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1

Genome Sequence of the Plant Endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7, Triggering Induced Systemic Resistance in Field Crops  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus INR7 is an endophytic bacterium that has been commercialized as a biological control product against soilborne pathogens as well as foliar pathogens by direct antagonism and induction of systemic resistance. In the current study, we provide the genome sequence and a possible explanation of the function of strain INR7. PMID:25359912

Jeong, Haeyoung; Choi, Soo-Keun; Kloepper, Joseph W.

2014-01-01

2

Molecular characterization of a ?-1,4-endoglucanase from an endophytic Bacillus pumilus strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes comprise mainly microorganisms that colonize inner plant tissues, often living with the host in a symbiotic manner. Several ecological roles have been assigned to endophytic fungi and bacteria, such as antibiosis to phytopathogenic agents and plant growth promotion. Nowadays, endophytes are viewed as a new source of genes, proteins and biochemical compounds that may be used to improve industrial

André O. S. Lima; Maria C. Quecine; Maria H. P. Fungaro; Fernando D. Andreote; Walter Maccheroni Jr; Welington L. Araújo; Márcio C. Silva-Filho; Aline A. Pizzirani-Kleiner; João L. Azevedo

2005-01-01

3

Toxin production by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Bacillus pumilus (M11 and M38) and one strain each of Bacillus cereus (M27), Bacillus subtilis (M67), and Enterobacter agglomerans (M14) were identified from the air of Lancashire cotton mills. These strains were tested for cytopathic effects in Vero cells; B pumilus and B cereus strains were also examined for haemolytic activity, lecithinase production, and proteolytic action on

B Hoult; A F Tuxford

1991-01-01

4

Toxin production by Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Two strains of Bacillus pumilus (M11 and M38) and one strain each of Bacillus cereus (M27), Bacillus subtilis (M67), and Enterobacter agglomerans (M14) were identified from the air of Lancashire cotton mills. These strains were tested for cytopathic effects in Vero cells; B pumilus and B cereus strains were also examined for haemolytic activity, lecithinase production, and proteolytic action on casein. Rounding and clumping of the Vero cells occurred after the addition of supernatants prepared from B pumilus and B cereus strains; finger-like projections developed in the cells treated with B pumilus supernatants. Minimal effects occurred with B subtilis and E agglomerans. After two hours of exposure B pumilus (M11) produced the greatest effect, but treatment with trypan blue showed that most cells exposed to the M11 strain were still alive after 96 hours of exposure; those exposed to the supernatant prepared from the M38 strain of B pumilus were dead. Sheep erythrocytes were lysed more rapidly by B cereus than by B pumilus, B cereus (strongly positive) had a greater effect on lecithin than either of the B pumilus strains (M38 weakly positive, M11 negative). All hydrolised casein but the effect was more rapid with one of the B pumilus (M11) strains. It is concluded that not only do the toxins of B pumilus differ from those of B cereus, but there are also differences between the toxins produced by the two strains of B pumilus (M11 and M38). PMID:2066422

Hoult, B; Tuxford, A F

1991-06-01

5

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

6

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Glittering.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely used in agriculture both as an antifungal and as a growth-promoting symbiont. B. pumilus is rarely infectious but has recently been shown to infect humans. Here, we present the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Glittering, a potential biocontrol agent for B. pumilus. PMID:24309725

Matthew, Solomon P; Decker, Skyelar L; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

2013-01-01

7

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Glittering  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium widely used in agriculture both as an antifungal and as a growth-promoting symbiont. B. pumilus is rarely infectious but has recently been shown to infect humans. Here, we present the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Glittering, a potential biocontrol agent for B. pumilus. PMID:24309725

Matthew, Solomon P.; Decker, Skyelar L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

2013-01-01

8

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Riggi.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is primarily used in the agricultural industry to promote plant growth and provide resistance to bacterial and fungal plant diseases. It has recently, however, been shown to cause disease in humans. Here, we announce the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Riggi. PMID:24309728

Still, Emily L; Riggi, Catarina F; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

2013-01-01

9

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Blastoid.  

PubMed

Phage Blastoid is a siphophage that infects Bacillus pumilus. B. pumilus is widely used in agriculture but has recently been linked to cases of food poisoning. Here, we report the complete genome of Blastoid and discuss unique genomic characteristics. PMID:24309724

Mash, Scott J; Minahan, Nicholas T; Chamakura, Karthik R; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

2013-01-01

10

Complete Genome of Bacillus pumilus Siphophage Riggi  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is primarily used in the agricultural industry to promote plant growth and provide resistance to bacterial and fungal plant diseases. It has recently, however, been shown to cause disease in humans. Here, we announce the complete genome of B. pumilus phage Riggi. PMID:24309728

Still, Emily L.; Riggi, Catarina F.; Chamakura, Karthik R.

2013-01-01

11

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a ?-endotoxin expression and delivery system for subterranean feeding insects such as the larvae of pale western cutworm (Agrotis orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki cultures were toxic to pale western cutworm larvae. Three different cry genes from

L. B. Selinger; G. G. Khachatourians; J. R. Byers; M. F. Hynes

1998-01-01

12

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella; Loewen, Peter C

2014-01-01

13

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella

2014-01-01

14

Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

2012-09-01

15

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus L.B. Selinger, G.G. Khachatourians, J.R. Byers, and M.F. Hynes Abstract: The -endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a -endotoxin expression

Selinger, Brent

16

Cutaneous infection due to Bacillus pumilus: report of 3 cases.  

PubMed

Human infection due to Bacillus pumilus is exceptional. We report 3 cases of cutaneous infection caused by B. pumilus that occurred in 3 shepherds, 2 of whom were members of the same family. The lesions appeared to have a morphology similar to that of cutaneous anthrax lesions. Two patients were cured after treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate, and the third patient was cured after prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin. To our knowledge, primary cutaneous infection due to B. pumilus has not been reported. B. pumilus should be considered in patients who develop lesions suggestive of cutaneous anthrax. PMID:17243047

Tena, Daniel; Martinez-Torres, Juan Angel; Perez-Pomata, María Teresa; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Rubio, Virginia; Bisquert, Julia

2007-02-15

17

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2012-07-01

18

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2013-07-01

19

78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0264; FRL-9389-2] Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption...requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or on all...maximum permissible level for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 under the...

2013-06-12

20

Genomic characterization of six novel Bacillus pumilus bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight bacteriophages infecting the local host Bacillus pumilus BL-8 were isolated, purified, and characterized. Nine genomes were sequenced, of which six were annotated and are the first of this host submitted to the public record. The 28 phages were divided into two groups by sequence and morphological similarity, yielding 27 cluster BpA phages and 1 cluster BpB phage, which is a BL-8 prophage. Most of the BpA phages have a host range restricted to distantly related strains, B. pumilus and B. simplex, reflecting the complexities of Bacillus taxonomy. Despite isolation over wide geographic and temporal space, the six cluster BpA phages share most of their 23 functionally annotated protein features and show a high degree of sequence similarity, which is unique among phages of the Bacillus genera. This is the first report of B. pumilus phages since 1981. PMID:23906709

Lorenz, Laura; Lins, Bridget; Barrett, Jonathan; Montgomery, Andrew; Trapani, Stephanie; Schindler, Anne; Christie, Gail E; Cresawn, Steven G; Temple, Louise

2013-09-01

21

Regulatory mutations affecting the synthesis of cellulase in Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wild strain of Bacillus pumilus was investigated for cellulase production, and putative mutants of this strain were screened for catabolite repression insensitivity after chemical mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) as a mutagenic agent. Out of four classes of mutants studied and classified according to their cellulase induction rate and level of cellulase production in the presence of high concentrations

Simeon Oloni Kotchoni; Olusola Olusoji Shonukan

2002-01-01

22

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032: A model for planetary protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—In order to prevent forward contamination of Mars, it is necessary to minimize the biobur- den on spacecraft that will contact the Martian surface. Bacillus pumilus strains whose spores are unusu- ally resistant to ultraviolet light and other means ,of sterilization have ,been consistently found in the clean rooms used in spacecraft assembly as well as on spacecraft. In order

George E. Fox

2007-01-01

23

Genomic Changes that May be Responsible for the Elevated UV Resistance of Bacillus Pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 whose spores are highly resistant to UV and the closely related B. pumilus ATCC-7061 that lacks this resistance are compared. Candidate genes are identified that may be responsible for the elevated resistance.

Tirumalai, M. R.; Rastogi, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Fox, G. E.

2010-04-01

24

Rhamnolipid mediated disruption of marine Bacillus pumilus biofilms.  

PubMed

Removal of detrimental biofilms from surfaces exposed in the marine environment remains a challenge. A strain of Bacillus pumilus was isolated from the surface of titanium coupons immersed in seawater in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) on the East coast of India. The bacterium formed extensive biofilms when compared to species such as Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. A commercially available rhamnolipid was assessed for its ability to inhibit adhesion and disrupt pre-formed B. pumilus biofilms. The planktonic growth of B. pumilus cells was inhibited by concentrations >1.6mM. We studied the effect of various concentrations (0.05-100mM) of the rhamnolipid on adhesion of B. pumilus cells to polystyrene microtitre plates, wherein the effectiveness varied from 46 to 99%. Biofilms of B. pumilus were dislodged efficiently at sub-MIC concentrations, suggesting the role of surfactant activity in removing pre-formed biofilms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the removal of biofilm-matrix components and disruption of biofilms by treatment with the rhamnolipid. The results suggest the possible use of rhamnolipids as efficient anti-adhesive and biofilm-disrupting agents with potential applications in controlling biofilms on surfaces. PMID:20688490

Dusane, Devendra H; Nancharaiah, Y Venkata; Zinjarde, Smita S; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

2010-11-01

25

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

E-print Network

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Jason Background. Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, c-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard

Fox, George

26

Synthesis of the extracellular protease by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus synthesizes an oxtracellular protease during the stationary phase of growth when the intracellular protease level is rather\\u000a low. The formation of the enzyme is blocked by chloramphenicol. A shift from batch to continuous cultivation is accompanied\\u000a by a decreased enzyme level in the medium. The original concentration of the enzyme in the medium can be attained only after

J. Fabián

1970-01-01

27

A thermostable ?-arabinofuranosidase from xylanolytic Bacillus pumilus: purification and characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus PS213 secretes an ?-l-arabinofuranosidase (AF) when grown in the presence of arabinogalactan or oat meal. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and characterised. Its molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration, is 220 kDa, while sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a single band of approximately 60 kDa. According to the result of the mass spectrometry

Giuliano Degrassi; Alessandro Vindigni; Vittorio Venturi

2003-01-01

28

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...tolerance is established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or on...

2012-07-01

29

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2012-07-01

30

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2013-07-01

33

40 CFR 180.1322 - Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1322 Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...tolerance is established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or...

2013-07-01

34

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...tolerance is established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or on...

2013-07-01

35

Isolation of Thermophilic Mutants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus and Transformation of the Thermophilic Trait to Mesophilic Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ Thermophilic mutants were isolated from mesophilic Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus by plating large numbers of cells and incubating them for several days at a temperature about 10 \\

MARY L. DROFFNER; NOBUTO YAMAMOTO

1985-01-01

36

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when...

2011-07-01

37

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when...

2010-07-01

38

Mechanism of inhibited growth of Bacillus pumilus by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.  

PubMed

Physiological studies were conducted in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of inhibition of Bacillus pumilus by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Inhibition of B. pumilus by P. shermanii occurred in media supplemented with 1% glucose, indicating that glucose utilization by the latter bacterium was not responsible for growth inhibition of the former bacterium. The medium pH in which P. shermanii inhibited the growth of B. pumilus was 4.3. Propionic acid was positively identified in the culture medium in which B. pumilus was inhibited by P. shermanii. The presence of propionic acid and a low medium pH may account for the inhibition of B. pumilus by P. shermanii. Sodium lactate concentrations of 0.8-1.0% were essential for the continuous growth of and propionic acid production by P. shermanii. Thus, use of P. shermanii to inhibit B. pumilus in foods would likely require a lactate source. PMID:8060789

Marshall, D L; Odame-Darkwah, J K

1994-04-01

39

Fermentation of starch for enhanced alkaline protease production by constructing an alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new engineering strain, Bacillus pumilus c172-14 (pBX 96), was obtained by introducing the pBX 96 plasmid, which carries the !-amylase amy gene, into the host strain of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus c172 via transformation. The newly constructed strain was found to express the amy gene and could use starch instead of glucose or starch hydrolysate as carbon source for its

Y. Y. Feng; W. B. Yang; S. L. Ong; J. Y. Hu; W. J. Ng

2001-01-01

40

Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies. PMID:24031395

Figueiredo, Jose Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Correa; Bressan, Wellington

2009-01-01

41

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Pyrolysis Gas-Liquid Chromatography, Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hybridization, Biochemical Tests, and API Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight strains each of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus lichenifor- mis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were analyzed by using pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis with canonical variates gave four well-sep- arated groups, which represented the four species. Further analysis of the same strains by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization and API identification systems confirmed the discrimination obtained with pyrolysis gas- liquid chromatography.

A. G. O'DONNELL; J. R. NORRIS; R. C. W. BERKELEY; D. CLAUS; T. KANEK; N. A. LOGAN

42

Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. Case presentation We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Conclusion Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure. PMID:17967173

Bentur, HN; Dalzell, AM; Riordan, FAI

2007-01-01

43

Extreme Spore UV Resistance of Bacillus pumilus Isolates Obtained from an Ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent environmental microbial sampling of the ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL-SAF) identified spores of Bacillus pumilus as major culturable bacterial contaminants found on and around spacecraft. As part of an effort to assess the efficacy of various spacecraft sterilants, purified spores of 10 JPL-SAF B. pumilus isolates were subjected to 254-nm UV and their UV

L. Link; J. Sawyer; K. Venkateswaran; W. Nicholson

2004-01-01

44

Improvement of the newly isolated Bacillus pumilus FH9 keratinolytic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different feather degrading bacteria were isolated from soil using an enrichment technique with feather as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. A strain with high keratinolytic activity was identified as Bacillus pumilus FH9 using sequencing of the 16SrDNA gene. Phylogenic analysis showed that the strain was most similar to B. pumilus AF526896 and AF526898. Complete feather degradation was achieved at

H. A. El-Refai; M. A. AbdelNaby; A. Gaballa; M. H. El-Araby; A. F. Abdel Fattah

2005-01-01

45

Cloning, Molecular Characterization, and Application of Rice Epiphytic Bacillus pumilus Promoter Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a constitutive, high-efficiency expression system for Bacillus pumilus (B.P), we cloned random chromosomal DNA into promoter probe shuttle vector ECE7 and selected for strong promoter activity\\u000a by chloramphenicol resistance of transformed B. pumilus cells. The nucleotide sequences of nine chromosomal fragments were determined. These DNA fragments range from 300 to 2200\\u000a bp in size. The transcription strength of

Qingyu Cao; Zhicai Qu; Youzhong Wan; Hongwei Zhang; Daleng Shen

2001-01-01

46

Biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin by a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus strain: Identification of major metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain S-1 capable of transforming isoeugenol to vanillin was isolated. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid composition, riboprint pattern and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. In the biotransformation of isoeugenol, vanillin was the main product. With the growing culture of B. pumilus S-1, 10gl?1 isoeugenol was converted to 3.75gl?1 vanillin

Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Shan Lin; Lifu Song; Zixin Deng; Zarao Maomy; Zhaobin Zhang; Bo Yu; Ping Xu

2007-01-01

47

Growth promotion of red pepper plug seedlings and the production of gibberellins by Bacillus cereus , Bacillus macroides and Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of red pepper plug seedlings was promoted by Bacillus cereus MJ-1, B. macroides CJ-29, and B. pumilus CJ-69 isolated from the rhizosphere. Gibberellins (GAs), a well-known plant growth-promoting hormone, were detected in the culture broth of their rhizobacteria. Among the GAs, the contents of GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7, physiologically active GAs, were comparatively higher than those of

Gil-Jae Joo; Young-Mog Kim; In-Jung Lee; Kyung-Sik Song; In-Koo Rhee

2004-01-01

48

Expression of a xylanase gene of Bacillus pumilus in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid plasmid, pOXN29 (10.4 Mdal), coding the xylanase (xynA) and ß-xylosidase (xynB) genes of Bacillus pumilus IPO was constructed by the ligation of pBR322 and a 7.7 Mdal PstI-fragment of chromosomal DNA as reported in our previous paper (Panbangred et al. 1983). A deletion plasmid of pOXN29, pOXN293 (9.2 Mdal), which contains xynA and xynB, was ligated with pUB110

Watanalai Panbangred; Eiichiro Fukusaki; Evangeline C. Epifanio; Atsuhiko Shinmyo; Hirosuke Okada

1985-01-01

49

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India  

PubMed Central

Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus. PMID:24031357

Parvathi, Ammini; Krishna, Kiran; Jose, Jiya; Joseph, Neetha; Nair, Santha

2009-01-01

50

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, ?-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species. Principal Findings The genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032 was sequenced and annotated. Lists of genes relevant to DNA repair and the oxidative stress response were generated and compared to B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. Differences in conservation of genes, gene order, and protein sequences are highlighted because they potentially explain the extreme resistance phenotype of B. pumilus. The B. pumilus genome includes genes not found in B. subtilis or B. licheniformis and conserved genes with sequence divergence, but paradoxically lacks several genes that function in UV or H2O2 resistance in other Bacillus species. Significance This study identifies several candidate genes for further research into UV and H2O2 resistance. These findings will help explain the resistance of B. pumilus and are applicable to understanding sterilization survival strategies of microbes. PMID:17895969

Qin, Xiang; Jiang, Huaiyang; Igboeli, Okezie C.; Muzny, Donna; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Ding, Yan; Hawes, Alicia; Liu, Wen; Perez, Lesette; Kovar, Christie; Dinh, Huyen; Lee, Sandra; Nazareth, Lynne; Blyth, Peter; Holder, Michael; Buhay, Christian; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Liu, Yamei; Dasgupta, Indrani; Bokhetache, Lina; Fujita, Masaya; Karouia, Fathi; Eswara Moorthy, Prahathees; Siefert, Johnathan; Uzman, Akif; Buzumbo, Prince; Verma, Avani; Zwiya, Hiba; McWilliams, Brian D.; Olowu, Adeola; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Newcombe, David; Golebiewski, Lisa; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Fox, George E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Highlander, Sarah K.; Weinstock, George M.

2007-01-01

51

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, ?-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species.Principal FindingsThe genome of B.

Jason Gioia; Shailaja Yerrapragada; Xiang Qin; Huaiyang Jiang; Okezie C. Igboeli; Donna Muzny; Shannon Dugan-Rocha; Yan Ding; Alicia Hawes; Wen Liu; Lesette Perez; Christie Kovar; Huyen Dinh; Sandra Lee; Lynne Nazareth; Peter Blyth; Michael Holder; Christian Buhay; Madhan R. Tirumalai; Yamei Liu; Indrani Dasgupta; Lina Bokhetache; Masaya Fujita; Fathi Karouia; Prahathees Eswara Moorthy; Johnathan Siefert; Akif Uzman; Prince Buzumbo; Avani Verma; Hiba Zwiya; Brian D. McWilliams; Adeola Olowu; Kenneth D. Clinkenbeard; David Newcombe; Lisa Golebiewski; Joseph F. Petrosino; Wayne L. Nicholson; George E. Fox; Kasthuri Venkateswaran; Sarah K. Highlander; George M. Weinstock; Abraham Sonenshein

2007-01-01

52

Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis Using MALDI-TOF-MS  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, Joao; Pintado, Manuela E.; Peixe, Luisa V.; Osorio, Hugo

2014-01-01

53

Recurrent isolation of hydrogen peroxide-resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware.

Kempf, Michael J.; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-01-01

54

Extreme spore UV resistance of Bacillus pumilus isolates obtained from an ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility.  

PubMed

Recent environmental microbial sampling of the ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL-SAF) identified spores of Bacillus pumilus as major culturable bacterial contaminants found on and around spacecraft. As part of an effort to assess the efficacy of various spacecraft sterilants, purified spores of 10 JPL-SAF B. pumilus isolates were subjected to 254-nm UV and their UV resistance was compared to spores of standard B. subtilis biodosimetry strains. Spores of six of the 10 JPL-SAF isolates were significantly more resistant to UV than the B. subtilis biodosimetry strain, and one of the JPL-SAF isolates, B. pumilus SAFR-032, exhibited the highest degree of spore UV resistance observed by any Bacillus spp. encountered to date. PMID:14502417

Link, L; Sawyer, J; Venkateswaran, K; Nicholson, W

2004-02-01

55

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus CCMA-560, Isolated from an Oil-Contaminated Mangrove Swamp.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus strain CCMA-560 was isolated from an oil-contaminated mangrove swamp and was shown to produce biosurfactants. The strain appears to be capable of degrading some plant cell wall-related compounds, including hemicelluose and pectin. Genes for biopolymer export and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin synthesis were also annotated. PMID:24029758

Domingos, Daniela F; Dellagnezze, Bruna M; Greenfield, Paul; Reyes, Luciana R; Melo, Itamar S; Midgley, David J; Oliveira, Valéria M

2013-01-01

56

Surfactin-like structures of five cyclic depsipeptides from the marine isolate of Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cyclic depsipeptides with molecular masses of 1007, 1021, 1021, 1035, and 1035 were obtained fromBacillus pumilus KMM 150 associated with Australian marine spongeIrcinia sp. Their structures were assigned by mass spectrometric techniques (high-resolution fast atom bombardment and electron impact mass spectrometry), chemical modification, and extensive spectroscopic analysis, including several types of two-dimensional NMR.

N. I. Kalinovskaya; T. A. Kuznetsova; Ya. V. Rashkes; Yu. M. Mil'grom; E. G. Mil'grom; R. H. Willis; A. I. Wood; H. A. Kurtz; C. Carabedian; P. Murphy; G. B. Elyakov

1995-01-01

57

Production and partial characterization of endoxylanase by Bacillus pumilus using agro industrial residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro industrial residues, cheap sources of energy have high potential in the area of fermentation for the production of lignocellulases. Different agro industrial waste products were evaluated as substrates in submerged and solid-state fermentation for xylanolytic enzyme production by Bacillus pumilus and the enzyme titers were compared. Higher titer of endoxylanase was obtained with solid state than with liquid fermentation

C. Asha Poorna; P. Prema

2006-01-01

58

Bacillus pumilus reveals a remarkably high resistance to hydrogen peroxide provoked oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome level. Genes/proteins belonging to regulons, which are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, were found to be upregulated, such as the Fur, Spx, SOS or CtsR regulon. Strikingly, parts of the fundamental PerR regulon responding to peroxide stress in B. subtilis are not encoded in the B. pumilus genome. Thus, B. pumilus misses the catalase KatA, the DNA-protection protein MrgA or the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpCF. Data of this study suggests that the catalase KatX2 takes over the function of the missing KatA in the oxidative stress response of B. pumilus. The genome-wide expression analysis revealed an induction of bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) relevant genes. An analysis of the intracellular metabolites detected high intracellular levels of this protective metabolite, which indicates the importance of bacillithiol in the peroxide stress resistance of B. pumilus. PMID:24465625

Handtke, Stefan; Schroeter, Rebecca; Jürgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Schlüter, Rabea; Albrecht, Dirk; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael; Voigt, Birgit

2014-01-01

59

Bacillus pumilus Reveals a Remarkably High Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide Provoked Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome level. Genes/proteins belonging to regulons, which are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, were found to be upregulated, such as the Fur, Spx, SOS or CtsR regulon. Strikingly, parts of the fundamental PerR regulon responding to peroxide stress in B. subtilis are not encoded in the B. pumilus genome. Thus, B. pumilus misses the catalase KatA, the DNA-protection protein MrgA or the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpCF. Data of this study suggests that the catalase KatX2 takes over the function of the missing KatA in the oxidative stress response of B. pumilus. The genome-wide expression analysis revealed an induction of bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) relevant genes. An analysis of the intracellular metabolites detected high intracellular levels of this protective metabolite, which indicates the importance of bacillithiol in the peroxide stress resistance of B. pumilus. PMID:24465625

Jurgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Schluter, Rabea; Albrecht, Dirk; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael; Voigt, Birgit

2014-01-01

60

The acetyl xylan esterase of Bacillus pumilus belongs to a family of esterases with broad substrate specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding acetyl xylan esterase (axe) was identified and characterized. The axe gene was expressed and the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was purified and characterized. The recombinant enzyme displayed similar properties to the acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) purified from B. pumilus. The AXE primary structure was 76% identical to the cephalosporin C deacetylase of B.

Giuliano Degrassi; Milan Kojic; Goran Ljubijankic; Vittorio Venturi

2000-01-01

61

Draft Whole Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain 3-19, a Chemical Mutant Overproducing Extracellular Ribonuclease  

PubMed Central

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. It was derived from soil-isolated B. pumilus 7P using chemical mutagenesis and is characterized by elevated production of extracellular ribonuclease which is known to possess different biological activities with potential of applications in experimental research, medicine, and biotechnology. PMID:25059870

Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

62

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus 7P, Isolated from the Soil of the Tatarstan Republic, Russia.  

PubMed

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 7P. This strain was isolated from soil as an extracellular RNase-producing microorganism. The RNase of B. pumilus 7P is considered to be a potential antiviral and therapeutic antitumor agent, and it might be appropriate for agriculture and academic synthesis of oligoribonucleotides. PMID:24926064

Shagimardanova, Elena I; Toymentseva, Anna A; Balaban, Nelly P; Mardanova, Ayslu M; Danilova, Yulia V; Gusev, Oleg A; Kostryukova, Elena; Karpova, Irina; Manolov, Aleksandr; Alexeev, Dmitriy; Sharipova, Margarita R

2014-01-01

63

Draft Whole Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain 3-19, a Chemical Mutant Overproducing Extracellular Ribonuclease.  

PubMed

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. It was derived from soil-isolated B. pumilus 7P using chemical mutagenesis and is characterized by elevated production of extracellular ribonuclease which is known to possess different biological activities with potential of applications in experimental research, medicine, and biotechnology. PMID:25059870

Ulyanova, Vera; Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

64

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus 7P, Isolated from the Soil of the Tatarstan Republic, Russia  

PubMed Central

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 7P. This strain was isolated from soil as an extracellular RNase-producing microorganism. The RNase of B. pumilus 7P is considered to be a potential antiviral and therapeutic antitumor agent, and it might be appropriate for agriculture and academic synthesis of oligoribonucleotides. PMID:24926064

Toymentseva, Anna A.; Balaban, Nelly P.; Mardanova, Ayslu M.; Danilova, Yulia V.; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kostryukova, Elena; Karpova, Irina; Manolov, Aleksandr; Alexeev, Dmitriy

2014-01-01

65

Modification of a xylanase from bacillus pumilus with pentaammineruthenium(III)  

SciTech Connect

A xylanase, xynA of Bacillus pumilus, was purified, and then modified by the attachment of pentaammineruthenium, resulting in the generation of a xylanase with veratryl alcohol oxidase activity. Modification of B. pumilus xyn A was found to greatly reduce xylan hydrolysis unless the active site of the xylanase was protected with xylose during the modification. Addition of histidine, cysteine, or reduced glutathione during xylan hydrolysis greatly increased xylanase activity of the modified xylanase. Glycine, glutamic acid, methionine, or oxidized glutathione had no effect on xylanase activity. The site of attachment of pentaammineruthenium, was identified as His-160 by mass spectroscopy and sequence determination of tryptic peptides from modified and native xylanase.

Evans, B.R.; Lane, L.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

66

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808...

2011-07-01

67

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST...

2010-07-01

68

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST...

2011-07-01

69

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808...

2010-07-01

70

Isolation and biochemical characterization of Bacillus pumilus lipases from the Antarctic.  

PubMed

Lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from Antarctic soil samples using the tricaprylin agar plate method. Seven strains with relatively strong lipase activities were selected. All of them turned out to be Bacillus pumilus strains by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their corresponding lipase genes were cloned, sequenced, and compared. Finally, three different Bacillus pumilus lipases (BPL1, BPL2, and BPL3) were chosen. Their amino acid sequence identities were in the range of 92-98% with the previous Bacillus pumilus lipases. Their optimum temperatures and pHs were measured to be 40 degrees C and pH 9. Lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL2 were stable up to 30 degrees C, whereas lipase BPL3 was stable up to 20 degrees C. Lipase BPL2 was stable within a pH range of 6-10, whereas lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL3 were stable within a pH range of 5-11, showing strong alkaline tolerance. All these lipases exhibited high hydrolytic activity toward pnitrophenyl caprylate (C8). In addition, lipase BPL1 showed high hydrolytic activity toward tributyrin, whereas lipase BPL2 and lipase BPL3 hydrolyzed tricaprylin and castor oil preferentially. These results demonstrated that the three Antarctic Bacillus lipases were alkaliphilic and had a substrate preference toward short- and mediumchain triglycerides. These Antarctic Bacillus lipases might be used in detergent and food industries. PMID:23648856

Arifin, Arild Ranlym; Kim, Soon-Ja; Yim, Joung Han; Suwanto, Antonius; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2013-05-01

71

2,5-Diketopiperazines produced by Bacillus pumilus during bacteriolysis of Arthrobacter citreus.  

