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1

Genome Sequence of the Plant Endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7, Triggering Induced Systemic Resistance in Field Crops  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus INR7 is an endophytic bacterium that has been commercialized as a biological control product against soilborne pathogens as well as foliar pathogens by direct antagonism and induction of systemic resistance. In the current study, we provide the genome sequence and a possible explanation of the function of strain INR7. PMID:25359912

Jeong, Haeyoung; Choi, Soo-Keun; Kloepper, Joseph W.

2014-01-01

2

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

3

77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dietary Exposure 1. Food. Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus, are common in soils (Ref. 2). Dried food, such as spices, milk powder and grains, often contain large amounts of Bacillus spores (Ref. 3), and Bacillus pumilus is a natural...

2012-03-30

4

ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper  

PubMed Central

Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in combination with BTH for increased induced resistance capacity under field conditions. PMID:23717313

Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

5

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus L.B. Selinger, G.G. Khachatourians, J.R. Byers, and M.F. Hynes Abstract: The -endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis

Selinger, Brent

6

Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

2015-01-01

7

Recurrent isolation of hydrogen peroxide-resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware.

Kempf, Michael J.; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-01-01

8

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to

Xinqi Huang; Nan Zhang; Xiaoyu Yong; Xingming Yang; Qirong Shen

9

Bacillus pumilus Reveals a Remarkably High Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide Provoked Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome level. Genes/proteins belonging to regulons, which are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, were found to be upregulated, such as the Fur, Spx, SOS or CtsR regulon. Strikingly, parts of the fundamental PerR regulon responding to peroxide stress in B. subtilis are not encoded in the B. pumilus genome. Thus, B. pumilus misses the catalase KatA, the DNA-protection protein MrgA or the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpCF. Data of this study suggests that the catalase KatX2 takes over the function of the missing KatA in the oxidative stress response of B. pumilus. The genome-wide expression analysis revealed an induction of bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) relevant genes. An analysis of the intracellular metabolites detected high intracellular levels of this protective metabolite, which indicates the importance of bacillithiol in the peroxide stress resistance of B. pumilus. PMID:24465625

Jürgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Schlüter, Rabea; Albrecht, Dirk; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael; Voigt, Birgit

2014-01-01

10

Modification of a xylanase from bacillus pumilus with pentaammineruthenium(III)  

SciTech Connect

A xylanase, xynA of Bacillus pumilus, was purified, and then modified by the attachment of pentaammineruthenium, resulting in the generation of a xylanase with veratryl alcohol oxidase activity. Modification of B. pumilus xyn A was found to greatly reduce xylan hydrolysis unless the active site of the xylanase was protected with xylose during the modification. Addition of histidine, cysteine, or reduced glutathione during xylan hydrolysis greatly increased xylanase activity of the modified xylanase. Glycine, glutamic acid, methionine, or oxidized glutathione had no effect on xylanase activity. The site of attachment of pentaammineruthenium, was identified as His-160 by mass spectroscopy and sequence determination of tryptic peptides from modified and native xylanase.

Evans, B.R.; Lane, L.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

11

Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons. PMID:22930432

Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

2012-01-01

12

Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease. PMID:25242920

Sangeetha, R.; Arulpandi, I.; Geetha, A.

2014-01-01

13

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Bacillus pumilus IPO xylanase.  

PubMed

The xylan-degrading enzyme xylanase, from Bacillus pumilus IPO, has been crystallized. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21 with a = 40.8 A, b = 66.8 A, c = 34.7 A and beta = 103.0 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of Mr 22,500. The crystals diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution, and they are suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis at high resolution. PMID:3586024

Moriyama, H; Hata, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Sato, M; Shinmyo, A; Tanaka, N; Okada, H; Katsube, Y

1987-01-01

14

Developing a new production host from a blueprint: Bacillus pumilus as an industrial enzyme producer  

PubMed Central

Background Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch. To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. Results To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel’s industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an ?-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. Conclusions In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the basis for a next generation production host, since the strain has still a large potential for further genetic engineering. The final amylase titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer suggests that the developed B. pumilus expression platform is also suitable for an efficient production of non-proteolytic enzymes reaching a final titer of several grams per liter without complex process modifications. PMID:24661794

2014-01-01

15

Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 10? cells g?¹ viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish. PMID:25266899

Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

2014-09-30

16

A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b.  

PubMed

Five out of the nine benzene-toulene-ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding the organic solvent tolerant protease was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. The polypeptide composed of 29 residues of signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27,846 Da. This is the only report available to date on organic solvent tolerant protease from B. pumilus. PMID:17492323

Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Mahamad, Shalihah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

2007-07-01

17

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

PubMed Central

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess whether new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat products. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. Both RAPD-PCR and fAFLP analyses demonstrated that a high genetic heterogeneity is present in the B. subtilis group even in strains harvested from the same source, making it possible to isolate 56 different biotypes. Moreover, fAFLP analysis made it possible to distinguish B. subtilis from B. pumilus strains. The strains were characterized for their toxigenic potential by molecular, physiological, and immunological techniques. Specific PCR analyses revealed the absence of DNA sequences related to HBL, BcET, NHE, and entFM Bacillus cereus enterotoxins and the enzymes sphingomyelinase Sph and phospholipase PI-PLC in all strains; also, the immunological analyses showed that Bacillus strains did not react with NHE- and HBL-specific antibodies. However, some isolates were found to be positive for hemolytic and lecithinase activity. The absence of toxigenic potential in Bacillus strains from the sausages analyzed indicates that these products can be considered safe under the processing conditions they were produced; however, great care should be taken when the ripening time is shortened, particularly in the case of traditional sausages, which could contain high amounts of Bacillus strains and possibly some B. cereus cells. PMID:15345396

Matarante, Alessandra; Baruzzi, Federico; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Morea, Maria

2004-01-01

18

Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber with Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43.  

PubMed

Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Micrographs were used to investigate the ability of Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) SQR-N43 to control Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) Q1 in cucumbers. The root colonization ability of B. pumilus SQR-N43 was analyzed in vivo with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. A pot experiment was performed to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of B. pumilus SQR-N43 and its bio-organic fertilizer. Results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 induced hyphal deformation, enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles and cytoplasmic leakage in R. solani Q1 mycelia. A biofilm on the root surface was formed when the roots were inoculated with 10(7)-10(8)cells g(-1) of soil of GFP-tagged B. pumilus SQR-N43. In the pot experiment, the biocontrol reduced the concentration of R. solani. In contrast to applications of only B. pumilus SQR-N43 (N treatment), which produced control efficiencies of 23%, control efficiencies of 68% were obtained with applications of a fermented organic fertilizer inoculated with B. pumilus SQR-N43 (BIO treatment). After twenty days of incubation, significant differences in the number of CFUs and the percentage of spores of B. pumilus SQR-N43 were recorded between the N treatment (2.20×10(7)CFU g(-1) of soil and 79%, respectively) and the BIO treatment (1.67×10(8)CFU g(-1) of soil and 52%, respectively). The results indicate that B. pumilus SQR-N43 is a potent antagonist against R. solani Q1. The BIO treatment was more effective than the N treatment because it stabilized the population and increased the active form of the antagonist. PMID:21775112

Huang, Xinqi; Zhang, Nan; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xingming; Shen, Qirong

2012-03-20

19

Bacillus pumilus S124A carboxymethyl cellulase; a thermo stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum utility.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus S124A was identified as carboxymethyl cellulase producing bacteria from Azorean Bacillus collection (Lab collection), which was isolated in local soils. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA sequence and designated as Bacillus pumilus S124A. NCBI-blast analysis showed B. pumilus S124A; 16S rRNA sequence has high identity to other B. pumilus strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed B. pumilus S124A close to B. pumilus LZBP14 strain. CMcellulase was purified from cells-free supernatants and post mano-Q purification; 5.39% protein folds, and 0.88% recoveries were obtained. SDS-PAGE analysis showed molecular weight of the purified CMcellulase was estimated ?40kDa and composed of a single subunit. NonoLC ESI-MS/MS analysis was yielded four peptides, and protein has identity to other cellulases. Purified CMcellulase showed high activity to cellobiose followed by CMcellulose. Kinetic analysis showed Km, and Vmax were determined as 2.12mg/ml, 239?mol/min/mg, respectively. Optimum temperature and pH for the purified CMcellulase activity were found at 50°C and pH 6.0, respectively. Purified CMcellulase was maintained about 75% activity in a pH range of 4-8 and 70% activity in a temperature range of 40-70°C. CMcellulase activity was highly reduced by HgCl2, followed by EDTA, PMSF whereas CoCl2 was activated CMcellulase activity. PMID:24657377

Balasubramanian, Natesan; Simões, Nelson

2014-06-01

20

Phylogenetic Diversity of the Bacillus pumilus Group and the Marine Ecotype Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

2013-01-01

21

Phylogenetic diversity of the Bacillus pumilus group and the marine ecotype revealed by multilocus sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

Liu, Yang; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

2013-01-01

22

Heterologous expression of the Bacillus pumilus endo-ß-xylanase ( xynA ) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endo-#-xylanase-encoding gene (xynA) of Bacillus pumilus PLS was isolated from a genomic DNA library and the open reading frame (ORF) was inserted in expression vectors for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasmid pFN3 harboured the xynA ORF fused to the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor signal sequence (MFŋS) under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promotor (ADH2P) and terminator

Filip Nuyens; Willem H. van Zyl; Dirk Iserentant; Hubert Verachtert; Chris Michiels

2001-01-01

23

Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.  

PubMed

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110?nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ?7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (?3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ?4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants as risks for forward contamination and in situ life detection. PMID:22680694

Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

2012-05-01

24

Arg²³? is an essential catalytic residue of Bacillus pumilus DKS1 pectate lyase to degum ramie fibre.  

PubMed

After 24 h of incubation with only purified pectate lyase isolated from Bacillus pumilus DKS1 (EF467045), the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25%. To know the catalytic residue of pectate lyase the pel gene encoding a pectate lyase from the strain Bacillus pumilus DKS1 was cloned in E. coli XL1Blue and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The pel gene was sequenced and showed 1032 bp length. After purification using CM-Sepharose the enzyme showed molecular weight of 35 kDa and maximal enzymatic activity was observed at 60°C and a pH range of 8.5-9.0. Both Ca²(+) and Mn²(+) ions were required for activity on Na-pectate salt substrates, while the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Zn²(+) and EDTA. The deduced nucleotide sequence of the DKS1 pectate lyase (EU652988) showed 90% homology to pectate lyases from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (CP000813). The 3D structure as well as the catalytic residues was predicted using EasyPred software and Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA), respectively. Site directed mutagenesis confirmed that arginine is an essential catalytic residue of DKS1 pectate lyase. PMID:20596756

Basu, Snehasish; Roy, Arunava; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Bera, Amit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2011-02-01

25

Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings  

PubMed Central

Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

2014-01-01

26

Purification and characterization of manganese-dependent alkaline serine protease from Bacillus pumilus TMS55.  

PubMed

The purification and characterization of a Mn2+-dependent alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus pumilus TMS55 were investigated. The enzyme was purified in three steps: concentrating the crude enzyme using ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by gel filtration and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified protease had a molecular mass of approximately 35 kDa, was highly active over a broad pH range of 7.0 to 12.0, and remained stable over a pH range of 7.5 to 11.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was found to be 60 degreesC. PMSF and AEBSF (1 mM) significantly inhibited the protease activity, indicating that the protease is a serine protease. Mn2+ ions enhanced the activity and stability of the enzyme. In addition, the purified protease remained stable with oxidants (H2O2, 2%) and organic solvents (25%), such as benzene, hexane, and toluene. Therefore, these characteristics of the protease and its dehairing ability indicate its potential for a wide range of commercial applications. PMID:21301188

Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2011-01-01

27

Biochemical Characterization of a Thiol-Activated, Oxidation Stable Keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12  

PubMed Central

An extracellular keratinase from Bacillus pumilus KS12 was purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography. It was a 45?kDa monomer as determined by SDS PAGE analysis. It was found to be an alkaline, serine protease with pH and temperature optima of 10 and 60°C, respectively. It was thiol activated with two- and eight-fold enhancement in presence of 10 mM DTT and ?-mercaptoethanol, respectively. In addition, its activity was stimulated in the presence of various surfactants, detergents, and oxidizing agents where a nearly 2- to 3-fold enhancement was observed in presence of H2O2 and NaHClO3. It hydrolyzed broad range of complex substrates including feather keratin, haemoglobin, fibrin, casein,and ?-keratin. Analysis of amidolytic activity revealed that it efficiently cleaved phenylalanine ? leucine ? alanine- p-nitroanilides. It also cleaved insulin B chain between Val2- Asn3, Leu6-Cys7 and His10-Leu11 residues. PMID:21048858

Rajput, Rinky; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

2010-01-01

28

Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K. (Biotech Res.)

2012-04-30

29

Improving the thermoactivity and thermostability of pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus for ramie degumming.  

PubMed

Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases can be potentially used for enzymatically degumming ramie in an environmentally sustainable manner and as an alternative to the currently used chemical-based ramie degumming processes. To assess its potential applications, pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 7061) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Evolutionary strategies were applied to generate efficient ramie degumming enzymes. Obtained from site-saturation mutagenesis and random mutagenesis, the best performing mutant enzyme M3 exhibited a 3.4-fold higher specific activity on substrate polygalacturonic acid, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the half-life of inactivation at 50 °C for M3 mutant extended to over 13 h. In contrast, the wild-type enzyme was completely inactivated in less than 10 min under the same conditions. An upward shift in the optimal reaction temperature of M3 mutant, to 75 °C, was observed, which was 10 °C higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic parameter data revealed that the catalysis efficiency of M3 mutant was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Ramie degumming with M3 mutant was also demonstrated to be more efficient than that with the wild-type enzyme. Collectively, our results suggest that the M3 mutant, with remarkable improvements in thermoactivity and thermostability, has potential applications for ramie degumming in the textile industry. PMID:25287558

Liang, Chaoning; Gui, Xiwu; Zhou, Cheng; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Tang, Shuang-Yan

2014-10-01

30

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

31

Acetoin Catabolism and Acetylbutanediol Formation by Bacillus pumilus in a Chemically Defined Medium  

PubMed Central

Background Most low molecular diols are highly water-soluble, hygroscopic, and reactive with many organic compounds. In the past decades, microbial research to produce diols, e.g. 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol, were considerably expanded due to their versatile usages especially in polymer synthesis and as possible alternatives to fossil based feedstocks from the bioconversion of renewable natural resources. This study aimed to provide a new way for bacterial production of an acetylated diol, i.e. acetylbutanediol (ABD, 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-one), by acetoin metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings When Bacillus pumilus ATCC 14884 was aerobically cultured in a chemically defined medium with acetoin as the sole carbon and energy source, ABD was produced and identified by gas chromatography – chemical ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Conclusions/Significance Although the key enzyme leading to ABD from acetoin has not been identified yet at this stage, this study proposed a new metabolic pathawy to produce ABD in vivo from using renewable resources – in this case acetoin, which could be reproduced from glucose in this study – making it the first facility in the world to prepare this new bio-based diol product. PMID:19461961

Xiao, Zijun; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Lu, Jian R.

