magnitude and direction of preference varied among species, with Pterophylla camellifolia (F.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and Rhopalosiphum padi L. preferring endophyte-disinfected plants and Encoptolophus costalis (Scudder) and Romalea guttata (Houttuyn) preferring endophyte-symbiotic plants. Despite reducing insect preference, the endophyte had no significant effect on S. frugiperda performance in a no-choice greenhouse experiment and did not increase plant growth in response to this herbivore. Our results show that endophyte-mediated resistance to herbivory depends strongly on herbivore identity and suggest that the fitness consequences of endophyte symbiosis for host plants will be context dependent on the local composition of insect herbivores. PMID:19689887

Afkhami, Michelle E; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2009-08-01

383

Isolation, purification and characterization of a surfactants-, laundry detergents- and organic solvents-resistant alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. HR-08.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. HR-08 screened from soil samples of Iran, is capable of producing proteolytic enzymes. 16S rDNA analysis showed that this strain is closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus mojavensis, and Bacillus atrophaeus. The zymogram analysis of the crude extract revealed the presence of five extracellular proteases. One of the proteases was purified in three steps procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose ionic exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme on SDS-PAGE was estimated to be 29 kDa. The protease exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.0 and 60 degrees C and was inhibited by PMSF but it was not affected by cysteine inhibitors, suggesting that the enzyme is a serine alkaline protease. Irreversible thermoinactivation of enzyme was examined at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C in the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2). Results showed that the protease activity retains more than 80% and 50% of its initial activity after incubation for 30 min at 60 and 70 degrees C, respectively. This enzyme had good stability in the presence of H(2)O(2), nonionic surfactant, and local detergents and its activity was enhanced in the presence of 20% of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl formamide (DMF) and isopropanol. The enzyme retained more than 90% of its initial activity after pre-incubation 1 h at room temperature in the presence of 20% of these solvents. Also, activation can be seen for the enzyme at high concentration (50%, v/v) of DMF and DMSO. PMID:19148779

Moradian, Fatemeh; Khajeh, Khosro; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

2009-01-16

384

Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants.  

PubMed

The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP-marked bacteria could be re-isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control. PMID:21255282

Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Erica Soares; Praa, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shlida Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin

2009-04-16

385

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROVARIETY ISRAELENSIS AND BACILLUS SPHAERICUS FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the...

386

Diversity of culturable root-associated/endophytic bacteria and their chitinolytic and aflatoxin inhibition activity of peanut plant in China.  

PubMed

A total of 72 isolates of root-associated/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from peanut plants grown in the main producing areas of 6 provinces in China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were determined and phylogenetic analyses revealed that 72 isolates belonged to the classes Bacilli (49 isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (23 isolates). The majority of RAE bacteria in Bacilli belonged to 2 genera, Bacillus and Lysinibacillus (48 and 1) while those in Gammaproteobacteria belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas (7, 11, 3 and 2 isolates, respectively). This is the first report of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus isolate as biocontrol agent against AFs. All of the selected RAE bacteria showed inhibitory activities against Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) growth and/or aflatoxins (AFs) production by visual agar plate assay and tip culture method. Most of the RAE bacteria strains (96 % strains) were determined to have decreased mycelia growth or AFs production levels by >50 % (p < 0.05). Bacterial isolates were further characterized for chitinolytic activity and 22 strains (30 % strains) of identified RAE bacteria degraded colloidal chitin on the chitin medium plate. Ten selected chitinolytic RAE bacteria were tested for antifungal activity on peanuts and most of them significantly decreased mycelial growth and AFs production levels by >90 %. These results showed a wide distribution of biological control bacteria against AFs in Chinese peanut main producing areas and the selected RAE bacteria could potentially be utilized for the biocontrol of toxicogenic fungi. PMID:23108663

Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Ding, Qing-Long; Wu, Qin-Xi; Wang, Zhong-Bo; Peng, Jie

2012-10-30

387

Toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and range grasses: historic perspectives.  

PubMed

A historic profile of endophyte-induced tall fescue toxicosis is presented. A chronology of events is presented, beginning with the importance of finding Balansia-infected grasses in a tall fescue pasture in north central Georgia. This initial finding was followed by the discovery that another related endophyte was present in tall fescue and other major forage grasses. This species of endophyte was identified as Acremonium coenophialum. After this report was the important discovery that cattle performance was poor on Acremonium-infected tall fescue. Thus, this endophyte and its presence in tall fescue was implicated as the cause of tall fescue toxicosis and fescue foot. It was later established that this endophyte also produced ergot alkaloids. The related endophyte of perennial ryegrass, A. lolii, was subsequently shown to be responsible for the ryegrass staggers syndrome. Several other species of Acremonium have been associated with other important forage and turf grasses. Finally, important papers leading to the revelations that endophytic fungi and their grass hosts are ecologically significant and that most should be considered mutualistic symbioses are reviewed. Symbiotic grasses have enhanced physiological and morphological characteristics that offer biotechnological exploitations on one hand, but on the other solutions to the toxicity of tall fescue are difficult because grasses free of their fungal partner are generally ecological failures. PMID:7608021

Bacon, C W

1995-03-01

388

Indole-diterpene biosynthetic capability of epichlo endophytes as predicted by ltm gene analysis.  