PubMed

We report the detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the secreted 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) cyclo(-Ala-Pro), cyclo(-Gly-Pro), cyclo(-Val-Pro), cyclo(-Ile-Pro), cyclo(-Leu-Pro), cyclo(-Pro-Pro), cyclo(-HyP-Pro), cyclo(-Met-Pro), and cyclo(-Phe-Pro) produced by Bacillus pumilus. The study focuses on a marine isolate and a laboratory test strain of B. pumilus with capabilities to lyse pregrown living cell lawns of different bacterial species, among them Arthrobacter citreus. Chromatographic methods were used to analyze induced bioactive compounds. At least 13 different DKPs are produced by B. pumilus. Both strains respond with an increased production of the DKPs cyclo(-Gly-Pro), cyclo(-Ala-Pro), and cyclo(-Val-Pro) to the presence of pasteurized A. citreus cells after 4 h in a nutrient-poor liquid medium. In agar diffusion assays, these DKPs did not cause lysis zones in living cell lawns, but they did inhibit further growth of several pregrown test bacteria in microplates even at concentrations as low as 1 ?g ml(-1). Antibiotic substances produced by B. pumilus after 20 h of cultivation in a special lysis medium showed lytic activity in cell-free extracts of B. pumilus culture supernatants. PMID:24449388

Brack, Christiane; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

2014-08-01

72

Interactive behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus pumilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.  

PubMed

Prevention of ropy bread caused by mucoid variants of certain bacilli presents a major problem for developing countries where cost of preservatives is prohibitive. Control of ropiness may be achieved by using propionic acid-producing bacteria in mixed culture with leavening yeasts. Therefore, interaction studies between Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, Bacillus pumilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in a chemically defined medium to test the relevance of such an approach. Growth of vegetative cells and germination of spores of B. pumilus were inhibited in media preincubated with P. shermanii at 30 degrees C for 13 h. Inhibition was bacteriostatic for the first 6 h of incubation, becoming bactericidal between 6 and 12 h. Inhibition of B. pumilus spore germination was greater than inhibition of growth of vegetative cells of the bacterium. Culturing of either P. shermanii with S. cerevisiae or B. pumilus with S. cerevisiae did not produce inhibitory effects on any of the organisms. Inhibition of B. pumilus by P. shermanii may be useful for prevention of ropiness in bread prepared by the sponge method, involving fermentation of a portion of the dough. PMID:8257655

Odame-Darkwah, J K; Marshall, D L

1993-09-01

73

Sterilizing Bacillus pumilus spores using supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) has been evaluated as a new sterilization technology. Results are presented on killing of B. pumilus spores using SC CO2 containing trace levels of additives. Complete killing was achieved with 200 part per million (ppm) hydrogen peroxide in SC CO2 at 60°C, 27.5MPa. Addition of water to SC CO2 resulted in greater than three-log killing,

Jian Zhang; Sarah Burrows; Courtney Gleason; Michael A. Matthews; Michael J. Drews; Martine LaBerge; Yuehuei H. An

2006-01-01

74

Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease. PMID:25242920

Sangeetha, R; Arulpandi, I; Geetha, A

2014-01-01

75

Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

Sangeetha, R.; Arulpandi, I.; Geetha, A.

2014-01-01

76

High-level xylanase production by alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus ASH produced a high level of an extracellular and thermostable xylanase enzyme when grown using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Among a few easily available lignocellulosics tested, wheat bran was found to be the best substrate (5,300 U\\/g of dry bacterial bran). Maximum xylanase production was achieved in 72 h (5,824 U\\/g). Higher xylanase activity was obtained when wheat bran was moistened with

Bindu Battan; Jitender Sharma; R. C. Kuhad

2006-01-01

77

CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three- dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of

Dakshina Jandhyala; Mark Berman; Paul R. Meyers; B. Trevor Sewell; Richard C. Willson; Michael J. Benedik

2003-01-01

78

A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five out of the nine benzene–toulene–ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity\\u000a on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v\\/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated\\u000a 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding

Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman; Shalihah Mahamad; Abu Bakar Salleh; Mahiran Basri

2007-01-01

79

Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Alkaline Serine Protease with Dehairing Function from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular alkaline serine protease (called DHAP), produced by a Bacillus pumilus strain, demonstrates significant dehairing function. This protease is purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography,\\u000a ion exchange, and gel filtration. DHAP had a pI of 9.0 and a molecular weight of approximately 32,000 Dalton. It shows maximal\\u000a activity at pH 10 and with a temperature of 55°C; the enzyme activity

Qing Huang; Yong Peng; Xin Li; Haifeng Wang; Yizheng Zhang

2003-01-01

80

Expression and characterization of Ca 2+-independent lipase from Bacillus pumilus B26  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipase-producing Bacillus pumilus strain (B26) was isolated from a soil sample collected in Korea. The cloned gene showed that the lipase B26 composed of a 34-amino-acid signal sequence and a 181-amino-acid mature part corresponding to a molecular mass (Mr) of 19,225. Based on the Mr and the protein sequence, the lipase B26 belongs to the lipase family I.4. The

Hyung Kwoun Kim; Hwa Jung Choi; Myung Hee Kim; Cheon Bae Sohn; Tae Kwang Oh

2002-01-01

81

Surfactant activity of a naphthalene degrading Bacillus pumilus strain isolated from oil sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the growth, biosurfactant activities and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds utilisation of strain 28-11 isolated from a solid waste oil. The isolate was identified as Bacillus pumilus. It grew well in the presence of 0.1% (w\\/v) of crude oil and naphthalene under aerobic conditions and utilised these substances as carbon and energy source. The capacity of strain 28-11 to emulsify

C Calvo; F. L Toledo; J González-López

2004-01-01

82

Characterization of Surfactin-like Cyclic Depsipeptides Synthesized by Bacillus pumilus from Ascidian Halocynthia aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A marine bacterium (KMM 1364), identified as Bacillus pumilus, was isolated from the surface of ascidian Halocynthia aurantium. Structural analysis revealed that the strain KMM 1364 produced a mixture of lipopeptide surfactin analogs with major components\\u000a with molecular masses of 1035, 1049, 1063, and 1077. The variation in molecular weight represents changes in the number of\\u000a methylene groups in

Natalie I. Kalinovskaya; Tatyana A. Kuznetsova; Elena P. Ivanova; Ludmila A. Romanenko; Valery G. Voinov; Felix Huth; Hartmut Laatsch

2002-01-01

83

Inhibition of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Bacillus pumilus were tested for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus\\u000a NRRL 2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth. Aflatoxin production was inhibited in both simultaneous and deferred antagonism\\u000a assays, suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolite(s) produced in cell-free supernatant fluids\\u000a of cultured broth. The inhibition was not due to

Célestin Munimbazi; Lloyd B. Bullerman

1997-01-01

84

Gene Cloning and Expression of an Alkaline Serine Protease with Dehairing Function from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new gene (named AP gene) encoding an alkaline serine protease with dehairing function was cloned from Bacillus pumilus UN-31-C-42 and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The expression of AP gene was induced with IPTG in Escherichia coli after the mature protease region was cloned into pET15b and SDS-PAGE showed expressed product clearly, but no alkaline protease activity was detected.

Jiao Pan; Qing Huang; YiZheng Zhang

2004-01-01

85

Purification and some properties of the extracellular protease of Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernatant of a culture ofBacillus pumilus D 78 was precipitated with ethanol and chromatographed on DEAE- and CM-cellulose to isolate and purify a neutral protease\\u000a with fibrinolytic and caseinolytic activity. Analysis by ultracentrifugation and immunoelectrophoresis indicate the homogeneity\\u000a of the purified enzyme with the sedimentation constant s20,w equal to 2.3. The fibrinolytic activity had a lower heat stability and was

J. Fabián

1970-01-01

86

Purification and characterization of a soybean-milk-coagulating enzyme from Bacillus pumilus TYO-67  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus TYO-67 was isolated from tofu (soybean curd) as the best producer of a soybean-milk-coagulating enzyme, induced by the addition\\u000a of soybean protein to the growth medium. The enzyme was purified approximately 30-fold with an 11% yield. The homogeneous\\u000a preparation of the enzyme showed that it is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 30?kDa and has an

M. Yasuda; M. Aoyama; M. Sakaguchi; K. Nakachi; N. Kobamoto

1999-01-01

87

Excellent laundry detergent compatibility and high dehairing ability of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline proteinase (SAPB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly Tunisian soil-isolated bacterium, producing the alkaline proteinase termed SAPB that was already purified and characterized\\u000a [1], was assigned as Bacillus pumilus CBS strain on the basis of biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The maximum protease activity recorded after\\u000a 24 h of incubation in an optimized medium at 37°C was 6,500 U\\/mL in shaking flask culture and

Bassem Jaouadi; Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni; Mamdouh Ben Ali; Ezzedine Ben Messaoud; Belgacem Naili; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Samir Bejar

2009-01-01

88

Soybean-milk-coagulating activity of Bacillus pumilus derives from a serine proteinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus pumilus strain TYO-67, which was able to coagulate the protein in soybean milk, was characterized enzymologically. The optimum pH\\u000a and temperature for its activities were 9.0 and 50?°C, respectively. The enzyme was strongly believed to be a serine proteinase\\u000a because it was completely inhibited by the addition of diisopropyl fluorophosphate or phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. Hammerstein\\u000a milk

M. Aoyama; M. Yasuda; K. Nakachi; N. Kobamoto; H. Oku; F. Kato

2000-01-01

89

Substrate Specificity and Thermostability of the Dehairing Alkaline Protease from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus has shown great potential in hide dehairing. To get better insights on its catalytic properties for application, the substrate\\u000a specificity and thermostability were investigated using five natural proteins and nine synthetic peptides. The results showed\\u000a that DHAP could hydrolyze five proteins tested here in different specificity. Collagen, a component of animal skin, was

Min-Yuan Wan; Hai-Yan Wang; Yi-Zheng Zhang; Hong Feng

2009-01-01

90

Chitinolytic and antifungal activity of a Bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus pumilus SG2 chitinase gene (ChiS) and its truncated form lacking chitin binding (ChBD) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains were transformed to Arabidopsis plants and the expression, functionality and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were investigated. Results showed\\u000a that while the two enzyme forms showed almost equal hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, they exhibited a significant\\u000a difference

Ali DehestaniKamal; Kamal Kazemitabar; Gholamreza Ahmadian; Nadali Babaeian Jelodar; Ali Hatef Salmanian; Mehdi Seyedi; Heshmat Rahimian; Seyedhadi Ghasemi

2010-01-01

91

Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 108 cells g-1 viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish. PMID:25266899

Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

2014-09-30

92

MALDI-TOFMS compared with other polyphasic taxonomy approaches for the identification and classification of Bacillus pumilus spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for identifying and differentiating bacterial species, several strains of Bacillus pumilus were examined in a thorough taxonomic study incorporating a polyphasic approach. Sixteen isolates of putative B. pumilus isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and the International Space Station, were characterized for their

Danielle N Dickinson; Myron T La Duc; Masataka Satomi; James D Winefordner; David H Powell; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

2004-01-01

93

Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay  

SciTech Connect

The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. (Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Johnston, IA (USA))

1991-03-01

94

Molecular characterization of cellulose-degrading Bacillus pumilus from the soil of tea garden, Darjeeling hills, India.  

PubMed

Bio-fuel produced from ethanol is economically and environmentally advantageous in context of changing global climate. A large number of microorganisms are capable of cellulase production but most of them cannot be utilized commercially due to their low activity. In the present study, an effiecient cellulose degrading strain of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after thorough screening for the production of extracellular cellulases. Out of a total of 144 microbes isolated from soils of Darjeeling hills of India, nineteen were found to be cellulose degrader under in vitro conditions as observed by clearing zone on CMC - agar plates. Isolate #35 had high cellulolytic activity as observed by a clearing zone of 26.83 mm diameter formed on CMC - agar plate. The isolate was characterized and identified as Bacillus pumilus. The isolate was submitted to National Agriculturally Important Microbial Culture Collection (NAIMCC), NBAIM, Mau with Accession number NAIMCC-B-01415. Transposon (Tn5) mutants of wild type isolate Bacillus pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 were generated and screened for the absence of cellulose degradation. Of 365 B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 mutants obtained, only two were unable to degrade cellulose under in vitro conditions. Inverse PCR studies with B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 :: TL5, a cellulose degradation mutant of B. pumilus NAIMCC -B-01415 revealed presence of Cys B (Cystein protein regulatory) gene involved in cellulose degradation. The participation of Cys B gene in cellulase degradation is reported here. PMID:24813013

Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Sarkar, Kanishendranath; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Srivastava, Sunita

2014-05-01

95

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

PubMed Central

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess whether new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat products. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. Both RAPD-PCR and fAFLP analyses demonstrated that a high genetic heterogeneity is present in the B. subtilis group even in strains harvested from the same source, making it possible to isolate 56 different biotypes. Moreover, fAFLP analysis made it possible to distinguish B. subtilis from B. pumilus strains. The strains were characterized for their toxigenic potential by molecular, physiological, and immunological techniques. Specific PCR analyses revealed the absence of DNA sequences related to HBL, BcET, NHE, and entFM Bacillus cereus enterotoxins and the enzymes sphingomyelinase Sph and phospholipase PI-PLC in all strains; also, the immunological analyses showed that Bacillus strains did not react with NHE- and HBL-specific antibodies. However, some isolates were found to be positive for hemolytic and lecithinase activity. The absence of toxigenic potential in Bacillus strains from the sausages analyzed indicates that these products can be considered safe under the processing conditions they were produced; however, great care should be taken when the ripening time is shortened, particularly in the case of traditional sausages, which could contain high amounts of Bacillus strains and possibly some B. cereus cells. PMID:15345396

Matarante, Alessandra; Baruzzi, Federico; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Morea, Maria

2004-01-01

96

Generation of biologically contained, readily transformable, and genetically manageable mutants of the biotechnologically important Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus mutants were generated by targeted deletion of a set of genes eventually facilitating genetic handling and assuring biological containment. The well-defined and stable mutants do not form functional endospores due to the deletion of yqfD, an essential sporulation gene; they are affected in DNA repair, as ?uvrBA rendered them UV hypersensitive and, thus, biologically contained; they are deficient for the uracil phosphoribosyl-transferase (?upp), allowing for 5-fluorouracil-based counterselection facilitating rapid allelic exchanges; and they are readily transformable due to the deletion of the restrictase encoding locus (?hsdR) of a type I restriction modification system. Vegetative growth as well as extracellular enzyme production and secretion are in no case affected. The combination of such gene deletions allows for development of B. pumilus strains suited for industrial use and further improvements. PMID:23644770

Wemhoff, Stephanie; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

2013-09-01

97

Characterization of cis-acting elements residing in the chitinase promoter of Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SG2 is a chitinolytic bacterium that produces two chitinases, namely ChiS and ChiL. The chiS and chiL genes are consecutively expressed under a common promoter. Regulation of the chiS and chiL genes is under the control of carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in B. pumilus. This study aimed to investigate the cis-acting elements of the chitinase promoter. For this purpose, we transferred the chiS gene along with its specific promoter to Bacillus subtilis as a host. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription start sites located 287 and 65 bp upstream of the chiS start codon. The distal promoter was highly compatible with the consensus sequence of the ?(A)-type promoters in B. subtilis, whereas the proximal promoter sequence showed less similarity to the ?(A)-type consensus sequence. A catabolite responsive element (cre), which is required for CCR in Bacillus species, was found to be 136 to 123 bp upstream of the chiS start codon. Interestingly, this cre site was located upstream of the -35 of the proximal promoter and downstream of the distal promoter. Deletion of this cre site sequence rendered the chiS expression constitutive. PMID:24293243

Heravi, K Morabbi; Shali, A; Naghibzadeh, N; Ahmadian, G

2014-05-01

98

Cloning of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase gene ( xynB ?) and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic DNA library of the bacterium Bacillus pumilus PLS was constructed and the ?-xylosidase gene (xynB) was amplified from a 3-kb genomic DNA fragment with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction technique. The amplified xynB gene was inserted between the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences on a multicopy

D. C. La Grange; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. van Zyl

1997-01-01

99

Purification and characterization of a new bioscouring pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus BK2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkalophilic bacterium was isolated based on the potential of extra-cellular enzymes for bioscouring. The bacterium was identified as a new strain of Bacillus pumilus BK2 producing an extra-cellular endo-pectate lyase PL (EC 4.2.2.2). PL was purified to homogeneity in three steps and has a molecular mass of 37.3±4.8kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and an isoelectric point of pH 8.5.

Barbara G. Klug-Santner; Wolfgang Schnitzhofer; Maria Vršanská; Jörg Weber; Pramod B. Agrawal; Vincent A. Nierstrasz; Georg M. Guebitz

2006-01-01

100

Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum  

PubMed Central

Background Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the one electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds. Laccase substrates include substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols. Such compounds are activated by the enzyme to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range laccases are considered to be versatile biocatalysts which are capable of oxidizing natural and non-natural industrial compounds, with water as sole by-product. Results A novel CotA-type laccase from Bacillus pumilus was cloned, expressed and purified and its biochemical characteristics are presented here. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 58 kDa and the enzyme was found to be associated with four copper atoms. Its catalytic activity towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and syringaldazine (SGZ) was investigated. The kinetic parameters KM and kcat for ABTS were 80 ± 4 ?M and 291 ± 2.7 s-1, for 2,6-DMP 680 ± 27 ?M and 11 ± 0.1 s-1 and for SGZ only kcat could be estimated to be 66 ± 1.5 s-1. The pH optimum for ABTS was 4, for 2,6-DMP 7 and for SGZ 6.5 and temperature optima for ABTS and 2,6-DMP were found to be around 70°C. The screening of 37 natural and non-natural compounds as substrates for B. pumilus laccase revealed 18 suitable compounds. Three of them served as redox mediators in the laccase-catalyzed decolorization of the dye indigocarmine (IC), thus assessing the new enzyme's biotechnological potential. Conclusions The fully copper loaded, thermostable CotA laccase from Bacillus pumilus is a versatile laccase with potential applications as an industrial biocatalyst. PMID:21266052

2011-01-01

101

Bacillus pumilus BpCRI 6, a promising candidate for cellulase production under conditions of catabolite repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose degrading organisms have been used for the conversion of cellulolytic materials into soluble sugars or solvents in several biotechnological and industrial applications. In this report, a mutant of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after chemical mutagenesis and screened for cellulase production. This mutant named BpCRI 6 was selected for its ability to produce cellulase under catabolite repression. Cellulase yield by

102

Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulase (CMCase) from a Catabolite Repression Insensitive Mutant of Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of cellulolytic bacterial candidates free from the catabolite repression system is highly desirable for the production of cellulosic degrading enzymes, which are useful in various industrial applications. Previously, we reported the isolation of a chemical-mediated mutant of Bacillus pumilus termed as BpCRI 6 for Catabolite Repression Insensitive no. 6, which was tested for its ability to produce cellulase

SIMEON O. KOTCHONI; EMMA W. GACHOMO; BRIDGET O. OMAFUVBE; OLUSOLA O. SHONUKAN

103

Xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and its effects on Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp for pulp bleaching improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular productions of ?-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-mannanase, arabinosidase, ?-glucuronidase, ?-galactosidase and Fpase from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 were investigated with three different xylan sources as substrate. The enzymatic profiles on birchwood, Eucalyptus grandis and oat were studied at alkaline and acidic pH conditions. B. pumilus CBMAI 0008 grown on the three carbon sources produced mainly ?-xylanase. At pH 10,

Marta C Teixeira Duarte; Elizete Cristina da Silva; lsabel Menezes de Bulhões Gomes; Alexandre Nunes Ponezi; Edilberto Princi Portugal; João Roberto Vicente; Ednilson Davanzo

2003-01-01

104

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Fairview, an Isolate Recovered from a Microbial Methanogenic Enrichment of Coal Seam Gas Formation Water from Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Despite its global abundance, Bacillus pumilus is poorly studied. The Fairview strain was obtained from a methanogenic anaerobic coal digester. The draft genome sequence was 3.8 Mbp long and contained 3,890 protein-coding genes. Like the SAFR-032 strain, it includes B. pumilus-specific proteins that likely confer enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:24744330

Vockler, Cassandra J; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J

2014-01-01

105

Bacillus pumilus S124A carboxymethyl cellulase; a thermo stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum utility.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus S124A was identified as carboxymethyl cellulase producing bacteria from Azorean Bacillus collection (Lab collection), which was isolated in local soils. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA sequence and designated as Bacillus pumilus S124A. NCBI-blast analysis showed B. pumilus S124A; 16S rRNA sequence has high identity to other B. pumilus strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed B. pumilus S124A close to B. pumilus LZBP14 strain. CMcellulase was purified from cells-free supernatants and post mano-Q purification; 5.39% protein folds, and 0.88% recoveries were obtained. SDS-PAGE analysis showed molecular weight of the purified CMcellulase was estimated ?40kDa and composed of a single subunit. NonoLC ESI-MS/MS analysis was yielded four peptides, and protein has identity to other cellulases. Purified CMcellulase showed high activity to cellobiose followed by CMcellulose. Kinetic analysis showed Km, and Vmax were determined as 2.12mg/ml, 239?mol/min/mg, respectively. Optimum temperature and pH for the purified CMcellulase activity were found at 50°C and pH 6.0, respectively. Purified CMcellulase was maintained about 75% activity in a pH range of 4-8 and 70% activity in a temperature range of 40-70°C. CMcellulase activity was highly reduced by HgCl2, followed by EDTA, PMSF whereas CoCl2 was activated CMcellulase activity. PMID:24657377

Balasubramanian, Natesan; Simões, Nelson

2014-06-01

106

Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

de Oliveira, Patricia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lucia Regina

2009-01-01

107

CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies  

PubMed Central

The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of the 37-kDa subunit. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was readily expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was facilitated by the addition of a C-terminal six-histidine affinity purification tag. The tagged recombinant enzyme has Km and Vmax values similar to those published for the native enzyme. This is the first cyanide dihydratase from a gram-positive bacterium to be sequenced, and it is the first description of the structure of any member of this enzyme class. The putative amino acid sequence shares over 80% identity to the only other sequenced cyanide dihydratase, that of the gram-negative Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AK61, and is similar to a number of other bacterial and fungal nitrilases. This sequence similarity suggests that the novel short spiral structure may be typical of these enzymes. In addition, an active cyanide dihydratase from a non-cyanide-degrading isolate of B. pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site. PMID:12902273

Jandhyala, Dakshina; Berman, Mark; Meyers, Paul R.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Willson, Richard C.; Benedik, Michael J.

2003-01-01

108

Phylogenetic Diversity of the Bacillus pumilus Group and the Marine Ecotype Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

2013-01-01

109

The supernatant of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 has antifungal activity towards Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

For clarification of the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 (N43) against Rhizoctonia solani Q1, production of antibiotics by N43 was determined, and the effect of the antibiotics on the pathogen mycelium was microscopically observed. Further more, the control efficiencies of the antifungal compounds on damping-off disease were investigated. The results obtained are listed as follows: N43 produced antibiotic substances towards R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. The antibiotics caused hyphal deformation and enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles in R. solani Q1 mycelia. 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate made a complete precipitation of the antibiotics in culture broth. When treated with protease K and trypsase, the activities of antibiotics were decreased by 79% and 53%, respectively, compared with control. The antibiotics were sensitive to high temperature and were alkaline stable. The molecular weights of the substances were about 500-1000 Da. The bio-control efficiencies of the antibiotics had no significant difference with that of N43 cell suspension. It is a first report that B. pumilus strain produced oligopeptides which had inhibitory effect on R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. PMID:23417338

Huang, Xinqi; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

2013-08-01

110

Purification and characterization of a novel collagenase from Bacillus pumilus Col-J.  

PubMed

The collagenase, produced extracellular by Bacillus pumilus Col-J, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by two gel filtrations, involving Sephadex G-100 column and Sepharose Fast Flow column. Purified collagenase has a 31.53-fold increase in specific activity of 87.33 U/mg and 7.00% recovery. The collagenase has a relative molecular weight of 58.64 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimal temperature for the enzyme reaction was 45 degrees C. More than 50% of the original activity still remained after 5 min of incubation at 70 degrees C or 10 min at 60 degrees C. The maximal enzyme activity of collagenase was obtained at pH 7.5, and it was stable over a pH range of 6.5-8.0. The collagenase activity was strongly inhibited by Mn(2+), Pb(2+), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, and beta-mercaptoethanol. However, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) greatly increased its activity. The collagenase from B. pumilus Col-J showed highly specific activity towards the native collagen from calf skin. The K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme for collagen were 0.79 mg/mL and 129.5 U, respectively. PMID:19475515

Wu, Qi; Li, Chen; Li, Chenglei; Chen, Hui; Shuliang, Liu

2010-01-01

111

Biological and genomic analysis of a PBSX-like defective phage induced from Bacillus pumilus AB94180.  

PubMed

Defective prophages, which are found in the genomes of many bacteria, are unable to complete a viral replication cycle and propagate in their hosts as healthy prophages. They package random DNA fragments derived from various sites of the host chromosome instead of their own genomes. In this study, we characterized a defective phage, PBP180, which was induced from Bacillus pumilus AB94180 by treatment with mitomycin C. Electron microscopy showed that the PBP180 particle has a head with a hexagonal outline of ~40 nm in diameter and a long tail. The DNA packaged in the PBP180 head consists of 8-kb DNA fragments from random portions of the host chromosome. The head and tail proteins of the PBP180 particle consist of four major proteins of approximately 49, 33, 16 and 14 kDa. The protein profile of PBP180 is different from that of PBSX, a well-known defective phage induced from Bacillus subtilis 168. A killing activity test against two susceptible strains each of B. subtilis and B. pumilus showed that the defective particles of PBP180 killed three strains other than its own host, B. pumilus AB94180, differing from the host-killing ranges of the defective phages PBSX, PBSZ (induced from B. subtilis W23), and PBSX4 (induced from B. pumilus AB94044). The genome of the PBP180 prophage, which is integrated in the B. pumilus AB94180 chromosome, is 28,205 bp in length, with 40 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Further genomic comparison of prophages PBP180, PBSX, PBSZ and other PBSX-like prophage elements in B. pumilus strains revealed that their overall architectures are similar, but significant low homology exists in ORF29-ORF38, which presumably encode tail fiber proteins involved in recognition and killing of susceptible strains. PMID:24154951

Jin, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Zhongsheng; Fu, Zhengwei; Fan, Junpeng; Wu, Ming; Wang, Yi; Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

2014-04-01

112

Characterization and a point mutational approach of a psychrophilic lipase from an arctic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

A bacterium with lipolytic activity was isolated from the Chukchi Sea within the Arctic Ocean. The lipase BpL5 from the isolate, Bacillus pumilus ArcL5, belongs to subfamily 4 of lipase family I. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme BpL5, as expressed in Escherichia coli, were 9.0 and 20 °C, respectively. The enzyme retained 85 % of its activity at 5 °C. There was a significant difference between temperatures for maximal activity (20 °C) and for protein denaturation (approx. 45 °C). The enzyme preferred middle-chain (C8) p-nitrophenyl substrates. Two mutants, S139A and S139Y, were rationally designed based on the 3D-structure model, and their activities were compared with that of the wild type. The both mutants showed significantly improved activity against tricaprylin. PMID:24563306

Wi, Ah Ram; Jeon, Sung-Jong; Kim, Sunghui; Park, Ha Ju; Kim, Dockyu; Han, Se Jong; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Han-Woo

2014-06-01

113

Effects of oxygen free radical scavengers on the membrane myoinositol dehydrogenase of Bacillus pumilus strain 5.  

PubMed

Micromolar amounts of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or parabenzoquinone (PBQ) inhibit the membrane-bound myoinositol dehydrogenase of Bacillus pumilus strain 5 in the mode of this enzyme transferring electrons to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). The inhibition trends are similar to those reported earlier by us for the inhibition by mannitol and benzoate. We postulate that the transfer of electrons from the enzyme to DCPIP involves in its rate-limiting step, a catalytic intermediate in the nature of superoxide (O2-) and/or hydroyl free radical (OH.). Scavenging of any one or both of these radicals, therefore, inhibits the electron transfer reaction. PBQ serves as an electron sink in the reaction preventing the reduction of DCPIP. PMID:3508132

Eze, M O; Nnamani, L C; Ojiako, R I; Ogan, A U

1987-01-01

114

Comparative effects of gamma rays and electron beams on spores of Bacillus pumilus  

SciTech Connect

The effects of [gamma] rays and electron beams on the germination, outgrowth and the synthesis of protein and RNA of Bacillus pumilus spores were investigated to clarify the difference in the effects of the two types of radiations on bacterial spores. Gamma irradiation facilitated the germination to a slightly larger degree than electron irradiation. The outgrowth, growth and the synthesis of protein and RNA were inhibited by [gamma] irradiation to a greater extent than electron irradiation, when the spores were irradiated at the same dose. However, the effects of the two types of radiations were the same when the spores were irradiated with electron beams at a dose 30% higher than [gamma] rays. The results indicate that the effects of electron beams on bacterial spores and those of [gamma] rays are qualitatively the same but quantitatively different. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko (National Food Research Institute, Kannondai (Japan)); Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo (Hokkaido Univ. (Japan))

1994-02-01

115

Initiation of Germination and Inactivation of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Hydrostatic Pressure  

PubMed Central

The effect of hydrostatic pressures as high as 1,700 atm at 25 C on the heat and radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus spores was studied. Phosphate-buffered spores were more sensitive to compression than spores suspended in distilled water. Measurements of the turbidity of suspensions, the viability, refractility, stainability, dry weight, and respiratory activity of spores, and calcium and dipicolinic acid release were made for different pressures and times. Initiation of germination occurred at pressures exceeding 500 atm and was the prerequisite for inactivation by compression. The rate of initiation increased with increasing pressure at constant temperature. This result is interpreted as a net decrease in the volume of the system during initiation as a result of increased solvation of the spore components. PMID:5773022

Clouston, J. G.; Wills, Pamela A.