2009-01-01

32

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the ? and ? chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the ? chain. PMID:25320719

Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-01-01

33

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the ? and ? chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the ? chain. PMID:25320719

Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-09-01

34

Ultraviolet-radiation-resistant isolates revealed cellulose-degrading species of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (UVP1) and Bacillus pumilus (UVP4).  

PubMed

Among extremophiles, microorganisms resistant to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been known to produce a variety of metabolites (i.e., extremolytes). We hypothesized that natural microbial flora on elevated land (hills) would reveal a variety of UVR-resistant extremophiles and polyextremophiles with modulated proteins and enzymes that had biotechnological implications. Microorganisms Cellulosimicrobium cellulans UVP1 and Bacillus pumilus UVP4 were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing, and showed extreme UV resistance (1.03 × 10? and 1.71 × 10? J/m², respectively) from elevated land soil samples along with unique patterns of protein expression under UVR and non-UVR. A broad range of cellulolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose agar plates in C. cellulans UVP1 and B. pumilus UVP4 was revealed at varying pH, temperature, and inorganic salt concentration. Further, the microbial strain B. pumilus UVP4 showed the basic characteristics of a novel group: polyextremophiles with significance in bioenergy. PMID:23586916

Gabani, Prashant; Copeland, Erin; Chandel, Anuj K; Singh, Om V

2012-01-01

35

CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity  

PubMed Central

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10?6±0.21 M·min?1 and 0.32±0.02 s?1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a potential biocatalyst for Mn(II) removal. PMID:23577125

Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

2013-01-01

36

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores  

PubMed Central

The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O’Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Fox, George E.

2013-01-01

37

Large-scale degumming of ramie fibre using a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus DKS1 with high pectate lyase activity.  

PubMed

A combined (enzymatic and chemical) process using a Bacillus pumilus strain (DKS1), isolated from the soil, was used to degum ramie bast fibres. After 24 h of incubation with the isolated pectinolytic strain using a low-cost medium, the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25% under small scale. High activity of pectate lyase was detected in the culture supernatants; 400 kg of ramie fibres was degummed with 24% weight loss in large-scale degumming under field conditions. No cellulase activity was found. Microbial intervention followed by mild (0.1%) alkali treatment showed high percentage of weight loss from the ramie fibre. Bacterial degumming followed by chemical treatment resulted in an increase of single fibre tenacity (cN/tex) by more than 20.81% as compared to non-degummed (decorticated) fibre samples. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and fluorescence microscope showed that after Bacillus pumilus DKS1 treatment the surface of the decorticated ramie fibre becomes very smooth. These results indicate the process provides an economical and eco-friendly method for the small scale as well as large-scale degumming of decorticated ramie fibre. This study has great relevance to the textile as well as paper industry. PMID:18956216

Basu, Snehasish; Saha, Manabendra N; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2009-02-01

38

Phylogenetic and clonality analysis of Bacillus pumilus isolates uncovered a highly heterogeneous population of different closely related species and clones.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium with a wide range of attributed applications, namely as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), animal, and human probiotic. However, a rare putative role in human diseases has been reported, namely in food poisoning or as anthrax-like cutaneous infectious agent. This species is difficult to distinguish from its closely related species on the basis of phenotypic or biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study, the phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and rpoB gene sequences of a collection of isolates previously identified as B. pumilus, assigned most of them (93%, 38 of 41 isolates) to B. safensis or to the new recently described B. invictae. Moreover, we extended the previously reported recognized habitats of these species and unveiled a human health or biotechnological relevance (e.g. as implicated in food poisoning or PGPR) for them. Additionally, we demonstrated that both B. safensis and B. invictae species encompass a clonally diverse population, which can justify their great adaptation ability to different niches, with evidence of clonal-host specificity. PMID:25230950

Branquinho, Raquel; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Carriço, João A; Pintado, Manuela; Peixe, Luísa V

2014-12-01

39

Characterization of industrially-valuable xylano-pectinolytic enzymes produced concurrently by a novel isolate of Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Xylanase and polygalacturonase were concurrently produced by a novel alkalo-thermotolerant Bacillus pumilus AJK. They were purified and characterized to evaluate their potential for various industrial applications. Xylanase was purified to 19-fold with 67 % recovery and polygalacturonase up to 23-fold with 75 % recovery. Existence of multiple forms of xylanase was indicated by its elution-profile through Sephadex G-100 as two peaks, xylanase-I and xylanase-II, with molecular weights of ~24.5 and ~13 kDa, respectively, and by the presence of two pH optima, one at pH 6.0 and other at pH 8.5. The molecular weight of polygalacturonase was ~40 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography. Zymographic studies confirmed the presence of seven isozymic forms of xylanase. Xylanase and polygalacturonase are stable over a broad range of pH and temperature. PMID:25048224

Kaur, Amanjot; Singh, Avtar; Mahajan, Ritu

2014-11-01

40

An alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus functionally expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis and evaluation of its deinking efficiency.  

PubMed

This work aimed at studying the recombinant expression of an alkali- and thermo-stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus in Kluyveromyces lactis and its use in deinking of civic paper waste. Efficient expression with a 3-fold increase in the activity than the native organism was achieved. An inducer concentration of 2.5% and medium pH of 9.0 was the best for enzyme expression. Purified enzyme showed an optimum activity at temperatures 50 and 60°C and pH 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. At pH 12.0, enzyme retained 74% and 26% activity after 2 and 3h of incubation, respectively. After incubation at 50 and 60°C for 1h, the enzyme showed 100% retention of activity, and remained active for 4h at 60°C retaining 23% residual activity. Partially purified recombinant enzyme showed higher deinking efficiency (273%) of laser print waste paper than crude xylanase from Bacillus and commercial acidic enzyme. This xylanase with superior stability characteristics could be a suitable candidate in paper and pulp industries. PMID:24709528

Thomas, Leya; Ushasree, Mrudula V; Pandey, Ashok

2014-08-01

41

Glomus intraradices , Pseudomonas alcaligenes , and Bacillus pumilus : effective agents for the control of root-rot disease complex of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Bacillus pumilus on the root-rot disease complex caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the root-rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in chickpea was assessed by quantifying differences in the shoot dry mass, pod number, nodulation, and shoot content of chlorophyll,\\u000a nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Inoculation of plants with G. intraradices, P. alcaligenes

M. Sayeed Akhtar; Zaki A. Siddiqui

2008-01-01

42

Xylanase production using agro-residue in solid-state fermentation from Bacillus pumilus ASH for biodelignification of wheat straw pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stage statistical design was used to optimize xylanase production from Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation. Initially, Plackett–Burman designing (PB) was used for the selection of crucial production\\u000a parameters. Peptone, yeast extract, incubation time, moisture level and pH were found to be the crucial factors for the xylanase\\u000a production. Crucial variables were further processed through central composite designing (CCD)

Gaurav Garg; Ritu Mahajan; Amanjot Kaur; Jitender Sharma

43

Molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of dehairing Mn(2+) dependent alkaline serine protease (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55.  

PubMed

Leather industries release a large amount of pollution-causing chemicals which creates one of the major industrial pollutions. The development of enzyme based processes as a potent alternative to pollution-causing chemicals is useful to overcome this issue. Proteases are enzymes which have extensive applications in leather processing and in several bioremediation processes due to their high alkaline protease activity and dehairing efficacy. In the present study, we report cloning, characterization of a Mn2+ dependent alkaline serine protease gene (MASPT) of Bacillus pumilus TMS55. The gene encoding the protease from B. pumilus TMS55 was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 383 amino acid residues. Our analysis showed that this polypeptide is composed of 29 residues N-terminal signal peptide, a propeptide of 79 residues and a mature protein of 275 amino acids. We performed bioinformatics analysis to compare MASPT enzyme with other proteases. Homology modeling was employed to model three dimensional structure for MASPT. Structural analysis showed that MASPT structure is composed of nine ?-helices and nine ?-strands. It has 3 catalytic residues and 14 metal binding residues. Docking analysis showed that residues S223, A260, N263, T328 and S329 interact with Mn2+. This study allows initial inferences about the structure of the protease and will allow the rational design of its derivatives for structure-function studies and also for further improvement of the enzyme. PMID:21592076

Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2011-10-01

44

Immobilization of xylanase purified from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 and its application in enrichment of orange and grape juices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of purified free and immobilized xylanase in enrichment of fruit juices. Extracellular xylanase produced from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 was purified to apparent homogeneity by 15.4-fold with 88.3 % recovery in a single step using CM-Sephadex C-50. Purified xylanase showed a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular mass of 22.0 kDa. The purified enzyme was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated aluminum oxide pellets and the immobilization process parameters were optimized statistically through response surface methodology. The bound enzyme displayed an increase in optimum temperature from 60 to 65?ºC and pH from 8.0 to 9.0. The pH and temperature stability of the enzyme was also enhanced after immobilization. It could be reused for 10 consecutive cycles with 58 % residual enzyme activity. The potential of purified xylanase (free and immobilized) in juice enrichment from grape (Vitis amurensis) and orange (Citrus sinensis) pulps has been investigated. The optimization of this process using free xylanase revealed maximum juice yield, clarity and reducing sugar on treatment with 20 IU/g fruit pulp for 30 min at 50?ºC. Treatment of both the fruit pulps with xylanase under optimized conditions resulted in an increase in juice yield, clarity, reducing sugars, titratable acidity, and filterability but a decline in turbidity and viscosity. Immobilized enzyme was more effective in improving juice quality as compared to its soluble counterpart. The results showed B. pumilus VLK-1 xylanase, in both free and immobilized form, as a potential candidate for use in fruit juice enrichment. PMID:25190829

Kumar, Lalit; Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Garg, Neelam; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2014-09-01

45

Sequence and properties of beta-xylosidase from Bacillus pumilus IPO. Contradiction of the previous nucleotide sequence.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the beta-xylosidase (xynB) gene from Bacillus pumilus has been reported previously [Moriyama, H., Fukusaki, E., Crespo, J.C., Shinmyo, A. & Okada, H. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem. 166, 539-545]. However, the sequence identified in the present study is quite different from the previously reported one. The total length of the PstI--EcoRI fragment of a plasmid pOXN295 containing the xynB gene is 2201 bp from our sequencing, while the length of the fragment in the previous data was 2466 bp. The sequences are similar in the N-terminal (500 bp) and C-terminal (260 bp) regions, but those in the central region are completely different. From the following observations, the previous sequence seems to have no reliable experimental basis. First, the restriction sites observed for pOXN295 are quite different from the sites deduced from the sequence. Second, the amino acid composition deduced from the sequence and the composition identified by amino acid analysis of the purified beta-xylosidase are very different. It is confirmed, on the other hand, that our new sequence agrees well with these experimental data. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Bacillus pumilus and Escherichia coli harboring a hybrid plasmid which highly expresses the xynB gene. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 190 kDa by high performance gel filtration chromatography using TSK-G3000SW and 56 kDa by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pH optimum was 7.0, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C. The Vm value was estimated to be 1.23 +/- 0.14 mukat/mg (or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) and 0.14 +/- 0.011 mukat/mg (for xylobiose), while Km was estimated to be 3.9 +/- 0.59 mM (for p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) and 8.9 +/- 1.19 mM (for xylobiose). PMID:1765080

Xu, W Z; Shima, Y; Negoro, S; Urabe, I

1991-12-18

46

Variability and interactions between endophytic bacteria and fungi isolated from leaf tissues of citrus rootstocks.  

PubMed

Fungi and bacteria were isolated from surface disinfected leaf tissues of several citrus rootstocks. The principal bacterial species isolated were Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus spp. (including B. cereus, B. lentus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. subtilis), Burkholderia cepacia, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium extorquens, and Pantoea agglomerans, with P. agglomerans and B. pumilus being the most frequently isolated species. The most abundant fungal species were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Guignardia citricarpa, and Cladosporium sp. Genetic variability between 36 endophytic bacterial isolates was analysed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which indicated that B. pumilus isolates were more diverse than P. agglomerans isolates, although genetic diversity was not related to the host plants. In vitro interaction studies between G. citricarpa isolates and the most frequently isolated endophytic bacteria showed that metabolites secreted by G. citricarpa have an inhibitory growth effect on some Bacillus species, and a stimulatory growth effect on P. agglomerans. PMID:11315114

Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Aguilar-Vildoso, C I; Barroso, P A; Saridakis, H O; Azevedo, J L

2001-03-01

47

Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups

José Edson Fontes Figueiredo; Eliane Aparecida Gomes; Claudia Teixeira Guimarães; Ubiraci Gomes de Paula Lana; Marta Aparecida Teixeira; Guilherme Vitor Corrêa Lima; Wellington Bressan

2009-01-01

48

A xylanase gene from Bacillus subtilis : nucleotide sequence and comparison with B. pumilus gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene coding for xylanase (endo-1,4-ß-d-xylan xylanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.8) from Bacillus subtilis PAP115 has been isolated and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. Starting from an ATG initiator codon, an open reading frame coding for 213 amino acids was found. The N terminus of the processed enzyme as expressed in Escherichia coli was located by amino acid sequence analysis. The amino

Michael G. Paice; Robert Bourbonnais; Michel Desrochers; Lubomir Jurasek; Makoto Yaguchi

1986-01-01

49

Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence.  

PubMed

Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (?Ga°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ?Ga° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases. PMID:25534779

Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong

2015-02-01

50

Characterization of thermostable serine alkaline protease from an alkaliphilic strain Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 and its applications.  

PubMed

This study describes the characterization and optimization of medium components for an extracellular detergent, surfactant, organic solvent and thermostable serine alkaline protease produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus MCAS8 strain isolated from Pulicat lake sediments, Tamil Nadu, India. The strain yielded maximum protease (2,214 U/ml) under optimized conditions: carbon source, citric acid-1.5 % (w/w); inducer, soyabean meal-2 % (w/w); pH 11.0; shaking condition 37 °C for 48 h. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima of 9.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme displayed the molecular mass of 36 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis study and exhibited activity at a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0) and thermostability (20-70 °C). More than 70 % residual activity was observed when the enzyme was incubated with dithiothreitol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and H(2)O(2) for 30 min. The protease activity was also enhanced by divalent cations such as Ba(2+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and was strongly inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Sr(2+), Hg(2+) and urea. The enzyme retained more than 50 % of its initial activity after pre-incubation for 1 h in the presence of 5 % (v/v) organic solvents such as dimethyl sulphoxide and acetone. The protease could hydrolyse various native proteinaceous substrates (1 % w/v) such as bovine serum albumin, casein, skim milk, gelatine, azocasein and haemoglobin. Wash performance analysis of enzyme revealed that it could effectively remove blood stains from the cotton fabric, thus making it suitable to use as an effective detergent additive. The protease enzyme also exhibited promising result in the dehairing of goat skin. The potency of the eco-friendly enzyme without using any chemicals against washing and dehairing showed that the enzyme could be used for various industrial applications. PMID:23076563

Jayakumar, Renganathan; Jayashree, Shanmugam; Annapurna, Balumuri; Seshadri, Sundaram

2012-12-01

51

TECHNIQUES FOR MANIPULATING THE BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTE BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importance of Fusarium species as symptomless endophytes in plant roots is reviewed. Fusarium is a very important genus from the aspects of food production and food safety and its species exist as intercellular root endophytes in both cultivated and wild plants and the role during the symptomle...