PubMed

Bioprotective alkaloids produced by Epichlo and closely related asexual Neotyphodium fungal endophytes protect their grass hosts from insect and mammalian herbivory. One class of these compounds, known for antimammalian toxicity, is the indole-diterpenes. The LTM locus of Neotyphodium lolii (Lp19) and Epichlo festuce (Fl1), required for the biosynthesis of the indole-diterpene lolitrem, consists of 10 ltm genes. We have used PCR and Southern analysis to screen a broad taxonomic range of 44 endophyte isolates to determine why indole-diterpenes are present in so few endophyte-grass associations in comparison to that of the other bioprotective alkaloids, which are more widespread among the endophtyes. All 10 ltm genes were present in only three epichlo endophytes. A predominance of the asexual Neotyphodium spp. examined contained 8 of the 10 ltm genes, with only one N. lolii containing the entire LTM locus and the ability to produce lolitrems. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry profiles of indole-diterpenes from a subset of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass showed that endophytes that contained functional genes present in ltm clusters 1 and 2 were capable of producing simple indole-diterpenes such as paspaline, 13-desoxypaxilline, and terpendoles, compounds predicted to be precursors of lolitrem B. Analysis of toxin biosynthesis genes by PCR now enables a diagnostic method to screen endophytes for both beneficial and detrimental alkaloids and can be used as a resource for screening isolates required for forage improvement. PMID:19181837

Young, Carolyn A; Tapper, Brian A; May, Kimberley; Moon, Christina D; Schardl, Christopher L; Scott, Barry

2009-01-30

389

Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth. PMID:23842755

Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2013-07-11

390

The use of beneficial microbial endophytes for plant biomass and stress tolerance improvement.  

PubMed

Endophytes are microorganisms that live within host plants for at least part of their life and do not cause apparent symptoms of diseases. In general, beneficial endophytes promote host plant growth, increase plant nutrient uptake, inhibit plant pathogen growth, reduce disease severity, and enhance tolerance to environmental stresses. As sustainable and renewable agricultural production (including current biofuel and bioenergy crops) increases in prominence, endophytic microorganisms will play important roles and offer environmentally-friendly methods to increase productivity while reducing chemical inputs. This review discusses various aspects of beneficial fungal and bacterial endophyte interactions with plants, including the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which they benefit plant performance. We also discuss the potential for genetic modification of endophytes with useful genes, which could be used to impart additional traits following inoculation with the genetically engineered endophytes. Finally, we review US-issued patents over the past decade which relate to the use of fungal and bacterial endophytes for plant growth and stress tolerance improvement. PMID:20201804

Mei, Chuansheng; Flinn, Barry S

2010-01-01

391

Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.  

PubMed

The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection. PMID:19259463

Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

2006-12-01

392

The contribution of foliar endophytes to quantitative resistance to Melampsora rust.  

PubMed

Foliar endophytes of Populus do not induce the hypersensitive response associated with major genes for resistance to Melampsora leaf rust. But they could contribute to the quantitative resistance that represents a second line of defense. Quantitative resistance is thought to be determined by suites of minor genes in both host and pathogen that are influenced by the abiotic environment. Here, we determined the relative importance to quantitative resistance of foliar endophytes, one element of the biotic environment. Leaves of six host genotypes differing in genetic resistance to Melampsoraנcolumbiana were inoculated first with one of four foliar endophytes (Stachybotrys sp., Trichoderma atroviride, Ulocladium atrum or Truncatella angustata), and then with Melampsora. These endophytes greatly reduced rust severity within inoculated leaves (i.e. local effects), but they had no systemic effect on rust of leaves not inoculated with endophytes. Differences among endophytes and their controls explained 54% of the total variation in quantitative resistance (i.e. rust severity); the six host/pathogen genotypes explained just 5%. In terms of magnitude of effect on rust severity, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Truncatella were ranked in this order on all host/pathogen genotypes. Endophytes may contribute significantly to quantitative resistance to Melampsora in leaves of Populus. PMID:23228058

Raghavendra, Anil K H; Newcombe, George

2012-12-10

393

Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells.  

PubMed

Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to characterize fungal cell morphology within lactofuchsin-stained roots. Cell form regularity Ireg and cell growth direction Idir, indexes were used to quantify changes in fungal morphology. Endophyte fungi in living roots had a variable Ireg and Idir values, low colonization abundance and patchy colonization patterns, whereas the same endophyte species in dead (gamma-irradiated) roots had consistent form of cells and mostly grew parallel to the root axis. Knot, coil and vesicle structures dominated in living roots, as putative symbiotic functional organs. Finally, an increased hypha septation in living roots might indicate local specialization within endophytic Ascomycota. Our results suggested that the applied method could be expanded to other septate fungal symbionts (e.g. Basidiomycota). The latter is discussed in light of our results and other recent discoveries. PMID:19269322

Abdellatif, Lobna; Bouzid, Sadok; Kaminskyj, Susan; Vujanovic, Vladimir

2009-03-06

394

Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichlo? species.  