1969-01-01

116

Survival of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 in simulated Mars atmosphere in real space conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated habitats, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UVradiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions using the European Technology Exposure Platform and Experiment Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months exposure in the EuTEF facility under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10 to 40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85 to 100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated-Mars atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110nm) was exerted on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and conditions using the EuTEF, a ~7-log reduction in viability was noticed. However, the UV exposure still did not inactivate all the spores as 19 CFUs were later isolated via cultivation. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples but under simulated conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (~3-log reduction in viability for Mars UV, and ~4-log reduction in viability for Space UV). The data generated is important to assess the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival, microbial contaminants of risk for forward contamination, in situ life detection, and to safeguard the integrity of sample return missions.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Fox, George E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2010-09-01

117

Expression and biochemical characterization of cold-adapted lipases from Antarctic Bacillus pumilus strains.  

PubMed

Two lipase genes (bpl1 and bpl3) from Antarctic Bacillus pumilus strains were expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Both recombinant lipases BPL1 and BPL2 were secreted to the culture medium and their activities reached 3.5 U/ml and 5.0 U/ml, respectively. Their molecular masses apparent using SDS-PAGE were 23 kDa for BPL1 and 19 kDa for BPL3. Both lipases were purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and HiTrap SP FF column and Superose 12 column chromatographies. The final specific activities were estimated to be 328 U/mg for BPL1 and 310 U/mg for BPL3. Both lipases displayed an optimum temperature of 35°C, similar to other mesophilic enzymes. However, they maintained as much as 70% and 80% of the maximum activities at 10°C. Accordingly, their calculated activation energy at a temperature range of 10-35°C was 5.32 kcal/mol for BPL1 and 4.26 kcal/mol for BPL3, typical of cold-adapted enzymes. The optimum pH of BPL1 and BPL3 was 8.5 and 8.0, respectively, and they were quite stable at pH 7.0-11.0, showing their strong alkaline tolerance. Both lipases had a preference toward medium chain length (C6-C10) fatty acid substrates. These results indicate the potential for the two Antarctic B. pumilus lipases as catalysts in bioorganic synthesis, food, and detergent industries. PMID:23770563

Litantra, Ribka; Lobionda, Stefani; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2013-09-28

118

Improving the chitinolytic activity of Bacillus pumilus SG2 by random mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SG2, a halotolerant strain, expresses two major chitinases designated ChiS and ChiL that were induced by chitin and secreted into the supernatant. The present work aimed to obtain a mutant with higher chitinolytic activity through mutagenesis of Bacillus pumilus SG2 using a combination of UV irradiation and nitrous acid treatment. Following mutagenesis and screening on chitin agar and subsequent formation of halos, the mutated strains were examined for degradation of chitin under different conditions. A mutant designated AV2-9 was selected owing to its higher chitinase activity. To search for possible mutations in the whole operon including ChiS and ChiL, the entire chitinase operon, including the intergenic region, promoter, and two areas corresponding to the ChiS and ChiL ORF, was suquenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the complete chitinase operon from the SG2 and AV2-9 strains showed the presence of a mutation in the catalytic domain (GH18) of chitinase (ChiL). The results demonstrated that a single base change had occurred in the ChiL sequence in AV2- 9. The wild-type chitinase, ChiL, and the mutant (designated ChiLm) were cloned, expressed, and purified in E. coli. Both enzymes showed similar profiles of activity at different ranges of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature, but the mutant enzyme showed approximately 30% higher catalytic activity under all the conditions tested. The results obtained in this study showed that the thermal stability of chitinase increased in the mutant strain. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict changes in the stability of proteins caused by mutation. PMID:23867702

Vahed, Majid; Motalebi, Ebrahim; Rigi, Garshasb; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Ahmadian, Gholamreza

2013-11-28

119

Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect encapsulated Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores released from poly(methylmethacrylate).  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores originally isolated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory spacecraft assembly facility clean room are extremely resistant to UV radiation, H(2)O(2), desiccation, chemical disinfection and starvation compared to spores of other Bacillus species. The resistance of B. pumilus SAFR-032 spores to standard industrial clean room sterilization practices is not only a major concern for medical, pharmaceutical and food industries, but also a threat to the extraterrestrial environment during search for life via spacecraft. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of Alexa-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with Alexa Fluor® 488 labeled oligonucleotide) method as a molecular diagnostic tool for enumeration of multiple sterilant-resistant B. pumilus SAFR-032 spores artificially encapsulated in, and released via organic solvent from, a model polymeric material: poly(methylmethacrylate) (Lucite, Plexiglas). Plexiglas is used extensively in various aerospace applications and in medical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Alexa-FISH signals were not detected from spores via standard methods for vegetative bacterial cells. Optimization of a spore permeabilization protocol capitalizing on the synergistic action of proteinase-K, lysozyme, mutanolysin and Triton X-100 facilitated efficient spore detection by Alexa-FISH microscopy. Neither of the Alexa-probes tested gave rise to considerable levels of Lucite- or solvent-associated background autofluorescence, demonstrating the immense potential of Alexa-FISH for rapid quantification of encapsulated B. pumilus SAFR-032 spores released from poly(methylmethacrylate). PMID:22145981

Mohapatra, Bidyut R; La Duc, Myron T

2012-01-01

120

Bilirubin Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus: A promising enzyme for the elaboration of efficient cathodes in Biofuel cells  

PubMed Central

A CotA Multicopper Oxidase (MCO) from Bacillus pumilus, previously identified as a laccase, has been studied and characterized as a new bacterial Bilirubin Oxidase (BOD). The 59kDa protein containing four coppers, was successfully over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in one step. This 509 amino-acid enzyme, having 67% and 26% sequence identity with CotA from Bacillus subtilis and BOD from Myrothecium verrucaria, respectively, shows higher turnover activity towards bilirubin compared to other bacterial MCOs. The current density for O2 reduction, when immobilized in a redox hydrogel, is only 12% smaller than the current obtained with Trachyderma tsunodae BOD. Under continuous electrocatalysis, an electrode modified with the new BOD is more stable, and has a higher tolerance towards NaCl, than a T. tsunodae BOD modified electrode. This makes BOD from B. pumilus an attractive new candidate for application in biofuel cells and biosensors. PMID:22410485

Durand, Fabien; Kjaergaard, Christian Hauge; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Gounel, Sebastien; Hadt, Ryan G.; Solomon, Edward I; Mano, Nicolas

2013-01-01

121

Enhanced production of cellulase-free thermostable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus ASH and its potential application in paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high level of cellulase-free, thermostable xylanase has been produced from newly isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus under submerged fermentation in a basal medium supplemented with wheat bran (2%, w\\/v) pH 8.0 and at 37°C. After optimization of various production parameters, an increase of nearly 13-fold in xylanase production (5407IU\\/ml) was achieved. The produced xylanase is stable in neutral

Bindu Battan; Jitender Sharma; Saurabh Sudha Dhiman; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

122

Large-scale degumming of ramie fibre using a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus DKS1 with high pectate lyase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined (enzymatic and chemical) process using a Bacillus pumilus strain (DKS1), isolated from the soil, was used to degum ramie bast fibres. After 24 h of incubation with the isolated pectinolytic\\u000a strain using a low-cost medium, the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25% under small scale. High activity of\\u000a pectate lyase was detected in the

Snehasish Basu; Manabendra N. Saha; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Krishanu Chakrabarti

2009-01-01

123

Thermodynamic characterization of a highly thermoactive extracellular pectate lyase from a new isolate Bacillus pumilus DKS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2) was purified from the culture filtrate of a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus DKS1 grown in pectin containing medium. Using ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, this enzyme was purified and found to have a molecular weight of around 35kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited maximal activity at a temperature of 75°C and pH 8.5. The presence

Snehasish Basu; Abhrajyoti Ghosh; Amit Bera; Manabendra N. Saha; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Krishanu Chakrabarti

2008-01-01

124

Molecular cloning of the genes for xylan degradation of Bacillus pumilus and their expression in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 7.7 Mdal PstI fragment of Bacillus pumilus IPO containing genes for xylan degradation, xylanase, and ß-xylosidase was inserted at the PstI site of pBR322 and cloned in E. coli C600. The hybrid plasmid thus formed was named pOXN29. The amount of xylanase and ß-xylosidase expressed in E. coli harboring pOXN29 was about 6% and 20% of the activity produced

Watanalai Panbangred; Tetsuya Kondo; Seiji Negoro; Atsuhiko Shinmyo; Hirosuke Okada

1983-01-01

125

Phenol and cresol metabolism in Bacillus pumilus isolated from contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

From an aquifier contaminated with phenolic compounds seven bacterial strains able to grow on phenol and several mono- and disubstituted alkylphenols as sole source of carbon and energy were isolated. Five isolates belong to the genus Pseudomonas, two to the genus Bacillus. The isolate most active in utilization of the applied xenobiotics was identified as Bacillus pumilus and used for the investigation of the degradation pathways in liquid cultures. Cells of this strain precultured on phenol were able to utilize para-cresol as sole carbon source via the oxidation of the methylsubstituent and intradiol ring cleavage of the resulting protocatechuic acid, whereas an intradiol ring fission of the intermediate 4-methylcatechol led to 4-methylmuconolactone as dead end-product. Cells precultured on meta- and ortho-cresol were able to utilize the respective compounds as sole carbon sources via 3-methylcatechol, which induced the following extradiol ring fission pathway. Cells precultured on phenol were able to cooxidize meta- as well as ortho-cresol to 3-methylcatechol, which was cleaved via an intradiol ring fission, finally leading to the dead end-product 2-methylmuconolactone. PMID:7783002

Günther, K; Schlosser, D; Fritsche, W

1995-01-01

126

Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.  

PubMed

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110?nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ?7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (?3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ?4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants as risks for forward contamination and in situ life detection. PMID:22680694

Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

2012-05-01

127

[The effect of Spo0A and AbrB proteins on expression of the genes of guanyl-specific ribonucleases from Bacillus intermedius and Bacillus pumilus in Bacillus subtilis recombinant strains].  

PubMed

Guanyl-specific ribonucleases from Bacillus intermedius and Bacillus pumilus are actively secreted under phosphate starvation by recombinant strains of Bacillus subtilis with native regulatory systems and by strains defective in some proteins of the Spo0A phosphorylation pathway. The level of expression of ribonuclease genes has been shown to increase approximately sixfold in recombinant strains with mutation in the spo0A gene and threefold in the spo0A/abrB mutants, as compared with native strains. These results demonstrate that the Spo0A protein regulates the production of ribonucleases and thus acts as a repressor, while the AbrB protein is an activator of expression of the genes encoding ribonucleases from Bacillus intermedius and Bacillus pumilus in Bacillus subtilis cells. PMID:18069324

Ul'ianova, V V; Vershinina, V I; Kharitonova, M A; Sharipova, M R

2007-01-01

128

Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings  

PubMed Central

Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

2014-01-01

129

Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.  

PubMed

Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions. PMID:23715854

Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

2014-02-01

130

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

131

Pigmentation and Sporulation Are Alternative Cell Fates in Bacillus pumilus SF214  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus SF214 is a spore forming bacterium, isolated from a marine sample, able to produce a matrix and a orange-red, water soluble pigment. Pigmentation is strictly regulated and high pigment production was observed during the late stationary growth phase in a minimal medium and at growth temperatures lower than the optimum. Only a subpopulation of stationary phase cells produced the pigment, indicating that the stationary culture contains a heterogeneous cell population and that pigment synthesis is a bimodal phenomenon. The fraction of cells producing the pigment varied in the different growth conditions and occured only in cells not devoted to sporulation. Only some of the pigmented cells were also able to produce a matrix. Pigment and matrix production in SF214 appear then as two developmental fates both alternative to sporulation. Since the pigment had an essential role in the cell resistance to oxidative stress conditions, we propose that within the heterogeneous population different survival strategies can be followed by the different cells. PMID:23634224

Isticato, Rachele; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio

2013-01-01

132

Expression and characterization of Ca(2+)-independent lipase from Bacillus pumilus B26.  

PubMed

A lipase-producing Bacillus pumilus strain (B26) was isolated from a soil sample collected in Korea. The cloned gene showed that the lipase B26 composed of a 34-amino-acid signal sequence and a 181-amino-acid mature part corresponding to a molecular mass (M(r)) of 19,225. Based on the M(r) and the protein sequence, the lipase B26 belongs to the lipase family I.4. The optimum temperature and pH of the purified enzyme were 35 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. The lipase B26 showed a 'Ca(2+)-independent thermostability and catalytic activity'. These are novel properties observed for the first time in lipase B26 among all bacterial lipases and correspond with the suggestion that this enzyme had no Ca(2+)-binding motif around the catalytic His156 residue. This enzyme seems to be a true lipase based on the experimental results that it could hydrolyze various long-chain triglycerides (C(14)-C(18)) and triolein (C(18:1)) and that it showed a typical interfacial activation mechanism toward both tripropionin and p-nitrophenyl butyrate. PMID:12117564

Kim, Hyung Kwoun; Choi, Hwa Jung; Kim, Myung Hee; Sohn, Cheon Bae; Oh, Tae Kwang

2002-07-11

133

Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12  

PubMed Central

An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45?kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60°C, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants, detergents, and oxidizing agents where a nearly 2- to 3-fold enhancement was observed in presence of H2O2 and NaHClO3. It hydrolyzed broad range of complex substrates including feather keratin, haemoglobin, fibrin, casein,and ?-keratin. Analysis of amidolytic activity revealed that it efficiently cleaved phenylalanine ? leucine ? alanine- p-nitroanilides. It also cleaved insulin B chain between Val2- Asn3, Leu6-Cys7 and His10-Leu11 residues. PMID:21048858

Rajput, Rinky; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

2010-01-01

134

Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12.  

PubMed

An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45?kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60°C, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants, detergents, and oxidizing agents where a nearly 2- to 3-fold enhancement was observed in presence of H(2)O(2) and NaHClO(3). It hydrolyzed broad range of complex substrates including feather keratin, haemoglobin, fibrin, casein,and ?-keratin. Analysis of amidolytic activity revealed that it efficiently cleaved phenylalanine ? leucine ? alanine- p-nitroanilides. It also cleaved insulin B chain between Val(2)- Asn(3), Leu(6)-Cys(7) and His(10)-Leu(11) residues. PMID:21048858

Rajput, Rinky; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

2010-01-01

135

Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.  

PubMed Central

A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

1993-01-01

136

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the ? and ? chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the ? chain.

Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-01-01

137

Swapping of pro-sequences between keratinases of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus: altered substrate specificity and thermostability.  

PubMed

Pro-sequences were swapped in cis between keratinases from Bacillus licheniformis (Ker BL) and Bacillus pumilus (Ker BP) to construct Ker ProBP-BL and Ker ProBL-BP, respectively. Expression of these keratinases was carried out constitutively by E. coli HB101-pEZZ18 system. They were characterized with respect to their parent enzymes, Ker BL and Ker BP, respectively. Ker ProBP-BL became more thermostable with a t(1/2) of 45 min at 80°C contrary to Ker BL which was not stable beyond 60°C. Similarly, the activity of Ker ProBP-BL on keratin and casein substrate, i.e. K:C ratio increased to 1.2 in comparison to 0.1 for Ker BL. Hydrolysis of insulin B-chain revealed that the cleavage sites increased to six from four in case of Ker ProBP-BL in comparison to Ker BL. However, cleavage sites decreased from seven to four in case of Ker ProBL-BP in comparison to the parent keratinase, Ker BP. Likewise, Ker ProBL-BP revealed altered pH and temperature kinetics with optima at pH 10 and 60°C in comparison to Ker BP which had optima at pH 9 and 70°C. It also cleaved soluble substrates with better efficiency in comparison to Ker BP with K:C ratio of 1.6. Pro-sequence mediated conformational changes were also observed in trans and were almost similar to the features acquired by the chimeras constructed in cis by swapping the pro-sequence region. PMID:22759531

Rajput, Rinky; Tiwary, Ekta; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

2012-08-10

138

Spore UV and Acceleration Resistance of Endolithic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis Isolates Obtained from Sonoran Desert Basalt: Implications for Lithopanspermia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial spores have been used as model systems for studying the theory of interplanetary transport of life by natural processes such as asteroidal or cometary impacts (i.e., lithopanspermia). Because current spallation theory predicts that near-surface rocks are ideal candidates for planetary ejection and surface basalts are widely distributed throughout the rocky planets, we isolated spore-forming bacteria from the interior of near-subsurface basalt rocks collected in the Sonoran desert near Tucson, Arizona. Spores were found to inhabit basalt at very low concentrations (<=28 colony-forming units/g) in these samples. Six isolates identified as being most closely related to Bacillus pumilus and one Bacillus subtilis isolate were recovered from near-subsurface basalt samples. Populations of purified spores prepared from the isolated strains were subjected to 254-nm UV and ballistics tests in order to assess their resistance to UV radiation and to extreme acceleration shock, two proposed lethal factors for spores during interplanetary transfer. Specific natural isolates of B. pumilus were found to be substantially more resistant to UV and extreme acceleration than were reference laboratory strains of B. subtilis, the benchmark organism, suggesting that spores of environmental B. pumilus isolates may be more likely to survive the rigors of interplanetary transfer.

Benardini, James N.; Sawyer, John; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Nicholson, Wayne L.

2003-12-01

139

Immobilization of Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus Strain MK001 and its Application in Production of Xylo-oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 was immobilized on different matrices following varied immobilization methods. Entrapment using gelatin (GE)\\u000a (40.0%), physical adsorption on chitin (CH) (35.0%), ionic binding with Q-sepharose (Q-S) (45.0%), and covalent binding with\\u000a HP-20 beads (42.0%) showed the maximum xylanase immobilization efficiency. The optimum pH of immobilized xylanase shifted\\u000a up to 1.0 unit (pH 7.0) as compared to

Mukesh Kapoor; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

140

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS with high catalytic efficiency.  

PubMed

We have described previously the potential use of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS as an effective additive in laundry detergent formulations [B. Jaouadi, S. Ellouz-Chaabouni, M. Ben Ali, E. Ben Messaoud, B. Naili, A. Dhouib, S. Bejar, A novel alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS having a high compatibility with laundry detergent and a high feather-degrading activity, Process Biochem, submitted for publication]. Here, we purified this enzyme (named SAPB) and we cloned, sequenced and over-expressed the corresponding gene. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using salt precipitation and gel filtration HPLC. The pure protease was found to be monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 34598.19Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The NH2-terminal sequence of first 21 amino acids (aa) of the purified SAPB was AQTVPYGIPQIKAPAVHAQGY and was completely identical to proteases from other Bacillus pumilus species. This protease is strongly inhibited by PMSF and DFP, showing that it belongs to the serine proteases superfamily. Interestingly, the optimum pH is 10.6 while the optimum temperature was determined to be 65 degrees C. The enzyme was completely stable within a wide range of pH (7.0-10.6) and temperature (30-55 degrees C). One of the distinguishing properties is its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) calculated to be 45,265min(-1)mM(-1) and 147,000min(-1)mM(-1) using casein and AAPF as substrates, respectively, which is higher than that of Subtilisin Carlsberg, Subtilisin BPN' and Subtilisin 309 determined under the same conditions. In addition, SAPB showed remarkable stability, for 24h at 40 degrees C, in the presence of 5% Tween-80, 1% SDS, 15% urea and 10% H2O2, which comprise the common bleach-based detergent formulation. The sapB gene encoding SAPB was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rSAPB) has the same physicochemical and kinetic properties as the native one. SapB gene had an ORF of 1149bp encoding a protein of 383 aa organized into a signal peptide (29 aa), a pro-protein (79 aa) and a mature enzyme (275 aa). The deduced amino acid sequence inspection displays an important homology with other bacterial proteases. The highest homology of 98.1% was found with BPP-A protease from Bacillus pumilus MS-1, with only 8 aa of difference. PMID:18397761

Jaouadi, Bassem; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir

2008-09-01

141

Ultraviolet-radiation-resistant isolates revealed cellulose-degrading species of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (UVP1) and Bacillus pumilus (UVP4).  

PubMed

Among extremophiles, microorganisms resistant to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been known to produce a variety of metabolites (i.e., extremolytes). We hypothesized that natural microbial flora on elevated land (hills) would reveal a variety of UVR-resistant extremophiles and polyextremophiles with modulated proteins and enzymes that had biotechnological implications. Microorganisms Cellulosimicrobium cellulans UVP1 and Bacillus pumilus UVP4 were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing, and showed extreme UV resistance (1.03 × 10? and 1.71 × 10? J/m², respectively) from elevated land soil samples along with unique patterns of protein expression under UVR and non-UVR. A broad range of cellulolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose agar plates in C. cellulans UVP1 and B. pumilus UVP4 was revealed at varying pH, temperature, and inorganic salt concentration. Further, the microbial strain B. pumilus UVP4 showed the basic characteristics of a novel group: polyextremophiles with significance in bioenergy. PMID:23586916

Gabani, Prashant; Copeland, Erin; Chandel, Anuj K; Singh, Om V

2012-01-01

142

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10?6±0.21 M·min?1 and 0.32±0.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

143

CotA, a multicopper oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, exhibits manganese-oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10(-6)±0.21 M·min(-1) and 0.32±0.02 s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

144

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores  

PubMed Central

The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O'Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Fox, George E.

2013-01-01

145

Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases  

E-print Network

This study generated two cyanide dihydratase (CynD) mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 with improved activity at higher pH by random mutagenesis. The purpose of this study was to create enzyme variants better suited to degrade cyanide under the harsh...

Wang, Lan

2009-05-15

146

Production of an alkaline protease using Bacillus pumilus D3 without inactivation by SDS, its characterization and purification.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, protease-producing capacity of Bacillus pumilus D3, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated and optimized. Optimum growing conditions for B. pumilus D3 in terms of protease production were determined as 1% optimum inoculum size, 35?°C temperature, 11 pH and 48?h incubation time, respectively. Stability studies indicated that the mentioned protease was stable within the pH range of 7-10.5 and between 30?°C and 40?°C temperatures. Surprisingly, the activity of the enzyme increased in the presence of SDS with concentration up to 5?mM. The protease was concentrated 1.6-fold with ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. At least six protein bands were obtained from dialysate by electrophoresis. Four clear protein bands with caseinolytic activity were detected by zymography. Dialysate was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography and the caseinolytic active fraction showed a single band between 29 and 36?kDa of reducing conditions. PMID:23638694

Özçelik, Burçin; Aytar, P?nar; Gedikli, Serap; Yard?mc?, Ezgi; Çal??kan, Figen; Çabuk, Ahmet

2014-06-01

147

Enhanced phytotransformation of Navy Blue RX dye by Petunia grandiflora Juss. with augmentation of rhizospheric Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ and subsequent toxicity analysis.  

PubMed

This study reveals the beneficial synergistic phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. with its rhizospheric bacterial isolate Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ to decolorize reactive Navy Blue RX (NBRX) dye by their active enzymatic machinery. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora and B. pumilus gave 80.01% and 76.80% while their consortium decolorized NBRX up to 96.86% within 36 h. Significant induction in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (207%), tyrosinase (133%), laccase (161%), riboflavin reductase (78%) were seen in the roots of tissue cultured plants while enzymes tyrosinase (660%), laccase (689%), riboflavin reductase (528%) were induced significantly in the B. pumilus cells. Metabolites of treated NBRX were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, gas chromatography and biotransformation was visualized using high performance thin layer chromatography profile. Metabolites of the dye exhibited reduced phytotoxicity Sorghum vulgare and Phaeseolus mungo and significant reduction in cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots when compared to NBRX. PMID:23743429

Watharkar, Anuprita D; Rane, Niraj R; Patil, Swapnil M; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

2013-08-01

148

An ICEBs1-like element may be associated with the extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.  

PubMed

Comparisons of the genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and the closely related type strain, B. pumilus ATCC7061(T), exposed an extended region of non-homologous genes. A detailed examination of this region revealed the presence of an ICEBs1-like integrative conjugative element in SAFR-032. A similar element was subsequently located elsewhere in the ATCC7061(T) genome. A detailed comparison of these elements and the ICEBs1 of B. subtilis revealed extremely rapid flux in gene content, genome organization and sequence similarity. It is not clear if the B. pumilus elements as they are currently structured are functional. However, it is clear that the past involvement of these elements has brought multiple genes of unknown function to the SAFR-032 genome and these genes may be responsible for the rapid evolution that led to the extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of this organism's spores. PMID:23812891

Tirumalai, Madhan R; Fox, George E

2013-09-01

149

Functional evaluation of a novel constitutive promoter F1 of Bacillus pumilus, as a rice epiphytic strain, and construction of an efficient expression and secretion system under the control of F1.  

PubMed

To establish a constitutive, high-efficiency expression and secretion system for Bacillus pumilus, the function of a promoter and the abilities of three signal peptides in B. pumilus DX01 were tested. F1, cloned from the rice epiphyte B. pumilus strain DX01, had strong transcription activity and was a vegetative-phase constitutive promoter. The signal sequences of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase (sacB) and subtilisin, as well as B. pumilus DX01 RNase signal sequence could drive the secretion of E. coli beta-lactamase from B. pumilus DX01 efficiently, among which the signal sequence of B. subtilis sacB was the most effective. Likewise, they could also direct the secretion of green fluorescence protein (GFP) from DX01. PMID:16799766

Sun, Xiaobo; Chen, Yunpeng; Wu, Cuirong; Yang, Guangxiao; Guo, Bin; Shen, Daleng

2006-07-01

150

Characterization of industrially-valuable xylano-pectinolytic enzymes produced concurrently by a novel isolate of Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Xylanase and polygalacturonase were concurrently produced by a novel alkalo-thermotolerant Bacillus pumilus AJK. They were purified and characterized to evaluate their potential for various industrial applications. Xylanase was purified to 19-fold with 67 % recovery and polygalacturonase up to 23-fold with 75 % recovery. Existence of multiple forms of xylanase was indicated by its elution-profile through Sephadex G-100 as two peaks, xylanase-I and xylanase-II, with molecular weights of ~24.5 and ~13 kDa, respectively, and by the presence of two pH optima, one at pH 6.0 and other at pH 8.5. The molecular weight of polygalacturonase was ~40 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography. Zymographic studies confirmed the presence of seven isozymic forms of xylanase. Xylanase and polygalacturonase are stable over a broad range of pH and temperature. PMID:25048224

Kaur, Amanjot; Singh, Avtar; Mahajan, Ritu

2014-11-01

151

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

2014-01-01

152

Production of cellulase-free endoxylanase from novel alkalophilic thermotolerent Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation and its application in wastepaper recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at optimization of culture condition for the enhanced production of extra cellular thermostable cellulase-free xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation. Batch studies were carried out to evaluate various agro-industrial residues such as rice bran, rice husk, rice straw, sawdust, coconut pith, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The endoxylanase

C. Asha Poorna; P. Prema

2007-01-01

153

A marked enhancement in the production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 in submerged fermentation by using statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase of Bacillus pumilus was optimized in submerged fermentation using Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology. Three fermentation variables (C:N ratio, K2HPO4, and pH), which were identified to significantly affect pectinase production by Plackett–Burman design were further optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design (CCD). An over all 34- and

D. C. Sharma; T. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

154

Cost-effective xylanase production from free and immobilized Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 and its application in saccharification of Prosopis juliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural conditions for xylanase production by an alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 were optimized under submerged fermentation. An initial medium pH 9.0, agitation 200rpm, inoculum size 1.25% (v\\/v) and inoculum age 2h were found to be optimal for maximum enzyme production. The bacterium secretes high levels of xylanase on agricultural residues (wheat bran 1220.0IUml?1; wheat straw 900.0IUml?1) as well as

Mukesh Kapoor; Lavanya M. Nair; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2008-01-01

155

Extraction in aqueous two-phase systems of alkaline xylanase produced by Bacillus pumilus and its application in kraft pulp bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to extract and to purify xylanase, produced by Bacillus pumilus from the crude fermentation broth, using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The xylanase was extracted by partitioning in ATPS composed of phosphate and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The effect of tie-line length, PEG molecular mass and NaCl concentrations upon the purification factors and yields of xylanase

Mônica Andréa Bim; Telma Teixeira Franco

2000-01-01

156

Pumilicin 4, A Novel Bacteriocin with Anti-MRSA and Anti-VRE Activity Produced by Newly Isolated Bacteria Bacillus pumilus Strain WAPB4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 34 bacterial strains with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity were isolated from 69 soil and water samples collected from four areas of Thailand. One strain, WAPB4 identified\\u000a as Bacillus pumilus, showed remarkable antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and several Gram-positive test bacteria. Bacteriocin produced by WAPB4 was designated as pumilicin 4. It was heat

Ratchaneewan Aunpad; Keasara Na-Bangchang

2007-01-01

157

Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain C2A1 isolated from soil was found highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its first hydrolysis metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). On the basis of morphology, physiological characteristics, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain C2A1 was identified as Bacillus pumilus. Role of strain C2A1 in the degradation of chlorpyrifos was examined under different culture conditions like pH, inoculum

Samina Anwar; Fauzia Liaquat; Qaiser M. Khan; Zafar M. Khalid; Samina Iqbal

2009-01-01

158

An alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus functionally expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis and evaluation of its deinking efficiency.  