52

Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. PMID:21232646

Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2011-10-01

53

Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. PMID:25060609

White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

2014-11-01

54

Production of cellulase-free endoxylanase from novel alkalophilic thermotolerent Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation and its application in wastepaper recycling.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at optimization of culture condition for the enhanced production of extra cellular thermostable cellulase-free xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation. Batch studies were carried out to evaluate various agro-industrial residues such as rice bran, rice husk, rice straw, sawdust, coconut pith, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The endoxylanase production was highest on wheat bran media (5582 U/gds), which was enhanced 3.8-fold (21,431 U/gds) by optimization of cultivation conditions. The enzymatic extracts was used in mixed wastepaper recycling, which resulted in a considerable improvement of the paper strength with high drainage and easy drying up. The results of enzyme application with recycled paper clearly indicated that the effective use of enzymes in fiber separation could reduce the cost of carton paper production. PMID:16844369

Asha Poorna, C; Prema, P

2007-02-01

55

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

2014-01-01

56

Toxic Bacillus pumilus from indoor air, recycled paper pulp, Norway spruce, food poisoning outbreaks and clinical samples.  

PubMed

Forty-four B. pumilus isolates of food poisoning, clinical, environmental and industrial origins were investigated for toxin production using the boar spermatozoan motility assay, previously shown to be a sensitive method for detecting non-protein toxins from B. cereus and B. licheniformis. The three toxic isolates originated from live tree, indoor air and recycled paper pulp and were more toxic than the previously described food poisoning isolates of B. licheniformis, whereas the B. pumilus food poisoning and clinical isolates were lower in toxicity. The type strain also produced inhibitory substances. The toxic substances were insensitive to heat (100 degrees C, 20 min), to pH 2 or pH 10 and to digestion with pronase. The substances were readily soluble in methanol and chloroform, but less soluble in toluene. Exposure of boar spermatozoa to 1-10 microg ml(-1) (EC50) of methanol soluble substance from the four strains disrupted the plasma membrane permeability barrier, induced abnormalities in the postacrosomal sheath, collapsed the mitochondrial and suppressed cytoplasmic NAD reduction. No change was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to concentrations of B. pumilus extract that affected spermatozoa. The toxin producing isolates were 99.4 to 99.6% similar in 16SrDNA (500 bp) to the type strain and could not be distinguished from the 41 non-toxic isolates by biochemical properties or whole cell fatty acid composition. PMID:11518331

Suominen, I; Andersson, M A; Andersson, M C; Hallaksela, A M; Kämpfer, P; Rainey, F A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

2001-07-01

57

Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

2012-01-01

58

Antitumor activity of bacterial exopolysaccharides from the endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 ?g/?l. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 ?g/?l, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents. PMID:23833642

CHEN, YI-TAO; YUAN, QIANG; SHAN, LE-TIAN; LIN, MEI-AI; CHENG, DONG-QING; LI, CHANG-YU

2013-01-01

59

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn\\/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity\\u000a of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments,\\u000a SLS18 could not

Shenglian Luo; Taoying Xu; Liang Chen; Jueliang Chen; Chan Rao; Xiao Xiao; Yong Wan; Guangming Zeng; Fei Long; Chengbin Liu; Yutang Liu

60

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant?beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed  

PubMed Central

Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint?Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant?beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant?beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant?beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

2011-01-01

61

Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.  

PubMed

Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits. PMID:22814497

Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

2012-09-01

62

Pongamia pinnata seed cake: a promising and inexpensive substrate for production of protease and lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 on solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

The production of a protease and a lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 on solid-state fermentation using Pongamia pinnata seed cake as substrate was studied. The seed cake was proved to be a promising substrate for the bacterial growth and the enzyme production. The initial pH, incubation time and moisture content were optimized to achieve maximal enzyme production. Maximum protease production was observed at 72 h and that of the lipase at 96 h of incubation. The production of protease (9840 U/g DM) and lipase (1974 U/g DM) were maximum at pH 7.0 and at 60% moisture content. Triton X-100 (1%) was proved to be an effective extractant for the enzymes and their optimal activity was observed at alkaline pH and at 60 C. The molecular mass of the protease and lipase was 24 and 40 kDa, respectively. Both the enzymes were found to be stable detergent additives. The study demonstrated that inexpensive and easily available Pongamia seed cake could be used for production of industrially important enzymes, such as protease and lipase. PMID:22329247

Sangeetha, R; Geetha, A; Arulpandi, I

2011-12-01

63

Optimization of microwave-assisted FeCl3 pretreatment conditions of rice straw and utilization of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus for production of reducing sugars.  

PubMed

In this study, Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment conditions of rice straw with respect to FeCl(3) concentration, microwave intensity, irradiation time and substrate concentration. When rice straw was pretreated at the optimal conditions of FeCl(3) concentration, 0.14 mol/L; microwave intensity, 160°C; irradiation time, 19 min; substrate concentration, 109 g/L; and inoculated with Trichoderma viride and Bacillus pumilus, the production of reducing sugars was 6.62 g/L. This yield was 2.9 times higher than that obtained with untreated rice straw. The microorganisms degraded 37.8% of pretreated rice straw after 72 h. The structural characteristic analyses suggest that microwave-assisted FeCl(3) pretreatment damaged the silicified waxy surface of rice straw, disrupted almost all the ether linkages between lignin and carbohydrates, and removed lignin. PMID:21561766

Lü, Jiliang; Zhou, Peijiang

2011-07-01

64

Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of an Endophytic Quinclorac Degrading Bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3  

PubMed Central

In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity. PMID:25244184

Wang, Yunsheng; Zeng, Aiping; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Feng; Bai, Lianyang

2014-01-01

65

Endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia L.  

PubMed

The endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis strain GXJM08, isolated from roots of Podocarpus imbricatus B1. Enum. P1. Jav., in roots of the leguminous plant Robinia pseudoacacia L. was investigated. Ultrastructure observations showed that B. subtilis caused morphological changes in the root hair and colonised the plant through infected root hairs. The structure of the infection thread was similar to that of rhizobia, but the structure of infected cells was different. B. subtilis is also different from rhizobia and plant pathogens in terms of the formation of a peribacteroid membrane and the mode of penetration through the host cell wall. Our results provide a basis for studying development of the mutualistic symbiotic relationship between B. subtilis and plants, and a basis for studying the mechanism of the B. subtilis-plant interaction. PMID:21972966

Huang, B; Lv, C; Zhuang, P; Zhang, H; Fan, L

2011-11-01

66

Structural studies on the linkage unit between poly(N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate) and peptidoglycan in cell walls of Bacillus pumilus AHU 1650.  

PubMed

Structural studies were carried out on the polymer chains and their linkage regions in two kinds of teichoic acids, poly(N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate) [poly(GlcNAc-1-P)] and glycerol teichoic acid, bound to peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Bacillus pumilus AHU 1650. The poly(GlcNAc-1-P)-glycan complex isolated from lysozyme digests of the cell walls contained mannosamine and glycerol as minor components. On the basis of proton NMR spectroscopic data and isolation of N-acetylglucosamine 4-phosphate from acid hydrolysates, the poly(GlcNAc-1-P) was shown to be a polymer in which N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate units are joined at C-4 of the glucosamine residues. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of the poly(GlcNAc-1-P)-glycan complex gave a mannosamine-linked glycan fragment and the acidic polymer fraction that contained glycerol residues. Mild acid treatment of the mannosamine-linked glycan fragment gave the linkage disaccharide, ManNAc(beta 1----4)GlcNAc, whereas the acidic polymer fraction was degraded by this treatment into N-acetylglucosamine 4-phosphate and a glycerol-containing fragment characterized as P-(Gro-P)7 (Gro = glycerol). On the other hand, direct mild acid hydrolysis of the complex gave a fragment characterized as P-(Gro-P)7-ManNAc(beta 1----4)GlcNAc. These results lead to a conclusion that in the cell walls the poly(GlcNAc-1-P) chain is attached to peptidoglycan through a linkage unit, (Gro-P)7-ManNAc(beta 1----4)GlcNAc. By means of similar procedures, it was shown that the other cell wall polymer, glycerol teichoic acid, is also attached to peptidoglycan through the same disaccharide, ManNAc(beta 1----4)GlcNAc. PMID:3996410

Kojima, N; Iida, J; Araki, Y; Ito, E

1985-06-01

67

The combined effect of pasteurization intensity, water activity, pH and incubation temperature on the survival and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus in artificial media and food products.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of pasteurization intensity (no heat treatment and 10 min at 70, 80 and 90 °C), water activity (aw) (0.960-0.990), pH (5.5-7.0) and storage temperature (7 and 10 °C) on the survival and outgrowth of psychrotolerant spores of Bacillus cereus FF119b and Bacillus pumilus FF128a. The experiments were performed in both artificial media and a validation was performed on real food products (cream, béchamel sauce and mixed vegetable soup). It was determined that in general, heat treatments of 10 min at 70 °C or 80 °C activated the spores of both B. cereus FF119b and B. pumilus FF128a, resulting in faster outgrowth compared to native (non-heat treated) spores. A pasteurization treatment of 10 min at 90 °C generally resulted in the longest lag periods before outgrowth of both isolates. Some of the spores were inactivated by this heat treatment, with more inactivation being observed the lower the pH value of the heating medium. Despite this, it was also observed that under some conditions the remaining (surviving) spores were actually activated as their outgrowth took place after a shorter period of time compared to native non-heated spores. While the response of B. cereus FF119b to the pasteurization intensity in cream and béchamel sauce was similar to the trends observed in the artificial media at 10 °C, in difference, outgrowth was only observed at 7 °C in both products when the spores had been heated for 10 min at 80 °C. Moreover, no inactivation was observed in cream or béchamel sauce when the spores were heated for 10 min at 90 °C in these two products. This was attributed to the protective effect of fat in the cream and the ingredients in the béchamel sauce. The study provides some insight into the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current trend towards milder heat treatments which is being pursued in the food industry. PMID:24801270

Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; de Baenst, I; Devlieghere, F

2014-07-01

68

Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.  

PubMed

Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings/plantlets production systems was discussed. PMID:23212670

Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

2013-03-01

69

A novel Bacillus pumilus -related strain from tropical landfarm soil is capable of rapid dibenzothiophene degradation and biodesulfurization.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe presence of organic sulfur-containing compounds in the environment is harmful to animals and human health. The combustion of these compounds in fossil fuels tends to release sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to acid rain, corrosion, damage to crops, and an array of other problems. The process of biodesulfurization rationally exploits the ability of certain microorganisms in the removal of sulfur prior to fuel burning, without loss of calorific value. In this sense, we hypothesized that bacterial isolates from tropical landfarm soils can demonstrate the ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT), the major sulfur-containing compound present in fuels.ResultsNine bacterial isolates previously obtained from a tropical landfarm soil were tested for their ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT). An isolate labeled as RR-3 has shown the best performance and was further characterized in the present study. Based on physiological aspects and 16 s rDNA sequencing, this isolate was found to be very closely related to the Bacillus pumillus species. During its growth, high levels of DBT were removed in the first 24 hours, and a rapid DBT degradation within the first hour of incubation was observed when resting cells were used. Detection of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), a marker for the 4S pathway, suggests this strain has metabolical capability for DBT desulfurization. The presence of MgSO4 in growth medium as an additional sulfur source has interfered with DBT degradation.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a Bacillus strain can metabolize DBT via the 4S pathway. However, further evidences suggest RR-3 can also use DBT (and/or its derivative metabolites) as carbon/sulfur source through another type of metabolism. Compared to other reported DBT-degrading strains, the RR-3 isolate showed the highest capacity for DBT degradation ever described in quantitative terms.The potential application of this isolate for the biodesulfurization of this sulfur-containing compound in fuels prior to combustion was discussed. PMID:25293673

Buzanello, Elizandra; Rezende, Rachel; Sousa, Fernanda; de Lima Silva Marques, Eric; Loguercio, Leandro

2014-10-01

70

Inducing secondary metabolite production by the endophytic fungus Fusarium tricinctum through coculture with Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Coculturing the fungal endophyte Fusarium tricinctum with the bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 trpC2 on solid rice medium resulted in an up to 78-fold increase in the accumulation in constitutively present secondary metabolites that included lateropyrone (5), cyclic depsipeptides of the enniatin type (6-8), and the lipopeptide fusaristatin A (9). In addition, four compounds (1-4) including (-)-citreoisocoumarin (2) as well as three new natural products (1, 3, and 4) were not present in discrete fungal and bacterial controls and only detected in the cocultures. The new compounds were identified as macrocarpon C (1), 2-(carboxymethylamino)benzoic acid (3), and (-)-citreoisocoumarinol (4) by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Enniatins B1 (7) and A1 (8), whose production was particularly enhanced, inhibited the growth of the cocultivated B. subtilis strain with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 and 8 ?g/mL, respectively, and were also active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values in the range 2-8 ?g/mL. In addition, lateropyrone (5), which was constitutively present in F. tricinctum, displayed good antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis, with MIC values ranging from 2 to 8 ?g/mL. All active compounds were equally effective against a multiresistant clinical isolate of S. aureus and a susceptible reference strain of the same species. PMID:24175613

Ola, Antonius R B; Thomy, Dhana; Lai, Daowan; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Proksch, Peter

2013-11-22

71

In planta reduction of maize seedling stalk lesions by the bacterial endophyte Bacillus mojavensis.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is susceptible to infection by Fusarium verticillioides through autoinfection and alloinfection, resulting in diseases and contamination of maize kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. Attempts at controlling this fungus are currently being done with biocontrol agents such as bacteria, and this includes bacterial endophytes, such as Bacillus mojavensis . In addition to producing fumonisins, which are phytotoxic and mycotoxic, F. verticillioides also produces fusaric acid, which acts both as a phytotoxin and as an antibiotic. The question now is Can B. mojavensis reduce lesion development in maize during the alloinfection process, simulated by internode injection of the fungus? Mutant strains of B. mojavensis that tolerate fusaric acid were used in a growth room study to determine the development of stalk lesions, indicative of maize seedling blight, by co-inoculations with a wild-type strain of F. verticillioides and with non-fusaric acid producing mutants of F. verticillioides. Lesions were measured on 14-day-old maize stalks consisting of treatment groups inoculated with and without mutants and wild-type strains of bacteria and fungi. The results indicate that the fusaric-acid-tolerant B. mojavensis mutant reduced stalk lesions, suggesting an in planta role for this substance as an antibiotic. Further, lesion development occurred in maize infected with F. verticillioides mutants that do not produce fusaric acid, indicating a role for other phytotoxins, such as the fumonisins. Thus, additional pathological components should be examined before strains of B. mojavensis can be identified as being effective as a biocontrol agent, particularly for the control of seedling disease of maize. PMID:21635192

Bacon, Charles W; Hinton, Dorothy M

2011-06-01

72

Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

73

The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae).  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

2010-10-01

74

The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

2010-01-01

75

Bacillus subtilis subspecies virginiana, a new subspecies of antitermitic compound-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from Juniperus virginiana.  