PubMed Central

The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichlo (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among endophytes of tall fescue. Phylogenetic relationships among seven isolates from tall fescue, three from meadow fescue (a probable ancestor of tall fescue), and nine Epichlo isolates from other host species were investigated by comparing sequences of noncoding segments of the beta-tubulin (tub2) and rRNA (rrn) genes. Whereas each Epichlo isolate and meadow fescue endophyte had only a single tub2 gene, most tall fescue endophytes had two or three distinct tub2 copies. Phylogenetic analysis of tub2 sequences indicated that the presence of multiple copies in the tall fescue endophytes was a consequence of hybridization with Epichlo species. At least three hybridization events account for the distribution and relationships of tub2 genes. These results suggest that interspecific hybridization is the major cause of genetic diversification of the tall fescue endophytes. Images

Tsai, H F; Liu, J S; Staben, C; Christensen, M J; Latch, G C; Siegel, M R; Schardl, C L

1994-01-01

395

Molecular evidence for Neotyphodium fungal endophyte variation and specificity within host grass species.  

PubMed

Host specificity of Neotyphodium species symbiotic with three grass species, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne, was studied based on comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between hosts and their corresponding endophytes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from 24 accessions of host plants. Neotyphodium identity was determined based on morphological characteristics observed in cultures and polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific primers. The results of AFLP data analysis revealed high genetic variation in plant and fungal endophyte species. Plant AFLP genotypes from different species clustered in three distinctive groups, congruent with species. A cluster analysis of AFLP data grouped endophytic isolates according to their host species and secondarily according to their host geographic distribution. The result of the AMOVA on AFLP data accounted for a large and significant proportion of genetic variation due to differences among plant and endophyte species. Phylogenetic groups of isolates corresponded to their respective host genotypes based on maximum parsimony phylograms. Comparisons of the two phylograms illustrated a significant congruence between nodes and branches of host and endophyte clades. These results strongly suggest host specificity of Neotyphodium fungal endophytes with their geographically distant host grasses within each species. PMID:22675051

Karimi, Somaye; Mirlohi, Aghafakhr; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sayed Tabatabaei, Badraldin E; Sharifnabi, Bahram

2012-06-06

396

Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore preference and performance.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungal symbionts of grasses are well known for their protective benefit of herbivory reduction. However, the majority of studies on endophyte-grass symbioses have been conducted on economically important, agricultural species-particularly tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-raising the hypothesis that strong benefits are the product of artificial selection. We examined whether fungal endophytes found in natural populations of native grass species deterred insect herbivores. By testing several native grass-endophyte symbiota, we examined phylogenetic signals in the effects of endophytes on insects and compared the relative importance of herbivore and symbiotum identity in the outcome of the interactions. Preference was assessed using three herbivore species [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Schistocerca americana (Orthoptera), Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera)] and ten native symbiota, which spanned seven grass genera. We also assessed herbivore performance in a no choice experiment for five native symbiota against S. frugiperda. We compared greenhouse and laboratory trials with natural levels of herbivory measured in experimental field populations. In all cases, we included the agronomic grass species, L. arundinaceum, to compare with results from the native grasses. Both in the field and in experimental trials, herbivores showed a significant preference for endophyte-free plant material for the majority of native grasses, with up to three times lower herbivory for endophyte-symbiotic plants; however, the degree of response depended on the identity of the herbivore species. Endophyte presence also significantly reduced performance of S. frugiperda for the majority of grass species. In contrast, the endophyte in L. arundinaceum had few significant anti-herbivore effects, except for a reduction in herbivory at one of two field sites. Our results demonstrate that the mechanisms by which native symbionts deter herbivores are at least as potent as those in model agricultural systems, despite the absence of artificial selection. PMID:20585809

Crawford, Kerri M; Land, John M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2010-06-29

397

Recovery from drought stress in Lolium perenne (Poaceae): are fungal endophytes detrimental?  

PubMed

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a cool-season, perennial species widely used for forage and turf. It is often infected by a clandestine, endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium lolii) that has the potential to affect host growth responses to abiotically stressful conditions. In some species, the grass-endophyte symbiosis is mutualistic, but the relationship is reported to be contingent on environmental conditions and host genotype in L. perenne. The objective of this research was to determine the potential effects of endophyte infection on recovery from severe drought stress in variable genotypes of a perennial ryegrass cultivar. Sixteen infected (+E) and 16 uninfected (-E) ramets were planted in the greenhouse for each of 10 ryegrass genotypes. Eight +E and eight -E plants per genotype were exposed to three sequential droughts where water was withheld for 11-14 d, resulting in <5% soil moisture; the others (control) were watered as needed. Response variables were tiller numbers 1 wk and 4 wk after drought, and leaf area and dry mass of shoots and roots 7 wk after drought. In both control and drought, -E plants had more tillers, and greater leaf area and total mass, than +E plants, suggesting a detrimental effect of endophytic fungi. Fungal hyphae survived the drought and were abundant in post-drought, +E plants. The effects of endophytes were specific for particular host genotypes, as exemplified by significant genotype endophyte interactions. Root : shoot ratio and percent of mass allocated to tiller bases (a rough measure of resource storage) showed genotype endophyte drought interactions. There was plasticity for root : shoot ratio and genetic variation in the ability to restore root growth during recovery from drought. For 7 of 10 genotypes, -E plants showed an equal or greater allocation to tiller bases than +E plants following drought recovery, illustrating a cost to endophyte infection for some genotypes. The symbiotic relationship between L. perenne and its endophyte primarily benefits the fungus, not the host, under many environmental conditions. PMID:21652344

Cheplick, Gregory P

2004-12-01

398

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Nyczepir, A P; Meyer, S L F

2010-06-01

399

Tubulin inhibitors from an endophytic fungus isolated from Cedrus deodara.  