PubMed

This work aimed at studying the recombinant expression of an alkali- and thermo-stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus in Kluyveromyces lactis and its use in deinking of civic paper waste. Efficient expression with a 3-fold increase in the activity than the native organism was achieved. An inducer concentration of 2.5% and medium pH of 9.0 was the best for enzyme expression. Purified enzyme showed an optimum activity at temperatures 50 and 60°C and pH 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. At pH 12.0, enzyme retained 74% and 26% activity after 2 and 3h of incubation, respectively. After incubation at 50 and 60°C for 1h, the enzyme showed 100% retention of activity, and remained active for 4h at 60°C retaining 23% residual activity. Partially purified recombinant enzyme showed higher deinking efficiency (273%) of laser print waste paper than crude xylanase from Bacillus and commercial acidic enzyme. This xylanase with superior stability characteristics could be a suitable candidate in paper and pulp industries. PMID:24709528

Thomas, Leya; Ushasree, Mrudula V; Pandey, Ashok

2014-08-01

159

Antitumor activity of bacterial exopolysaccharides from the endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 ?g/?l. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 ?g/?l, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents. PMID:23833642

CHEN, YI-TAO; YUAN, QIANG; SHAN, LE-TIAN; LIN, MEI-AI; CHENG, DONG-QING; LI, CHANG-YU

2013-01-01

160

Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:874-885, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25060609

White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

2014-11-01

161

Thermostable keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12: production, chitin crosslinking and degradation of Sup35NM aggregates.  

PubMed

Production of thermostable keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was enhanced up to seven fold by statistical methods. The enzyme was partially purified by ultrafiltration followed by thermal precipitation with purity of 3.2-fold and recovery of 89%. Keratinase was immobilized using covalent method by crosslinking 2 mg protein (688 U/mg) onto 1g chitin activated with 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde for 60 min. Its comparative biochemical studies with that of free keratinase revealed the shift in optimum pH with increased stability towards pH from 9.0 to 10.0 and temperature. Also, it showed statistically significant improved hydrolysis of a number of soluble and insoluble substrates in comparison to free keratinase. Owing to improved catalytic efficiency of immobilized keratinase, its potential for degradation of Sup35NM was evaluated, where 100 ?g of enzyme could degrade 60 ?g Sup35NM after 60 min at pH 7.0 and 37°C. PMID:23425582

Rajput, Rinky; Gupta, Rani

2013-04-01

162

Exo-pectinase production by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes and optimizing of medium components using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this research, the production of exo-pectinase by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes was studied. Agricultural wastes containing pectin such as wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, sunflower plate, orange peel, banana peel, apple pomace and grape pomace were tested as substrates, and activity of exo-pectinase was determined only in the mediums containing sugar beet pulp and wheat bran. Then, effects of parameters such as concentrations of solid substrate (wheat bran and sugar beet pulp) (A), ammonium sulphate (B) and yeast extract (C) on the production of exo-pectinase were investigated by response surface methodology. First, wheat bran was used as solid substrate, and it was determined that exo-pectinase activity increased when relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulphate (0.12-0.21%?w/v) and yeast extract (0.12-0.3%?w/v) and relatively high wheat bran (~5-6%?w/v) were used. Then, exo-pectinase production was optimized by response surface methodology using sugar beet pulp as a solid substrate. In comparison to P values of the coefficients, values of not greater than 0.05 of A and B (2) showed that the effect of these process variables in exo-pectinase production was important and that changes done in these variables will alter the enzyme activity. PMID:24819433

Tepe, Ozlem; Dursun, Arzu Y

2014-08-01

163

Bioremediation of heavy metals by growing hyperaccumulaor endophytic bacterium Bacillus sp. L14.  

PubMed

Heavy metal bioremediation by a multi-metal resistant endophytic bacteria L14 (EB L14) isolated from the cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. was characterized for its potential application in metal treatment. 16S rDNA analysis revealed that this endophyte belonged to Bacillus sp. The hormesis of EB L14 were observed in presence of divalent heavy metals (Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II)) at a relatively lower concentration (10mg/L). Such hormesis was the side effect of abnormal activities increases of ATPase which was planned to provide energy to help EB L14 reduce the toxicity of heavy metals by exporting the cations. Within 24h incubation, EB L14 could specifically uptake 75.78%, 80.48%, 21.25% of Cd (II), Pb (II) and Cu (II) under the initial concentration of 10mg/L. However, nearly no chromium uptake was observed. The mechanism study indicated that its remediation efficiencies may be greatly promoted through inhibiting the activities of ATPase. The excellent adaptation abilities and promising remediation efficiencies strongly indicated the superiority of this endophyte in heavy metal bioremediation at low concentrations, which could be useful for developing efficient metal removal system. PMID:20637605

Guo, Hanjun; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Liang; Xiao, Xiao; Xi, Qiang; Wei, Wanzhi; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Chengbin; Wan, Yong; Chen, Jueliang; He, Yejuan

2010-11-01

164

Food poisoning associated with pumilacidin-producing Bacillus pumilus in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food poisoning caused by other Bacillus species than B. cereus has been described, but the toxins involved have rarely been isolated. Endospores will survive heat treatment and will germinate and multiply in cooked foods producing toxins under appropriate conditions. We describe a small food poisoning outbreak where three people became ill after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. Acute symptoms

Victor Hormazabal; Per Einar Granum

2007-01-01

165

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed  

PubMed Central

Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint?Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant?beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant?beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant?beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

2011-01-01

166

Coexpression of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase ( xynB ) gene with the Trichoderma reesei ?-xylanase 2 ( xyn2 ) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xynB gene encoding the Bacillus pumilus?-xylosidase was expressed separately and jointly with the Trichoderma reesei?-xylanase (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the glucose-derepressible alcohol dehydrogenase?2 promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences. The xynB gene was fused in frame to the yeast mating factor ?1 secretion

D. C. La Grange; M. Claeyssens; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. Van Zyl

2000-01-01

167

Characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease from an alkaliphilic strain Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 and its applications.  

PubMed

This study describes the characterization and optimization of medium components for an extracellular detergent, surfactant, organic solvent and thermostable serine alkaline protease produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 strain isolated from Pulicat lake sediments, Tamil Nadu, India. The strain yielded maximum protease (2,214 U/ml) under optimized conditions: carbon source, citric acid-1.5 % (w/w); inducer, soyabean meal-2 % (w/w); pH 11.0; shaking condition 37 °C for 48 h. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima of 9.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme displayed the molecular mass of 36 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis study and exhibited activity at a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0) and thermostability (20-70 °C). More than 70 % residual activity was observed when the enzyme was incubated with dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and H(2)O(2) for 30 min. The protease activity was also enhanced by divalent cations such as Ba(2+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and was strongly inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Sr(2+), Hg(2+) and urea. The enzyme retained more than 50 % of its initial activity after pre-incubation for 1 h in the presence of 5 % (v/v) organic solvents such as dimethyl sulphoxide and acetone. The protease could hydrolyse various native proteinaceous substrates (1 % w/v) such as bovine serum albumin, casein, skim milk, gelatine, azocasein and haemoglobin. Wash performance analysis of enzyme revealed that it could effectively remove blood stains from the cotton fabric, thus making it suitable to use as an effective detergent additive. The protease enzyme also exhibited promising result in the dehairing of goat skin. The potency of the eco-friendly enzyme without using any chemicals against washing and dehairing showed that the enzyme could be used for various industrial applications. PMID:23076563

Jayakumar, Renganathan; Jayashree, Shanmugam; Annapurna, Balumuri; Seshadri, Sundaram

2012-12-01

168

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess wheth- er new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat prod- ucts. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluo- rescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to

Alessandra Matarante; Federico Baruzzi; Pier Sandro Cocconcelli; Maria Morea

2004-01-01

169

The discovery of phiAGATE, a novel phage infecting Bacillus pumilus, leads to new insights into the phylogeny of the subfamily Spounavirinae.  

PubMed

The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as "Bastille group") within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily. PMID:24466180

Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

2014-01-01

170

The Discovery of phiAGATE, A Novel Phage Infecting Bacillus pumilus, Leads to New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Subfamily Spounavirinae  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as “Bastille group”) within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily. PMID:24466180

Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna

2014-01-01

171

Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of an Endophytic Quinclorac Degrading Bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3.  

PubMed

In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity. PMID:25244184

Liu, Min; Luo, Kun; Wang, Yunsheng; Zeng, Aiping; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Feng; Bai, Lianyang

2014-01-01

172

A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.  

PubMed

According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2013-01-01

173

Characterization and emulsifying property of a carbohydrate polymer produced by Bacillus pumilus UW-02 isolated from waste water irrigated agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus UW-02, an isolate from agricultural soil irrigated with waste water was found to produce a carbohydrate polymer in the form of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). The recovery rates of EPS by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were around 63% and 90%, respectively. As evident from HPLC and FT-IR analyses, the EPS was found to be a heteropolymer consisting glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and N-acetyl glucosamine as monomer units. Different oligosaccharide combinations namely hexose(4), hexose(6) pentose(1) and hexose(10) pentose(1) are obtained after partial hydrolysis of EPS using MALDI-ToF-MS. Electron micrographs portrayed the intense affinity of the EPS molecules for each other, thereby justifying its viscosifying and thickening properties. The EPS with an average molecular weight of 218 kDa and thermal stability up to 180 °C showed pseudoplastic rheology and significant emulsifying activities. PMID:21382404

Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

2011-05-01

174

Enhancement of heavy metal phytoremediation by Alnus firma with endophytic Bacillus thuringiensis GDB-1.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation shows potential for remediating mine tailing sites contaminated with heavy metals. Our aim was to isolate, characterize, and assess the potential of endophytic bacteria to enhance growth and metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator Alnus firma. A bacterial strain isolated from roots of Pinus sylvestris had the capacity to remove heavy metals from mine tailing and was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis GDB-1 based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. GDB-1 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production, and P solubilization. The efficiency of GDB-1 to remove heavy metals was influenced by pH and initial metal concentration. Removal capacity (mg/l) was 77% for Pb (100), 64% for Zn (50), 34% for As (50), 9% for Cd (10), 8% for Cu (10), and 8% for Ni (10) during the active growth cycle in heavy metal-amended, mine tailing extract medium. Inoculating soil with GDB-1 significantly increased biomass, chlorophyll content, nodule number, and heavy metal (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) accumulation in A. firma seedlings. Results indicate that inoculating the native plant A. firma with B. thuringiensis GDB-1 improves its efficiency for phytoremediation of soil containing mine tailings contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23500429

Babu, A Giridhar; Kim, Jong-Dae; Oh, Byung-Taek

2013-04-15

175

Isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species  

PubMed Central

Background: Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species. Objective: This study was undertaken to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria associated with agarwood-producing seven (7) Aquilaria species from Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Botanical samples of seven Aquilaria species were collected, and endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized-tissue samples. The 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using PCR method, and endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity based method. Results: Culturable, 77 EBIs were analyzed, and results of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis suggest that 18 different types of endophytic bacteria are associated with (seven) Aquilaria species. From 77 EBIs, majority (36.4%) of the isolates were of Bacillus pumilus. Conclusion: These findings indicate that agarwood-producing Aquilaria species are harboring 18 different types of culturable endophytic bacteria. PMID:23798890

Bhore, Subhash J.; Preveena, Jagadesan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

2013-01-01

176

Development of a high-efficient transformation system of Bacillus pumilus strain DX01 to facilitate gene isolation via gfp-tagged insertional mutagenesis and visualize bacterial colonization of rice roots.  

PubMed

A Tn5 transposition vector, pMOD-tet-egfp, was constructed and used for the random insertional mutagenesis of Bacillus pumilus. Various parameters were investigated to increase the transformation efficiency B. pumilus DX01 via Tn5 transposition complexes (transposome): bacterial growth phase, type of electroporation buffer, electric field strength, and recovery medium. Transformation efficiency was up to 3 × 10(4)?transformants/?g of DNA under the optimized electroporation conditions, and a total of 1,467 gfp-tagged transformants were obtained. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that all gfp-tagged bacterial cells expressed GFP, indicating that foreign DNA has been successfully integrated into the genome of B. pumilus and expressed. Finally, flanking DNA sequences were isolated from several transformants and colonization of rice roots by B. pumilus DX01 was also studied. The method developed here will be useful for creating an insertion mutant library of gram-positive bacteria, thus facilitating their molecular genetic and cytological studies. PMID:23334949

Shen, Xinqian; Chen, Yunpeng; Liu, Tong; Hu, Xiaolu; Gu, Zhenfang

2013-09-01

177

Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative forward contaminants such as B. subtilis and B. pumilus under Earth laboratory conditions.

Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

2012-08-01

178

Enhanced remediation of chlorpyrifos from soil using ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum) and chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium Bacillus pumilus C2A1.  

PubMed

The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to determine whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion and chlorpyrifos (CP) degradation and accumulation in different parts of the plant. Ryegrass was grown in soil spiked with CP and inoculated with a pesticide degrading bacterial strain Bacillus pumilus C2A1. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on CP degradation and plant biomass production, highest CP degradation (97%) was observed after 45 days of inoculation. Furthermore, inoculated strain efficiently colonized in the rhizosphere of inoculated plant and enhanced CP and its primary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) degradation. There was significantly less CP accumulation in roots and shoots of inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated exogenous bacteria to boost the remediation of CP contaminated sites and decrease levels of toxic pesticide residues in crop plants. PMID:22959266

Ahmad, Fiaz; Iqbal, Samina; Anwar, Samina; Afzal, Muhammad; Islam, Ejazul; Mustafa, Tanveer; Khan, Qaiser M

2012-10-30

179

Lipase production from a novel thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophile Bacillus pumilus using palm oil as the substrate and treatment of palm oil-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

The thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophilic microorganism Bacillus pumilus was isolated from the soil collected from a commercial edible-oil extraction industry. Optimisation of conditions for the lipase production was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of extremely acidic thermostable lipase were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; and concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the thermo-tolerant acidophilic lipase (TAL) was 55 kDa. The predominant amino acid in the TAL was glycine. The functional groups of lipase were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TAL exhibited enhanced activity (114 %) with dimethyl sulphoxide (20 %, v/v), and it showed a moderate activity with methanol, hexane and benzene. The optimum conditions for the treatment of palm oil in wastewater using the TAL were found to be time, 3 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C with pseudo second-order kinetic constant of 1.88?×?10(-3) L mol(-1) min(-1). The Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model and the nonlinear kinetic model were evaluated for the TAL. TAL established hydrolysis efficiency of 96 % for palm oil in wastewater at 50 °C. PMID:24293300

Saranya, P; Sukanya Kumari, H; Prasad Rao, B; Sekaran, G

2014-03-01

180

Optimization of microwave-assisted FeCl3 pretreatment conditions of rice straw and utilization of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus for production of reducing sugars.  

PubMed

In this study, Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment conditions of rice straw with respect to FeCl(3) concentration, microwave intensity, irradiation time and substrate concentration. When rice straw was pretreated at the optimal conditions of FeCl(3) concentration, 0.14 mol/L; microwave intensity, 160°C; irradiation time, 19 min; substrate concentration, 109 g/L; and inoculated with Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus, the production of reducing sugars was 6.62 g/L. This yield was 2.9 times higher than that obtained with untreated rice straw. The microorganisms degraded 37.8% of pretreated rice straw after 72 h. The structural characteristic analyses suggest that microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment damaged the silicified waxy surface of rice straw, disrupted almost all the ether linkages between lignin and carbohydrates, and removed lignin. PMID:21561766

Lü, Jiliang; Zhou, Peijiang

2011-07-01

181

Photocatalytically?mediated disinfection of water using tio2 as a catalyst and spore?forming Bacillus pumilus as a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic oxidation process has been evaluated as a basis for disinfecting large volumes of water. A 95 percent reduction in viability of B. pumilus spores, suspended with TiO2 in water, was observed after exposing the model organism to ultraviolet (UV) light (? 365 nm). Kinetic plots showed that the viability of B. pumilus spores decreased exponentially. No reduction in

Hien N. Pham; Thomas McDowell; Ebtisam Wilkins

1995-01-01

182

The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

2010-01-01

183

Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

184

Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2?mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15?mL (108 cfu?mL?1) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

185

The combined effect of pasteurization intensity, water activity, pH and incubation temperature on the survival and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus in artificial media and food products.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of pasteurization intensity (no heat treatment and 10 min at 70, 80 and 90 °C), water activity (aw) (0.960-0.990), pH (5.5-7.0) and storage temperature (7 and 10 °C) on the survival and outgrowth of psychrotolerant spores of Bacillus cereus FF119b and Bacillus pumilus FF128a. The experiments were performed in both artificial media and a validation was performed on real food products (cream, béchamel sauce and mixed vegetable soup). It was determined that in general, heat treatments of 10 min at 70 °C or 80 °C activated the spores of both B. cereus FF119b and B. pumilus FF128a, resulting in faster outgrowth compared to native (non-heat treated) spores. A pasteurization treatment of 10 min at 90 °C generally resulted in the longest lag periods before outgrowth of both isolates. Some of the spores were inactivated by this heat treatment, with more inactivation being observed the lower the pH value of the heating medium. Despite this, it was also observed that under some conditions the remaining (surviving) spores were actually activated as their outgrowth took place after a shorter period of time compared to native non-heated spores. While the response of B. cereus FF119b to the pasteurization intensity in cream and béchamel sauce was similar to the trends observed in the artificial media at 10 °C, in difference, outgrowth was only observed at 7 °C in both products when the spores had been heated for 10 min at 80 °C. Moreover, no inactivation was observed in cream or béchamel sauce when the spores were heated for 10 min at 90 °C in these two products. This was attributed to the protective effect of fat in the cream and the ingredients in the béchamel sauce. The study provides some insight into the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current trend towards milder heat treatments which is being pursued in the food industry. PMID:24801270

Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; de Baenst, I; Devlieghere, F

2014-07-01

186

Catalytic versatility of Bacillus pumilus. beta. -xylosidase: glycosyl transfer and hydrolysis promoted with. cap alpha. - and. beta. -D-xylosyl fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Bacillus pumilus ..beta..-xylosidase, an enzyme considered restricted to hydrolyzing a narrow range of ..beta..-D-xylosidic substrates with inversion of configuration, was found to catalyze different stereochemical, essentially irreversible, glycosylation reactions with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. The enzyme promoted the hydrolysis of ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride at a high rate, V = 6.25 ..mu..mol min/sup -1/ mg/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C, in a reaction that obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In contrast, its action upon ..cap alpha..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride was slow and characterized by an unusual relation between the rate of fluoride release and the substrate concentration, suggesting the possible need for two substrate molecules to be bound at the active center in order for reaction to occur. Moreover, /sup 1/H NMR spectra of a digest of ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride showed the substrate to be specifically converted to ..cap alpha..-D-xylose by the enzyme. The observed retention of configuration is not consistent with direct hydrolysis by this inverting enzyme but is strongly indicative of the occurrence of two successive inverting reactions: xylosyl transfer from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride to form a ..beta..-D-xylosidic product, followed by hydrolysis of the latter to produce ..cap alpha..-D-xylose. The transient intermediate product formed enzymically from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride in the presence of (/sup 14/C)xylose was isolated and shown by its specific radioactivity and /sup 1/H NMR spectrum as well as by methylatino and enzymic analyses to be 4-O-..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl-D-xylopyranose containing one (/sup 14/C)xylose residue.

Kasumi, T.; Tsumuraya, Y.; Brewer, C.F.; Kersters-Hilderson, H.; Claeyssens, M.; Hehre, E.J.

1987-06-02

187

Probing the Crucial Role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS Alkaline Protease in Substrate Recognition and Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide.  

PubMed

The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Aicha, Houda Slimene Ben; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

2014-01-01

188

Probing the Crucial Role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS Alkaline Protease in Substrate Recognition and Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide  

PubMed Central

The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

Zarai Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Aicha, Houda Slimene Ben; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

2014-01-01

189

Production of 15-, 16- and 17-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acids by bioconversion of oleic acid with Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeveralBacillus strains were tested for their ability to hydroxylate oleic acid. Two strains—BD-174 and BD-226—converted oleic acid into\\u000a a trio of hydroxy-octadecenoic acids. Bioconversion in 72–120 hr produced 5–11% of hydroxy acids relative to oleic acid as\\u000a measured by gas chromatography. These acids were identified as the 15-, 16- and 17-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acids by gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry of trimethyl silyl derivatives

A. C. Lanser; R. D. Plattner; M. O. Bagby

1992-01-01

190

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.  

PubMed

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

2012-02-01

191

Genotyping of starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus spp. are the predominant microorganisms in fermented African locust bean called Soumbala in Burkina Faso. Ten strains selected as potential starter cultures were characterised by PCR amplification of the16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ITS-PCR (ITS-PCR RFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the 968–1401 region of the 16S rDNA. In

Labia Irène Ivette Ouoba; Bréhima Diawara; Wisdom kofi Amoa-Awua; Alfred Sababénedyo Traoré; Peter Lange Møller

2004-01-01

192

Induction of defense response against Rhizoctonia solani in cucumber plants by endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis GS1.  

PubMed

An endophytic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis GS1, was isolated from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and found to have maximal production of chitinase (4.3 units/ml) at 5 days after culture. This study investigated the ability of B. thuringiensis GS1 to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani KACC 40111 (RS) in cucumber plants. Chitinase activity was greatest in RS-treated plants at 4 days. beta-1,3- Glucanase activity was highest in GS1-treated plants at 5 days. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activity increased continuously in all treated plants for 5 days. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 4 days. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 3 days. At 5 days after treatment, activity staining revealed three bands with chitinase activity (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) on SDSPAGE of cucumber plants treated with GS1+RS, whereas only one band was observed for RS-treated plants (Ch2). One GPOD isozyme (Gp1) was also observed in response to treatment with RS and GS1+RS at 4 days. One APX band (Ap2) was present on the native-PAGE gel of the control, and GS1- and GS1+RS-treated plants at 1 day. PPO bands (Po1 and Po2) from RS- and GS1+RS-treated plants were stronger than in the control and GS1-treated plants upon native-PAGE at 5 days. Taken together, these results indicate that the induction of PR proteins and defense-related enzymes by B. thuringiensis GS1 might have suppressed the damping-off caused by R. solani KACC 40111 in cucumber plants. PMID:22450798

Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Song, Yong-Su; Jung, Woo-Jin

2012-03-01

193

Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres  

PubMed Central

The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8?Ug?1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1?:?1?:?0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1?:?2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24?h old inoculum, in 144?h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

2012-01-01

194

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 ?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80–90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

195

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

196

Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L.; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Vuurde, Jim W. L.; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-01-01

197

Induction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues Inoculated with Endophytic Bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural level using an in vitro system in which root-inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbacterized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissue including the vascular stele, whereas in prebacterized roots, pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex In these prebacterized roots, typical host reactions included strengthening the epidermal and cortical cell walls and deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. Wall appositions were found to contain large amounts of callose in addition to being infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with the gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged, bacterized roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and the intercellular spaces as well as at the surface or even inside of the invading hyphae of the pathogen. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing bacterized roots was preserved even when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations confirm that endophytic bacteria may function as potential inducers of plant disease resistance. PMID:12226427

Benhamou, N.; Kloepper, J. W.; Quadt-Hallman, A.; Tuzun, S.

1996-01-01

198

Endophytic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Endophytic fungi as well as plant-parasitic nematodes probably coevolved with all plant life on earth including cultivated\\u000a crop plants. While endophytic fungi often form mutualisitc associations to the benefit of the plant, plant-parasitic nematodes\\u000a can cause detrimental yield losses. Although both groups of organisms interact very closely within the plant tissue, the potential\\u000a role of endophytic fungi in nematode control

Johannes Hallmann; Richard A. Sikora

199

Induction of overproducing alkaline protease Bacillus mutants through UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus alvei, among alkaline protease producing strains, were used to examine the changes in alkaline protease gene expression following UV irradiation. Induction of mutation in Bacillus mutant strains was carried out by 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. exposure times of UV irradiation and different distances between the treated bacterial cultures and UV source. Results revealed

E. A. M. Solaiman; Wafaa K. Hegazy; Maysa E. Moharam

200

Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

201

Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

202

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis BSn5, an endophytic bacterium of Amorphophallus konjac with antimicrobial activity for the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.  

PubMed

Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain BSn5, isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli tissue and showing strong inhibitory activity to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, which causes Amorphophallus soft rot disease and affects the industry development of this organism. PMID:21317323

Deng, Yun; Zhu, Yiguang; Wang, Pengxia; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Jinshui; Li, Rong; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

2011-04-01

203

Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use  

PubMed Central

Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

Duc, Le H.; Hong, Huynh A.; Barbosa, Teresa M.; Henriques, Adriano O.; Cutting, Simon M.

2004-01-01

204

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

205

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vazquez, Susana C.; Diaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, Maria D.

2014-01-01

206

Reduction of methylene blue by bacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylene Blue (MB) was specifically decolorized by growing cells of Bacillus subtilis IFO 13719, B. pumilus IFO 12092, B. licheniformis IFO 12200 and B. circulans IFO 13626, although it was not decolorized by B. subtilis IFO 3022. A reaction product of MB was identified as leuco MB by TLC. The product was ultimately oxidized by air since it was not

C. Yatome; T. Ogawa

1995-01-01

207

Diversity and potential application of endophytic bacteria in ginger.  

PubMed

Here, 248 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated to assess the distribution and population diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginger plants. A total of 10.4 x 10(4) to 20.2 x 10(4) CFU/g fresh weight endophytic bacteria of different growth stages were isolated. Maximum bacterium numbers were obtained at the seedling stage. A total of 107 functional strains were screened, including 17 antibacterial strains and 90 indole acetic acid-producing strains. Based on 16S rDNA sequence restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rDNA sequences, these 107 strains were mapped and grouped into 16 genera. Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the dominant genera; however, the bacteria belonged to a tremendous range of genera, with the highest species richness being observed at the seedling stage. Sixteen strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Pythium myriotylum Drechsler, while 7 strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Phyllosticta zingiberi Hori. Bacillus was the dominant antibacterial strain. Pseudomonas fluorescens, B. megaterium, and Enterobacter ludwigii produced remarkably high levels of IAA. Only a few endophytic bacterial strains were inhibited in fresh ginger juice. Most of these strains were present during seedling stage, including Roseateles depolymerans, Chryseobacterium taiwanense, E. ludwigii, Agrobacterium larrymoorei, P. fluorescens, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This study indicates that the community of endophytic bacteria in ginger changes with the synthesis of antibacterial substances. PMID:25062479

Chen, T; Chen, Z; Ma, G H; Du, B H; Shen, B; Ding, Y Q; Xu, K

2014-01-01

208

Characterization of Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 for industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the strains of the Bacillus mojavensis group, Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 (B. mojavensis KJS-3), which has been demonstrated to play a role in protecting plants against diseases as a bacterial endophyte and in\\u000a reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins generated by an endophytic fungus, was recently discovered in food waste. In this\\u000a study, the identification and characterization of B. mojavensis

Sang Mi Choi; Min Hi Park; Tae Sung Jung; Kyung Ho Moon; Kang Min Kim; Jae Seon Kang

2011-01-01

209

Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations.  