PubMed

Termites are worldwide pests causing considerable damage to agriculture, forestry and buildings. Although physical and chemical methods have been tried to eliminate termite populations, they have the limitations such as low effectiveness, high-toxicity residue, environmentally harmful and high cost. Therefore, it has attracted much attention to develop highly effective, low-toxic, long residual period, environmentally friendly and low-cost termiticidals. Here, we report the characterization and antitermitic activities of a new antitermitic compound-producing endophytic bacterium HUB-I-47 isolated from eastern red-cedar, Juniperus virginiana L. The morphological, physiochemical characteristics of strain HUB-I-47 and its 16S rDNA sequences, and the antitermitic compound were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were studied. We found that the morphology of HUB-I-47 was very similar to that of Bacillus subtilis but presented some differences in shape and cell size. Growth evaluation showed that the lowest, highest, and optimum growth temperatures of HUB-I-47 were 12, 47, and 31 degrees C, respectively, which were different from those of reference strains. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a high similarity of 99% to those of B. subtilis. Based on these analyses, we named strain HUB-I-47 as B. subtilis subsp. virginiana D. P. Zhou, K. Zhao, J. Liu et W. X. Ping, subsp. nov. This is the first report on the analysis of antitermitic compounds from endophytic bacteria. Our study identified a new resource of antitermitic compounds through endophytic bacteria fermentation. PMID:22066178

Zhao, Kai; Liu, Jun; Li, Zhugang; Chang, Zhiwei; Shi, Pengfei; Ping, Wenxiang; Zhou, Dongpo

2011-10-01

76

Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

77

Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres.  

PubMed

The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8?Ug(-1) DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1?:?1?:?0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (a(w) 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1?:?2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24?h old inoculum, in 144?h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T

2012-01-01

78

Lipopeptides from the Banyan Endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Library of Fengycins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometric analysis of a banyan endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1, extract showing broad spectrum antifungal activity revealed a complex mixture of lipopeptides, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins. Fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) facilitated a detailed analysis of fengycin microheterogeneity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric studies permitted the identification of several new fengycin variants. Four major sites of heterogeneity are identified: (1) N-terminus ?-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, where chain length variation and the presence of unsaturation occur, (2) position 6 (Ala/Val/Ile/Leu), (3) position 10 (Val/Ile) within the macrocyclic ring, and (4) Gln to Glu replacement at position 8, resulting in fengycin variants that differ in mass by 1 Da. Diagnostic fragment ions provide a quick method for localizing the sites of variation in the macrocycle or the linear segment. Subsequent establishment of the sequences is achieved by MS/MS analysis of linear fengycin species produced by hydrolysis of the macrocyclic lactone. Unsaturation in the fatty acid chain and the presence of linear precursors in the B. subtilis K1 extract are also established by mass spectrometry. The anomalous distribution of intensities within isotopic multiplets is a diagnostic for Gln/Glu replacements. High resolution mass spectrometry facilitates the identification of fengycin species differing by 1 Da by localizing the variable position (Gln8/Glu8) in the fengycin variants.

Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Haresh; Gupta, Kallol; Thakur, Suman S.; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2012-10-01

79

Isolation and characterization of leu7-surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance from extracts of this bacterium has not been determined. An HPLC-MS analysis of the culture filtrate showed a major ion peak that was identified as a cyclic lipopeptide. Furthermore, collisional ion dissociation (CID) analysis indicated that this lipopeptide was surfactin, a cyclic heptapeptide linked to a ?-hydroxy fatty acid. A CID analysis of the peptide moiety was established by deduction and indicated that the peptide sequence consisted of two acidic amino acids and five hydrophobic amino acids with a sequence of Leu-Leu-Asp-Val-Leu-Leu-Glu. These spectra indicated that this bacterium produced Leu(7)-surfactin, which was toxic to F. verticillioides. Production of this cyclic lipopeptide is a characteristic of several species of Bacillus, but this is the first report of this very powerful biosurfactant from this endophytic species. PMID:19371139

Snook, Maurice E; Mitchell, Travor; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

2009-05-27

80

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.  

PubMed

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-10-01

81

Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L.; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Vuurde, Jim W. L.; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-01-01

82

Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immuno- stimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms

L. H. Duc; Huynh A. Hong; Teresa M. Barbosa; Adriano O. Henriques

2004-01-01

83

In silico characterization of a novel ?-1,3-glucanase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens--a bacterial endophyte of Hevea brasiliensis antagonistic to Phytophthora meadii.  

PubMed

We report the molecular characterization of ?-1,3-glucanase-producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-an endophyte of Hevea brasiliensis antagonistic to Phytophthora meadii. After cloning and sequencing, the ?-1,3-glucanase gene was found to be 747 bp in length. A homology model of the ?-1,3-glucanase protein was built from the amino acid sequence obtained upon translation of the gene. The target ?-1,3-glucanase protein and the template protein, endo ?-1,3-1,4-glucanase protein (PDB ID: 3o5s), were found to share 94% sequence identity and to have similar secondary and tertiary structures. In the modeled structure, three residues in the active site region of the template-Asn52, Ile157 and Val158-were substituted with Asp, Leu and Ala, respectively. Computer-aided docking studies of the substrate disaccharide (?-1, 3-glucan) with the target as well as with the template proteins showed that the two protein-substrate complexes were stabilized by three hydrogen bonds and by many van der Waals interactions. Although the binding energies and the number of hydrogen bonds were the same in both complexes, the orientations of the substrate in the active sites of the two proteins were different. These variations might be due to the change in the three amino acids in the active site region of the two proteins. The difference in substrate orientation in the active site could also affect the catalytic potential of the ?-1,3 glucanase enzyme. PMID:23108702

Abraham, Amith; Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Philip, Shaji; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Chandrasekharan, Aparna; Kochupurackal, Jayachandran

2013-03-01

84

Endophytic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Endophytic fungi as well as plant-parasitic nematodes probably coevolved with all plant life on earth including cultivated\\u000a crop plants. While endophytic fungi often form mutualisitc associations to the benefit of the plant, plant-parasitic nematodes\\u000a can cause detrimental yield losses. Although both groups of organisms interact very closely within the plant tissue, the potential\\u000a role of endophytic fungi in nematode control

Johannes Hallmann; Richard A. Sikora

85

COFFEE ENDOPHYTES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey for fungal endophytes in various coffee (Coffea arabica L.) tissues was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. More than 700 fungal endophyte isolates have been sequenced: 281 from Colombia, 240 from Hawaii, 119 from Mexico, and 68 from Puerto Rico; these comprise over 17...

86

Characterization of Bacillus probiotics available for human use.  

PubMed

Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

Duc, Le H; Hong, Huynh A; Barbosa, Teresa M; Henriques, Adriano O; Cutting, Simon M

2004-04-01

87

The status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphaericus. Request for an Opinion.  

PubMed

During a study assessing the diversity of Bacillus pumilus group it became apparent that the type strains of both Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphaericus are not available from any established culture collection nor from the authors who originally described them. Therefore, type strains of these species cannot be included in any further scientific study. It is then proposed that the Judicial Commission of the International Committee of Systematics of Prokaryotes place the names Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphaericus on the list of rejected names, if suitable replacements for type strains are not found or neotype strains are not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion. PMID:25479956

Branquinho, Raquel; Klein, Güenter; Kämpfer, Peter; Peixe, Luísa

2014-12-01

88

Endophytic bacteria improve seedling growth of sunflower under water stress, produce salicylic acid, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacter xylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid (SA) production by these strains in control medium or at ?a = -2.03 MPa, and to analyze effects of exogenously applied SA, jasmonic acid (JA), bacterial pellets, and bacterial supernatants on growth of pathogenic fungi Alternaria sp., Sclerotinia sp., and Verticillum sp. Growth response to bacterial inoculation was studied in two inbred lines (water stress-sensitive B59 and water stress-tolerant B71) and commercial hybrid Paraiso 24. Under both water stress and normal conditions, plant growth following inoculation was more strongly enhanced for Paraiso 24 and B71 than for B59. All three strains produced SA in control medium; levels for SF3 and SF4 were higher than for SF2. SA production was dramatically higher at ?a = -2.03 MPa. Exogenously applied SA or JA caused a significant reduction of growth for Sclerotinia and a lesser reduction for Alternaria and Verticillum. Fungal growth was more strongly inhibited by bacterial pellets than by bacterial supernatants. Our findings indicate that these endophytic bacteria enhance growth of sunflower seedlings under water stress, produce SA, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi. These characteristics are useful for formulation of inoculants to improve growth and yield of sunflower crops. PMID:20383767

Forchetti, Gabriela; Masciarelli, Oscar; Izaguirre, María J; Alemano, Sergio; Alvarez, Daniel; Abdala, Guillermina

2010-12-01

89

Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

90

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

91

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

2014-01-01

92

Effects of inoculation with PGPR Bacillus and Pisolithus tinctorius on Pinus pinea L. growth, bacterial rhizosphere colonization, and mycorrhizal infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of co-inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius and a PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis CECT 5106 and Bacillus pumilus CECT 5105) in enhancing growth of Pinus pinea plants and the changes that occurred in rhizosphere microbial communities and the degree of mycorrhization were evaluated.\\u000a Both bacterial strains of Bacillus promote the growth of Pinus pinea seedlings, but

A. Probanza; J. L. Mateos; J. A. Lucas Garcia; B. Ramos; M. R. de Felipe; F. J. Gutierrez Manero

2001-01-01

93

Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

2014-09-01

94

Antibiotic oxylipins from Alternanthera brasiliana and its endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alternanthera brasiliana stem extracts resulted in the isolation of an antibiotically active fraction. Five human pathogenic bacteria were used to guide the fractionation process for the isolation of antimicrobial compounds. Finally, 17 linoleate oxylipins were identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Five of the isolated compounds present in A. brasiliana tissues were also detected to be synthesized by endophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that were isolated from A. brasiliana. It is speculated that the antibiotic oxylipins from A. brasiliana might derive from bacteria and be involved in an ecological relationship between this plant and its endophytes. PMID:25433629

Trapp, Marília Almeida; Kai, Marco; Mithöfer, Axel; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

2014-11-26

95

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

96

Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.  

PubMed

Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1logcfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. PMID:25574846

Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

2015-03-16

97

Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

98

Endophytic Fungi from Paddy  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from different parts of healthy paddy plants (Oryza sativa). The most common endophytic fungal genus recovered was Fusarium, followed by Aspergillus, Curvularia, Penicillium, Gilmaniella and Arthrobotrys foliicola. Fusarium and Curvularia had higher occurrences in the seeds compared with the other fungi. Aspergillus was recovered mostly from leaf blades and Penicillium from the leaf sheath. Gilmaniella and A. foliicola were isolated only from the roots and leaf blade, respectively. The assemblage of endophytic fungi in healthy tissues of paddy plants may indicate that some of the fungi are possible latent pathogens and some may become saprophytic. PMID:24575194

Zakaria, Latiffah; Yaakop, Amira Suriaty; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Maziah

2010-01-01

99

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

100

Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beauveria basssiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common be...

101

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of bacterial root and nodule endophytes from chickpea cultivated in Northern India.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria from roots (12 isolates) and nodules (76 isolates) of chickpea legume grown under CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were isolated. Among the endophytic bacteria, 50% from roots and 93.4% from nodules were Gram positive spore formers. Large number of endophytes from roots and nodules solubilized phosphate and produced ammonia. Isolate CRE3, and CNE215, were most efficient P solubilizers and. CRE12 and CNE76 being most efficient ammonia producer. Interestingly, few endophytic bacteria produced organic acid. Further selected 62 isolates were used to determine molecular diversity by RFLP of PCR amplified 16S rDNA. Endophytes from roots formed five separate clusters and nodule endophytes formed 13 clusters. Isolate CNE215 from nodules and CRE1 from roots possessed multiple beneficial traits and belonged two different clusters. These two isolates were identified after amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Isolate CNE215 showed more than 98% similarity with partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Bacillus subtilis, whereas CRE1 showed more than 98% similarity with Bacillus licheniformis. Efficacy of these two strains was evaluated under field conditions and an increase up to 22.5% in grain yield over uninoculated control was observed with B. subtilis strain CNE215, whereas all the recommended biofertilizers were able to record an increase upto 14.4%. PMID:25590871

Saini, Ranjana; Dudeja, Surjit Singh; Giri, Rupa; Kumar, Vishal

2015-01-01

102

Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice  

PubMed Central

Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID:25097431

Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

2014-01-01

103

Biotransformation of saponins by endophytes isolated from Panax notoginseng.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of the major saponins in Panax notoginseng, including the ginsenosides Rg1, Rh1, Rb1, and Re, by endophytes isolated from P. notoginseng was studied. One hundred and thirty-six endophytes were isolated and screened for their biotransformational abilities. The results showed that five of the tested endophytes were able to transform these saponins. These five strains were identified based on their ITS or 16S rDNA sequences, which revealed that they belonged to the genera Fusarium, Nodulisporium, Brevundimonas, and Bacillus genera. Ten transformed products were isolated and identified, including a new compound 6-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-?-D-glucopyranosyldammarane-3,6,12,20,24,25-hexaol (3), and nine known compounds, compound K (1), ginsenoside F2 (2), vinaginsenoside R13 (4), vinaginsenoside R22 (5), pseudo-ginsenoside RT4 (6), (20S)-protopanaxatriol (7), ginsenoside Rg1 (8), vinaginsenoside R15 (9), and (20S)-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-?-D-glucopyranosylprotopanaxatriol (10). This is the first study on the biotransformation of chemical components in P. notoginseng by endophytes isolated from the same plant. PMID:24243611

Luo, Shao-Liu; Dang, Li-Zhi; Li, Jian-Fang; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Li, Guo-Hong

2013-11-01

104

Microbial endophytes: future challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endophytes are represented by a diverse group of prokaryotic (bacteria or cyanobacteria) or eukaryotic (fungi or parasitic vascular plants) organisms that form life-long associations within tissues of plants. Ecologically, these associations are usually viewed as advantageous although in some insta...

105

Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.  

PubMed

The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

2014-01-01

106

[The identification of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus lichenformis and Bacillus subtilis strains using the coagglutination reaction].  