PubMed

From an endophytic fungus, a close relative of Talaromyces sp., found in association with Cedrus deodara, four compounds including two new ones (2 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The structures of two compounds (1 and 4) were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compounds displayed a range of cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A-549, HEP-1, THP-1, and PC-3). All the compounds were found to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy studies. Also, the compounds caused significant microtubule inhibition in HL-60 cells. PMID:23387901

Kumar, Manjeet; Qadri, Masroor; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Kumar, Arvind; Andotra, Samar S; Kaur, Tandeep; Kapoor, Kamini; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Hamid, Abid; Johri, Sarojini; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

2013-02-06

400

Isolation, characterization, and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of Tylophora indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dothediomycetes sp., Alternaria\\u000a tenuissima, Thielavia\\u000a subthermophila, Alternaria sp., Nigrospora\\u000a oryzae, Colletotrichum truncatum, and Chaetomium sp. were isolated as endophytic fungi from leaves and stems of the medicinal plant, Tylophora indica, based on rDNA sequencing of ITS region and microscopic examination. Alternaria\\u000a tenuissima, Colletotrichum truncatum, and Alternaria sp. were found to be active against both Sclerotinia\\u000a sclerotiorum and Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum. Chaetomium

Susheel Kumar; Nutan Kaushik; Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel; Rainer Ebel; Peter Proksch

2011-01-01

401

Two new antimicrobial metabolites from the endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp.  

PubMed

Two new acaranoic acids, named seimatoporic acid A and B (1, and 2), together with six known compounds, R-(-)-mellein (3), cis-4-hydroxymellein (4), trans-4-hydroxymellein (5), 4R-hydroxy-5-methylmellein (6), (-)-5-hydroxymethylmellein (7), and ergosterol (8) were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Seimatosporium sp, by a bioassay-guided procedure. The structures of the new compounds have been assigned from analysis of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, DEPT, and by 2D COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY experiments. A mixture of compounds 1 and 2 showed strong antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Septoria tritici, and Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:22545398

Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Schulz, Barbara; Draeger, Siegfried; Nazir, Mamona; Saleem, Muhammad

2012-03-01

402

Proteomic analysis of a filamentous fungal endophyte using EST datasets.  

PubMed

Proteomic analysis of many species of fungi, particularly filamentous fungi, is difficult due to the lack of publicly available genome sequence data and the problems associated with cross-species comparisons. Furthermore, the detection of fungal proteins in biological systems where there are a greater number of proteins present from other eukaryote species provides additional challenges. We present an EST-based approach for identifying proteins from a fungal endophyte of temperate grasses and demonstrate that this method is well suited for fungi with minimal sequence data. PMID:19337992

Bassett, Shalome A; Bond, Judy J; Kwan, Fiona Y S; McCulloch, Alan F; Haynes, Paul A; Johnson, Richard D; Bryan, Gregory T; Jordan, T William

2009-04-01

403

[Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid DNA].  

PubMed

Plasmid DNAs were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and their physico-chemical properties were studied. The DNAs were purified using ultracentrifugation in a CsCl2 density gradient. The molecular weight of these extrachromosomal DNAs determined by electrophoresis in 0.6% agarose gel and by electron microscopy was 6 . 10(6)--10 . 10(6) daltons; a DNA with a molecular weight of 90 . 10(6) daltons was also found. Digestion with restriction endonuclease EcoRI yielded fragments of the plasmid DNAs with cohesive ends; these were further identified by means of electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel. PMID:440159

Zakharian, R A; Israelian, Iu A; Agabalian, A S; Tatevosian, P E; Akopian, S M

404

Investigation of spore surface antigens in the genus Bacillus by the use of polyclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence tests.  

PubMed

Fluorescein-conjugated rabbit antibodies to formalized spores of Bacillus anthracis were tested against strains of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species in a subjective immunofluorescence test. The lack of reaction of B. anthracis Vollum spores with conjugated antibody raised against B. anthracis Sterne spores indicated that spores of the Vollum strain lacked a major surface antigen present in most of the other anthrax strains tested, including the non-encapsulated strains Sterne and the Soviet ST1, variants cured of the pX01 plasmid that codes for the toxin, and several virulent strains. Four other antibody preparations, raised against B. anthracis Vollum, New Hampshire, Ames and Strain 15, reacted to an approximately similar degree with spores of all four strains and of Sterne, indicating that Vollum has at least one spore antigen in common with these other strains. The anti-Sterne and anti-Vollum conjugates both displayed cross-reactions with spores of strains of B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus and B. thuringiensis. Absorption of the anti-anthrax conjugates with B. cereus NCTC 8035 and NCTC 10320 removed all these cross-reactions, demonstrating the existence of spore antigens specific for anthrax. PMID:3127370

Phillips, A P; Martin, K L

1988-01-01

405

DETRIMENTAL AND NEUTRAL EFFECTS OF WILD BARLEY--NEOTYPHODIUM FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE ASSOCIATIONS ON INSECT SURVIVAL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neotyphodium fungal (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae) endophyte infection does not always confer temperate grass resistance to insect herbivores, although reports indicate that over 40 species are adversely affected by infection. Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were conducted to expa...