PubMed

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in the People's Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations. The pellet formulation significantly reduced disease (incidence and disease index) and increased plant dry mass, while the wrap formulation significantly reduced disease incidence and significantly increased plant dry mass at both field locations. Mean seed yield per 120 plants with both formulations of isolate Tu-100 was significantly greater than the appropriate controls, but at only one of the locations. Both formulations provided stable B. subtilis Tu-100 biomass (?10(5) CFU·g(-1)) and seed germination (?85%) over a 6 month period at room temperature. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis identified ituC and ituD, and bacAB and bacD in the genome of isolate Tu-100. These genes are involved in the biosynthesis of iturin and bacilysin. Iturin was detected in culture filtrates from isolate Tu-100, with thin layer chromatography. Detection of bacilysin was not attempted. Experiments reported here indicate the commercial viability of B. subtilis Tu-100 for suppression of S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape. PMID:21767217

Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Maul, Jude E; Emche, Sarah E; Liao, Xing; Guo, Xuelan; Liu, Yeying; McKenna, Laurie F; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Liu, Shengyi

2011-07-01

210

Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

2014-09-01

211

Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively. PMID:22981824

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

2012-12-01

212

Antimicrobial potentials of endophytic fungi residing in Quercus variabilis and brefeldin A obtained from Cladosporium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 67 endophytic fungi isolated from Quercus variabilis, 53.7% of endophytic fungal fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on at least one test microorganism, such as pathogenic\\u000a fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens). Moreover, 19.4% of strains showed a broader antimicrobial spectrum, such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.,

F. W. Wang; R. H. Jiao; A. B. Cheng; S. H. Tan; Y. C. Song

2007-01-01

213

Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

2002-01-01

214

Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity by Bacillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 16 Bacillus strains from pharmaceutical probiotic preparations (Bacillus spp.) and collection (B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus) on genotoxicity induced by the known mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) was studied using the short-term bacterial assay SOS-chromotest, with Escherichia coli PQ37 as the tester organism. It was found that the activity of 0.1 mM 4-NQO was reduced (P<0.01) after

Giovanna Caldini; Francesca Trotta; Giovanni Cenci

2002-01-01

215

Comparative assessment of selenite (SeIV) detoxification to elemental selenium (Se0) by Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, Bacillus pumilus and Exiguobacterium sp., which were resistant up to 20 mg Na(2)SeO(3)/ml in nutrient broth and 40 mg/ml on nutrient agar plates, were isolated from contaminated soil and water. They grew from 25 to 45 degrees C and pH 5 to 9. They had multiple metal and antibiotic resistances. All strains reduced selenite (SeIV) to elemental selenium (Se0) aerobically with a maximum reduction of 97% by B. pumilus after 144 h with Na(2)SeO(3) at 500 microg/ml. PMID:20455073

Ikram, Madiha; Faisal, Muhammad

2010-09-01

216

Diversity of predominant endophytic bacteria in European deciduous and coniferous trees.  

PubMed

The diversity of endophytic bacteria residing in root, stem, and leaf tissues was examined in coniferous and deciduous tree species, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). Using cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses, the bacterial communities were observed to be significantly different in the belowground (roots and rhizosphere) and aboveground (leaves and stems) samples of the respective host trees. No significant differences, with respect to the different tree species, were observed in the associated communities. Predominant cultivable endophytes isolated included bacteria closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus spp., and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Comparisons of the most abundant cultivable bacteria in the rhizosphere and root samples suggested that root endophytic bacteria may be in residence through processes of selection or active colonization rather than by passive diffusion from the rhizosphere. PMID:18388988

Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

2008-03-01

217

Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice  

PubMed Central

Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID:25097431

Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

2014-01-01

218

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and  

E-print Network

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders C, Coley PD, et al. (2013) Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy

Coley, Phyllis

219

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

2010-01-01

220

Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.  

PubMed

The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25110630

Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

2014-01-01

221

Endophytic bacteria from banana cultivars and their antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Endophytic microorganisms consist of fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes that play important roles in the process of plant adaptation to the environment. Currently, the natural associations between microorganisms and plant species are being explored for a large number of biotechnological applications. In this study, 122 endophytic bacteria were isolated from 5 cultivars of Musa spp from the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Four strains were selected because they exhibited antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense and Colletotrichum guaranicola, with inhibitions ranging from 19 to 30% and 27 to 35%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA regions of these bacteria with antifungal activity showed that they are phylogenetically related to 3 different species of Bacillus - B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp subtilis, and B. thuringiensis. PMID:25366756

Souza, A; Cruz, J C; Sousa, N R; Procópio, A R L; Silva, G F

2014-01-01

222

Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

2014-09-01

223

Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp.) roots.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX). Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus) and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas. PMID:23885208

Souza, Suzane A; Xavier, Adelica A; Costa, Márcia R; Cardoso, Acleide M S; Pereira, Marlon C T; Nietsche, Silvia

2013-07-01

224

Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana ‘Prata Anã’ (Musa spp.) roots  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana ‘Prata Anã’ roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX). Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus) and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas. PMID:23885208

Souza, Suzane A.; Xavier, Adelica A.; Costa, Márcia R.; Cardoso, Acleide M.S.; Pereira, Marlon C.T.; Nietsche, Silvia

2013-01-01

225

Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.  

PubMed

The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

2014-01-01

226

Distribution of Endophytic Bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from Soils Contaminated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg?1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg?1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg?1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species resource for the isolation of PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:24358247

Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

2013-01-01

227

Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

2014-01-01

228

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

229

Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.  

PubMed

A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while that of the isolates from nonplant sources were inhibited or unaffected by HTE, suggesting an affinity or dependence of the endophytes on the host and the prospect of an HTE-based assay for discriminating the nonendophytes from endophytes. PMID:19633807

Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

2009-11-01

230

Bacillus coagulans  

MedlinePLUS

... Bacillus coagulans are marketed as Lactobacillus sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria ... or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms reproductive structures called spores. Spores are actually an important factor in telling ...

231

Characterization of an antimicrobial material from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from mangrove for biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms of the antagonistic endophytic bacteria is helpful in controlling plant diseases. An endophytic bacterium, Bg-C31, from mangrove was found to be antagonistic to some fungal and bacterial pathogens of plants and to be effective in the biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt in pot and field trials. Bg-C31 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by biochemical and physiological tests

Han Qiao Hu; Xin Shen Li; Hong He

2010-01-01

232

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a marine-derived Bacillus strain for use as an in-feed probiotic for newly weaned pigs.  

PubMed

Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n?=?16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 10(10) spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05) for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05), perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001). However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001) and cecal (P<0.05) Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P?=?0.10). Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05) in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001) and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01) than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C; Kent, Robert M; Cassidy, Joseph P; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

2014-01-01

233

Rapid inactivation of seven Bacillus spp. under simulated Mars UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven Bacillus spp. were exposed to simulations of Mars-normal UV fluence rates in order to study the effects of UV irradiation on microbial survival. A UV illumination system was calibrated to deliver 9.78 W m -2 (35.2 kJ m -2 h -1) of UVC + UVB irradiation (200-320 nm) to microbial samples, thus creating a clear-sky simulation (0.5 optical depth) of equatorial Mars. The Bacillus spp. studied were: B. licheniformis KL-196, B. megaterium KL-197, B. nealsonii FO-092, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. subtilis 42HS1, and B. subtilis HA101. The bacteria were prepared as thin monolayers of endospores on aluminum coupons in order to simulate contaminated spacecraft surfaces. Bacterial monolayers were exposed to Mars UV irradiation for time-steps of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. The surviving endospores were then assayed with a Most Probable Numbers (MPN) procedure and with a culture-based assay that utilized a bacillus spore germination medium. Results indicated that B. pumilus SAFR-032 was the most resistant, and B. subtilis 42HS-1 and B. megaterium were the most sensitive of the seven strains exposed to martian UV fluence rates. Bacillus subtilis 42HS1 and B. megaterium were inactivated after 30 min exposure to Mars UV, while B. pumilus SAFR-032 required 180 min for full inactivation in both assays. Spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited significantly different inactivation kinetics suggesting that this wild type isolate also was more resistant than the standard dosimetric strain, B. subtilis HA101. Although the various Bacillus spp. exhibited diverse levels of UV resistance, none were immune to UV irradiation, and, thus, all species would be expected to be inactivated on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces within a few tens-of-minutes to a few hours on sol 1 under clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars. The inactivation kinetics of all seven Bacillus spp. support the conclusion that significant levels of bioload reductions are possible on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces in very short time periods under clear-sky conditions on Mars. However, the presence of UV resistant microbes on spacecraft surfaces rapidly covered in dust during landing operations, and non-Sun-exposed surfaces of spacecraft remain concerns that must continue to be addressed through adequate spacecraft sanitizing procedures prior to launch.

Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeff T.; Newcombe, David A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2006-03-01

234

Bacillus invictae sp. nov., isolated from a health product.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming Bacillus isolate, Bi.FFUP1 (T), recovered in Portugal from a health product was subjected to a polyphasic study and compared with the type strains of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus xiamenensis, the phenotypically and genotypically most closely related species. Acid production from cellobiose, d-glucose and d-mannose and absence of acid production from d-arabinose, erythritol, inositol, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, starch and l-tryptophan discriminated this new isolate from the type strains of the most closely related species. Additionally, a significant different protein and carbohydrate signature was evidenced by spectroscopic techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Using a chemometric approach, the score plot generated by principal component analysis clearly delineated the isolate as a separate cluster. The quinone system for strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) comprised predominantly menaquinone MK-7 and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. Strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) showed ?99?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. pumilus (7061(T) and SAFR-032), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T). Differences in strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) gyrB and rpoB sequences in comparison with the most closely related species and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with Bi.FFUP1 (T) and B. pumilus ATCC 7061(T), B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T) gave relatedness values of 39.6?% (reciprocal 38.0?%), 49.9?% (reciprocal 42.9?%), 61.9?% (reciprocal 52.2?%) and 61.7?% (reciprocal 49.2?%), respectively, supported the delineation of strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus invictae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) (?=?DSM 26896(T)?=?CCUG 64113(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25171924

Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Osório, Hugo; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Lopes, João; Carriço, João A; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Pintado, Manuela E; Peixe, Luísa V

2014-11-01

235

Endophytic fungi in forest trees: are they mutualists?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest trees form symbiotic associations with endophytic fungi which live inside healthy tissues as quiescent microthalli. All forest trees in temperate zones host endophytic fungi. The species diversity of endophyte communities can be high. Some tree species host more than 100 species in one tissue type, but communities are usually dominated by a few host-specific species. The endophyte communities in

Thomas N. Sieber

2007-01-01

236

Chemical constituents of Aspergillus sp EJC08 isolated as endophyte from Bauhinia guianensis and their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

The present work reports the isolation of five compounds from Aspergillus sp EJC08 isolated as endophytic from Bauhinia guianensis, a tipical plant of the Amazon. The compounds ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalolactone (3), monomethylsulochrin (4) and trypacidin A (5) were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by spectral methods of 1D and 2D NMR and MS. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and showed good activity. PMID:24141408

Pinheiro, Eduardo A A; Carvalho, Josiwander M; Santos, Diellem C P dos; Feitosa, André O; Marinho, Patrícia S B; Guilhon, Giselle Maria S P; Santos, Lourivaldo S; Souza, Afonso L D de; Marinho, Andrey M R

2013-01-01

237

[Identification and antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites from Taxus endophytic fungus].  

PubMed

We isolated three secondary metabolites by silica gel column chromatography from endophytic fungus 12.3.2 that was isolated from Taxus yunnanensis and could produce taxanes. They were identified as cembrene (3,7,11-trimethyl-14-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,6,10-cyclotetradecatetraene), diisooctyl phthalate (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctylester) and ethyl oleate (9-octadecenoic acid-ethyl ester) by infrared spectra (IR), mass spectra (MS) and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were examined. Results show that all of the three compounds could inhibit the growth of those pathogenic bacteria. Especially, cembrene showed stronger inhibition to S. aureus, B. subtilis and C. albicans. This is the first report on cembrene produced by plant endophytic fungus. PMID:19621576

Chen, Shujuan; Liu, Jiajia; Gong, Hanxiang; Yang, Dongliang

2009-03-01

238

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.  

PubMed

Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

2013-02-01

239

Endophytic microbial diversity in coffee cherries of Coffea arabica from southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The microbiota associated with coffee plants may play a critical role in the final expression of coffee quality. However, the microbial diversity in coffee cherries is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in cherries of Coffea arabica by using culture-independent approaches to identify the associated microbes, ultimately to better understand their ecology and potential role in determining coffee quality. Group-specific 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA genes polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library sequencing showed that the endophytic community is composed of members of the 3 domains of life. Bacterial sequences showing high similarity with cultured and uncultured bacteria belonged to the Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. Phylogenetic analyses of cloned sequences from Firmicutes revealed that most sequences fell into 3 major genera: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Paenibacillus. Archaeal sequences revealed the presence of operational taxonomic units belonging to Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla. Sequences from endophytic yeast were not recovered, but various distinct sequences showing high identity with filamentous fungi were found. There was no obvious correlation between the microbial composition and cultivar or geographic location of the coffee plant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating internal tissue colonization of plant fruits by members of the Archaea domain. The finding of archaeal small-subunit rRNA in coffee cherries, although not sufficient to indicate their role as active endophytes, certainly expands our perspectives toward considering members of this domain as potential endophytic microbes. PMID:23586745

Oliveira, Marcelo N V; Santos, Thiago M A; Vale, Helson M M; Delvaux, Júlio C; Cordero, Alexander P; Ferreira, Alessandra B; Miguel, Paulo S B; Tótola, Marcos R; Costa, Maurício D; Moraes, Célia A; Borges, Arnaldo C

2013-04-01

240

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

Coêlho, Mariza M; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Santos, André L W

2011-10-01

241

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

2011-01-01

242

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

243

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J; Brunsfeld, Steven J; Newcombe, George

2004-07-01

244

Investigation of the molecular mechanism of thermal tolerance in bacillus subtilis. Final report, August 15, 1980-August 14, 1981  

SciTech Connect

We have studied Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus caldolyticus to ascertain the molecular mechanism of the ability to growth at high temperatures. B. subtilus wild type strains grow in minimal salts medium at a mesophilic temperature (37/sup 0/C) but not at a thermophilic temperature (56/sup 0/C). However, they do grow at 56/sup 0/C in complex rich media. Analysis of their nutritional requirements revealed that these bacteria require pyridoxine or aspartic acid and threonine to grow at 56/sup 0/C indicating that they are temperature sensitive mutants. Furthermore, mutants of B. subtilis which are able to grow on minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C can be readily isolated. Therefore, it appears that the lack of growth of the wild type strain in minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C is due to the instability of an anabolic enzyme. In contrast to B. subtilis, B. pumilus has never been observed to growth above 50/sup 0/C. However, our studies show that mutants of B. pumilus and B. subtilis which grow at 68/sup 0/C can be easily isolated. The isolation of such mutants strongly supports the idea that one gene can determine the ability to grow at extreme temperatures.

Yamamoto, N.; Alexander, J.; Ch'ih, J.

1981-08-14

245

Herbivory mediates grass-endophyte relationships.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi are plant symbionts living asymptomatically within plant tissues. Neotyphodium spp., which are asexual vertically transmitted systemic fungal endophytes of cool-season grasses, are predicted to be plant mutualists. These endophytes increase host plant resistance to environmental stresses and/or increase the production of alkaloid-based herbivore deterrents. The ubiquity of this defense mutualism is unclear, and a variety of alternative mechanisms may explain the observed variation in infection rates, levels of deterrence, and the maintenance of asexual endophytes in grass populations. We found that grass-endophyte interactions are variable and ordered along an herbivory gradient in an undisturbed subarctic alpine ecosystem. Native grass populations in grazed sites had significantly greater frequency of Neotyphodium infection compared to ungrazed sites. Tillers from grazed sites had significantly higher hyphal densities compared to ungrazed sites. The ability of grass-Neotyphodium constituents to deter vertebrate herbivory in natural systems is thought to be rare. In grazed meadows, we showed that endophyte infection resulted in the deterrence of grazing by native vertebrate herbivores. However, the same herbivores did not distinguish between infected and uninfected grass harvested from ungrazed areas. These results demonstrate that the relationship between vertically transmitted endophytes and grasses in the alpine tundra vary greatly within populations. This may be based in part on defense mutualism and is consistent, under varying levels of herbivory, with the predictions of optimal defense theory. PMID:18051643

Koh, Saewan; Hik, David S

2007-11-01

246

Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized. PMID:23648849

Yan, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Han, Bei-Zhong; Han, Jian-Shu; Nout, M J Robert; Chen, Jing-Yu

2013-05-01

247

Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma rays, converted X rays (bremsstrahlung) and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1 % glycerin on glass fiber filters. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased.

Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-10-01

248

Diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from korean ginseng leaves.  

PubMed

We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

2014-06-01

249

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok

2014-01-01

250

Recurrent Isolation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Resistant Spores of Bacillus pumilus from a Spacecraft Assembly Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses

Michael J. Kempf; Fei Chen; Roger Kern; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

2005-01-01

251

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

States of America, 4 Biotechnology & Planetary Protection Group, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratories from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant University (NASA Cooperative agreement NNX08B4A47A) and the Center for Ribosomal Evolution and Adaptation

Fox, George

252

Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the one electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds. Laccase substrates include substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols. Such compounds are activated by the enzyme to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range laccases are considered to be versatile biocatalysts which are capable of oxidizing natural and non-natural industrial compounds,

Renate Reiss; Julian Ihssen; Linda Thöny-Meyer

2011-01-01

253

77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mexico. It colonizes plant roots and produces metabolites that suppress the fungal plant pathogens Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria spp. Adequate mammalian toxicology data and information were submitted to...

2012-03-30

254

INHIBITION OF BIOFILM FORMATION OF BACILLUS PUMILUS1 BY ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCES PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT OIL RESERVOIR BACILLUS STRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms are structured communities of cells encased in a polymeric matrix and adherent to a surface, interface or to each other. Microbial colonization of surfaces of petroleum industrial systems takes place through the formation of such biofilms. Problems due to biocorrosion and biofouling of industrial systems range from heavy microbiological contamination with consequent energy and efficiency losses to structural failures

Elisa Korenblum; Irene von der Weid; Gina Vasquez Sebastián; Lucy Seldin; Maurício Magalhães de Paiva

255

Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal parts of Aquilaria sinensis *  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi from the stem tissue which can produce fragrant ingredients in Aquilaria sinensis (also called agarwood) to determine their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-eight fungal endophytes were isolated from agarwood by strict sterile sample preparation and were classified into 14 genera and 4 taxonomic classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, and Zygomycetes) based on molecular identification. Of the 28 isolates, 13 (46.4%) showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains by the agar well diffusion method, and 23 isolates (82.1%) displayed antitumor activity against at least one of five cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The diameters of inhibition zones of YNAS07, YNAS14, HNAS04, HNAS05, HNAS08, and HNAS11 were equal to or higher than 14.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and B. subtilis, respectively. The inhibition rates of YNAS06, YNAS08, and HNAS06 were not less than 60% to 293-T, 293-T, and SKVO3 cells, respectively. These results suggest that the endophytic fungi associated with agarwood will provide us with not only useful micro-ecological information, but also potential antimicrobial and antitumor agents. PMID:21528493

Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Xiao, Pei-gen

2011-01-01

256

Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians  

PubMed Central

Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

2013-01-01

257

Endophytes as producers of peptides: an overview about the recently discovered peptides from endophytic microbes.  

PubMed

An endophyte is a fungus or bacterium that lives within a plant in a symbiotic relationship. Extensive colonization of the plant tissue by endophytes creates a barrier effect, where they outcompete and prevent pathogenic organisms from taking hold. This happens by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth of the competitors or pathogens. In this way they play a very important role in the plant defence mechanisms. The metabolites produced by these endophytes fall within a wide range of classes of compounds that include peptides which are the focus of this review. Peptides are increasingly being selected for drug development because they are specific for their targets and have a higher degree of interactions. There have been quite a number of endophytic peptides reported in the recent past indicating that endophytes can be used for the production of peptide based drugs. Molecular screening for NRPS, which shows peptide producing capability, has also shown that endophytes are potential producers of peptides. The presence of NRPS also offers the possibility of genetic modifications which may generate peptides with high pharmacological activities. This review, therefore, aims to show the current status of peptides isolated from endophytic bacteria and fungi in the recent decade. Endophytes as potential sources of peptides according to NRPS studies will also be discussed. PMID:25205333

Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C

2014-10-01

258

Antifungal and antibacterial metabolites from an endophytic Aspergillus sp. associated with Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Seven known metabolites, dianhydro-aurasperone C (1), isoaurasperone A (2), fonsecinone A (3), asperpyrone A (4), asperazine (5), rubrofusarin B (6) and (R)-3-hydroxybutanonitrile (7), were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. KJ-9, a fungal endophyte isolated from Melia azedarach and identified by spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated in vitro against several phytopathogenic fungi (Gibberella saubinetti, Magnaporthe grisea, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus). Compounds 3 and 7 were active against almost all phytopathogenic fungi tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6.25-50 ?M. Moreover, compound 3 was active against all pathogenic bacteria with MIC in the range of 25-100 ?M. Compound 7 is a rare new natural product isolated from a natural source for the first time, and the detailed NMR data of 1 were first assigned. PMID:24708541

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Shi, Xin-Wei; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-01-01

259

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to

Rebecca J. Ganley; George Newcombe

2006-01-01

260

Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture.  

PubMed

Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn. PMID:24949261

Szilagyi-Zecchin, Vivian Jaskiw; Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Hungria, Mariangela; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Glienke, Chirlei; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitória

2014-01-01

261

Poplar and its Bacterial Endophytes: Coexistence and Harmony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an

Daniel van der Lelie; Safiyh Taghavi; Sébastien Monchy; Jorg Schwender; Lisa Miller; Richard Ferrieri; Alistair Rogers; Xiao Wu; Wei Zhu; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman

2009-01-01

262

Distribution and characteristics of Bacillus bacteria associated with hydrobionts and the waters of the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacilli of the species Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, B. mycoides, B. marinus and B. licheniformis (a total of 53 strains) were isolated from 15 invertebrate species and the water of the Vostok Bay, Peter the Great Bay,\\u000a Sea of Japan. Bacilli were most often isolated from bivalves (22.7%) and sea cucumbers (18.9%); they occurred less frequently\\u000a in sea urchins and

I. A. Beleneva

2008-01-01

263

Bacillus and relatives in foodborne illness.  

PubMed

Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. These organisms have undergone huge taxonomic changes in the last 30?years, with numbers of genera and species now standing at 56 and over 545, respectively. Despite this expansion, relatively few new species have been isolated from infections, few are associated with food and no important new agents of foodborne illness have been reported. What has changed is our knowledge of the established agents. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now understood about its toxins and their involvement in infections and intoxications. Also, although B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and B. pumilus have occasionally been isolated from cases of food-associated illness, their roles were usually uncertain. Much more is now known about the toxins that strains of these species may produce, so that their significances in such episodes are clearer; however, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported. Another important development is the use of aerobic endosporeformers as probiotics, as the potentials of such organisms to cause illness or to be sources of antibiotic resistance need to be borne in mind. PMID:22121830

Logan, N A

2012-03-01

264

In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54 strains) was the most common species isolated, followed by B. megaterium (13 strains), B. polymyxa (5 strains), B. pumilus (4 strains), B. subtilis (4 strains), B. circulans (3 strains), B. amyloliquefaciens (2 strains), B. licheniformis (1 strain), and Bacillus spp. (3 strains). Microdilution MIC susceptibility tests revealed all B. cereus strains to be susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Non-B. cereus strains were most susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, LY146032, and ciprofloxacin. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that B. cereus was rarely susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, or cephalosporins with the exception of mezlocillin. In contrast, many non-B. cereus strains were susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins, but marked variability was noted among species. PMID:3395100

Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

1988-01-01

265

Bioactive metabolites from an endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. inhabiting Clidemia hirta.  

PubMed

An endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. was isolated from Clidemia hirta and analyzed for its secondary metabolites that lead to the isolation of three bioactive molecules. The compounds were purified from the culture broth of the fungus and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods as (R)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-4-one (1), 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)pentan-1-one (2) and (Z)-1-(2-(2-butyryl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybut-2-en-1-one (3). Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the human leukemia cell line, HL-60 with an IC50 of 4 ?g/ml. This compound induced G2 arrest of the HL-60 cell cycle significantly. In addition, out of these compounds, 2 and 3 were active against several bacterial pathogens. Compound 2 was active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with IC50 values varying from 18 to 30 ?g/ml, and compound 3 displayed activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens with an IC50 value of 6 ?g/ml. Compounds 2 and 3 are novel whereas compound 1 was reported earlier but the stereochemistry of its C-2 methyl is established for the first time. PMID:23870821

Zilla, Mahesh K; Qadri, Masroor; Pathania, Anup S; Strobel, Gary A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Kumar, Sunil; Guru, Santosh K; Bhushan, Shashi; Singh, Sanjay K; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ali, Asif

2013-11-01

266

Bioactive Spirobisnaphthalenes from the Endophytic Fungus Berkleasmium sp.  

PubMed

Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2014-10-24

267

Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes  

PubMed Central

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

Weiss, Michael; Sykorova, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

268

Bacillus anthracis  

PubMed Central

The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

Spencer, R C

2003-01-01

269

Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: Effects and potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to\\u000a various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained.\\u000a Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and

W. M. M. S. Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S. A. Kulasooriya

2006-01-01

270

Endophytes: a potential resource for biosynthesis, biotransformation, and biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural ecosystems, endophytes, which live in the inner tissues of healthy plants, exhibit complex interactions with their\\u000a hosts. During a long coevolutionary process with their hosts, endophytes have developed many significant and novel characteristics.\\u000a In order to maintain a stable symbiosis, endophytes secrete varieties of extracellular enzymes that contribute to colonization\\u000a and growth. All these specific enzymes, under certain

Yu Wang; Chuan-Chao Dai

2011-01-01

271

Genomics of Bacillus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

272

Endophytic bacterial diversity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves described by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and length heterogeneity-PCR.  

PubMed

Diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with grapevine leaf tissues was analyzed by cultivation and cultivation-independent methods. In order to identify bacterial endophytes directly from metagenome, a protocol for bacteria enrichment and DNA extraction was optimized. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries underscored five diverse Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), showing best sequence matches with gamma-Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, with a dominance of the genus Pantoea. Bacteria isolation through cultivation revealed the presence of six OTUs, showing best sequence matches with Actinobacteria, genus Curtobacterium, and with Firmicutes genera Bacillus and Enterococcus. Length Heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) electrophoretic peaks from single bacterial clones were used to setup a database representing the bacterial endophytes identified in association with grapevine tissues. Analysis of healthy and phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed that LH-PCR could be a useful complementary tool for examining the diversity of bacterial endophytes especially for diversity survey on a large number of samples. PMID:19763412

Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Quaglino, Fabio; Brasca, Milena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bianco, Piero Attilio

2009-08-01

273

Phylogeny in Aid of the Present and Novel Microbial Lineages: Diversity in Bacillus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains), B. cereus (211 strains), B. thuringiensis (108 strains), B. subtilis (271 strains), B. licheniformis (131 strains), B. pumilus (83 strains), B. megaterium (47 strains), B. sphaericus (42 strains), B. clausii (39 strains) and B. halodurans (36 strains) were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed. PMID:19212464

Porwal, Shalini; Lal, Sadhana; Cheema, Simrita; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

2009-01-01

274

Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.  

PubMed

Consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western USA, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. To explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in New Mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. Endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea. Fungal cultures grew very slowly and sporadically produced subcylindrical conidia with very dark transverse septa. All cultured endophytes produced the alkaloid swainsonine, which causes locoism. Endophyte-infected locoweed populations produced swainsonine, and the swainsonine level of endophyte strains in vitro was highly correlated with the swainsonine level of their host plant populations. The rDNA ITS from mycelia from four endophyte isolates and beta-tubulin encoding regions from mycelia of 18 fungal endophyte isolates were amplified using PCR and the nucleic acid sequences were analyzed. The nucleic acid sequences of the beta-tubulin encoding regions were essentially identical among all the endophytes regardless of plant genus and locations. Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia. However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. PMID:14531620

Braun, Karen; Romero, Jennifer; Liddell, Craig; Creamer, Rebecca

2003-08-01

275

Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola.  

PubMed

Using a sequence-based approach, we investigated the transmission of diverse fungal endophytes in seed and needles of Pinus monticola, western white pine. We isolated 2003 fungal endophytes from 750 surface-sterilized needles. In contrast, only 16 endophytic isolates were obtained from 800 surface-sterilized seeds. The ITS region was sequenced from a representative selection of these endophytes. Isolates were then assigned to the most closely related taxa in GenBank. Although 95% of the endophytes in needles from mature trees belonged to the Rhytismataceae, 82 unique ITS sequences were obtained from at least 21 genera and 10 different orders of fungi. Significantly, none of the endophytes in seed were rhytismataceous (chi(2) = 180; P < 0.001). Similarly, needles of greenhouse seedlings yielded only non-rhytismataceous isolates, whereas seedlings of the same age that had naturally regenerated near older white pines in roadless areas were colonized by rhytismataceous endophytes almost to the same extent as in mature trees. Only one of 17 rhytismataceous isolates were able to grow on a medium containing only 0.17% nitrogen, whereas 25 of 31 non-rhytismataceous endophytes grew. Rhytismataceous endophytes are dominant in needles of P. monticola, but they appear to be absent in seed, and unlikely colonists of nitrogen-limiting host tissues such as the apoplast. PMID:16492396

Ganley, Rebecca J; Newcombe, George

2006-03-01

276

Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

2013-01-01

277

Bioactivity of Root Endophytic Freshwater Hyphomycetes Anguillospora longissima (Sacc. & Syd.) Ingold  

PubMed Central

Anguillospora longissima, isolated from root as endophytic freshwater hyphomycetes, was evaluated for its bioactivity (antibacterial potential) against five bacterial strains, namely, Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121) and Gram-negative (Agrobacterium tumefaciens MTCC 609, Escherichia coli MTCC 40, Erwinia chrysanthemum, and Xanthomonas pseudomonas). Antimicrobial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition with preliminary and secondary antimicrobial assays. The applied fungus was found significant for all tested bacterial strains as showen by their zone of inhibition. In preliminary antimicrobial assay, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded against Gram-negative human pathogenic bacterial strain Escherichia coli (23?mm) followed by Erwinia chrysanthemi (22?mm), Agrobacterium tumefaciens (21?mm), and Xanthomonas phaseoli (21?mm), while minimum zone of inhibition was observed against Bacillus subtilis (20?mm). In secondary antimicrobial assay, the maximum zone of inhibition was recorded against Erwinia chrysanthemi (11?mm) followed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (10?mm), Xanthomonas phaseoli (10?mm), and Bacillus subtilis (9?mm) and minimum inhibition was found against Escherichia coli (8?mm).