PubMed

Polyclonal rabbit antisera against 4 B. cereus strains were selected from a total of 9 B. cereus antisera and pooled. This serum agglutinated all available B. cereus strains (n = 63) at a titre > or = 1:64 when tested by a slide co-agglutination reaction. One hundred and thirty-six Bacillus strains belonging to 17 other species reacted with higher serum concentrations only (titres mainly < or = 1:16). A pooled antiserum comprised of two B. licheniformis antisera and two B. subtilis antisera agglutinated all 43 B. licheniformis strains and all 38 B. subtilis strains at a titre > or = 1:128, but one strain each of the species B. pumilus, B. macerans and B. fastidiosus was also agglutinated at a titre 1:128. PMID:7980381

Hellmann, E; Stanzel, C; Tonkaboni, T F

1994-09-01

107

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and  

E-print Network

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders C, Coley PD, et al. (2013) Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy

Coley, Phyllis

108

Insect pathology and fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic. Their mode of action against insects appears to be due to antibiosis or feeding deterrence. Research aimed at understanding the fungal ecology of entomopathogenic fungi, and their role as fungal endophytes, could lead to a new paradigm on how to successfully use these organisms in biological control programs. PMID:18406422

Vega, Fernando E

2008-07-01

109

Endophytic bacteria from banana cultivars and their antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Endophytic microorganisms consist of fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes that play important roles in the process of plant adaptation to the environment. Currently, the natural associations between microorganisms and plant species are being explored for a large number of biotechnological applications. In this study, 122 endophytic bacteria were isolated from 5 cultivars of Musa spp from the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Four strains were selected because they exhibited antagonistic activities against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense and Colletotrichum guaranicola, with inhibitions ranging from 19 to 30% and 27 to 35%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA regions of these bacteria with antifungal activity showed that they are phylogenetically related to 3 different species of Bacillus - B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp subtilis, and B. thuringiensis. PMID:25366756

Souza, A; Cruz, J C; Sousa, N R; Procópio, A R L; Silva, G F

2014-01-01

110

Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of a Marine-Derived Bacillus Strain for Use as an In-Feed Probiotic for Newly Weaned Pigs  

PubMed Central

Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n?=?16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 1010 spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05) for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05), perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001). However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001) and cecal (P<0.05) Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P?=?0.10). Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05) in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001) and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01) than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C.; Kent, Robert M.; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2014-01-01

111

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a marine-derived Bacillus strain for use as an in-feed probiotic for newly weaned pigs.  

PubMed

Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n?=?16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 10(10) spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05) for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05), perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001). However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001) and cecal (P<0.05) Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P?=?0.10). Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05) in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001) and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01) than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C; Kent, Robert M; Cassidy, Joseph P; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

2014-01-01

112

Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

2014-09-01

113

BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTES: THE ENDOPHYTIC NICHE, ITS OCCUPANTS, AND ITS UTILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endophytic niche offers a unique habitat for the control of pathogens since the endophyte is contained and is not subject to the direct influence of the environment and will multiply within the intercellular spaces as the plant grows, thereby potentially colonizing the entire plant axis. The ba...

114

Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control.  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 10(8) conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E

2013-01-01

115

Establishing Fungal Entomopathogens as Endophytes: Towards Endophytic Biological Control  

PubMed Central

Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 108 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.

2013-01-01

116

Living inside plants: bacterial endophytes.  

PubMed

As current research activities have focused on symbiotic or parasitic plant-microbe interactions, other types of associations between plants and microorganisms are often overlooked. Endophytic bacteria colonize inner host tissues, sometimes in high numbers, without damaging the host or eliciting strong defense responses. Unlike endosymbionts they are not residing in living plant cells or surrounded by a membrane compartment. The molecular basis of endophytic interactions is still not well understood. Several traits involved in the establishment of endophytes have been elucidated. Culture-independent methods for community analysis and functional genomic as well as comparative genomic analyses will provide a better understanding of community dynamics, signaling, and functions in endophyte-plant associations. PMID:21536480

Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Hurek, Thomas

2011-08-01

117

Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp.) roots.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX). Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus) and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas. PMID:23885208

Souza, Suzane A; Xavier, Adelica A; Costa, Márcia R; Cardoso, Acleide M S; Pereira, Marlon C T; Nietsche, Silvia

2013-07-01

118

Surfactin A Production and Isoform Characterizations in Strains of Bacillus mojavensis for Potential Control of Fusarium verticillioides and Fumonisin in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis, a species recently distinguished as a cryptic species within Bacillus subtilis, was discovered in maize kernels and later determined to possess endophytic characteristics. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its strong antagonism to the fungus...

119

Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.  

PubMed Central

Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.6–0.9??m wide by 1.7–2.0??m long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26°C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic bacterium produced 2.37??Mol/mL of indole acetic acid and siderophore as it metabolites. This strain could solubilize phosphate molecules and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was inoculated into four different plants under in vitro method to analyse its growth-promoting activity and role inside the host plants. The growth of endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants were highly significant than the uninoculated control explants. Root hairs and early root development were observed in the endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants. PMID:22811715

Janarthine, S. Rylo Sona; Eganathan, P.

2012-01-01

120

Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

121

Role of mechanical vs. chemical action in the removal of adherent Bacillus spores during CIP procedures.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the respective roles of mechanical and chemical effects on the removal of Bacillus spores during cleaning-in-place. This analysis was performed on 12 strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis) or to less related Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus subtilis). Adherent spores were subjected to rinsing-in-place (mechanical action) and cleaning-in-place (mechanical and chemical actions) procedures, the latter involving NaOH 0.5% at 60°C. Results revealed that mechanical action alone only removed between 53 and 89% of the attached spores at a shear stress of 500 Pa. This resistance to shear was not related to spore surface properties. Conversely, in the presence of NaOH at a shear stress of 4 Pa, spores were readily detached, with between 80 and 99% of the adherent spores detached during CIP and the chemical action greatly depended on the strain. This finding suggests that chemical action plays the major role during CIP, whose efficacy is significantly governed by the spore surface chemistry. PMID:23200646

Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Blel, W; Ronse, A; Ronse, G; Clarisse, M; Slomianny, C

2013-04-01

122

[Synthesis of extracellular phythohormones by Bacillus strains isolated from different ecological sources].  

PubMed

Synthesis of extracellular phytohormones by bacteria strains of the genus Bacillus isolated from different ecological sources (soil and plant) has been researched. It has been shown that phytohormone's synthesis ability of the endophytic and free-living Bacillus strains is significantly different as regards the level and spectrum of synthesized compounds. It was concluded that such differences in synthesis of extracellular phytohormones by bacilli are associated with different type of interactions between the studied microorganisms and host plant. PMID:23866585

Drahovoz, I V; Leonova, N O; Lapa, S V; Piskova, O V; Kriuchkova, L O; Avdieieva, L V

2013-01-01

123

Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.  

PubMed

Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed. PMID:19400639

Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

2011-01-01

124

Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

2014-06-01

125

Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S

2012-01-01

126

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

127

Bacillus endophyticus sp. nov., isolated from the inner tissues of cotton plants (Gossypium sp.).  

PubMed

Four strains of aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria were isolated from the inner tissues of healthy cotton plants (Gossypium sp., Dushanbe, Tajikistan). The organisms had identical randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns that distinguished them from other bacilli that are commonly isolated from plant tissues, e.g. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA spacer regions suggested that the four strains could be assigned to two highly related taxa, which correlated with differences in cell morphology. However, the cloned spacer region provided a simple and specific hybridization probe for all four strains. The virtually complete 16S rDNA sequences were prepared for representatives of the two groups (strains 2DT(T) and 12DX) and differed by only two bases, thus supporting classification of the four strains in a single taxon at the species level. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain 2DT(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599T with a sequence similarity of 94.8%. It is concluded that the four strains belong to a novel species of Bacillus for which the name Bacillus endophyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2DT(T) (= UCM B-5715T = CIP 106778T). PMID:11837291

Reva, Oleg N; Smirnov, Valerie V; Pettersson, Bertil; Priest, Fergus G

2002-01-01

128

Antibacterial secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus, Eupenicillium sp. LG41.  

PubMed

Two new compounds containing the decalin moiety, eupenicinicols A and B (1 and 2), two new sirenin derivatives, eupenicisirenins A and B (3 and 4), and four known compounds, (2S)-butylitaconic acid (5), (2S)-hexylitaconic acid (6), xanthomegnin (7), and viridicatumtoxin (8), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Eupenicillium sp. LG41, harbored in the roots of the Chinese medicinal plant Xanthium sibiricum. Their structures were confirmed through combined spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HRMS(n)), and their absolute configurations were deduced by ECD calculations or optical rotation data. Since the endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots, the antibacterial efficacies of the compounds 1-6 were investigated against Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4, which typically inhabit soil, as well as the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. (2S)-Butylitaconic acid (5) and (2S)-hexylitaconic acid (6) exhibited pronounced efficacy against Acinetobacter sp., corroborating the notion that root-endophytes provide chemical defense to the host plants. Compound 2 was highly active against the clinically relevant S. aureus. By comparing 1 with 2, it was revealed that altering the substitution at C-11 could drastically increase the antibacterial efficacy of 1. Our study reveals plausible ecological roles of the endophyte and its potential pharmaceutical use as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:25356913

Li, Gang; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Schüffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut; Spiteller, Michael

2014-11-26

129

WHAT DOES AN ENDOPHYTE LOOK LIKE? ENDOPHYTE PROFILES OF NATIVE GRASSES AND SHRUBS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes often defy detection and isolation by conventional microbiology techniques. Staining methods, including the use of trypan blue and sudan IV have effectively detected endophytes in plant tissues. However, stains fail to distinguish one fungal endophyte from another, thus ...

130

Effects of Inoculation with PGPR Bacillus and Pisolithus tinctorius on Pinus pinea L. Growth, Bacterial rhizosphere Colonization, and Mycorrhizal Infection.  

PubMed

The effect of co-inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius and a PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis CECT 5106 and Bacillus pumilus CECT 5105) in enhancing growth of Pinus pinea plants and the changes that occurred in rhizosphere microbial communities and the degree of mycorrhization were evaluated. Both bacterial strains of Bacillus promote the growth of Pinus pinea seedlings, but this biological effect does not imply a synergic effect with mycorrhizal infection. However, the positive response to mycorrhiza in a longer-term experiment it could be expected. The introduction of both inocula causes an alteration in the microbial rhizosphere composition, despite the low levels of inocula that were found at the end of the assay. PMID:12032619

Probanza, A.; Mateos, J.L.; Lucas García, J.A.; Ramos, B.; De Felipe, M.R.; Gutierrez Mañero, F.J.

2001-02-01

131

Screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. Two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. An isolate named KL1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, on PDA as well as TSA plate. Supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin A by HPLC analysis. KL1 was identified as Bacillus sp. from the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Very thin hyphae of R. solani was miccroscopically observed when the fungus was co-cultivated with KL1. PMID:25078813

Ohike, Tatsuya; Makuni, Kohei; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

2013-12-01

132

Bacillus coagulans  

MedlinePLUS

... infection due to the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Some people use Bacillus coagulans to prevent respiratory ... difficile colitis. Fighting growth of unwanted bacteria. Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes stomach ulcers. Respiratory infections. Cancer ...

133

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.  

PubMed

Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

2013-02-01

134

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp. that may be useful for typing purposes. These species include, among others, Bacillus cereus, an important pathogenic species involved in food poisoning, and Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, which are causative agents of food spoilage described as responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks. With this purpose in mind, 52 Bacillus strains isolated from culture collections and fresh and processed food were considered. SNP type "Y" at sites 212 and 476 appeared in the majority of B. licheniformis studied strains. SNP type "R" at site 278 was detected in many strains of the B. subtilis/Bacillus amyloliquefaciens group, while polymorphism "Y" at site 173 was characteristic of the majority of strains of B. cereus/Bacillus thuringiensis group. The analysis of SNPs provided more intra-specific information than phylogenetic analysis in the cases of B. cereus and B. subtilis. Moreover, this study describes novel SNPs that should be considered when designing 16S rRNA-based primers and probes for multiplex-PCR, Real-Time PCR and microarray systems for foodborne Bacillus spp. PMID:25475292

Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Caamaño-Antelo, S; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

2015-04-01

135

Endophytes influence protection and growth of an invasive plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the symbiotic activities of fungal endophytes isolated from spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe. Previously, an analysis of community similarity had demonstrated differences in the endophyte communities of C. stoebe in its native and invaded ranges. Here, we found that specific endophytes can exert posi- tive effects on their host, whereas others exert negative effects. Endophytes produced metabolites that inhibited

George Newcombe; Alexey Shipunov; S. D. Eigenbrode; Anil K. H. Raghavendra; H. Ding; Cort L. Anderson; R. Menjivar; M. Crawford; M. Schwarzländer

2009-01-01

136

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

2011-01-01

137

The secret world of endophytes in perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work in Fungal Ecology is focused on the group of plant symbionts that have been termed collectively ‘microbial endophytes’. Broadly, microbial endophytes are commonly considered to be any of a diverse group of bacteria, cyanobacteria, or fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants. After ...

138

Interaction of endophytic microbes with legumes.  

PubMed

Large numbers of bacterial and fungal endophytes have been reported from different plant tissues: roots, nodules, leaves, flowers and sprouts of legumes, with numbers ranging from few to more than 150. Endophytes can accelerate seedling emergence, promote plant establishment under adverse conditions and enhance plant growth. Endophytic microbes promote plant growth by helping plants in acquiring nutrients, e.g. via nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization or iron chelation, by preventing pathogen infections via antifungal or antibacterial agents, by outcompeting pathogens for nutrients by siderophore production, or by establishing the plant's systemic resistance. Further growth promotion is affected by producing phytohormones such as auxin or cytokinin, or by producing the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which lowers plant ethylene levels. For establishment of endophytes in different tissues, endophytic microbes must be compatible with the host plants and able to colonize the tissues of the host plants without being recognized as pathogens. A particular bacterium or fungus may affect plant growth and development using one or more of these mechanisms, and they may use different mechanisms at various times. The population density of endophytes is highly variable, depending mainly on the microbial species and host genotypes, developmental stage and environmental conditions. Genotypic and cultivar specific endophytes have also been reported. The quantum benefit derived by plants from an endophyte and vice versa is still not clear. It seems that the endophytic genus or species best adapted for living inside a plant is naturally selected. Here, we concentrate on soil or rhizosphere-derived endophytes recruited out of a large pool of soil or rhizospheric microbes. Some endophytes are more aggressive colonizers and displace others, but seeming lack of strict specificity has been observed. However, the processes of host-microbe signaling and colonization and the mechanisms leading to mutual benefits are less-well characterized. It is still not clear which population of microorganisms (endophytes or rhizospheric) promotes plant growth and the way the interactions among endophytes influence plant productivity. Though attempts to know the molecular ecology and interactions are underway, a high amount of progress is required to fully understand the mechanism of establishment, the way interactions take place in planta, between different microbes and plants and exlusive benefits by endophytes and plants. PMID:21953403

Dudeja, S S; Giri, Rupa; Saini, Ranjana; Suneja-Madan, Pooja; Kothe, Erika

2012-06-01

139

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

140

Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal parts of Aquilaria sinensis *  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic fungi from the stem tissue which can produce fragrant ingredients in Aquilaria sinensis (also called agarwood) to determine their antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-eight fungal endophytes were isolated from agarwood by strict sterile sample preparation and were classified into 14 genera and 4 taxonomic classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes, and Zygomycetes) based on molecular identification. Of the 28 isolates, 13 (46.4%) showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains by the agar well diffusion method, and 23 isolates (82.1%) displayed antitumor activity against at least one of five cancer cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The diameters of inhibition zones of YNAS07, YNAS14, HNAS04, HNAS05, HNAS08, and HNAS11 were equal to or higher than 14.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and B. subtilis, respectively. The inhibition rates of YNAS06, YNAS08, and HNAS06 were not less than 60% to 293-T, 293-T, and SKVO3 cells, respectively. These results suggest that the endophytic fungi associated with agarwood will provide us with not only useful micro-ecological information, but also potential antimicrobial and antitumor agents. PMID:21528493

Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Xiao, Pei-gen

2011-01-01

141

Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.  

PubMed

Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

2013-01-01

142

Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians  

PubMed Central

Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

2013-01-01

143

Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture  

PubMed Central

Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn. PMID:24949261

2014-01-01

144

Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture.  