406

Fungal endophyte N-acetylglucosaminidase expression in the infected host grass.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichlol are important mutualistic symbionts and pathogens of many cool-season grass species. Here we report the characterization of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase from the Neotyphodium sp. endophyte that infects the grass Poa ampla. The enzyme was expressed at low levels within the host, and activity could be detected in the apoplastic protein fraction. Low-level expression could also be detected in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra subsp. fallax), and tall fescue (L. arundinaceum). The enzyme may function in the recycling of chitin oligomers generated from turnover of the fungal cell wall. This is the first report of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase expressed by an endophytic fungus in the infected host plant. PMID:15912954

Li, Huaijun Michael; Crouch, Jo Anne; Belanger, Faith C

2005-03-01

407

Potential Use of a Fungus Endophyte to Transfer Insect Resistance between Turfgrass Species,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acremonium coenophialum, a fungus endophyte, colonizing perennial ryegrass varieties was isolated and maintained in pure culture. The nutritional requirements of the fungus were examined. The fungus was able to utilize several carbon sources including fru...

R. K. Kulkarni

1985-01-01

408

Production of the Alkaloid Swainsonine by a Fungal Endophyte in the Host Swainsona canescens.  

PubMed

Legumes belonging to the Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Swainsona genera have been noted by ranchers in the Americas, Asia, and Australia to cause a neurologic disease often referred to as locoism or peastruck. The toxin in these legumes is swainsonine, an ?-mannosidase and mannosidase II inhibitor. Recent research has shown that in Astragalus and Oxytropis species swainsonine is produced by a fungal endophyte belonging to the Undifilum genus. Here Swainsona canescens is shown to harbor an endophyte that is closely related to Undifilum species previously cultured from locoweeds of North America and Asia. The endophyte produces swainsonine in vitro and was detected by PCR and culturing in S. canescens. The endophyte isolated from S. canescens was characterized as an Undifilum species using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24053110

Grum, Daniel S; Cook, Daniel; Baucom, Deana; Mott, Ivan W; Gardner, Dale R; Creamer, Rebecca; Allen, Jeremy G

2013-09-20

409

Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

410

Screening of taxol-producing endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei.  

PubMed

A total of 38 endophytic fungus strains were isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei by aseptic technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from isolated endophytic fungi and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of Taxus taxadiene synthase (TS) gene, a rate-limiting enzyme gene in the taxol biosynthetic pathway. Twelve out of 38 isolated endophytic fungus strains showed PCR positive for the ts gene. Subsequently, taxol and its related compounds were extracted from culture filtrates and mycelia of the PCR positive strains, separated by column chromatography and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrum. The analysis result showed that 3 strains could produce taxol and its related compounds at the detectible level. This study indicates that molecular detection of the ts gene is an efficient method for primary screening of taxol or its related compounds-producing endophytic fungi which can improve prominently screening efficiency. PMID:17929579

Zhou, X; Wang, Z; Jiang, K; Wei, Y; Lin, J; Sun, X; Tang, K

411

Endophytic fungi in European aspen ( Populus tremula ) leavesdiversity, detection, and a suggested correlation with herbivory resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes are found in most seed plants, but their ecological function mainly remains elusive, except in pooid (or\\u000a clavicipitalean) systems. The diversity and dynamics of endophytes in non clavicipitalean plants make studies of their ecological\\u000a function challenging. This paper describes the advantage of using molecular techniques to survey the ecological function of\\u000a endophytes in Populus tremula clones. About 1,000

Benedicte R. Albrectsen; Lars Bjrkn; Akkamahadevi Varad; sa Hagner; Mats Wedin; Jan Karlsson; Stefan Jansson

2010-01-01

412

Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were

Madhavi Z. Martin; Arthur J. Stewart; Kimberley Gwinn; John C. Waller

2010-01-01

413

Isolation and characterization endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance and their potential to promote phytoextraction of zinc polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from roots, stems and leaves of Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator\\u000a Sedum alfredii. Endophytic bacteria were observed in roots, stems and leave of S. alfredii, with a significantly higher density in roots, followed by leave and stems. A total of fourteen bacterial endophytes were\\u000a isolated and are closely related phylogenetically to

Long Xinxian; Chen Xuemei; Chen Yagang; Wong Jonathan Woon-Chung; Wei Zebin; Wu Qitang

2011-01-01

414

Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 from coffee, a non-toxigenic endophyte with the ability to synthesize kojic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid (KA) in culture. When inoculated\\u000a into cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesized KA in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels of caffeine than non-inoculated ones. Aspergillus oryzae may be a useful endophyte to introduce