Sati, S. C.; Singh, Lokendra

2014-01-01

278

Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free Lolium perenne L. under drought stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophyte-infected (EI) seeds of Lolium perenne L. were used to attain endophyte-free (EF) population by heating the seeds at 43°C for 15 min and then 57°C for 25 min. Relative\\u000a water content (RWC), chlorophyll, soluble sugar and starch content of EI and EF populations under normal and drought stress\\u000a conditions were compared to investigate the effect of endophyte infection on

Anzhi Ren; Yubao Gao; Wei Wang; Jinlong Wang

2006-01-01

279

Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.  

PubMed

We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants. PMID:23871145

Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

2014-01-20

280

Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Most pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Mucosal immunization, a non-invasive needle-free route, often stimulates a mucosal immune response that is both effective against mucosal and systemic pathogens. The development of mucosally administered heat-stable vaccines with long shelf life would therefore significantly enhance immunization programs in developing countries by avoiding the need for a cold chain or systemic injections. Currently, recombinant vaccine carriers are being used for antigen delivery. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for use as a non-invasive and heat stable antigen delivery system has proven successful. Bacterial spores protected by multiple layers of protein are known to be robust and resistant to desiccation. Stable constructs have been created by integration into the bacterial chromosome of immunogens. The spore coat has been used as a vehicle for heterologous antigen presentation and protective immunization. Sublingual (SL) and intranasal (IN) routes have recently received attention as delivery routes for therapeutic drugs and vaccines and recent attempts by several investigators, including our group, to develop vaccines that can be delivered intranasally and sublingually have met with a lot of success. As discussed in this Review, the use of Bacillus subtilis to express antigens that can be administered either intranasally or sublingually is providing new insights in the area of mucosal vaccines. In our work, we evaluated the efficacy of SL and IN immunizations with B. subtilis engineered to express tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) in mice and piglets. These bacteria engineered to express heterologous antigen either on the spore surface or within the vegetative cell have been used for oral, IN and SL delivery of antigens. A Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein, CotC was used as a fusion partner to express the tetanus fragment C. B. subtilis spores known to be highly stable and safe are also easy to purify making this spore-based display system a potentially powerful approach for surface expression of antigens. These advances will help to accelerate the development and testing of new mucosal vaccines against many human and animal diseases. PMID:22699442

Amuguni, Hellen; Tzipori, Saul

2012-01-01

281

Endophytic fungus decreases plant virus infections in meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense)  

PubMed Central

We studied the effects of fungal endophyte infection of meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense=Festuca pratensis) on the frequency of the barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The virus is transferred by aphids, which may be deterred by endophyte-origin alkaloids within the plant. In our experiment, we released viruliferous aphid vectors on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants in a common garden. The number of aphids and the percentage of BYDV infections were lower in endophyte-infected plants compared to endophyte-free plants, indicating that endophyte infection may protect meadow ryegrass from BYDV infections. PMID:17148304

Lehtonen, Paivi T; Helander, Marjo; Siddiqui, Shahid A; Lehto, Kirsi; Saikkonen, Kari

2006-01-01

282

Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus).  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain HYC-10(T), which was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea off Xiamen Island, China. The bacterium was observed to be Gram positive, oxidase and catalase positive, rod shaped, and motile by subpolar flagella. The bacterium was found to grow at salinities of 0-12 % and at temperatures of 8-45 °C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze aesculin and gelatin, but was unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYC-10(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, with highest sequence similarity (99.3 %) to Bacillus aerophilus 28K(T), Bacillus stratosphericus 41KF2a(T) and Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), followed by Bacillus safensis DSM 19292(T) (99.5 %) and Bacillus pumilus DSM 27(T) (99.5 %), while the sequence similarities to others were all below 97.6 %. The genomic ANIm values between strain HYC-10(T) and three type strains (B. altitudinis DSM 21631(T), B. safensis DSM 19292(T) and B. pumilus DSM 27(T)) were determined to range from 89.11 to 91.53 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization estimate values between strain HYC-10(T) and the three type strains were from 36.60 to 44.00 %. The principal fatty acids identified were iso-C15:0 (39.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (22.7 %), iso-C17:0 (13.1 %), C16:0 (6.1 %), anteiso-C17:0 (5.8 %) and iso-C16:0 (5.1 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined from the draft genome sequence to be 41.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-7 (100 %). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminoglycolipid, two glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids were found to be present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain HYC-10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain HYC-10(T) (=CGMCC NO.1.12326(T) = LMG 27143(T) = MCCC 1A00008(T)). PMID:24158533

Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Yang; Shao, Zongze

2014-01-01

283

[Isolation and identification of N2-fixing strains of Bacillus in rice rhizosphere of the Yangtze River Valley].  

PubMed

Rice rhizosphere soil samples were colected from 10 sites of 7 provinces in the Yangzi River Valley, and from the soil samples 16 endospore-forming strains with ARA (Acetylene Reduction Activity) were isolated, the nitrogen fixing ability was tested by the method of 15N tracer and the atom 15N% excess are ranged from 0.0297% to 0.4714%. The strains were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. azotoformans, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. brevis, B. megaterium, B. firmu. PMID:12548929

Xie, G; Su, B; Cui, Z

1998-12-01

284

Overexpression and characterization of thermostable chitinase from Bacillus atrophaeus SC081 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The chitinase-producing strain SC081 was isolated from Korean traditional soy sauce and identified as Bacillus atrophaeus based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence and a phenotypic analysis. A gene encoding chitinase from B. atrophaeus SC081 was cloned in Escherichia coli and was named SCChi-1 (GQ360078). The SCChi-1 nucleotide sequences were composed of 1788 base pairs and 596 amino acids, which were 92.6, 89.6, 89.3, and 78.9% identical to those of Bacillus subtilis (ABG57262), Bacillus pumilus (ABI15082), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (ABO15008), and Bacillus licheniformis (ACF40833), respectively. A recombinant SCChi-1 containing a hexahistidine tag at the amino- terminus was constructed, overexpressed, and purified in E. coli to characterize SCChi-1. H(6)SCChi-1 revealed a hydrolytic band on zymograms containing 0.1% glycol chitin and showed the highest lytic activity on colloidal chitin and acidic chitosan. The optimal temperature and pH for chitinolytic activity were 50°C and pH 8.0, respectively. PMID:21429298

Cho, Eun Kyung; Choi, In Soon; Choi, Young Ju

2011-03-01

285

Mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the distributions and functions of mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are present in the Arctic and Antarctic to 82 °N and 63 °S, respectively, with fine endophyte being the dominant form of AM in roots at higher latitudes. Ecto- (ECM) and ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizas both occur in the Arctic to 79

K. K. Newsham; R. Upson; D. J. Read

2009-01-01

286

Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes were frequently isolated from mountain birch (Betula pubescens var. tortuosa (Ledeb.) Nyman) leaves at a subarctic site where natural air pollution is low. We tested whether simulated acid rain had any influence on the occurrence of endophytes. Dry controls with only ambient rain and irrigated controls treated with spring water of pH 6 were compared with acid treatments at

M. L. Helander; S. Neuvonen; T. Sieber; O. Petrini

1993-01-01

287

Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

2002-01-01

288

Endophytic fungal diversity: review of traditional and molecular techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are an important component, are ubiquitous and occur within all know plants, including a broad range of hosts in various ecosystems, and therefore play an important role in the natural environment. More than 1 million species of endophytic fungi are estimated to exist based on a ratio of vascular plants to fungal species of 1:4 or 1:5. Nevertheless,

Xiang Sun; Liang-Dong Guo

2012-01-01

289

Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Historically, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus have been described as saprophytic soil bacteria, found almost exclusively as resistant

Walker, Lawrence R.

290

Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge.  

PubMed

A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution. PMID:19327979

Weyens, Nele; van der Lelie, Daniel; Taghavi, Safiyh; Vangronsveld, Jaco

2009-04-01

291

Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

2014-02-01

292

Biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola.  

PubMed

A total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium udam, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. These were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Eight of the isolates belonged to Bacillus and one to Paenibacillus. The phylogenetic relationship among the selected isolates was studied and phylogenetic trees were generated. The selected isolates were screened for biocontrol traits like production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes, antibiotics, and plant growth promoting traits like indole 3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen fixation. A modified assessment scheme was used to select the most efficient biocontrol isolates Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 (HKA-15) and Bacillus sp. HKA-121 (HKA-121) as potential candidates for charcoal rot biocontrol as well as soybean plant growth promotion. PMID:19067044

Senthilkumar, M; Swarnalakshmi, K; Govindasamy, V; Lee, Young Keun; Annapurna, K

2009-04-01

293

Pogostol biosynthesis by the endophytic fungus geniculosporium.  

PubMed

Six (13) C-labelled isotopomers of mevalonolactone were synthesised and used in feeding experiments with the endophytic fungus Geniculosporium. The high incorporation rates of (13) C-label into a sesquiterpene that was found in headspace extracts of the fungus enabled unambiguous identification of this volatile as pogostol without the need for compound purification, simply by collecting the volatile fraction with a closed-loop stripping apparatus followed by direct (13) C NMR analysis (CLSA-NMR). The feeding experiments also gave insights into the biosynthesis of pogostol, including stereochemical aspects of the terpene cyclisation reaction. The possible biological function of pogostol is discussed. PMID:25186118

Barra, Lena; Schulz, Barbara; Dickschat, Jeroen S

2014-11-01

294

Endophyte-mediated resistance to black cutworm as a function of plant cultivar and endophyte strain in tall fescue.  

PubMed

To improve Neotyphodium endophyte-mediated resistance to black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (BCW), a series of experiments was conducted by using several different cultivars of tall fescue, Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. in combination with several different haplotypes of the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones & Gams) (plant cultivar × endophyte haplotype = plant line), each producing unique alkaloid profiles. BCW settling response, survival at 5 and 10 d, and larval biomass varied significantly among plant lines. In general, greater variation BCW performance was observed within a single plant cultivar infected with different endophyte haplotypes than among different plant cultivars infected with the same endophyte haplotype, but comparisons among the former were far more numerous. Although five endophyte-mediated alkaloids representing three alkaloid classes were quantified in the plants, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-acetyl norloline was consistently the single best predictor of BCW performance. BCW settling response, 5-d survival, and 10-d survival decreased as levels of the alkaloid N-acetyl norloline increased. The same three response variables also decreased with increasing levels of peramine, but increased with increasing levels of ergovaline. Minor variation in endophyte infection levels occurring among infected plant lines had no significant influence on BCW performance. Results indicate a potentially important role for N-acetyl norloline and peramine in providing resistance to black cutworm whereas ergovaline appears to be much less important. Therefore, endophyte haplotypes expressing high levels of N-acetyl norloline and peramine may be of particular importance for developing 'friendly' endophyte-enhanced turf and pasture grasses that resist challenging lepidopteran pests, although remaining safe for wildlife and grazing mammals. PMID:22251642

Baldauf, Michael W; Mace, Wade J; Richmond, Douglas S

2011-06-01

295

Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed.  

PubMed

Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus spp. isolates with the best characteristics were identified by gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing as B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus and B. megaterium. These isolates were further investigated for their activity against the pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rates, biofilm formation and production of glycosyl hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, ten selected isolates were assessed for heat resistance of spores and the effect on porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. mojavensis, showed the best overall characteristics and, therefore, potential for usage as probiotic additives in feed. A large number of taxonomically diverse strains made it possible to reveal species and subspecies-specific trends, contributing to our understanding of the probiotic potential of Bacillus species. PMID:24201893

Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Cantor, Mette Dines; Nielsen, Bea; Brockmann, Elke; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

2014-02-01

296

Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

Russell, Jonathan R; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G; Dantzler, Kathleen W; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H; Mittermiller, Paul A; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A

2011-09-01

297

Fungal endophytes in three medicinal plants of Lamiaceae.  

PubMed

Three medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum bacilicum and Leucas aspera were screened to study endophytic diversity of the plants. Altogether 103 fungal endophytes belonging to fourteen genera were isolated. Leaves of all three medicinal plants were colonized by a great number of endophytic fungi. Leaves of O. sanctum were colonized by the most, that is, eleven endophytes. Highest Shannon-Wiener index (2.256) was exhibited by O. sanctum with the highest Simpson's diversity (0.8654) indicating great species specificity. O. bacilicum and L. aspera showed the highest similarity coefficient. Some fungal genera have been showed to be host specific. In the present study Curvularia sp., Hymenula sp., Tricoderma sp. and Tubercularia sp. exclusively colonized O. sanctum ; whereas Alternaria sp. and Spicaria sp. colonized only L. aspera . PMID:19789139

Banerjee, D; Manna, S; Mahapatra, S; Pati, B R

2009-09-01

298

Biosorption of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial adsorption of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) and various polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was investigated in an effort to determine the significance of microorganisms as potential agents in transferring the molecules in the environment. The microorganisms used in this study were cultivated under low nutrient conditions for 2months. The increase and decrease of 1,2,3,4-TCDD and PCDFs in the samples were measured by GC\\/MS.

Hyo-Bong Hong; Seok-Hwan Hwang; Yoon-Seok Chang

2000-01-01

299

Covalent immobilization of xylanase produced from Bacillus pumilus SV-85S on electrospun polymethyl methacrylate nanofiber membrane.  

PubMed

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanofiber membrane (NFM) was synthesized by an electrospinning technique. These membranes were utilized as a support for immobilization of xylanase enzyme to study its pH stability, thermal stability, and reusability. The morphology of aligned NFM was studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The PMMA NFM was functionalized with phenylenediamine and activated with glutaraldehyde to yield an aldehyde group on its surface for covalent immobilization of xylanase. The Fourier transform infrared analysis of the covalently immobilized xylanase confirmed that the enzyme was immobilized on PMMA NFM via amide linkages. The immobilization efficiency of covalently bound xylanase was found experimentally to be 90%. A forward shift in pH optima from 6.0-7.0 (soluble enzyme) to 7.0-9.0 (immobilized enzyme) was observed after xylanase immobilization. The pH and temperature stability of xylanase were enhanced upon its covalent immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was active on repeated use and retained ?80% of its initial activity after 11 reaction cycles. The improved thermal and operational stability of the covalently immobilized enzyme on PMMA NFM might be advantageous for industrial applications. PMID:23586605

Kumar, Pankaj; Gupta, Ashish; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Mathur, Rakesh B; Nagar, Sushil; Gupta, Vijay K

2013-01-01

300

Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

2014-01-01

301

Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations\\u000a are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound\\u000a impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the

Richard S. Quilliam; David L. Jones

2010-01-01

302

Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypic diversity of indigenous bacterial endophytes within stems and roots of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was determined in field trials throughout one growing season. Strains were isolated from surface-disinfested tissues and identified by fatty acid analysis. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 70.5% of the endophytic bacteria and 27 of the 36 genera identified. The most

John A. McInroy; Joseph W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

303

Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytic Bacteria for Improved Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interior of plants provides habitat for a wide range of bacteria and fungi (endophytes) that benefit the plant host in\\u000a a variety of ways including by phytohormone production, pollutant degradation, increasing nutrient acquisition, stress tolerance,\\u000a and pathogen resistance. The use of nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) endophytes has the potential of decreasing our dependency\\u000a on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that has a number

Sharon Lafferty Doty

304

Diversity of sporadic symbionts and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria isolated from nodules of woody, shrub, and food legumes in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Fifty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from surface-sterilized nodules of woody and shrub legumes growing in Ethiopia: Crotalaria spp., Indigofera spp., and Erythrina brucei, and the food legumes soybean and common bean. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the majority of the isolates were identified as Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Enterobacter, Mesorhizobium, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Rhizobium, Serratia, and Variovorax. Seven isolates were Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium, and Rhodococcus. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting showed that each strain was genetically distinct. According to phylogenetic analysis of recA, glnII, rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequences, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Agrobacterium were further classified into six different genospecies: Agrobacterium spp., Agrobacterium radiobacter, Rhizobium sp., Rhizobium phaseoli, Mesorhizobium sp., and putative new Rhizobium species. The strains from R. phaseoli, Rhizobium sp. IAR30, and Mesorhizobium sp. ERR6 induced nodules on their host plants. The other strains did not form nodules on their original host. Nine endophytic bacterial strains representing seven genera, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Serratia, were found to colonize nodules of Crotalaria incana and common bean on co-inoculation with symbiotic rhizobia. Four endophytic Rhizobium and two Agrobacterium strains had identical nifH gene sequences with symbiotic Rhizobium strains, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Most symbiotic and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria showed plant growth-promoting properties in vitro, which indicate their potential role in the promotion of plant growth when colonizing plant roots and the rhizosphere. PMID:24196581

Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Aseffa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

2013-12-01

305

Peroxidase activity of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seedlings artificially infected with endophytes  

E-print Network

-endophytes, which are not able to trigger a non-specific host defence response, are really mutualistic. (© 1999 and clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes has been more fully recognised. Knowledge of their taxonomy and relationships

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibanez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

307

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize

Denise K. Zinniel; Patricia A. Lambrecht; N. Beth Harris; Zhengyu Feng; Daniel Kuczmarski; Phyllis Higley; Carol A. Ishimaru; Alahari Arunakumari; Raul G. Barletta; Anne M. Vidaver

2002-01-01

308

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs  

PubMed Central

To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

2014-01-01

309

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.  

PubMed

To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

2014-04-01

310

Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic fungi play in the galls induced by the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). PMID:22732600

Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

2012-06-01

311

Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes? †  

PubMed Central

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

312

Recombination between compatible plasmids containing homologous segments requires the Bacillus subtilis recE gene product.  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pSL103 was previously constructed by cloning a Trp fragment (approximately 2.3 X 10(6) daltons) from restriction endonuclease EcoRI-digested chromosome DNA of Bacillus pumilus using the neomycin-resistance plasmid pUB110 (approximately 2.8 X 10(6) daltons) as vector and B. subtilis as transformation recipient. In the present study the EcoRI Trp fragment from pSL103 was transferred in vitro to EcoRI fragments of the Bacillus plasmid pPL576 to determine the ability of the plasmid fragments to replicate in B. subtilis. Endonuclease EcoRI digestion of pPL576 (approximately 28 X 10(6) daltons) generated three fragments having molecular weights of about 13 X 13(6) (the A fragment), 9.5 X 10(6) (B fragment, and 6.5 X 10(6) (C fragment). Trp derivatives of pPL576 fragments capable of autonomous replication in B. subtilis contained the B fragment (e.g., pSL107) or both the B and C fragments (e.g., pSL108). Accordingly, the B fragment of pPL576 contains information essential for autonomous replication. pSL107 and pSL108 are compatible with pUB110. Constructed derivatives of the compatible plasmids pPL576 and pUB110, harboring genetically distinguishable EcoRI-generated Trp fragments cloned from the DNA of a B. pumilus strain, exhibited relatively high frequency recombination for a trpC marker when the plasmid pairs were present in a recombination-proficient strain of B. subtilis. No recombination was detected when the host carried the chromosome mutation recE4. Therefore, the recE4 mutation suppresses recombination between compatible plasmids that contain homologous segments. PMID:96091

Keggins, K M; Duvall, E J; Lovett, P S

1978-01-01

313

Botrytis species: relentless necrotrophic thugs or endophytes gone rogue?  

PubMed

Plant pathology has a long-standing tradition of classifying microbes as pathogens, endophytes or saprophytes. Lifestyles of pathogens are categorized as biotrophic, necrotrophic or hemibiotrophic. Botrytis species are considered by many to be archetypal examples of necrotrophic fungi, with B.?cinerea being the most extensively studied species because of its broad host range and economic impact. In this review, we discuss recent work which illustrates that B.?cinerea is capable of colonizing plants internally, presumably as an endophyte, without causing any disease or stress symptoms. The extent of the facultative endophytic behaviour of B.?cinerea and its relevance in the ecology and disease epidemiology may be vastly underestimated. Moreover, we discuss the recent discovery of a novel Botrytis species, B.?deweyae, which normally grows as an endophyte in ornamental daylilies (Hemerocallis), but displays facultative pathogenic behaviour, and is increasingly causing economic damage. We propose that the emergence of endophytes 'gone rogue' as novel diseases may be related to increased inbreeding of hybrid lines and reduced genetic diversity. These observations lead us to argue that the sometimes inflexible classification of pathogenic microbes by their lifestyles requires serious reconsideration. There is much more variety to the interactions of Botrytis with its hosts than the eye (or the plant pathologist) can see, and this may be true for other microbes interacting with plants. PMID:24754470

van Kan, Jan A L; Shaw, Michael W; Grant-Downton, Robert T

2014-12-01

314

Quorum quenching is an antivirulence strategy employed by endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria predominantly use quorum sensing to regulate a plethora of physiological activities such as cell-cell crosstalk, mutualism, virulence, competence, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In this study, we investigated how certain potent endophytic bacteria harbored in Cannabis sativa L. plants use quorum quenching as an antivirulence strategy to disrupt the cell-to-cell quorum sensing signals in the biosensor strain, Chromobacterium violaceum. We used a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-HRMS(n)) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-imaging-HRMS) to first quantify and visualize the spatial distribution of the quorum sensing molecules in the biosensor strain, C. violaceum. We then showed, both quantitatively and visually in high spatial resolution, how selected endophytic bacteria of C. sativa can selectively and differentially quench the quorum sensing molecules of C. violaceum. This study provides fundamental insights into the antivirulence strategies used by endophytes in order to survive in their ecological niches. Such defense mechanisms are evolved in order to thwart the plethora of pathogens invading associated host plants in a manner that prevents the pathogens from developing resistance against the plant/endophyte bioactive secondary metabolites. This work also provides evidence towards utilizing endophytes as tools for biological control of bacterial phytopathogens. In continuation, such insights would even afford new concepts and strategies in the future for combating drug resistant bacteria by quorum-inhibiting clinical therapies. PMID:24846733

Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

2014-08-01

315

Characterization of cellulases of fungal endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp.  

PubMed

Endophytes are microorganisms that asymptomatically invade plant tissues. They can stimulate plant growth and/or provide defense against pathogen attacks through the production of secondary metabolites. Most endophyte species are still unknown, and because they may have several applications, the study of their metabolic capabilities is essential. We characterized 100 endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp., a genus unique to the paramo ecosystem, an extreme environment in the Andean mountain range. We evaluated the cellulolytic potential of these endophytes on the saccharification of the oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The total cellulolytic activity was measured for each endophyte on filter paper (FPA). In addition, the specific carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), exoglucanase, and ?-glucosidase activities were determined. We found four fungi positive for cellulases. Of these fungi, Penicillium glabrum had the highest cellulolytic activity after partial purification, with maximal CMCase, exoglucanase and ?-glucosidase enzyme activities of 44.5, 48.3, and 0.45 U/ml, respectively. Our data showed that the bioprospection of fungi and the characterization of their enzymes may facilitate the process of biofuel production. PMID:23274988

Cabezas, Luisa; Calderon, Carolina; Medina, Luis Miguel; Bahamon, Isabela; Cardenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Gonzalez, Andrés; Restrepo, Silvia

2012-12-01

316

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis---One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most

ERLENDUR HELGASON; O. A. Okstad; DOMINIQUE A. CAUGANT; HENNING A. JOHANSEN; AGNES FOUET; MICHELE MOCK; IDA HEGNA; A.-B. Kolsto

2000-01-01

317

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

318

Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

319

Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Growing Shoot Tips of Banana ( Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the Affinity of Endophytes to the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a\\u000a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and\\u000a to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central\\u000a core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient

Pious Thomas; Thyvalappil A. Soly

2009-01-01

320

Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins. PMID:23170084

Luz Prieto, Maria; O’Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O’Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.

2012-01-01

321

Fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal trees.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. They represent a large reservoir of genetic diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments. Mitosporic fungi represented a major group (61%), with ascomycetes (21%) and sterile mycelia (18%) the next major groups. Species of Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Verticillium, and Chaetomium were frequently isolated. Exclusive fungal taxa were recovered from five of the six plant species considered for the study of endophytic fungi. Rarefaction indices for species richness indicated the highest expected number of species for bark segments were isolated from T. arjuna and A. indica (20 species each) and from C. magna (18 species). PMID:16699567

Tejesvi, Mysore V; Mahesh, Basavanna; Nalini, Monnanda S; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Subbiah, Ven; Shetty, Hunthrike S

2006-05-01

322

Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

2014-09-01

323

Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

2000-01-01

324

Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by an Endophyte of Hybrid Poplar  

PubMed Central

We isolated and characterized a novel endophyte from hybrid poplar. This unique endophyte, identified as Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, showed high tolerance to trichloroethylene (TCE). Without the addition of inducers, such as toluene or phenol, PDN3 rapidly reduced TCE levels in medium from 72.4 ?M to 30.1 ?M in 24 h with a concurrent release of 127 ?M chloride ion, and nearly 80% of TCE (55.3 ?M) was dechlorinated by PDN3 in 5 days with 166 ?M chloride ion production, suggesting TCE degradation. PMID:22367087

Kang, Jun Won; Khan, Zareen

2012-01-01

325

Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata and Pteris multifida.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized As-resistant endophytic bacteria (AEB) from two arsenic hyperaccumulators. Their plant growth promoting traits and the relation between As tolerance and transformation were evaluated. A total of 41 and 33 AEB were isolated from Pteris vittata (PV) and Pteris multifida (PM) respectively. PV AEB represented 2genera while PM AEB comprised of 12 genera, with Bacillus sp. being the most dominant bacteria from both plants. All AEB had limited ability in solubilizing P and producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. All isolates tolerated 10mM arsenate (As(V)), with PV isolates being more tolerant to As(V) and PM more tolerant to arsenite (As(III)). Bacterial arsenic tolerance was related to their ability in As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction as well as their ability to retain As in the biomass to a varying extent. Though AEB showed limited plant growth promoting traits, they were important in arsenic tolerance and speciation in plants. PMID:25065783

Zhu, Ling-Jia; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

2014-10-01

326

Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

2006-06-01

327

The role of the Oregon state university endophyte service laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.  

PubMed

The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

2014-07-30

328

[Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].  

PubMed

A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

2014-07-01

329

Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

330

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytes from Scapania verrucosa Heeg.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytes isolated from Scapania verrucosa Heeg., which belongs to the liverwort class. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were isolated from S. verrucosa and classified into seven genera and one family in our previous study. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of the endophytes was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, seven of which showed potent toxicity against the brine shrimp with 50% lethal concentration values less than 20 µg/mL. T-30 was the most toxic, with a 50% lethal concentration value of 7.15 µg/mL. Moreover, T-27 exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimal inhibitory concentrations below 0.25 and 4 mg/mL, which can inhibit the growth of two standard strains - ATCC 25923 (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus) and ATCC 43300 (methicillin-resistant S. aureus) - in a time-dependent manner, respectively. These results suggest that endophytes in S. verrucosa are the sources for the production of natural bioactive products and thus warrant further investigation. PMID:23613238

Wu, J-G; Peng, W; Zeng, P-Y; Wu, Y-B; Yi, J; Wu, J-Z

2013-01-01

331

Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.  

PubMed

Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species. PMID:21475991

Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

2011-08-01

332

Mutualistic fungal endophytes in the Triticeae - survey and description.  