PubMed

Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn. PMID:24949261

Szilagyi-Zecchin, Vivian Jaskiw; Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Hungria, Mariangela; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Glienke, Chirlei; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitória

2014-01-01

145

Phylogeny in aid of the present and novel microbial lineages: diversity in Bacillus.  

PubMed

Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains), B. cereus (211 strains), B. thuringiensis (108 strains), B. subtilis (271 strains), B. licheniformis (131 strains), B. pumilus (83 strains), B. megaterium (47 strains), B. sphaericus (42 strains), B. clausii (39 strains) and B. halodurans (36 strains) were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed. PMID:19212464

Porwal, Shalini; Lal, Sadhana; Cheema, Simrita; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

2009-01-01

146

Phylogeny in Aid of the Present and Novel Microbial Lineages: Diversity in Bacillus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains), B. cereus (211 strains), B. thuringiensis (108 strains), B. subtilis (271 strains), B. licheniformis (131 strains), B. pumilus (83 strains), B. megaterium (47 strains), B. sphaericus (42 strains), B. clausii (39 strains) and B. halodurans (36 strains) were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed. PMID:19212464

Porwal, Shalini; Lal, Sadhana; Cheema, Simrita; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

2009-01-01

147

Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Grasses (family Poaceae) and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae have a long history of symbiosis ranging in a continuum from mutualisms to antagonisms. This continuum is particularly evident among symbioses involving the fungal genus Epichloe (asexual forms = Neotyphodium spp.). In the more mutualistic symbiota, the epichloe endophytes are vertically transmitted via host seeds, and in the more antagonistic symbiota they spread contagiously and suppress host seed set. The endophytes gain shelter, nutrition, and dissemination via host propagules, and can contribute an array of host fitness enhancements including protection against insect and vertebrate herbivores and root nematodes, enhancements of drought tolerance and nutrient status, and improved growth particularly of the root. In some systems, such as the tall fescue N. coenophialum symbioses, the plant may depend on the endophyte under many natural conditions. Recent advances in endophyte molecular biology promise to shed light on the mechanisms of the symbioses and host benefits. PMID:15377223

Schardl, Christopher L; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Spiering, Martin J

2004-01-01

148

Endophytes as producers of peptides: an overview about the recently discovered peptides from endophytic microbes.  

PubMed

An endophyte is a fungus or bacterium that lives within a plant in a symbiotic relationship. Extensive colonization of the plant tissue by endophytes creates a barrier effect, where they outcompete and prevent pathogenic organisms from taking hold. This happens by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth of the competitors or pathogens. In this way they play a very important role in the plant defence mechanisms. The metabolites produced by these endophytes fall within a wide range of classes of compounds that include peptides which are the focus of this review. Peptides are increasingly being selected for drug development because they are specific for their targets and have a higher degree of interactions. There have been quite a number of endophytic peptides reported in the recent past indicating that endophytes can be used for the production of peptide based drugs. Molecular screening for NRPS, which shows peptide producing capability, has also shown that endophytes are potential producers of peptides. The presence of NRPS also offers the possibility of genetic modifications which may generate peptides with high pharmacological activities. This review, therefore, aims to show the current status of peptides isolated from endophytic bacteria and fungi in the recent decade. Endophytes as potential sources of peptides according to NRPS studies will also be discussed. PMID:25205333

Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C

2014-10-01

149

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi that inhabit healthy plant tissues without  

E-print Network

Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Abstract Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous fungi examined to date and may be important, but often overlooked, components of fungal biodiversity. In two (2000) 3 : 267±274 I N T R O DU C T I O N Fungi comprise only & 72 000 described species, but the true

California at Berkeley, University of

150

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence...determining levels of fungal endophyte in grass seed: (1) Take a...

2012-01-01

151

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

...endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence...determining levels of fungal endophyte in grass seed: (1) Take a...

2014-01-01

152

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence...determining levels of fungal endophyte in grass seed: (1) Take a...

2010-01-01

153

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence...determining levels of fungal endophyte in grass seed: (1) Take a...

2013-01-01

154

7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the presence...determining levels of fungal endophyte in grass seed: (1) Take a...

2011-01-01

155

Endophytic Fungi in Meadow Fescue and Other Forage Grasses  

E-print Network

Endophytic Fungi in Meadow Fescue and Other Forage Grasses Anja Bylin Faculty of Natural Resources uncinata (photo 3 and 4 from left) (photo: A. Bylin photo 1-3, S. Card photo 4 ) #12;Endophytic Fungi

156

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-print Network

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

157

Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes residing in the internal tissues of living plants occur in almost every plant on earth from the arctic to\\u000a the tropics. The endophyte–host relationship is described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through\\u000a commensalism to parasitism. This overview will highlight selected aspects of endophyte diversity, host specificity, endophyte–host\\u000a interaction and communication as well as regulation of

Amal Hassan Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Peter Proksch

2011-01-01

158

Endophytic Bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and Their Yield Enhancing Capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host\\u000a plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria\\u000a OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz.

Rashmi Tiwari; Alok Kalra; M. P. Darokar; Mahesh Chandra; Nitin Aggarwal; A. K. Singh; S. P. S. Khanuja

2010-01-01

159

COEVOLUTION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GRASS-ENDOPHYTE SYMBIOSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbioses between cool-season grasses (Subfamily Pooideae) and endophytic fungi in the genera Epichlo and Neotyphodium straddle a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to highly mutualistic. Although these two genera of endophytes are closely related, Neotyphodium endophytes are strictly seed-transmitted and provide many physiological and defensive benefits to their hosts, while Epichlo spp. have an obligately sexual contagious stage wherein host

Kelly D. Craven

2003-01-01

160

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF THEOBROMA CACAO PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Results are presented of in vitro screening of fungal endophytes against three important pathogens of cacao; colonization studies of endophytes on cacao leaves; and a field evaluation of three endophyte species on the control of two diseases of cacao. 40% (21/52), 65% (28/43) and 27% (4/15) of teste...

161

Genomics of Bacillus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

162

Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

Spencer, R C

2003-03-01

163

Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Most pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Mucosal immunization, a non-invasive needle-free route, often stimulates a mucosal immune response that is both effective against mucosal and systemic pathogens. The development of mucosally administered heat-stable vaccines with long shelf life would therefore significantly enhance immunization programs in developing countries by avoiding the need for a cold chain or systemic injections. Currently, recombinant vaccine carriers are being used for antigen delivery. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for use as a non-invasive and heat stable antigen delivery system has proven successful. Bacterial spores protected by multiple layers of protein are known to be robust and resistant to desiccation. Stable constructs have been created by integration into the bacterial chromosome of immunogens. The spore coat has been used as a vehicle for heterologous antigen presentation and protective immunization. Sublingual (SL) and intranasal (IN) routes have recently received attention as delivery routes for therapeutic drugs and vaccines and recent attempts by several investigators, including our group, to develop vaccines that can be delivered intranasally and sublingually have met with a lot of success. As discussed in this Review, the use of Bacillus subtilis to express antigens that can be administered either intranasally or sublingually is providing new insights in the area of mucosal vaccines. In our work, we evaluated the efficacy of SL and IN immunizations with B. subtilis engineered to express tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) in mice and piglets. These bacteria engineered to express heterologous antigen either on the spore surface or within the vegetative cell have been used for oral, IN and SL delivery of antigens. A Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein, CotC was used as a fusion partner to express the tetanus fragment C. B. subtilis spores known to be highly stable and safe are also easy to purify making this spore-based display system a potentially powerful approach for surface expression of antigens. These advances will help to accelerate the development and testing of new mucosal vaccines against many human and animal diseases. PMID:22699442

Amuguni, Hellen; Tzipori, Saul

2012-01-01

164

Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance.  

PubMed

Abstract The beneficial effects of endophytes on plant growth are important for agricultural ecosystems because they reduce the need for fertilizers and decrease soil and water pollution while compensating for environmental perturbations. Endophytic fungi are a novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites; moreover, recently they have been found to produce physiologically active gibberellins as well. The symbiosis of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi with crops can be a promising strategy to overcome the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. The association of such endophytes has not only increased plant biomass but also ameliorated plant-growth during extreme environmental conditions. Endophytic fungi represent a trove of unexplored biodiversity and a frequently overlooked component of crop ecology. The present review describes the role of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi, suggests putative mechanisms involved in plant endophyte stress interactions and discusses future prospects in this field. PMID:23984800

Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

2013-08-28

165

Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata.  

PubMed

Two altenuene derivatives (1-2) and one isocoumarin (3), together with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata, obtained from the fresh branches of Camellia sinensis. Chiral analysis revealed the racemic nature of 1 and 2, which were subsequently resolved into two pairs of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2]. Structures of all the isolates were identified through spectroscopic data. Absolute configurations of the two pairs of enantiomers were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and the chiral center of C-10 in 3 was deduced via [Rh2(OCOCF3)4]-induced CD experiment. All the isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial abilities against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi as well as cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines. Compound 5 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis with MIC80 of 8.6?g/ml, and compounds 1-3, 6-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to weak inhibition towards the test pathogenic microorganism. Compound 4 showed mild cytotoxic activity against human osteosarcoma cells U2OS with IC50 of 28.3?M. PMID:25261763

Wang, Ying; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

2014-12-01

166

Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

2005-02-01

167

Screening for Bacillus Isolates in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

Barbosa, Teresa M.; Serra, Cláudia R.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Henriques, Adriano O.

2005-01-01

168

Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

169

Microbial Endophytes of crop plants and their role in plant growth promotion;.  

E-print Network

??Endophytic microorganisms that colonize the internal tissues of plants enhance agricultural production through plant growth promoting mechanisms. Considering the enormous potential of the endophytic newlinebacteria… (more)

Anu Rajan S

2012-01-01

170

Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.  

PubMed

The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread. PMID:7488530

Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A

1995-08-01

171

Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed.  

PubMed

Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus spp. isolates with the best characteristics were identified by gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing as B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus and B. megaterium. These isolates were further investigated for their activity against the pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rates, biofilm formation and production of glycosyl hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, ten selected isolates were assessed for heat resistance of spores and the effect on porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. mojavensis, showed the best overall characteristics and, therefore, potential for usage as probiotic additives in feed. A large number of taxonomically diverse strains made it possible to reveal species and subspecies-specific trends, contributing to our understanding of the probiotic potential of Bacillus species. PMID:24201893

Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Cantor, Mette Dines; Nielsen, Bea; Brockmann, Elke; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

2014-02-01

172

Bioactivity of Root Endophytic Freshwater Hyphomycetes Anguillospora longissima (Sacc. & Syd.) Ingold  

PubMed Central

Anguillospora longissima, isolated from root as endophytic freshwater hyphomycetes, was evaluated for its bioactivity (antibacterial potential) against five bacterial strains, namely, Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121) and Gram-negative (Agrobacterium tumefaciens MTCC 609, Escherichia coli MTCC 40, Erwinia chrysanthemum, and Xanthomonas pseudomonas). Antimicrobial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition with preliminary and secondary antimicrobial assays. The applied fungus was found significant for all tested bacterial strains as showen by their zone of inhibition. In preliminary antimicrobial assay, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded against Gram-negative human pathogenic bacterial strain Escherichia coli (23?mm) followed by Erwinia chrysanthemi (22?mm), Agrobacterium tumefaciens (21?mm), and Xanthomonas phaseoli (21?mm), while minimum zone of inhibition was observed against Bacillus subtilis (20?mm). In secondary antimicrobial assay, the maximum zone of inhibition was recorded against Erwinia chrysanthemi (11?mm) followed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (10?mm), Xanthomonas phaseoli (10?mm), and Bacillus subtilis (9?mm) and minimum inhibition was found against Escherichia coli (8?mm). PMID:25383378

Sati, S. C.; Singh, Lokendra

2014-01-01

173

Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes  

PubMed Central

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

174

Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

175

Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

176

Cytotoxicity in Bacillus mojavensis is abolished following loss of surfactin synthesis: implications for assessment of toxicity and food poisoning potential.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis and the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis have periodically been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of food poisoning despite the fact that the organisms do not possess the genes associated with enteropathogenicity in Bacillus cereus. We show here that Bacillus mojavensis, an organism closely related to B. subtilis, is able to produce toxic components which identify as a complex of three different surfactin analogues. These cyclic lipopeptides were soluble in methanol, heat stable after treatment in a boiling water bath for 10 min, resistant to enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, endoprotease V8 and proteinase K and formed pores in planar lipid bilayers. They were cytotoxic when tested in a series of commonly used laboratory cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactate dehydrogenase release, haemolysis, inhibition of both protein synthesis in Vero cells and motility in boar sperm. We show that such in vitro markers of enterotoxicity are due entirely to production of cyclic lipopeptides since deletion of sfp, a gene essential for surfactin synthesis which abolished the cytotoxicity to Vero cells, boar sperm motility and haemolytic activity. Thus, the relevance of cyclic lipopeptides as food poisoning toxins needs to be evaluated in assays other than the cell cytotoxicity assays in common use. PMID:17467096

From, C; Hormazabal, V; Hardy, S P; Granum, P E

2007-06-10

177

Endophytes: a potential resource for biosynthesis, biotransformation, and biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural ecosystems, endophytes, which live in the inner tissues of healthy plants, exhibit complex interactions with their\\u000a hosts. During a long coevolutionary process with their hosts, endophytes have developed many significant and novel characteristics.\\u000a In order to maintain a stable symbiosis, endophytes secrete varieties of extracellular enzymes that contribute to colonization\\u000a and growth. All these specific enzymes, under certain

Yu Wang; Chuan-Chao Dai

2011-01-01

178

Culturable endophytic bacteria enhance Ni translocation in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.  

PubMed

In this work, both culture-dependent and independent approaches were used to identify and isolate endophytic bacteria from roots of the Ni hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. A total of 17 isolates were cultured from root samples, selected for tolerance to 6mM Ni and grouped by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Bacterial species cultivated from roots belonged to seven genera, Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, Agreia, Bacillus, Sthenotrophomonas, Kocuria and Variovorax. The culture-independent approach confirmed the presence of Microbacterium and Arthrobacter while only other five clones corresponding to different amplified ribosomal DNA restriction patterns were detected. Five selected highly Ni-resistant bacteria showing also plant growth promoting activities, were inoculated into seeds of N. caerulescens, and in vivo microscopic analysis showed rapid root colonisation. Inoculated plants showed increased shoot biomass, root length and root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Root colonisation was also evident, but not effective, in the non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum. Seed inoculation with selected Ni-resistant endophytic bacteria may represent a powerful tool in phytotechnologies, although transferring it to biomass species still requires further studies and screening. PMID:25277966

Visioli, Giovanna; D'Egidio, Sara; Vamerali, Teofilo; Mattarozzi, Monica; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria

2014-12-01

179

Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure  

PubMed Central

Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

2014-01-01

180

Endophytic bacterial communities in ginseng and their antifungal activity against pathogens.  