Fabio C. Chaves; Thomas J. Gianfagna; Madhu Aneja; Francisco Posada; Stephen W. Peterson; Fernando E. Vega

415

Gibberellins producing endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus sp. LH02 influenced endogenous phytohormonal levels, isoflavonoids production and plant growth in salinity stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous gibberellins (GAs) production and plant growth promotion under salt stress conditions. We isolated 13 endophytic fungi from soybean roots, which were screened on Waito-C rice for plant growth promoting capacity. Endophytic strain, GMH-1a exhibited maximum growth during screening and thus was investigated for GAs production and host plant interaction. GMH-1a was identified as

Abdul Latif Khan; Muhammad Hamayun; Yoon-Ha Kim; Sang-Mo Kang; Joon-Hee Lee; In-Jung Lee

2011-01-01

416

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichlo? Endophytes of Grasses?  

PubMed Central

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichlo and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosynthesis containing a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite conservation of gene sequence, gene order is substantially different between the N. lolii, C. purpurea, and A. fumigatus ergot alkaloid gene clusters. Southern analysis indicated that the N. lolii cluster was linked with previously identified ergovaline biosynthetic genes dmaW and lpsA. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons and autonomous and nonautonomous DNA transposons. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta, but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta.

Fleetwood, Damien J.; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D.

2007-01-01

417

Fungal endophytes: a potential source of antifungal compounds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of invasive fungal infections has increased significantly during organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, only a limited number of antifungal agents are currently available for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. Although new antifungal agents have been introduced in the market, the development of resistance to antifungal drugs has become increasingly apparent, especially in patients with long term treatment. Microbial natural products have always been an alternative natural source for the isolation of novel molecules for various therapeutic applications. Endophytes are the microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species and represent an abundant and dependable source of bioactive and chemically novel compounds with potential for exploitation in a wide variety of medical, agricultural and industrial arenas. In the present review several metabolites obtained from endophytic fungi with a potential as antifungal agents are mentioned with bioactivity including volatile organic compounds. The compounds reported here with a diverse scaffold can be a potential starting point for new antifungal agents either as such or after chemical modification. PMID:22202019

Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar; Verekar, Shilpa Amit

2012-01-01

418

Penicillium species endophytic in coffee plants and ochratoxin A production.  

PubMed

Tissues from Coffea arabica, C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. liberica collected in Colombia, Hawaii and at a local plant nursery in Maryland were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized tissues including roots, leaves, stems and various berry parts were plated on yeast-malt agar. DNA was extracted from a set of isolates visually recognized as Penicillium, and the internal transcribed spacer region and partial LSU-rDNA was amplified and sequenced. Comparison of DNA sequences with GenBank and unpublished sequences revealed the presence of 11 known Penicillium species: P. brevicompactum, P. brocae, P. cecidicola, P. citrinum, P. coffeae, P. crustosum, P. janthinellum, P. olsonii, P. oxalicum, P. sclerotiorum and P. steckii as well as two possibly undescribed species near P. diversum and P. roseopurpureum. Ochratoxin A was produced by only four isolates, one isolate each of P. brevicompactum, P. crustosum, P. olsonii and P. oxalicum. The role these endophytes play in the biology of the coffee plant remains enigmatic. PMID:16800302

Vega, Fernando E; Posada, Francisco; Peterson, Stephen W; Gianfagna, Thomas J; Chaves, Fabio

419

Do Sebacinales commonly associate with plant roots as endophytes?  

PubMed

Sebacinales are basal Hymenomycetes with diverse mycorrhizal abilities, ranging from ectomycorrhizae to ericoid and orchid mycorrhizae. Several previous PCR or isolation works raised the possibility that Sebacinales are endophytes in plant roots. We tested this hypothesis in an isolation-independent approach by using specific PCR primers for ribosomal DNA of Sebacinales on AM mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal roots. Thirty-nine plant species were sampled on a Caribbean and two European sites (3 repetition per species and site), covering 25 families in monocots and eudicots. PCR signals were obtained from 40 samples (28.9%) from 27 species (69.2%) and all sites. Whenever sequencing was successful, a sequence belonging to Sebacinales was recovered. A phylogenetic approach revealed that 13 of them belonged to clade B (encompassing ericoid and orchid mycorrhizal species) and 4 to clade A (usually encompassing only ectomycorrhizal species). These data suggest that Sebacinales may be endophytic in many angiosperm roots, and that this condition is plesiomorphic in Sebacinales. They bridge the gap between physiological studies, inoculating Sebacinales (Piriformospora indica or Sebacina vermifera) on diverse plants and molecular ecology, hitherto restricting Sebacinales to mycorrhizal interactions. Structural and functional aspects of the interaction deserve further studies. PMID:19616625

Selosse, Marc-Andr; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Alvarez, Nadir

2009-07-17

420

[Utilization of different carbon sources by soil and endophytic strains of Penicillium funiculosum Thom].  