PubMed

Grasses of the tribe Triticeae were screened to determine the presence of mutualistic epichloae fungal endophytes. Over 1500 accessions, from more than 250 species, encompassing 22 genera within the Triticeae were screened using immunodetection and direct staining/microscopy techniques. Only two genera, Elymus and Hordeum, were identified as harbouring epichloae endophytes with accessions native to a range of countries including Canada, China, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia and the USA. Genetic analysis based on simple sequence repeat data revealed that the majority of endophytes cluster according to geographical regions rather than to host species; many strains isolated from Hordeum grouped with those derived from Elymus, and amongst the Elymus-derived strains, there was no clear correspondence between clustering topology and host species. This is the first detailed survey demonstrating the genetic diversity of epichloae endophytes within the Triticeae and highlights the importance of germplasm centres for not only preserving the genetic diversity of plant species but also the beneficial microorganisms they may contain. PMID:24754753

Card, Stuart D; Faville, Marty J; Simpson, Wayne R; Johnson, Richard D; Voisey, Christine R; de Bonth, Anouck C M; Hume, David E

2014-04-01

333

Plant root carbohydrates affect growth behaviour of endophytic microfungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peucedanum alsaticum and Peucedanum cervaria represent characteristic umbellifers (Apiaceae) of calcareous grasslands in Central and Eastern Europe. Both accumulate glucose, fructose, mannitol and sucrose as dominant carbohydrates in their roots. The objective of the study was to determine if endophytes utilise host plant carbohydrates differently than rhizosphere and bulk soil microfungi. Inula ensifolia (Asteraceae), Lathyrus latifolius (Fabaceae) and Bromus erectus

Franz Hadacek; Günther F Kraus

2002-01-01

334

Metabolites of Pestalotiopsis spp., endophytic fungi of Taxus brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Pestalotiopsis spp. (JCM 9685 and JCM 9686), endophytic fungi of Taxus brevifolia, produced several new compounds when grown in liquid culture. Detailed investigation on the first of these strains revealed that five of these metabolites were sesquiterpenes: three of the caryophyllene type, pestalotiopsin A, B and C, one possessing the humulane skeleton, and the last one was

Maurizio Pulici; Fumio Sugawara; Hiroyuki Koshino; Gen Okada; Yasuaki Esumi; Jun Uzawa; Shigeo Yoshida

1997-01-01

335

Endophytic fungi alter relationships between diversity and ecosystem properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have expanded research on biodiversity by investigating whether the effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning hinge on the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Cool-season grasses commonly harbour endophytic fungi that can enhance plant resistance to herbivory, drought and competition. We address whether these endosymbionts modify relationships between diversity and two ecosystem properties: productivity and invasibility. We develop a graphical

Jennifer A. Rudgers; Jennifer M. Koslow; Keith Clay

2004-01-01

336

Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

2014-01-01

337

Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses  

PubMed Central

Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2014-01-01

338

Fungal-Mediated Multitrophic Interactions - Do Grass Endophytes in Diet Protect Voles from Predators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-associated micro-organisms such as mycotoxin-producing endophytes commonly have direct negative effects on herbivores. These effects may be carried over to natural enemies of the herbivores, but this has been rarely explored. We examined how feeding on Neotyphodium endophyte infected (E+) and endophyte free (E?) meadow ryegrass (Scherodonus pratensis) affects body mass, population size and mobility of sibling voles (Microtus levis),

Susanna Saari; Janne Sundell; Otso Huitu; Marjo Helander; Elise Ketoja; Hannu Ylönen; Kari Saikkonen; Jon Moen

2010-01-01

339

Dark Septate Endophytes and Mycorrhizal Fungi of Trees Affected by Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microorganisms are involved in metal biogeochemistry through a variety of processes that promote the bioavailability and uptake\\u000a of metals and minerals by plants. Among the microorganisms that have the most intimate relationships with plants are mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi and other fungal endophytes, like dark septate endophytes. These microorganisms populate the rhizosphere and plant roots.\\u000a Many endophytic fungi can survive in high

Matevž Likar

340

Age-specific response of the grass Puccinellia distans to the presence of a fungal endophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual fungal endophytes, which do not produce reproductive structures, spread in host populations only vertically via the\\u000a propagules of their hosts. With such a close relationship between the fitness of the asexual endophyte and that of the host,\\u000a the relationship is traditionally thought to be mutualistic. Here we present data showing that the positive effect of asexual\\u000a endophytes may concern

Pawe? Olejniczak; Marlena Lembicz

2007-01-01

341

Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations\\u000a found in the above ground parts. A fungal endophyte, Undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species, is responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine. By using quantitative PCR, the endophyte\\u000a can be quantified in locoweed species. Endophyte

Daniel Cook; Dale R. Gardner; Michael H. Ralphs; James A. Pfister; Kevin D. Welch; Benedict T. Green

2009-01-01

342

A fungal endophyte induces transcription of genes encoding a redundant fungicide pathway in its host plant  

PubMed Central

Background Taxol is an anti-cancer drug harvested from Taxus trees, proposed ecologically to act as a fungicide. Taxus is host to fungal endophytes, defined as organisms that inhabit plants without causing disease. The Taxus endophytes have been shown to synthesize Taxol in vitro, providing Taxus with a second potential biosynthetic route for this protective metabolite. Taxol levels in plants vary 125-fold between individual trees, but the underlying reason has remained unknown. Results Comparing Taxus trees or branches within a tree, correlations were observed between Taxol content, and quantity of its resident Taxol-producing endophyte, Paraconiothyrium SSM001. Depletion of fungal endophyte in planta by fungicide reduced plant Taxol accumulation. Fungicide treatment of intact plants caused concomitant decreases in transcript and/or protein levels corresponding to two critical genes required for plant Taxol biosynthesis. Taxol showed fungicidal activity against fungal pathogens of conifer wood, the natural habitat of the Taxol-producing endophyte. Consistent with other Taxol-producing endophytes, SSM001 was resistant to Taxol. Conclusions These results suggest that the variation in Taxol content between intact Taxus plants and/or tissues is at least in part caused by varying degrees of transcriptional elicitation of plant Taxol biosynthetic genes by its Taxol-producing endophyte. As Taxol is a fungicide, and the endophyte is resistant to Taxol, we discuss how this endophyte strategy may be to prevent colonization by its fungal competitors but at minimal metabolic cost to itself. PMID:23802696

2013-01-01

343

13:00:09:11:10 Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against  

E-print Network

, the weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans) seedlings are the hosts, and the grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis typhina endophyte stimulates the host, weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans), to produce seeds

Kramarz, Paulina

344

Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates

Karen K. Hill; Lawrence O. Ticknor; Richard T. Okinaka; Michelle Asay; Heather Blair; Katherine A. Bliss; Mariam Laker; Paige E. Pardington; Amber P. Richardson; Melinda Tonks; Douglas J. Beecher; John D. Kemp; A.-B. Kolsto; Amy C. Lee Wong; Paul Keim; Paul J. Jackson

2004-01-01

345

Secondary metabolites from the endophytic Botryosphaeria dothidea of Melia azedarach and their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Two new metabolites, an ?-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin C (7) and chaetoglobosin F (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea KJ-1, collected from the stems of white cedar (Melia azedarach L). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities. Pycnophorin (4) significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25 ?M. Stemphyperylenol (5) displayed a potent antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Alternaria solani with MIC of 1.57 ?M comparable to the commonly used fungicide carbendazim. Both altenusin (9) and djalonensone (10) showed markedly DPPH radical scavenging activities. In addition, stemphyperylenol (5) and altenuene (6) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HCT116 cancer cell line with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.13 ?M in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 ?M). This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from the endophytic B. dothidea. PMID:24689437

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-04-23

346

Study of the anti-sapstain fungus activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 associated with Ginkgo biloba and identification of its active components.  

PubMed

An endophytic bacterium, designated strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 was isolated from Chinese medicinal Ginkgo biloba collected from Xuzhou, China. Both the filtrate and the ethyl acetate extract of strain CGMCC 5569 showed growth inhibition activity against the sapstain fungi Lasiodiplodia rubropurpurea, L. crassispora, and L. theobromae obviously (>65%) based on the comparison of the length of zones on the petri dish. From the ethyl acetate extract of the filtrate, the antifungal compounds were obtained as a series of lipopeptides, which including series of fengycin, surfactin and bacillomycin. It showed strong growth inhibition activity in vitro against the L. rubropurpurea, L. crassispora and L. theobromae by about 70.22%, 69.53% and 78.76%, respectively. The strong anti-sapstain fungus activity indicated that the endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens CGMCC 5569 and its bioactive components might provide an alternative bio-resource for the bio-control of sapstain. PMID:22520222

Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhe; Qin, Sheng; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Feng, You-Jian; Wei, Li-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2012-06-01

347

Disruption of Microbial Biofilms by an Extracellular Protein Isolated from Epibiotic Tropical Marine Strain of Bacillus licheniformis  

PubMed Central

Background Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. Methodology/Principal Findings B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275) derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. Conclusion/Significance We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent. PMID:23691235

Dusane, Devendra H.; Damare, Samir R.; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S.

2013-01-01

348

Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacterium LRE07 from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its potential for remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable endophytic strains facilitating plants growth and detoxification of heavy metals are required because the application\\u000a of plant–endophyte symbiotic system is a promising potential technique to improve efficiency of phytoremediation. In this\\u000a study, endophytic bacterium LRE07 was isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Serratia sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The endophytic bacterium LRE07 was

Shenglian Luo; Yong Wan; Xiao Xiao; Hanjun Guo; Liang Chen; Qiang Xi; Guangming Zeng; Chengbin Liu; Jueliang Chen

2011-01-01

349

A novel cephalosporin deacetylating acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus subtilis with high activity toward cephalosporin C and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.  

PubMed

A cephalosporin deacetylating acetyl xylan esterase was cloned from the genomic DNA of Bacillus subtilis CICC 20034 and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Its gene contained an open reading frame of 957 bp encoding 318 amino acids with a calculated mass of 35,607 Da, and it displayed significant identity to acetyl xylan esterases from Bacillus sp. 916, B. subtilis 168, and Bacillus pumilus Cect5072. The enzyme was a native homohexamer but a trimer under the condition of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); both forms were active and could transit to each other by incubating in or removing SDS. The enzyme belongs to carbohydrate esterase family 7 and had a double specificity on both the acetylated oligosaccharide and cephalosporin C (CPC) and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). The activity of this purified enzyme toward CPC and 7-ACA was highest among all the acetyl xylan esterase from CE family 7, which were 484 and 888 U/mg, respectively, and endowed itself with great industrial interest on semi-synthetic ?-lactam antibiotics. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 8.0, and the optimum temperature was 50 °C, and the enzyme had high thermal stability, broad range of pH tolerance, and extremely organic solvent tolerance. PMID:23828600

Tian, Qianqian; Song, Ping; Jiang, Ling; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

2014-03-01

350

Detection and quantification of three distinct Neotyphodium lolii endophytes in Lolium perenne by real time PCR of secondary metabolite genes.  

PubMed

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a widely used pasture grass, which is frequently infected by Neotyphodium lolii endophytes that enhance grass performance but can produce alkaloids inducing toxicosis in livestock. Several selected endophyte strains with reduced livestock toxicity, but that confer insect resistance, are now in common use. Little is known regarding the survival and persistence of these endophytes when in competition with common toxic endophytes. This is mainly because there are currently no assays available to easily and reliably quantify different endophytes in pastures or in batches of seeds infected with multiple strains. We developed real time PCR assays, based on secondary metabolite genes known to differ between N. lolii endophyte strains, to quantify two selected endophytes, AR1 and AR37, and a common toxic ecotype used in New Zealand. A duplex PCR allowed assessment of endophyte:grass DNA ratios with high sensitivity, specificity and precision. Endophyte specific primers/probes could detect contamination of AR37 seeds with other endophytes down to a level of 3-25%. We demonstrated that it is possible to quantify different endophyte strains simultaneously using multiplex PCR. This method has potential applications in management of endophytes in pastures and in fundamental research into this important plant-microbe symbiosis. PMID:24607355

Zhou, Yanfei; Bradshaw, Rosie E; Johnson, Richard D; Hume, David E; Simpson, Wayne R; Schmid, Jan

2014-03-01

351

Endophytic-Host Selectivity of Discula umbrinella on Quercus alba and Quercus rubra Characterized by Infection, Pathogenicity and Mycelial Compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal endophytic–host relationships of Discula umbrinella and two oak species, Quercus alba and Quercus rubra, were characterized on the basis of endophytic infection, pathogenicity, and mycelial compatibility. Isolates of D. umbrinella were cultured from leaves of Q. alba and Q. rubra collected from a hardwood forest located in Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Endophytic infection was

Susan D. Cohen; USDA APHIS

2004-01-01

352

Draft Genome Sequences of Three Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains, Bacillus wakoensis JCM 9140T, Bacillus akibai JCM 9157T, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus JCM 9152T.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of three cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic alkaliphilic Bacillus species: Bacillus wakoensis, Bacillus akibai, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of alkaliphilic Bacillus species, their evolution, and biotechnological applications for their enzymes. PMID:24482522

Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Oshida, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-01-01

353

Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: Alkaloid accumulation and aphid response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of the alkaloidsN-formyl andN-acetyl loline, peramine, lolitrem B, and ergovaline and the response of aphids to plants containing these compounds were determined in species and cultivars ofFestuca,Lolium, and other grass genera infected with fungal endophytes (Acremonium spp., andEpichloe typhina). Twenty-nine of 34 host-fungus associations produced one or more of the alkaloids, most frequently peramine or ergovaline. Three alkaloids

M. R. Siegel; G. C. M. Latch; L. P. Bush; F. F. Fannin; D. D. Rowan; B. A. Tapper; C. W. Bacon; M. C. Johnson

1990-01-01

354

Enterobacter cloacae is an endophytic symbiont of corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteriumEnterobacter cloacae is presently used for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables and as a preplant seed treatment for suppression\\u000a of damping-off. This bacterium has apparent affinities for several grass species, but it is not considered to be an endophyte.\\u000a While screening corn for fungi and bacteria with potential for biocontrol of various corn diseases, the surface-sterilized

Dorothy M. Hinton; Charles W. Bacon

1995-01-01

355

Piriformospora indica , a cultivable root endophyte with multiple biotechnological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piriformospora indica is a wide-host root-colonizing endophytic fungus which allows the plants to grow under extreme physical and nutrient stress.\\u000a The fungus can be cultivated on complex and minimal substrates. It belongs to the Sebacinales in Basidiomycota. P. indica has a vast geographical distribution and is reported from Asia, South America and Australia. The fungus is interesting for\\u000a basic research

Ralf Oelmüller; Irena Sherameti; Swati Tripathi; Ajit Varma

2009-01-01

356

Diazotrophic endophytes of native black cottonwood and willow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poplar and willow are economically-important, fast-growing tree species with the ability to colonize nutrient-poor environments.\\u000a To initiate a study on the possible contribution of endophytes to this ability, we isolated bacteria from within surface-sterilized\\u000a stems of native poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and willow (Salix sitchensis) in a riparian system in western Washington state. Several of the isolates grew well in nitrogen-limited

Sharon L. Doty; Brian Oakley; Gang Xin; Jun Won Kang; Glenda Singleton; Zareen Khan; Azra Vajzovic; James T. Staley

2009-01-01

357

Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative

Simone A. Härri; Jochen Krauss; Christine B. Müller

2008-01-01

358

Order of arrival shifts endophyte-pathogen interactions in bean from resistance induction to disease facilitation.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi colonize plants without causing symptoms of disease and can enhance the resistance of their host to pathogens. We cultivated 53 fungal strains from wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and investigated their effects on pathogens using in vitro assays and experiments in planta. Most strains were annotated as Rhizopus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cochliobolus, and Artomyces spp. by the sequence of their 18S rRNA gene. In vitro confrontation assays between endophytes and three pathogens (the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Enterobacter sp. strain FCB1, and the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) revealed strong and mainly symmetric reciprocal effects: endophyte and pathogen either mutually inhibited (mainly Enterobacter FCB1 and Colletotrichum) or facilitated (P. syringae) the growth of each other. In planta, the endophytes had a strong inhibitory effect on P. syringae when they colonized the plant before the bacterium, whereas infection was facilitated when P. syringae colonized the plant before the endophyte. Infection with Enterobacter FCB1 was facilitated when the bacterium colonized the plant before or on the same day with the endophyte, but not when the endophyte was present before the bacterium. The order of arrival determines whether fungal endophytes enhance plant resistance to bacterial pathogens or facilitate disease. PMID:24801140

Adame-Álvarez, Rosa-María; Mendiola-Soto, Jaime; Heil, Martin

2014-06-01

359

Antibiosis, mycoparasitism, and colonization success for endophytic Trichoderma isolates with biological control potential in Theobroma cacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theobroma cacao (cacao) suffers severe yield losses in many major production areas due to fungus-induced diseases. Cacao supports a complex endophytic microbial community that offers candidates for biocontrol of cacao diseases. Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from the live sapwood of trunks of Theobroma species, pods of Theobroma species, and a liana (Banisteriopsis caapi). Fifteen isolates of Trichoderma,

B. A. Bailey; H. Bae; M. D. Strem; J. Crozier; S. E. Thomas; G. J. Samuels; B. T. Vinyard; K. A. Holmes

2008-01-01

360

Site and species-specific differences in endophyte occurrence in two herbaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Endophyte fungi exist within the living tissues of all plants, but compared with grasses and trees, remarkably little is known about their ecology in herbaceous species. These fungi produce an array of metabolites in culture and there is some evidence that they can increase the resistance of plants to herbivorous insects. 2 As herbaceous plant endophytes are thought

ALAN C. GANGE; SOMA DEY; AMANDA F. CURRIE; BRIAN C. SUTTON

2007-01-01

361

Response of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Potato Plants to Infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization

Birgit Reiter; Ulrike Pfeifer; Helmut Schwab; Angela Sessitsch

2002-01-01

362

Diversity and origins of endophytic fungal symbionts of the North American grass Festuca arizonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acremonium spp. endophytes are mutualistic fungal symbionts of many C3 grasses. They are anamorphs of Epichloë typhina (Clavicipitaceae) that have become strictly seedborne, heritable components of symbiotic units (“symbiota”). In order to test the possibility that endophytes may contribute to the genetic diversity of symbiota, a survey was conducted of plants from nine populations of Festuca arizonica in the southern

Z.-q. An; J.-S. Liu; M. R. Siegel; G. Bunge; C. L. Schardl

1992-01-01

363

Full length article Endophyte-mediated resistance against white pine blister rust in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced resistance responses, including fungal endophyte-mediated resistance, have been well studied in both agricultural crops and grass systems. Yet, the effect of these processes and symbionts in forest trees is poorly known. Fungal endophytes have been found in all conifer forest systems examined to date and have been hypothesised to be involved in resistance-mediated responses. However, in the absence of

Rebecca J. Ganley; Richard A. Sniezko; George Newcombe

364

Endophyte-mediated resistance against white pine blister rust in Pinus monticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced resistance responses, including fungal endophyte-mediated resistance, have been well studied in both agricultural crops and grass systems. Yet, the effect of these processes and symbionts in forest trees is poorly known. Fungal endophytes have been found in all conifer forest systems examined to date and have been hypothesised to be involved in resistance-mediated responses. However, in the absence of

Rebecca J. Ganley; Richard A. Sniezko; George Newcombe

2008-01-01

365

Colonization and lignin decomposition of Camellia japonica leaf litter by endophytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi occur on various types of leaf litter, but few studies have been done on their roles as saprophytes in decomposition. This study examined the succession of fungi in live, newly shed, and decomposing leaves at 2 months of decomposition of Camellia japonica and chemical changes in decomposing leaves colonized by endophytes. Coccomyces nipponicum, Lophodermium sp., Geniculosporium sp. 1,

Kanade Koide; Takashi Osono; Hiroshi Takeda

2005-01-01

366

Are endophyte-mediated effects on herbivores conditional on soil nutrients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium endophytes are assumed to have mutualistic relationship with their grass hosts, mainly resulting from mycotoxin production increasing plant resistance to herbivores by the fungus that subsists on the plant. To study importance of often ignored environmental effects on these associations, we performed a greenhouse experiment to examine the significance of endophyte infection and nutrient availability for bird-cherry aphid (

Päivi Lehtonen; Marjo Helander; Kari Saikkonen

2005-01-01

367

Fungal endophytes of grasses and their effects on an insect herbivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of endophytic fungi (Tribe Balansiae, Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycetes) of grasses on an insect herbivore were studied by feeding paired groups of larvae of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) leaves from either infected or uninfected individuals. Perennial ryegrass infected by “the Lolium endophyte”, tall fescue infected by Epichloe typhina, dallisgrass infected by Myriogenospora atramentosa, Texas wintergrass infected by

Keith Clay; Tad N. Hardy; Abner M. Hammond

1985-01-01

368

??????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ??? ????? ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM Casearia grewiaefolia, Oroxylum indicum and Picrasma javanica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary screening on endophytic fungi for antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was conducted using dual-culture agar diffusion assay. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized medicinal plant samples of Casearia grewiaefolia Vent., Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. and Picrasma javanica Bl, and grown on six different mycological media. A total of 40 fungi

Poonlap Pompeng; Nattaya Ngamrojnavanich; Khanitha Pudhom

369

Charting the Isophasic Endophyte of Dwarf Mistletoe Arceuthobium douglasii (Viscaceae) in Host Apical Buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium; Viscaceae) are highly specialized dioecious angiosperms parasitic on many gymnosperm hosts in the northern hemisphere. Several dwarf mistletoe species are capable of inducing an unusual form of isophasic infection in which the internal (endophytic) system proliferates even into the apical buds of its hosts. Studies of the internal endophytic system have, for the most

DAVID LYE

2006-01-01

370

Biosynthesis of archetypal plant self-defensive oxylipins by an endophytic fungus residing in mangrove embryos.  

PubMed

A tree's travel companion: a fungal endophyte (Fusarium incarnatum) isolated from a viviparous propagule (embryo) of a mangrove tree produces typical plant defense oxylipins. Stable-isotope labeling experiments revealed that the endophyte biosynthesizes coriolic acid, didehydrocoriolic acid, and an epoxy fatty acid derived from linoleic acid by a process involving ?(15)-desaturation and 13-lipoxygenation. PMID:23165938

Ding, Ling; Peschel, Gundela; Hertweck, Christian

2012-12-21

371

Effects of fungal endophytes on the seed and seedling biology of Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many grasses are infected by endophytic fungi that grow intercellularly in leaves, stems, and flowers and are transmitted maternally by hyphal growth into ovules and seeds. The seed biology and seedling growth of endophyte-infected and uninfected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The percentage of filled seeds produced by infected tall

1987-01-01

372

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. RESULTS: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is

Marcelo Bertalan; Rodolpho Albano; Vânia de Pádua; Luc Rouws; Cristian Rojas; Adriana Hemerly; Kátia Teixeira; Stefan Schwab; Jean Araujo; André Oliveira; Leonardo França; Viviane Magalhães; Sylvia Alquéres; Alexander Cardoso; Wellington Almeida; Marcio Martins Loureiro; Eduardo Nogueira; Daniela Cidade; Denise Oliveira; Tatiana Simão; Jacyara Macedo; Ana Valadão; Marcela Dreschsel; Flávia Freitas; Marcia Vidal; Helma Guedes; Elisete Rodrigues; Carlos Meneses; Paulo Brioso; Luciana Pozzer; Daniel Figueiredo; Helena Montano; Jadier Junior; Gonçalo de Souza Filho; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; Beatriz Ferreira; Alan Branco; Paula Gonzalez; Heloisa Guillobel; Melissa Lemos; Luiz Seibel; José Macedo; Marcio Alves-Ferreira; Gilberto Sachetto-Martins; Ana Coelho; Eidy Santos; Gilda Amaral; Anna Neves; Ana Beatriz Pacheco; Daniela Carvalho; Letícia Lery; Paulo Bisch; Shaila C Rössle; Turán Ürményi; Alessandra Rael Pereira; Rosane Silva; Edson Rondinelli; Wanda von Krüger; Orlando Martins; José Ivo Baldani; Paulo CG Ferreira

2009-01-01

373

Fungal endophyte communities reflect environmental structuring across a Hawaiian landscape  

PubMed Central

We surveyed endophytic fungal communities in leaves of a single tree species (Metrosideros polymorpha) across wide environmental gradients (500–5,500 mm of rain/y; 10–22 °C mean annual temperature) spanning short geographic distances on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai’i. Using barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing at 13 sites (10 trees/site; 10 leaves/tree), we found very high levels of diversity within sites (a mean of 551 ± 134 taxonomic units per site). However, among-site diversity contributed even more than did within-site diversity to the overall richness of more than 4,200 taxonomic units observed in M. polymorpha, and this among-site variation in endophyte community composition correlated strongly with temperature and rainfall. These results are consistent with suggestions that foliar endophytic fungi are hyperdiverse. They further suggest that microbial diversity may be even greater than has been assumed and that broad-scale environmental controls such as temperature and rainfall can structure eukaryotic microbial diversity. Appropriately constrained study systems across strong environmental gradients present a useful means to understand the environmental factors that structure the diversity of microbial communities. PMID:22837398

Zimmerman, Naupaka B.; Vitousek, Peter M.

2012-01-01

374

Sporulenes, Heptaprenyl Metabolites from Bacillus subtilis Spores  

E-print Network

Sporulenes, Heptaprenyl Metabolites from Bacillus subtilis Spores Renee Kontnik, Tanja Bosak with an unusual pentacyclic structure, is produced by Bacillus subtilis during sporulation. All bacterial genomes biological functions have been overlooked. For example, Bacillus subtilis and its relatives are some

Brocks, Jochen J.

375

Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis  

E-print Network

LETTER Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis Jennie Garbutt,1 infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Antagonism, Bacillus thuringiensis, evolution of virulence, interference competition, mixed infection, social

Obbard, Darren

376

Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.  

PubMed

Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation. PMID:25176358

Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

2014-09-01

377

The tubercle bacillus  

PubMed Central

A series of lectures on the tubercle bacillus by eminent authorities from various countries was organized at the Institut d'Hygiène et de Bactériologie of the University of Lausanne by Professor Paul Hauduroy, from 22 to 25 April 1949. Through the kindness of Professor Hauduroy it has been possible for the World Health Organization to publish in the Bulletin summaries of these lectures. * PMID:20603940

1949-01-01

378

Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack  

PubMed Central

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Haggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttila, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

379

Endophytic fungi associated with Macrosolen tricolor and its host Camellia oleifera.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystem, while little is known about those in hemi-parasitic plants, a group of special plants which absorb nutrients from its hosts by haustoria. The relationship of the endophytes in the two parts of the bipartite systems (hemiparasites together with their hosts) is also poorly understood. Endophytic fungi of a hemi-parasitic plant Macrosolen tricolor, and its host plant Camellia oleifera were investigated and compared in this study. M. tricolor contained rich and diversified endophytic fungi (H' = 2.829), which consisted mainly of ascomycetes, distributed in more than ten orders of four classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes) besides Incertae sedis strains (23.2 % of total). In addition, 2.2 % of isolates were identified to be Basidiomycota, all of which belonged to Agaricomycetes. Obvious differences were observed between the endophytic fungal assembles in the leaves and those in the branches of M. tricolor. The endophytic fungi isolated from C. oleifera distributed in nearly same orders of the four classes of Ascomycota and one class (Agaricomycetes) of Basidiomycota as those from M. tricolor with similar proportion. For both M. tricolor and C. oleifera, Valsa sp. was the dominant endophyte species in the leaves, Torula sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 were the dominant endophytic fungi in the branches. The similarity coefficient of the endophyte assembles in the two host was 64.4 %. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the endophyte assembles of M. tricolor and C. oleifera were significantly different (p < 0.01). PMID:24442818

Sheng-Liang, Zhou; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhen-Ying, Wu; Shuang-Lin, Chen

2014-06-01

380

The Endophytic System of Mediterranean Cytinus (Cytinaceae) Developing on Five Host Cistaceae Species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims One of the most extreme manifestations of parasitism is found in the genus Cytinus, a holoparasite whose vegetative body is reduced to an endophytic system living within its host root. There are two species of Cytinus in the Mediterranean, C. hypocistis and C. ruber, which parasitize various genera of Cistaceae, one of the most characteristic families of the Mediterranean scrublands. The aim of this work is to describe the endophytic systems of C. hypocistis and C. ruber, and their tissue relationships with their host. Methods Roots from five different hosts infected with C. hypocistis and C. ruber were harvested, and examined by anatomical techniques under light microscopy to elucidate the characteristics of the endophytic system of Cytinus, and to determine if differences in endophytic systems occur between the two species and in response to different hosts. Key Results The endophyte structure is similar in both Cytinus species irrespective of the host species. In the initial stages of the endophyte, rows of parenchymal cells spread through the host pericyclic derivatives and phloem, and begin to generate small nodules in the outermost region of the host xylem. Later the nodules anastomose, and bands of parasitic tissue are formed. The host cambium continues to develop xylem tissue, and consequently the endophyte becomes enclosed within the xylem. The bands of parasitic tissue fuse to form a continuous sheath. This mature endophyte has well-developed vascular system with xylem and phloem, and forms sinkers with transfer cells that grow through the host xylem. Conclusions The endophytic system of Cytinus develops in all host root tissues and reaches its most mature stages in the host xylem. It is more complex than previously reported, showing parenchyma, xylem and phloem tissues. This is the first report of well-developed phloem in a holoparasitic endophytic species. PMID:17804607

De Vega, Clara; Ortiz, Pedro Luis; Arista, Montserrat; Talavera, Salvador

2007-01-01

381

Regulation of enteric endophytic bacterial colonization by plant defenses.  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes reside within the interior of plants without causing disease or forming symbiotic structures. Some endophytes, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 (Kp342), enhance plant growth and nutrition. Others, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), are human pathogens that contaminate raw produce. Several lines of evidence are presented here to support the hypothesis that plant defense response pathways regulate colonization by endophytic bacteria. An ethylene-insensitive mutant of Medicago truncatula is hypercolonized by Kp342 compared to the parent genotype. Addition of ethylene, a signal molecule for induced systemic resistance in plants, decreased endophytic colonization in Medicago spp. This ethylene-mediated inhibition of endophytic colonization was reversed by addition of the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene. Colonization of Medicago spp. by S. typhimurium also was affected by exogenous ethylene. Mutants lacking flagella or a component of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (TTSS-SPI1) colonize the interior of Medicago spp. in higher numbers than the wild type. Arabidopsis defense response-related genotypes indicated that only salicylic acid (SA)-independent defense responses contribute to restricting colonization by Kp342. In contrast, colonization by S. typhimurium is affected by both SA-dependent and -independent responses. S. typhimurium mutants further delineated these responses, suggesting that both flagella and TTSS-SPI1 effectors can be recognized. Flagella act primarily through SA-independent responses (compromising SA accumulation still affected colonization in the absence of flagella). Removal of a TTSS-SPI1 effector resulted in hypercolonization regardless of whether the genotype was affected in either SA-dependent or SA-independent responses. Consistent with these results, S. typhimurium activates the promoter of PR1, a SA-dependent pathogenesis-related gene, while S. typhimurium mutants lacking the TTSS-SPI1 failed to activate this promoter. These observations suggest approaches to reduce contamination of raw produce by human enteric pathogens and to increase the number of growth-promoting bacteria in plants. PMID:15720086

Iniguez, A Leonardo; Dong, Yuemei; Carter, Heather D; Ahmer, Brian M M; Stone, Julie M; Triplett, Eric W

2005-02-01

382

Construction of a shuttle vector for protein secretory expression in Bacillus subtilis and the application of the mannanase functional heterologous expression.  