PubMed

Plant roots are associated with diverse communities of endophytic bacteria which do not exert adverse effects. The diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng roots cultivated in three different areas in Korea was investigated. Sixty-three colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng roots. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGCGPB), low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGCGPB), and the Proteobacteria. The dominant species at the three different ginseng growing areas were: HGCGPB at Ganghwa (55.0%), LGCGPB at Geumsan (45.5%), and Proteobacteria at Jinan (61.9%). Most cellulase-, xylanase-, and pectinase-producing colonies among the isolates belong to the LGCGPB group, except for Pectobacterium carotovora which belonged to the Proteobacteria. The 13 isolates belonging to LGCGPB and Proteobacteria were assessed for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani. Among them, Paenibacillus polymyxa GS01, Bacillus sp. GS07, and Pseudomonas poae JA01 show potential activity as biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Finally, most of the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria with antifungal activity against phytopathogenic microorganisms showed cellulolytic enzyme activity while some Proteobacteria with the antifungal activity and the high G+C Gram-positive bacteria did not show any cellulolytic activity. PMID:17492474

Cho, Kye Man; Hong, Su Young; Lee, Sun Mi; Kim, Yong Hee; Kahng, Goon Gjung; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

2007-08-01

181

A novel antibacterial and antifungal phenolic compound from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.  

PubMed

A novel phenolic compound, 4-(2,4,7-trioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-yl) phenol (1), was isolated from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, an endophytic fungus associated with Mangifera indica Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (UV, IR, ¹H-, ¹³C- and 2D-NMR, as well as HRESI-MS). Compound (1) shows potent antibacterial and antifungal activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The transmission electron microscope study for the mode of inhibition of compound (1) on bacterial pathogens revealed the destruction of bacterial cells by cytoplasm agglutination with the formation of pores in cell wall membranes. PMID:22950879

Subban, Kamalraj; Subramani, Ramesh; Johnpaul, Muthumary

2013-01-01

182

LOLINE ALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENE EXPRESSION IN EPICHLOE ENDOPHYTES OF GRASSES.  

E-print Network

??Loline alkaloids (LA) are secondary metabolites produced by Epichloandamp;euml; (anamorph, Neotyphodium) grass endophytes. They are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects… (more)

ZHANG, DONG-XIU

2008-01-01

183

Chemical ecology mediated by fungal endophytes in grasses.  

PubMed

Defensive mutualism is widely accepted as providing the best framework for understanding how seed-transmitted, alkaloid producing fungal endophytes of grasses are maintained in many host populations. Here, we first briefly review current knowledge of bioactive alkaloids produced by systemic grass-endophytes. New findings suggest that chemotypic diversity of the endophyte-grass symbiotum is far more complex, involving multifaceted signaling and chemical cross-talk between endophyte and host cells (e.g., reactive oxygen species and antioxidants) or between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies (e.g., volatile organic compounds, and salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways). Accumulating evidence also suggests that the tight relationship between the systemic endophyte and the host grass can lead to the loss of grass traits when the lost functions, such as plant defense to herbivores, are compensated for by an interactive endophytic fungal partner. Furthermore, chemotypic diversity of a symbiotum appears to depend on the endophyte and the host plant life histories, as well as on fungal and plant genotypes, abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, and their interactions. Thus, joint approaches of (bio)chemists, molecular biologists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, and ecologists are urgently needed to fully understand the endophyte-grass symbiosis, its coevolutionary history, and ecological importance. We propose that endophyte-grass symbiosis provides an excellent model to study microbially mediated multirophic interactions from molecular mechanisms to ecology. PMID:23797930

Saikkonen, Kari; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo

2013-07-01

184

Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.  

PubMed

Consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western USA, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. To explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in New Mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. Endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea. Fungal cultures grew very slowly and sporadically produced subcylindrical conidia with very dark transverse septa. All cultured endophytes produced the alkaloid swainsonine, which causes locoism. Endophyte-infected locoweed populations produced swainsonine, and the swainsonine level of endophyte strains in vitro was highly correlated with the swainsonine level of their host plant populations. The rDNA ITS from mycelia from four endophyte isolates and beta-tubulin encoding regions from mycelia of 18 fungal endophyte isolates were amplified using PCR and the nucleic acid sequences were analyzed. The nucleic acid sequences of the beta-tubulin encoding regions were essentially identical among all the endophytes regardless of plant genus and locations. Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia. However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. PMID:14531620

Braun, Karen; Romero, Jennifer; Liddell, Craig; Creamer, Rebecca

2003-08-01

185

Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony  

SciTech Connect

Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

2009-09-01

186

Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus).  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

2013-12-01

187

Chemical ecology of endophytic fungi: origins of secondary metabolites.  

PubMed

Endophytes constitute a remarkably multifarious group of microorganisms ubiquitous in plants and maintain an imperceptible association with their hosts for at least a part of their life cycle. Their enormous biological diversity coupled with their capability to biosynthesize bioactive secondary metabolites has provided the impetus for a number of investigations on endophytes. Here, we highlight the possible current and future strategies of understanding the chemical communication of endophytic fungi with other endophytes (fungi and bacteria) and with their host plants, which might not only allow the discovery and sustainable production of desirable natural products but also other mostly overlooked bioactive secondary metabolites. PMID:22840767

Kusari, Souvik; Hertweck, Christian; Spiteller, Michael

2012-07-27

188

Elimination of ergovaline from a grass–Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte  

PubMed Central

The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of ergopeptines requires the activities of two peptide synthetases, LPS1 and LPS2. A peptide synthetase gene hypothesized to be important for ergopeptine biosynthesis was identified in C. purpurea by its clustering with another ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene, dmaW. Sequence analysis conducted independently of the research presented here indicates that this gene encodes LPS1 [Tudzynski, P., Holter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N. & Keller, U. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133–141]. We have cloned a similar peptide synthetase gene from Neotyphodium lolii and inactivated it by gene knockout in Neotyphodium sp. Lp1. The resulting strain retained full compatibility with its perennial ryegrass host plant as assessed by immunoblotting of tillers and quantitative PCR. However, grass–endophyte associations containing the knockout strain did not produce detectable quantities of ergovaline as analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergovaline in endophyte-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock. PMID:11592979

Panaccione, Daniel G.; Johnson, Richard D.; Wang, Jinghong; Young, Carolyn A.; Damrongkool, Prapassorn; Scott, Barry; Schardl, Christopher L.

2001-01-01

189

Xyolide, a bioactive nonenolide from an Amazonian endophytic fungus, Xylaria feejeensis  

E-print Network

Xyolide, a bioactive nonenolide from an Amazonian endophytic fungus, Xylaria feejeensis Ezra G Fungal endophyte Pythium ultimum a b s t r a c t Endophytes isolated from tropical plants represent a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive secondary metabolites. We screened a library of fungal endophyte

Handelsman, Jo

190

Biodiversity and distribution of endophytic fungi associated with Panax quinquefolium L. cultivated in a forest reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi residing in Panax quinquefo- lium (American ginseng) have not been well characterized. We collected American ginseng of one-, two-, three- and four-year-old plants cultivated in a forest reserve and identified the endophytic fungal isolates using traditional methods. The colonization frequency and the dominant endophytic fungal species were investigated. Endophytic fungal diversity indices and similarity coefficient were also assessed

Xiaoke Xing; Shunxing Guo; Jianguo Fu

2010-01-01

191

Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.  

PubMed

Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation. PMID:18759238

Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

2008-10-01

192

Probiotic applications of two dominant gut Bacillus strains with antagonistic activity improved the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary administration of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus clausii, the dominant bacteria with antagonistic activity in the gut of fast growing fish, on the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides were assessed. The fish were fed for 60 days with three different diets: control (without probiotics), diet T1 supplemented with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. pumilus, diet T2 with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. clausii. No significant improvements of weight gain or specific growth rate were observed in the probiotic fed groups, but a significant improvement of feed conversion ratio was observed after 60 days of feeding. Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of fish fed probiotic diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the control diet for 60 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations showed no significant difference between the treatments and the control during the whole experiment period, but which increased by 11.4% and 18.5% after 60 days of fed with diets T1 and T2, respectively. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed diets T1 and T2 were significantly higher than that of fish fed control diet, and had respectively increased by 34.7% and 17.4% compared to the control after 60 days of feeding. Serum complement C3 levels of the treatments were significantly higher than that of control after 30 days of feeding, but no significant difference in serum complement C3 and C4 levels were observed between the treatments and the control after 60 days of feeding. The serum IgM levels of fish fed diet T1 and diet T2 were higher than that of fish fed control diet, and significant increase was observed in fish fed diet T2 for 30 days. The results demonstrated potential for B. pumilus and B. clausii to improve growth performance and immune responses of E. coioides. PMID:20637875

Sun, Yun-Zhang; Yang, Hong-Ling; Ma, Ru-Long; Lin, Wen-Yan

2010-11-01

193

Mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the distributions and functions of mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are present in the Arctic and Antarctic to 82 °N and 63 °S, respectively, with fine endophyte being the dominant form of AM in roots at higher latitudes. Ecto- (ECM) and ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizas both occur in the Arctic to 79

K. K. Newsham; R. Upson; D. J. Read

2009-01-01

194

Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

2013-04-01

195

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

2012-01-01

196

Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

2002-01-01

197

Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition  

E-print Network

Managing plant symbiosis: fungal endophyte genotype alters plant community composition Jennifer A. Rudgers1 *, Susan Fischer2 and Keith Clay2 1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Rice would support the highest plant diversity, and that AR-542 endophyte would show intermediate effects. 3

Rudgers, Jennifer

198

Fungal endophyte increases the allelopathic effects of an invasive forb.  

PubMed

Endophytic plant symbionts can have powerful effects on the way their hosts interact with pathogens, competitors, and consumers. The presence of endophytes in plants can alter food webs, community composition and ecosystem processes, suggesting that endophyte-plant symbioses may represent unique forms of extended phenotypes. We tested the impact of the fungal endophyte Alternaria alternata (phylotype CID 120) on the allelopathic effect of the invasive forb Centaurea stoebe when in competition with the North American native bunchgrass Koeleria macrantha in a greenhouse competition experiment. The allelopathic effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha when infected with the fungal endophyte was more than twice that of endophyte-free C. stoebe. However, this allelopathic effect was a small part of the very large competitive effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha in all treatments, likely because of the priority effects in our experimental design. To our knowledge, these results are the first experimental evidence for a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungal endophytes affecting allelopathic interactions between competing plants, and thus provide insight into the mechanisms by which fungal endophytes may increase the competitive ability of their hosts. PMID:24488227

Aschehoug, Erik T; Callaway, Ragan M; Newcombe, George; Tharayil, Nishanth; Chen, Shuyan

2014-05-01

199

REGULAR ARTICLE The invasive Sorghum halepense harbors endophytic  

E-print Network

. A culture approach was used to isolate these N2-fixing bacteria from plant tissues, and 16S rRNA geneREGULAR ARTICLE The invasive Sorghum halepense harbors endophytic N2-fixing bacteria and alters properties via significant changes in soil biogeochemistry. Keywords N2-fixing bacteria . Endophytes

Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

200

Hidden diversity of endophytic fungi in an invasive plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes are important in plant ecology and common in plants. We attempted to test cointroduction and host-jumping hypotheses on a community basis by comparing endophytes isolated from invasive spotted knapweed ( Centaurea stoebe , Aster- aceae) in its native and invaded ranges. Of 92 combined, sequence-based haplotypes representing eight classes of Fungi, 78 oc- curred in only one of

Alexey Shipunov; George Newcombe; Anil K. H. Raghavendra; Cort L. Anderson

2008-01-01

201

Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds. PMID:25343583

Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

2014-10-24

202

Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes were frequently isolated from mountain birch (Betula pubescens var. tortuosa (Ledeb.) Nyman) leaves at a subarctic site where natural air pollution is low. We tested whether simulated acid rain had any influence on the occurrence of endophytes. Dry controls with only ambient rain and irrigated controls treated with spring water of pH 6 were compared with acid treatments at

M. L. Helander; S. Neuvonen; T. Sieber; O. Petrini

1993-01-01

203

Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

204

Biotechnological potential of plant-associated endophytic fungi: hope versus hype.  

PubMed

The potential of endophytes, particularly endophytic fungi, capable of demonstrating desirable functional traits worth exploitation using red biotechnology is well established. However, these discoveries have not yet translated into industrial bioprocesses for commercial production of biopharmaceuticals using fungal endophytes. Here, we define the current challenges in transforming curiosity driven discoveries into industrial scale endophyte biotechnology. The possible practical, feasible, and sustainable strategies that can lead to harnessing fungal endophyte-mediated pharmaceutical products are discussed. PMID:24703621

Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

2014-06-01

205

Systematics, distribution, and host specificity of grass endophytes.  

PubMed

Clavicipitaceous endophytes (Ascomycetes) are distributed worldwide in many grasses and sedges forming a perennial and often mutualistic association with their hosts. Most endophytes appear to produce alkaloid toxins in infected plants. The high frequency of infection in many grasses and in certain grassland communities may indicate a selective advantage of infected over non-infected host plants due to their toxic effects on grazing animals and insects. Field observations and artificial inoculations of seedlings have demonstrated a high degree of specificity of most endophytes to their host plant, particularly in asexual, seed-borne endophytes. Specific isozyme genotypes found on several host species suggest that host-specific physiological races may occur. Knowledge of host range and host specificity is vital for potential applications of endophytes in pest control. PMID:1344916

Leuchtmann, A

1992-01-01

206

[Endophytic fungi in rose (Rosa hybrida) in Bogota, Colombia].  

PubMed

We have investigated the presence of endophytic fungi associated with rose plants (Rosa hybrida) in Colombia. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of ten ornamental roses plants from gardens cultured in malt extract, peptone, yeast extract agar plates (MPY). We sampled 560 leaves fragments, 56 per sample. Endophytic fungi comprised 92 isolates (16.4%); of these isolates, 41 were classified as sterile mycelium (without reproductive structures that allowed their identification), 31 isolates were identified to genus or to species, and 20 isolates could not be identified at all. The identified endophytic fungi were as follow: Nigrospora oryzae, Aureobasidium spp, Acremonium spp. The fungi Nodulisporium sp, Gliocladium virens, Cladosporium sp, Alternaria sp, Phoma sp and Chaetomium globosum were represented by one isolate each. Since the endophytic fungi are known for their capacity to produce metabolites with biological activity, it is possible that the microorganisms found in this study have potential as antagonist of rose pathogens. PMID:16107167

Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Cepero de Garcia, María Caridad

2005-06-01

207

Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge  

SciTech Connect

A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

2009-04-01

208

Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

2014-02-01

209

Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.  

PubMed

Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed. PMID:24810040

Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

2014-06-01

210

Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins. PMID:23170084

Luz Prieto, Maria; O’Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O’Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.