PubMed

The ability of soil and endophytic strains of P. funiculosum to accumulate biomass under cultivation conditions in media containing carbon sources from mono- to polysaccharides has been studied. It has been shown that the most favorable carbon sources for the studied strains were maltose, sucrose, xylose, fructose, pectin, less assimilated lactose, arabinose, and especially microcrystalline cellulose. Significant differences in the level of biomass accumulation between soil and endophytic strains of this species in most cases were not established. PMID:23866582

Kurchenko, I N; Vasilevskaia, A I; Artyshkova, L V; Nakonechnaia, L T; Iur'eva, E M

421

Effects of paclitaxel-producing fungal endophytes on growth and paclitaxel formation of Taxus cuspidata cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a fungal endophyte, Fusarium mairei, on growth and paclitaxel formation of Taxus cuspidata cells were investigated by adding fungal endophyte culture supernatant (FECS) to suspension cultures of T.cuspidata cells. The main effective chemical responsible for paclitaxel formation in FECS was an exopolysaccharide (EPS) of molecular\\u000a weight ~2kDa. FECS fractions except EPS stimulated growth of Taxus cells but had

Yong-Cheng Li; Wen-Yi Tao

2009-01-01

422

Promotion of plant growth by phytohormone-producing endophytic microbes of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant-growth-promoting isolates of endophytic bacteria from sugar beet roots produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in\\u000a vitro in a chemically defined medium. The three isolates were selected from 221 endophytic bacteria isolated from surface-disinfected\\u000a beet roots and evaluated for potential to produce IAA and to promote beet growth under gnotobiotic and glasshouse conditions.\\u000a The inoculation of roots of beet by three

Yingwu Shi; Kai Lou; Chun Li

2009-01-01

423

Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from higher plants, are attracting considerable attention from\\u000a natural product chemists and biologists alike as indicated by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during\\u000a recent years (113 research articles on secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi in the period of 20082009, 69 in 20062007,\\u000a 36 in 20042005, 14 in 20022003, and

Amal H. Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Julia Kjer; Peter Proksch

2010-01-01

424

Molecular Characterization and Morphology of Two Endophytic Peyronellaea Species from Pinus koraiensis in Korea  

PubMed Central

Species of Phoma and its allies were isolated during a survey on the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with pine trees in Korea. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer and ?-tubulin gene sequences, two Phoma-like species from the needles of Pinus koraiensis were identified as Peyronellaea calorpreferens and P. glomerata. They were also morphologically identified based on the previous descriptions. Here, we report P. calorpreferens and P. glomerata being present in Korea as endophytic fungi in Pinus koraiensis.

Deng, Jian Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Li, Mei Jia; Seo, Eun Young; Sung, Gi Ho

2011-01-01

425

Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from surface-sterilized tissues of 36 plant species was made using humic acidvitamin (HV) agar as a selection medium. Of the 330 isolates recovered, 212 were from roots, 97 from leaves and 21 isolates from stems with a prevalence of 3.9, 1.7 and 0.3%, respectively. Identification of endophytic actinomycetes was based on their morphology and the

Thongchai Taechowisan; John F. Peberdy; Saisamorn Lumyong

2003-01-01

426

Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece  

PubMed Central

Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations.

Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

2012-01-01

427

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed.

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

428

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were

Welington L. Araujo; Joelma Marcon; Walter Maccheroni; Elsas van J. D; Vuurde van J. W. L; Azevedo de J. L

2002-01-01

429

Genome of Herbaspirillum seropedicae Strain SmR1, a Specialized Diazotrophic Endophyte of Tropical Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paran State Genome ProgrammeGENOPAR. The genome is composed of a

Fbio O. Pedrosa; Rose Adele Monteiro; Roseli Wassem; Leonardo M. Cruz; Ricardo A. Ayub; Nelson B. Colauto; Maria Aparecida Fernandez; Maria Helena P. Fungaro; Edmundo C. Grisard; Mariangela Hungria; Humberto M. F. Madeira; Rubens O. Nodari; Clarice A. Osaku; Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler; Hernn Terenzi; Luiz G. E. Vieira; Maria Berenice R. Steffens; Vinicius A. Weiss; Luiz F. P. Pereira; Marina I. M. Almeida; Lysangela R. Alves; Anelis Marin; Luiza Maria Araujo; Eduardo Balsanelli; Valter A. Baura; Leda S. Chubatsu; Helisson Faoro; Augusto Favetti; Geraldo Friedermann; Chirlei Glienke; Susan Karp; Vanessa Kava-Cordeiro; Roberto T. Raittz; Humberto J. O. Ramos; Enilze Maria S. F. Ribeiro; Liu Un Rigo; Saul N. Rocha; Stefan Schwab; Anilda G. Silva; Eliel M. Souza; Michelle Z. Tadra-Sfeir; Rodrigo A. Torres; Audrei N. G. Dabul; Maria Albertina M. Soares; Luciano S. Gasques; Ciela C. T. Gimenes; Juliana S. Valle; Ricardo R. Ciferri; Luiz C. Correa; Norma K. Murace; Joo A. Pamphile; Eliana Valria Patussi; Alberto J. Prioli; Sonia Maria A. Prioli; Carmem Lcia M. S. C. Rocha; Olvia Mrcia N. Arantes; Mrcia Cristina Furlaneto; Leandro P. Godoy; Carlos E. C. Oliveira; Daniele Satori; Laurival A. Vilas-Boas; Maria Anglica E. Watanabe; Bibiana Paula Dambros; Miguel P. Guerra; Sandra Marisa Mathioni; Karine Louise Santos; Mario Steindel; Javier Vernal; Fernando G. Barcellos; Rubens J. Campo; Ligia Maria O. Chueire; Marisa Fabiana Nicols; Lilian Pereira-Ferrari; Jos L. da Conceio Silva; Nereida M. R. Gioppo; Vladimir P. Margarido; Maria Amlia Menck-Soares; Fabiana Gisele S. Pinto; Rita de Cssia G. Simo; Elizabete K. Takahashi; Marshall G. Yates; Emanuel M. Souza