PubMed

We report the construction of two Bacillus subtilis expression vectors, pBNS1/pBNS2. Both vectors are based on the strong promoter P43 and the ampicillin resistance gene expression cassette. Additionally, a fragment with the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and a multiple cloning site (BamHI, SalI, SacI, XhoI, PstI, SphI) were inserted. The coding region for the amyQ (encoding an amylase) signal peptide was fused to the promoter P43 of pBNS1 to construct the secreted expression vector pBNS2. The applicability of vectors was tested by first generating the expression vectors pBNS1-GFP/pBNS2-GFP and then detecting for green fluorescent protein gene expression. Next, the mannanase gene from B. pumilus Nsic-2 was fused to vector pBNS2 and we measured the mannanase activity in the supernatant. The mannanase total enzyme activity was 8.65 U/ml, which was 6 times higher than that of the parent strain. Our work provides a feasible way to achieve an effective transformation system for gene expression in B. subtilis and is the first report to achieve B. pumilus mannanase secretory expression in B. subtilis. PMID:24375416

Guo, Su; Tang, Jia-jie; Wei, Dong-zhi; Wei, Wei

2014-04-01

383

Maintenance metabolism and carbon fluxes in Bacillus species  

PubMed Central

Background Selection of an appropriate host organism is crucial for the economic success of biotechnological processes. A generally important selection criterion is a low maintenance energy metabolism to reduce non-productive consumption of substrate. We here investigated, whether various bacilli that are closely related to Bacillus subtilis are potential riboflavin production hosts with low maintenance metabolism. Results While B. subtilis exhibited indeed the highest maintenance energy coefficient, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited only statistically insignificantly reduced maintenance metabolism. Both B. pumilus and B. subtilis (natto) exhibited irregular growth patterns under glucose limitation such that the maintenance metabolism could not be determined. The sole exception with significantly reduced maintenance energy requirements was the B. licheniformis strain T380B. The frequently used spo0A mutation significantly increased the maintenance metabolism of B. subtilis. At the level of 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, all investigated bacilli exhibited a significant flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, a prerequisite for efficient riboflavin production. Different from all other species, B. subtilis featured high respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in batch and chemostat cultures. In particular under glucose-limited conditions, this led to significant excess formation of NADPH of B. subtilis, while anabolic consumption was rather balanced with catabolic NADPH formation in the other bacilli. Conclusion Despite its successful commercial production of riboflavin, B. subtilis does not seem to be the optimal cell factory from a bioenergetic point of view. The best choice of the investigated strains is the sporulation-deficient B. licheniformis T380B strain. Beside a low maintenance energy coefficient, this strain grows robustly under different conditions and exhibits only moderate acetate overflow, hence making it a promising production host for biochemicals and riboflavin in particular. PMID:18564406

Tannler, Simon; Decasper, Seraina; Sauer, Uwe

2008-01-01

384

Characterization of boron resistant and accumulating bacteria Lysinibacillus fusiformis M1, Bacillus cereus M2, Bacillus cereus M3, Bacillus pumilus M4 isolated from former mining site, Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron is known to be widespread environmental contaminant that is relatively mobile in soil when compared to other metal contaminants. The present study made an attempt to isolate and characterize the boron resistant and accumulating bacteria from former mining site at Hokkaido, Japan. Four potential strains M1, M2, M3 and M4 were selected based on high degree of boron and

Chellaiah Edward Raja; Kiyoshi Omine

2012-01-01

385

Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants  

PubMed Central

Summary The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP?marked bacteria could be re?isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control. PMID:21255282

Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Érica Soares; Praça, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin

2009-01-01

386

Control of Diatraea saccharalis by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans 33.1 expressing cry1Ac7.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is found in more than 90 % of the products used against insects, it has some difficulty reaching the internal regions where the larvae feed. To solve this problem, many genetically modified microorganisms that colonize the same pests have been developed. Thus, the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (33.1), which has been recently described as a promising sugarcane growth promoter, was genetically modified with the pJTT vector (which carries the gene cry1Ac7) to control the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. Firstly, the bioassays for D. saccharalis control by 33.1:pJTT were conducted with an artificial diet. A new in vivo methodology was also developed, which confirmed the partial control of larvae by 33.1:pJTT. The 33.1:pJTT strain was inoculated into sugarcane stalks containing the D. saccharalis larvae. In the sugarcane stalks, 33.1:pJTT was able to increase the mortality of D. saccharalis larvae, impair larval development and decrease larval weight. Sugarcane seedlings were inoculated with 33.1:pJTT, and re-isolation confirmed the capacity of 33.1:pJTT to continuously colonize the sugarcane. These results prove that P. agglomerans (33.1), a sugarcane growth promoter, can be improved by expressing the Cry protein, and the resulting strain is able to control the sugarcane borer. PMID:24531524

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Tsui, S; Parra, J R P; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2014-04-01

387

Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.  

PubMed

Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

2014-10-01

388

Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth. PMID:23842755

Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2013-11-01

389

Geographical and temporal changes of foliar fungal endophytes associated with the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora.  

PubMed

Endophytes may gradually accumulate in the new geographic range of a non-native plant, just as pathogens do. To test this hypothesis, the dynamics of colonization and diversity of foliar fungal endophytes of non-native Ageratina adenophora were investigated. Previous reports showed that the time since the initial introduction (1930s) of A. adenophora into China varied among populations. Endophytes were sampled in three provinces of Southwest China in 21 sites that varied from 20 to 70 years since the introduction of A. adenophora from its native Central America. Endophyte isolation frequencies varied from 1.87% to 60.23% overall in a total of 4,032 leaf fragments. Based on ITS sequence variations, 463 fungal endophytes were distinguished as 112 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the Sordariomycetes (77 OTUs, 373 isolates), Dothideomycetes (18 OTUs, 38 isolates), and Agaricomycetes (17 OTUs, 52 strains) classes. Colletotrichum (28.51%), Nemania (14.90%), Phomopsis (13.17%), and Xylaria (4.97%) were the most abundant genera. Both endophyte diversity and overall isolation frequency increased with time since introduction. The genetic differentiation of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides indicated that the dispersal of endophytes was likely affected by a combination of geographic factors and the invasion history of the host A. adenophora. PMID:24276537

Mei, Liang; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, De-Zhu; Wang, Yong-Zhou; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Han-Bo

2014-02-01

390

Indole-Diterpene Biosynthetic Capability of Epichloë Endophytes as Predicted by ltm Gene Analysis?  

PubMed Central

Bioprotective alkaloids produced by Epichloë and closely related asexual Neotyphodium fungal endophytes protect their grass hosts from insect and mammalian herbivory. One class of these compounds, known for antimammalian toxicity, is the indole-diterpenes. The LTM locus of Neotyphodium lolii (Lp19) and Epichloë festuce (Fl1), required for the biosynthesis of the indole-diterpene lolitrem, consists of 10 ltm genes. We have used PCR and Southern analysis to screen a broad taxonomic range of 44 endophyte isolates to determine why indole-diterpenes are present in so few endophyte-grass associations in comparison to that of the other bioprotective alkaloids, which are more widespread among the endophtyes. All 10 ltm genes were present in only three epichloë endophytes. A predominance of the asexual Neotyphodium spp. examined contained 8 of the 10 ltm genes, with only one N. lolii containing the entire LTM locus and the ability to produce lolitrems. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry profiles of indole-diterpenes from a subset of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass showed that endophytes that contained functional genes present in ltm clusters 1 and 2 were capable of producing simple indole-diterpenes such as paspaline, 13-desoxypaxilline, and terpendoles, compounds predicted to be precursors of lolitrem B. Analysis of toxin biosynthesis genes by PCR now enables a diagnostic method to screen endophytes for both beneficial and detrimental alkaloids and can be used as a resource for screening isolates required for forage improvement. PMID:19181837

Young, Carolyn A.; Tapper, Brian A.; May, Kimberley; Moon, Christina D.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Scott, Barry

2009-01-01

391

Molecular evidence for Neotyphodium fungal endophyte variation and specificity within host grass species.  

PubMed

Host specificity of Neotyphodium species symbiotic with three grass species, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne, was studied based on comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between hosts and their corresponding endophytes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from 24 accessions of host plants. Neotyphodium identity was determined based on morphological characteristics observed in cultures and polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific primers. The results of AFLP data analysis revealed high genetic variation in plant and fungal endophyte species. Plant AFLP genotypes from different species clustered in three distinctive groups, congruent with species. A cluster analysis of AFLP data grouped endophytic isolates according to their host species and secondarily according to their host geographic distribution. The result of the AMOVA on AFLP data accounted for a large and significant proportion of genetic variation due to differences among plant and endophyte species. Phylogenetic groups of isolates corresponded to their respective host genotypes based on maximum parsimony phylograms. Comparisons of the two phylograms illustrated a significant congruence between nodes and branches of host and endophyte clades. These results strongly suggest host specificity of Neotyphodium fungal endophytes with their geographically distant host grasses within each species. PMID:22675051

Karimi, Somaye; Mirlohi, Aghafakhr; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sayed Tabatabaei, Badraldin E; Sharifnabi, Bahram

2012-01-01

392

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

393

Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichlo? species.  

PubMed Central

The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among endophytes of tall fescue. Phylogenetic relationships among seven isolates from tall fescue, three from meadow fescue (a probable ancestor of tall fescue), and nine Epichloë isolates from other host species were investigated by comparing sequences of noncoding segments of the beta-tubulin (tub2) and rRNA (rrn) genes. Whereas each Epichloë isolate and meadow fescue endophyte had only a single tub2 gene, most tall fescue endophytes had two or three distinct tub2 copies. Phylogenetic analysis of tub2 sequences indicated that the presence of multiple copies in the tall fescue endophytes was a consequence of hybridization with Epichloë species. At least three hybridization events account for the distribution and relationships of tub2 genes. These results suggest that interspecific hybridization is the major cause of genetic diversification of the tall fescue endophytes. Images PMID:8172623

Tsai, H F; Liu, J S; Staben, C; Christensen, M J; Latch, G C; Siegel, M R; Schardl, C L

1994-01-01

394

Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Meyer, S.L.F.

2010-01-01

395

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Nyczepir, A P; Meyer, S L F

2010-06-01

396

Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability  

PubMed Central

Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E?) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

Vazquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; Garcia-Ciudad, Antonia; Garcia-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Inigo

2013-01-01

397

Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of high DNA-DNA reassociation values and confirmatory automated RiboPrint analysis, two aerobic spore-forming strains hitherto allocated to Bacillus subtilis and used as bioindicators (DSM 675, hot-air sterilization control; DSM 2277, ethylene oxide sterilization control) are reclassified as Bacillus atrophaeus.

Dagmar Fritze; Mascheroder Weg

2001-01-01

398

Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus.  

PubMed

On the basis of high DNA-DNA reassociation values and confirmatory automated RiboPrint analysis, two aerobic spore-forming strains hitherto allocated to Bacillus subtilis and used as bioindicators (DSM 675, hot-air sterilization control; DSM 2277, ethylene oxide sterilization control) are reclassified as Bacillus atrophaeus. PMID:11211269

Fritze, D; Pukall, R

2001-01-01

399

Complete genome of the switchgrass endophyte Enterobacter clocace P101.  

PubMed

The Enterobacter cloacae complex is genetically very diverse. The increasing number of complete genomic sequences of E. cloacae is helping to determine the exact relationship among members of the complex. E. cloacae P101 is an endophyte of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and is closely related to other E. cloacae strains isolated from plants. The P101 genome consists of a 5,369,929 bp chromosome. The chromosome has 5,164 protein-coding regions, 100 tRNA sequences, and 8 rRNA operons. PMID:25197457

Humann, Jodi L; Wildung, Mark; Pouchnik, Derek; Bates, Austin A; Drew, Jennifer C; Zipperer, Ursula N; Triplett, Eric W; Main, Dorrie; Schroeder, Brenda K

2014-06-15

400

A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.  

PubMed

Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

2014-07-01

401

Meroterpenes and azaphilones from marine mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium 303#.  

PubMed

Three new metabolites (compounds 1-2 and 6), one azaphilone, and two meroterpenes, together with eleven known compounds have been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium 303#. Structure elucidation was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Cytotoxic activities of new compounds 1-2 and 6 and compound 7were evaluated in vitro against human cancer lines MDA-MB-435, HepG2, HCT-116, and A549. Those compounds showed weak to moderate cytotoxic activities. PMID:24972351

Li, Jing; Yang, Xin; Lin, Yingying; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Yongjun; Zhu, Xun; Li, Jun; Li, Mengfeng; Lin, Yongcheng; He, Jianguo; Liu, Lan

2014-09-01

402

Aminopeptidase activities of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis  

E-print Network

for at least one hour at temperatures up to 55 C. The enzyme was strong- ly activated by Co++ ions and was inactivated by dialysis. An intracellular asMnopeptidase was alan detected in this strain of Bacillus sub tilis; it was st onglv activated by Mn++ iona... ACTIVITY OF THE AMINOPEPIIDASE TOWARD SYNTHETIC SUBSTRATES 78 viii LI ST OF F IGURE S Figure pa e The relative enzyme production rates by various Bacillus strains in three media Extracellular aminopeptidase activity of Bacillus subtilis 9943 as a...

Liu, Justin Sing

2012-06-07

403

Development of a versatile cassette for directional genome walking using cassette ligation-mediated PCR and its application in the cloning of complete lipolytic genes from Bacillus species.  

PubMed

Since the invention of the PCR technology, adaptation techniques to clone DNA fragments flanking the known sequence continue to be developed. We describe a perfectly annealed cassette available in almost unlimited quantities with variable sticky-and blunt-end restriction enzyme recognition sites for efficient restriction and ligation with the restricted target genomic DNA. The cassette provides a 200-bp sequence, which is used to design a variety of cassette-specific primers. The dephosphorylation prevents cassette self-ligation and creates a nick at the cassette: target genome DNA ligation site suppressing unspecific PCR amplifications. We introduce the single-strand amplification PCR (SSA-PCR) technique where a lone known locus-specific primer is firstly used to enrich the targeted template DNA strand resulting in significant PCR product specificity during the second round conventional nested PCR. The distance between the known locus-specific primer and the nearest location of the restriction enzyme used determined the length of the obtained PCR product. We used this technique to walk downstream into the isochorismatase and upstream into the hypothetical conserved genes flanking the mature extracellular lipase gene from Bacillus licheniformis. We further demonstrated the potential of the technique as a cost-effective method during PCR-based prospecting for novel genes by designing "universal" degenerate primers that detected homologues of Family VII bacterial lipolytic genes in Bacillus species. The cassette ligation-mediated PCR was used to clone complete nucleotide sequences encoding functional lipolytic genes from B. licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. PMID:15722149

Nthangeni, Mulalo B; Ramagoma, Faranani; Tlou, Matsobane G; Litthauer, Derek

2005-05-01

404

Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 comparable with HD-1. Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8, Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30, Om-4, Po-2, Po-5, Po-7, Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz., Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T. castaneum larvae, had cry1 genes along with coleopteran active cry28 genes, but not cry3 genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp., one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pumilus, four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides. PMID:24956895

Gorashi, N E; Tripathi, M; Kalia, V; Gujar, G T

2014-06-01

405

[Regulation of peroxidase activity under the influence of signaling molecules and Bacillus subtilis 26D in potato plants infected with Phytophthora infestans].  

PubMed

The influence of sequential exposure of 5 x 10(-5) M salicylic acid (SA) or 1 x 10(-7) M jasmonic acid (JA) and endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain 26D on peroxidase activity, transcription of the M21334 isoperoxidase gene from potato (Solarium tuberosum L.), and the formation of resistance to the infective agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary was studied. It was found that individual application of JA or Bacillus subtilis 26D and sequential application of SA and B. subtilis 26D were the most effective in protecting plants against pathogens, while sequential application of JA and B. subtilis 26D drastically suppressed plant resistance. The results suggest the need for strict compliance with regulations when using SA and JA, as well as biological products based on living bacteria as modern plant protection products with immunomodulatory properties that trigger specific signaling pathways, which often interfere with each other. PMID:25272739

Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Sorokan', A V; Burkhanova, G F

2014-01-01

406

Patterns of epipelic algal distribution in an acidic adirondack lake. [Hapalosiphon pumilus; Fragilaria acidobiontica; Navicula tenuicephala; Navicula subtilissima  

SciTech Connect

The biovolume and species composition of epipelic algae along sediment depth gradients were sampled seasonally in an acidic oligotrophic lake in the Adirondack Park in New York State. The epipelic algal community of Woods Lake (Herkimer Co., NY) was dominated by diatoms and cyanobacteria. Distinct depth zonation patterns of community composition were evident. Total algal biovolume increased with depth due to a dense cyanobacterial mat on the sediments in deeper water (5-8 m). This mat was dominated by a single species of cyanobacteria, Hapalosiphon pumilus (Kuetz). Kirchner, which accounted for the later summer maximum in total biovolume at 7 m. The shallower (1-4 m) epipelic communities were dominated by diatoms, which showed a spring maximum in total biovolume and were dominated by Fragilaria acidobiontica Charles, Navicula tenuicephala Hust, and N. subtilissima Cl.

Roberts, D.A.; Boylen, C.W.

1988-06-01

407

Plant root carbohydrates affect growth behaviour of endophytic microfungi.  

PubMed

Abstract Peucedanum alsaticum and Peucedanum cervaria represent characteristic umbellifers (Apiaceae) of calcareous grasslands in Central and Eastern Europe. Both accumulate glucose, fructose, mannitol and sucrose as dominant carbohydrates in their roots. The objective of the study was to determine if endophytes utilise host plant carbohydrates differently than rhizosphere and bulk soil microfungi. Inula ensifolia (Asteraceae), Lathyrus latifolius (Fabaceae) and Bromus erectus (Poaceae), all plants that grow along with the two umbellifers, accumulated only sucrose as major sugar in their roots. Germ tube growth of 30 microfungal isolates, recovered from various rhizosphere habitats, was quantified in microdilutions (10-5000 mug ml(-1)) of a number of substrates, including glucose, sucrose, mannitol and the water-soluble plant root carbohydrate mixtures. Multivariate analysis of variance and subsequent least significant difference analysis of isolate group means revealed that sucrose and mannitol utilisation affected affiliation to a certain fungal lifestyle. Endophytes utilised host plant carbohydrates more efficiently at lower concentrations. Conversely, higher concentrations slowed their growth. Non-host carbohydrates did not cause comparable effects. The results suggest that root carbohydrate diversity may determine fungal diversity in natural rhizosphere environments. PMID:19709250

Hadacek, Franz; Kraus, Günther F

2002-08-01

408

Diversity of endophytic enterobacteria associated with different host plants.  

PubMed

Fifty-three endophytic enterobacteria isolates from citrus, cocoa, eucalyptus, soybean, and sugar cane were evaluated for susceptibility to the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and cellulase production. Susceptibility was found on both tested antibiotics. However, in the case of ampicillin susceptibility changed according to the host plant, while all isolates were susceptible to kanamycin. Cellulase production also changed according to host plants. The diversity of these isolates was estimated by employing BOX-PCR genomic fingerprints and 16S rDNA sequencing. In total, twenty-three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by employing a criterion of 60% fingerprint similarity as a surrogate for an OTU. The 23 OTUs belong to the Pantoea and Enterobacter genera, while their high diversity could be an indication of paraphyletic classification. Isolates representing nine different OTUs belong to Pantoea agglomerans, P. ananatis, P. stewartii, Enterobacter sp., and E. homaechei. The results of this study suggest that plant species may select endophytic bacterial genotypes. It has also become apparent that a review of the Pantoea/Enterobacter genera may be necessary. PMID:18758726

Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Cursino, Luciana; Hungria, Mariangela; Plotegher, Fábio; Mostasso, Fábio Luís; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2008-08-01

409

Culturable fungal endophytes in roots of Enkianthus campanulatus (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Roots of plants in the genus Enkianthus, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage in the Ericaceae, are commonly colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We documented the community of fungal root endophytes associated with Enkianthus species using a culture-based method for better understanding the members of root-colonizing fungi, except for AM fungi. Fungal isolates were successfully obtained from 610 out of 3,599 (16.9 %) root segments. Molecular analysis of fungal cultures based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences yielded 63 operational taxonomical units (OTUs: 97 % sequence similarity cutoff) from 315 representative isolates. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that most (296 isolates) belonged to Ascomycota and were either members of Helotiales (Dermataceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Phialocephala and Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate), Oidiodendron, or other Pezizomycotina. Twenty-three out of 63 OTUs, which mainly consisted of Leotiomycetes, showed high similarities with reference sequences derived from roots of other ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron. The results indicated that Enkianthus houses variable root mycobionts including putative endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi in addition to AM fungi. PMID:24795166

Obase, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yosuke

2014-11-01

410

[Correlation between inhibition activity of endophytic fungus from Euphorbia pekinensis and its host].  

PubMed

To develop endophytic fungi resources from medicinal plants, this paper studied the correlation between endophytic fungus Fusariium sp. ES from Euphorbia pekinensis and its host through analyzing the inhibition activity of this pathogen. An endophytic strain S12 (Alternaria sp.) from Sapium sebiferum was used as contrast. The results showed that E5 had an inhibitory effect on the host, while S12 and E. pekinensis extract didn't have it. The inhibition activity of E5 could be stimulated by the extract of host leaf, and its inhibitory effect could only be found when it was cultured with enough oxygen. The inhibition activity was affected by pH, temperature, and ultra-violet. These characters of endophytic fungus E5 showed a good correlation with its host, and this correlation was mutualism. PMID:16252869

Dai, Chuanchao; Yu, Boyang; Zhao, Yuting; Yang, Qiyin; Jiang, Jihong

2005-07-01

411

Antimicrobial drimane sesquiterpenes and their effect on endophyte communities in the medical tree Warburgia ugandensis  

PubMed Central

Metabolite profiles (GC–?MS), drimane sesquiterpenes, sugars and sugar alcohols, were compared with bacterial and fungal endophyte communities (T-RFLP, DNA clones, qPCR) in leaves and roots of the pepper bark tree, Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae). Ten individuals each were assessed from two locations east and west of the Great Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa, which differed in humidity and vegetation, closed forest versus open savannah. Despite organ- and partially site-specific variation of drimane sesquiterpenes, no clear effects on bacterial and fungal endophyte communities could be detected. The former were dominated by gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as well as gram-positive Firmicutes; the fungal endophyte communities were more diverse but no specific groups dominated. Despite initial expectations, the endophyte community of the pepper bark tree did not differ from other trees that much. PMID:21686123

Drage, Sigrid; Mitter, Birgit; Trols, Christina; Muchugi, Alice; Jamnadass, Ramni H.; Sessitsch, Angela; Hadacek, Franz

2013-01-01

412

Isolation and characterization endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance and their potential to promote phytoextraction of zinc polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from roots, stems and leaves of Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator\\u000a Sedum alfredii. Endophytic bacteria were observed in roots, stems and leave of S. alfredii, with a significantly higher density in roots, followed by leave and stems. A total of fourteen bacterial endophytes were\\u000a isolated and are closely related phylogenetically to

Long Xinxian; Chen Xuemei; Chen Yagang; Wong Jonathan Woon-Chung; Wei Zebin; Wu Qitang

2011-01-01

413

Benefits of a symbiotic association with endophytic fungi are subject to water and nutrient availability in Achnatherum sibiricum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic relationships with microbes may influence how plants respond to environmental change. Here, we investigated how\\u000a fungal endophyte infection affected the growth of a native grass under altered water and nutrient availability. In a two-month\\u000a field experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Achnatherum sibiricum subjected to four treatments comprised of a factorial combination of two

An Zhi Ren; Xia Li; Rong Han; Li Jia Yin; Mao Ying Wei; Yu Bao Gao

414

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

2004-01-01

415

Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from higher plants, are attracting considerable attention from\\u000a natural product chemists and biologists alike as indicated by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during\\u000a recent years (113 research articles on secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi in the period of 2008–2009, 69 in 2006–2007,\\u000a 36 in 2004–2005, 14 in 2002–2003, and

Amal H. Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Julia Kjer; Peter Proksch

2010-01-01

416

Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana , an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoran Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small cactus Mammillaria fraileana is a pioneer rock-colonizing plant harboring endophytic bacteria with the potential for nitrogen fixation and rock weathering\\u000a (phosphate solubilization and rock degradation). In seeds, only a combination of culture-independent methods, such as fluorescence\\u000a in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence vital staining, detected significant amounts of non-culturable,\\u000a but living, endophytic bacteria distributed underneath the

Blanca R. Lopez; Yoav Bashan; Macario Bacilio

2011-01-01

417

Genotypic and chemotypic diversity of Neotyphodium endophytes in tall fescue from Greece.  

PubMed

Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

Takach, Johanna E; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A; Bright, Sherrita K; Trammell, Michael A; Hopkins, Andrew A; Young, Carolyn A

2012-08-01

418

Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece  

PubMed Central

Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

2012-01-01

419

New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

2013-01-01

420

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng and their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host\\u000a plant and can form a range of different beneficial relationships. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng\\u000a plants of varying age levels in Korea was investigated. Fifty-one colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng stems.\\u000a Although a mixed composition

Regupathy Thamizh Vendan; Young Joon Yu; Sun Hee Lee; Young Ha Rhee

2010-01-01

421

Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Ginseng and their Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant roots are associated with diverse communities of endophytic bacteria which do not exert adverse effects. The diversity\\u000a of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng roots cultivated in three different areas in Korea was investigated. Sixty-three\\u000a colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng roots. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that\\u000a the isolates belonged to three major

Kye Man Cho; Su Young Hong; Sun Mi Lee; Yong Hee Kim; Goon Gjung Kahng; Yong Pyo Lim; Hoon Kim; Han Dae Yun

2007-01-01

422

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

423

Diversity and significance of fungal endophytes from living stems of naturalized trees from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes inhabit healthy tissues of all terrestrial taxa studied to date; however, fungi associated with woody tissue\\u000a have been frequently overlooked. Here, we examined endophytes associated with healthy living stems of tree species exotic\\u000a to Argentina (Broussonetia papyrifera, Celtis occidentalis and Ligustrum lucidum) in a natural reserve. To achieve this objective, fungi were induced to develop within the wood

A. de Errasti; C. C. Carmarán; M. Victoria Novas

2010-01-01

424

Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria

Yan Hong Li; Qun Fang Liu; Yin Liu; Jing Nan Zhu; Qiang Zhang

2011-01-01

425

Control of leaf-tip necrosis of micropropagated ornamental statice by elimination of endophytic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Leaf-tip necrosis of micropropagated statice plantlets is a serious problem in commercial laboratories in Taiwan. Endophytic\\u000a bacteria were detected in plantlets obtained from commercial laboratories with a leaf-tip necrosis problem. Endophytic bacteria\\u000a were detected in flower stalks collected from four different statice farms at frequencies ranging from 61 to 100%. All plantlets\\u000a regenerated from flower-stalk explants that tested free of

Tsu-Hwie A. Liu; Nai-Wen Hsu; Rey-Yuh Wu

2005-01-01

426

Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from surface-sterilized tissues of 36 plant species was made using humic acid–vitamin (HV) agar as a selection medium. Of the 330 isolates recovered, 212 were from roots, 97 from leaves and 21 isolates from stems with a prevalence of 3.9, 1.7 and 0.3%, respectively. Identification of endophytic actinomycetes was based on their morphology and the

Thongchai Taechowisan; John F. Peberdy; Saisamorn Lumyong

2003-01-01

427

Structure and Development of the Endophyte in the Parasitic Angiosperm Cuscuta japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endophyte, that is, the haustorial part within the tissues of the host plant Impatiens balsamina, of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta japonica was studied with light and electron microscopy. The endophyte consisted mainly of vacuolated parenchymatous axial cells and\\u000a elongate, superficial (epidermal) cells. Then the elongate, epidermal cells separated from each other and transformed into\\u000a filamentous cells, called searching hyphae.