2011-01-01

430

Population Dynamics and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria Antagonistic Toward Plant-Pathogenic Fungi in Cotton Root  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antagonistic potentials of endophytic bacteria isolated from the roots of six cotton cultivars at different developmental\\u000a stages were determined in vitro toward three pathogens: Verticillium dahliae Kleb V107 and V396 and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (F108). The populations of antagonistic endophytic bacteria (AEB) toward V107, V396, and F108 at the flowering and maturation\\u000a stages were significantly higher than those

Chun-Hong Li; Ming-Wen Zhao; Can-Ming Tang; Shun-Peng Li

2010-01-01

431

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng and their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host\\u000a plant and can form a range of different beneficial relationships. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng\\u000a plants of varying age levels in Korea was investigated. Fifty-one colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng stems.\\u000a Although a mixed composition

Regupathy Thamizh Vendan; Young Joon Yu; Sun Hee Lee; Young Ha Rhee

2010-01-01

432

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum bertolonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria, endemic to serpentine outcrops of Central Italy, from\\u000a a nickel hyperaccumulator plant, Alyssum bertolonii Desv. (Brassicaceae). Eighty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of A. bertolonii and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA (ARDRA) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing in 23 different taxonomic groups.\\u000a All isolates were

Rita Barzanti; Francesca Ozino; Marco Bazzicalupo; Roberto Gabbrielli; Francesca Galardi; Cristina Gonnelli; Alessio Mengoni

2007-01-01

433

Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology  

PubMed Central

Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with ?-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate, Enterobacter asburiae, was able to exit the root and colonize the rhizosphere. Conservation and diversity in Zea-microbe relationships are discussed in the context of ecology, crop domestication, selection and migration.

Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

2011-01-01

434

A novel sesquiterpene alcohol from Fimetariella rabenhorstii, an endophytic fungus of Aquilaria sinensis.  

PubMed

A novel sesquiterpene alcohol, named frabenol (1), was isolated from liquid cultures of Fimetariella rabenhorstii A20, an endophytic fungus of the agarwood-forming plant Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The finding of a sesquiterpenoid compound in F. rabenhorstii A20 implied that endophytic fungi of agarwood-producing plants could also contribute to the generation of fragrant chemicals during the agarwood formation processes. PMID:21815406

Tao, Mei-Hua; Yan, Jian; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Li, Dong-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min; Tan, Jian-Wen

2011-06-01

435

New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented.

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

2013-01-01

436

Improved Phytoremediation of Organic Contaminants Through Engineering of Bacterial Endophytes of Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the possibilities of using engineered plant- associated endophytic bacteria to improve phytoremediation\\u000a of organic contaminants by complementing the metabolic properties of their host plant. Analysis of the endophytic communities\\u000a isolated from trees grown on groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) or trichloroethylene\\u000a (TCE) revealed the presence of many strains able to degrade BTEX compounds

Safiyh Taghavi; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld; Daniel van der Lelie

437

Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea.  

PubMed

A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop; Yu, Seung Hun

2012-06-29

438

Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea  

PubMed Central

A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea.

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop

2012-01-01

439

Study of endophytic fungal community from different parts of Aegle marmelos Correae (Rutaceae) from Varanasi (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy, living, and symptomless tissues of inner bark, leaf, and roots of Aegle marmelos, a well-known medicinal plant, growing in different parts of India including Varanasi. A total of 79 isolates of endophytic\\u000a fungi were isolated, representing 21 genera, adopting a standard isolation protocol. Members of the deuteromycotina were more\\u000a prevalent than ascomycotina and others.

S. K. Gond; V. C. Verma; A. Kumar; V. Kumar; R. N. Kharwar

2007-01-01

440

A review: recent advances and future prospects of taxol-producing endophytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the urgent search for more effective ways to treat cancer, new extraction methods of taxol from endophytic fungus have\\u000a demonstrated high potential in increasing the efficiency of taxol extraction for more efficient and sustainable production\\u000a of taxol and cancer treatment products. This paper summarizes recent advances in taxol-producing endophytic fungi, both in\\u000a China and abroad, in the following areas:

Xuanwei Zhou; Huifang Zhu; Lu Liu; Juan Lin; Kexuan Tang

2010-01-01

441

Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B.hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C.aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S.uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to ps