2012-01-01

211

Assessment of the bacteriocinogenic potential of marine bacteria reveals lichenicidin production by seaweed-derived Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins. PMID:23170084

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Connor, Paula M; Cotter, Paul D; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E

2012-10-01

212

Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

213

Toxin-Producing Ability among Bacillus spp. Outside the Bacillus cereus Group  

PubMed Central

A total of 333 Bacillus spp. isolated from foods, water, and food plants were examined for the production of possible enterotoxins and emetic toxins using a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cells, the boar spermatozoa motility assay, and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Eight strains produced detectable toxins; six strains were cytotoxic, three strains produced putative emetic toxins (different in size from cereulide), and one strain produced both cytotoxin(s) and putative emetic toxin(s). The toxin-producing strains could be assigned to four different species, B. subtilis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus, or B. fusiformis, by using a polyphasic approach including biochemical, chemotaxonomic, and DNA-based analyses. Four of the strains produced cytotoxins that were concentrated by ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis, and two strains produced cytotoxins that were not concentrated by such a treatment. Two cultures maintained full cytotoxic activity, two cultures reduced their activity, and two cultures lost their activity after boiling. The two most cytotoxic strains (both B. mojavensis) were tested for toxin production at different temperatures. One of these strains produced cytotoxin at growth temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C, and no reduction in activity was observed even after 24 h of growth at 42°C. The strains that produced putative emetic toxins were tested for the influence of time and temperature on the toxin production. It was shown that they produced putative emetic toxin faster or just as fast at 30 as at 22°C. None of the cytotoxic strains produced B. cereus-like enterotoxins as tested by PCR or by immunological methods. PMID:15746316

From, Cecilie; Pukall, Rudiger; Schumann, Peter; Hormazábal, Víctor; Granum, Per Einar

2005-01-01

214

Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds.  

PubMed

A fungal endophyte ( Undifilum oxytropis ) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in Oxytropis and Astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds. A quantitative PCR method has been developed to measure the amount of endophyte in Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The limit of quantitation was estimated to be 0.2 pg of endophyte/ng of total DNA. This method of analysis was used to quantify the amount of endophyte in 10 plants each of Oxytropis sericea (white point locoweed), Astragalus mollissimus (wooly locoweed), and Astragalus lentiginosus (spotted locoweed). A significant amount of individual plant variability was observed in endophyte content among individuals in all three species. In one O. sericea and one A. lentiginosus plant swainsonine concentrations were near or below the limit of detection. These plants also had the lowest amounts of endophyte when compared to the other specimens. This method will be a useful tool in further investigating the role the endophyte plays in swainsonine production in various locoweed species. PMID:19545150

Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Welch, Kevin D; Roper, Jessie M; Ralphs, Michael H; Green, Benedict T

2009-07-22

215

Endophytes are hidden producers of maytansine in putterlickia roots.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have lent evidence to the fact that certain so-called plant metabolites are actually biosynthesized by associated microorganisms. In this work, we show that the original source organism(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of the important anticancer and cytotoxic compound maytansine is the endophytic bacterial community harbored specifically within the roots of Putterlickia verrucosa and P. retrospinosa plants. Evaluation of the root endophytic community by chemical characterization of their fermentation products using HPLC-HRMS(n), along with a selective microbiological assay using the maytansine-sensitive type strain Hamigera avellanea revealed the endophytic production of maytansine. This was further confirmed by the presence of AHBA synthase genes in the root endophytic communities. Finally, MALDI-imaging-HRMS was used to demonstrate that maytansine produced by the endophytes is typically accumulated mainly in the root cortex of both plants. Our study, thus, reveals that maytansine is actually a biosynthetic product of root-associated endophytic microorganisms. The knowledge gained from this study provides fundamental insights on the biosynthesis of so-called plant metabolites by endophytes residing in distinct ecological niches. PMID:25478947

Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Kusari, Parijat; Gottfried, Sebastian; Zühlke, Sebastian; Louven, Kathrin; Hentschel, Ute; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

2014-12-26

216

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis---One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most

ERLENDUR HELGASON; O. A. Okstad; DOMINIQUE A. CAUGANT; HENNING A. JOHANSEN; AGNES FOUET; MICHELE MOCK; IDA HEGNA; A.-B. Kolsto

2000-01-01

217

Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue †  

PubMed Central

The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. PMID:16346751

Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

1985-01-01

218

Aquatic hyphomycetes as endophytes of riparian plant roots.  

PubMed

Eighteen species of aquatic hyphomycetes were recorded as root endophytes in roots of living plants including grasses and pteridophytes from wet fields near ravine areas. Alatospora acuminata, A. pulchella, Acaulopage tetraceros, Anguillospora crassa, Campylospora chaetocladia, Lemonniera cornuta, L. pseudofloscula, L. terrestris, Pestalotiopsis submersus and Tetrachaetum elegans were found for the first time as root endophytes. A. longissima, Campylospora purvula, Clavariopsis aquatica, Cylindrocarpon aquaticum, Heliscus lugdunensis, Lunulospora curvula, Tetracladium marchalianum and T. setigerum, which were known previously as root endophytes, are reported here on new hosts. Maximum occurrence was found in November and December. PMID:16389955

Sati, S C; Belwal, M

2005-01-01

219

Fungal endophyte metabolism and allelopathic interactions with host plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity caused by inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisin-producing strains associated with maize cause leaf lesions, develo...

220

Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea.  

PubMed

Locoism is a toxic syndrome of livestock caused by the ingestion of a subset of legumes belonging to the Astragalus and Oxytropis genera known as "locoweeds". Locoweeds contain the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, which is produced by the endophytic fungi Undifilum species. Previously we reported that swainsonine concentrations differ between populations of Oxytropis sericea. We hypothesized that the genotype of the plant, endophyte, or an interaction of the two may be responsible for the differences in swainsonine concentration between populations of O. sericea. To test this hypothesis, plants derived from seeds collected at each location were grown in a common garden, Undifilum oxytropis isolates from each location were cultured and grown in a common environment, and a plant genotype by endophyte cross inoculation was performed. Here we show that the genotype of the endophyte is responsible for the differences in swainsonine concentrations observed in the two populations of O. sericea. PMID:23149419

Cook, Daniel; Grum, Daniel S; Gardner, Dale R; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A

2013-01-01

221

Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi?  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

2011-01-01

222

Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

Russell, Jonathan R; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G; Dantzler, Kathleen W; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H; Mittermiller, Paul A; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A

2011-09-01

223

Diversity of endophytic bacteria within nodules of the Sphaerophysa salsula in different regions of Loess Plateau in China.  

PubMed

A total of 115 endophytic bacteria were isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Sphaerophysa salsula grown in two ecological regions of Loess Plateau in China. The genetic diversity and phylogeny of the strains were revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. Their symbiotic capacity was checked by nodulation tests and analysis of nifH gene sequence. This is the first systematic study on endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsula root nodules. Fifty of the strains found were symbiotic bacteria belonging to eight putative species in the genera Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, harboring similar nifH genes; Mesorhizobium gobiense was the main group and 65 strains were nonsymbiotic bacteria related to 17 species in the genera Paracoccus, Sphingomonas, Inquilinus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Staphylococcus, Lysinibacillus and Bacillus, which were universally coexistent with symbiotic bacteria in the nodules. Differing from other similar studies, the present study is the first time that symbiotic and nonsymbiotic bacteria have been simultaneously isolated from the same root nodules, offering the possibility to accurately reveal the correlation between these two kinds of bacteria. These results provide valuable information about the interactions among the symbiotic bacteria, nonsymbiotic bacteria and their habitats. PMID:21303396

Deng, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Long Fei; Kong, Zhao Yu; Yang, Wen Quan; Lindström, Kristina; Wang, En Tao; Wei, Ge Hong

2011-06-01

224

Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)  

PubMed Central

Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500??g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125??g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 ?g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5??g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125??g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

2014-01-01

225

Diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of two indigenous legumes at different altitudes of the Qilian Mountains in China.  

PubMed

A total of 201 endophytic root nodule-associated bacteria collected from two legumes indigenous to different Qilian Mountain altitudes (Hexi Corridor) were characterized through 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR clustering. The isolates phylogenetically belonged to 35 species in the Phyllobacterium, Ensifer, Rhizobium, Microvirga, Sphingomonas, Paracoccus, Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus, Cohnella, Sporosarcina, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Xenophilus, Erwinia, Leclercia, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas genera. Phylogenetic nodA sequence analysis showed higher similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti with strains related to the Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Acinetobacter genera. Sequence analysis of the nifH gene revealed that the strains belonging to Xenophilus, Acinetobacter, Phyllobacterium, and Rhizobium had genes similar to those of Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium. The results indicated that horizontal gene transfer could have occurred between rhizobia and non-rhizobial endophytes. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that altitude and host plant species contributed more to the bacterial endosymbiont separation than other ecological factors. This study provided valuable information on the interactions between symbiotic bacteria, non-symbiotic bacteria and their habitats, and thus provided knowledge on their genetic diversity and ecology. PMID:24985194

Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Li; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

2014-09-01

226

Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytic Bacteria for Improved Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interior of plants provides habitat for a wide range of bacteria and fungi (endophytes) that benefit the plant host in\\u000a a variety of ways including by phytohormone production, pollutant degradation, increasing nutrient acquisition, stress tolerance,\\u000a and pathogen resistance. The use of nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) endophytes has the potential of decreasing our dependency\\u000a on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that has a number

Sharon Lafferty Doty

227

Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

228

Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts. Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance of herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits are well established in infected int...

229

Genetic characterization of uncultured fungal endophytes from Bouteloua eriopoda and Atriplex canescens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes form cryptic communities in vascular plants which can defy detection and isolation by microscopic examination of reproductive structures. Molecular detection by PCR amplification of fungal DNA sequences alone is insufficient, since target endophyte sequences are unknown a...

230

Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

2014-07-01

231

Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings.  

PubMed

Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (E(high)) or low (E(low)) densities of endophytes. The E(high) seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the E(low) treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from E(low) relative to E(high) seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to E(low) plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

Bittleston, L S; Brockmann, F; Wcislo, W; Van Bael, S A

2011-02-23

232

Antimicrobial Activity and Biodiversity of Endophytic Fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and\\/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in\\u000a D. devonianum were categorized into

Yong-Mei XingJuan; Juan Chen; Jin-Long Cui; Xiao-Mei Chen; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

233

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

234

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Trophic Position of the Endophytic Beetle, Mordellistena aethiops  

E-print Network

of the endophytic mordellid Mordellistena aethiops Smith and subjected plant and insect samples to stable isotope because it kills other endophytic insects (Abrahamson and Weis 1997). Designation of mordellidsCOMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Trophic Position of the Endophytic Beetle, Mordellistena aethiops

Hanks, Lawrence M.

235

Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes  

E-print Network

, and fungal endophytes Keenan M. L. Mack and Jennifer A. Rudgers K. M. L. Mack and J. A. Rudgers (jrudgers, a protective fungal endophyte aboveground, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and nutritional symbionts (arbuscular and applied a fertilizer treatment to individual plants. Endophyte presence in host plants strongly reduced

Rudgers, Jennifer

236

Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae  

E-print Network

Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae be threatened. Because they inhabit the `fuel layer' of prairies, endophytic insects would seem particularly suggest that sufficient numbers of endophytic insects survive burns in remains of Silphium to recolonize

Hanks, Lawrence M.

237

Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

238

DIVERSITY AND HOST RANGE OF FOLIAR FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES: ARE TROPICAL LEAVES BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes are found in asymptomatic photosynthetic tissues of all major lineages of land plants. The ubiquity of these cryptic symbionts is clear, but the scale of their diversity, host range, and geographic distributions are unknown. To explore the putative hyperdiversity of tropical leaf endophytes, we compared endophyte communities along a broad latitudinal gradient from the Canadian arctic to the

A. Elizabeth Arnold; F. Lutzoni

2007-01-01

239

Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants  

E-print Network

with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven their symbiont fungus. The ants' fungal symbiont then partially degrades the leaf material, converting leaf

Bermingham, Eldredge

240

result of alkaloid toxins that the endophytes This example is not generally representa-  

E-print Network

result of alkaloid toxins that the endophytes produce. This example is not generally representa and dynamics of hori- zontally transmitted endophytes, or other mutualistic microbes, is less clear5 . Given that endophytes use their hosts' resources, they must entail some cost to the plant.If the costs outweigh

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

241

Alkaloid Variation Among Epichloid Endophytes of Sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and Consequences for Resistance to Insect Herbivores.  

PubMed

Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties. PMID:25501262

Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

2015-01-01

242

Measuring diversity of endophytic fungi in leaf fragments: Does size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi inhabit living plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. Although abundant, the extent of their contribution to fungal biodiversity remains unclear. Since endophytic fungi are poorly known, especially in the tropics, current estimates of fungal species are probably conservative. Here we tested strategies for sampling endophytic fungi in tropical plants. We compared the number of fungi isolated from 400

Miguel A. Gamboa; Sugei Laureano; Paul Bayman

2003-01-01

243

Leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material that is relatively low in fungal endophyte content. Such a preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in thei...

244

Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

245

Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, A. D., Clement, S. L., and Kaiser, W. J. 1991. Survey and detection of endophytic fungi in Lolium germ plasm by direct staining and aphid assays. Plant Dis. 75:169-173. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of

A. DAN WILSON; STEPHEN L. CLEMENT; WALTER J. KAISER

246

Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials  

PubMed Central

Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as “handed down data” in family generations. May need a second, third and more “in-depth investigations?” PMID:25620957

Deshmukh, Sunil K.; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Bhave, Sarita V.

2015-01-01

247

Competitive inhibition of the inverting beta-xylosidase of Bacillus pumilus 12 by monosaccharide derivatives of different structural and conformational types. A possible natural substrate.  

PubMed Central

The title enzyme is competitively inhibited by compounds, for example alpha-D-xylopyranosylpyridinium salts and 1,6-anhydro-D-glucopyranose, for which the normal 4C1 conformation of the xylopyranose ring is precluded. It is competitively inhibited by compounds, for example beta-D-xylopyranosylpyridinium salts and 1,6-anhydro-L-idopyranose, for which the 1C4 conformation is precluded, and which have no accessible conformations in common with the first set of inhibitors. It is also competitively inhibited by alpha-L-arabinofuranosides. Inhibition by 1,6-anhydroglucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro-L-idopyranose and L-arabinono-gamma-lactone is competitive with respect to each other. alpha-D-Xylopyranosyl fluoride is not a detectable substrate, by itself or in the presence of a representative of any of the three types of inhibitor. On the basis of these and literature data, it is proposed that the natural substrate is a hemicellulose fragment containing the D-Xylp beta (1 leads to 4)-[L-Araf alpha (1 leads to 3)]D-Xylp structure. Tentative inferences about the catalytic mechanism can also be drawn. PMID:6414465

Marshall, P J; Sinnott, M L

1983-01-01

248

Reemergence of covert bacteria Bacillus pumilus and Brevibacillus sp. in microbe-freed grape and watermelon stocks attributable to occasional autoclaving-defying residual spores from previous cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covert bacteria-harboring long-term micropropagated culture of grape that was sanitized of associated microbes as assessed through the indexing of tissue and medium for several passages (Thomas and Prakash (2004) In Vitro – Plant 40:603–607) showed reemergence of bacteria in a section of cultures (3\\/40) during the subsequent screening. Similarly, long-term propagated triploid watermelon cultures showed bacterial reentry in some sub-stocks

Pious Thomas

2006-01-01

249

Multi-target and medium-independent fungal antagonism by hydrolytic enzymes in Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus pumilus strains from barley rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucanolytic bacteria from barley rhizosphere soil were isolated by a procedure selecting for isolates with ?-glucosidase activity. Almost all isolates were fast-growing, Gram-positive rods. Sixteen out of 100 isolates showed in vitro fungal antagonism against widely different plant-pathogenic microfungi (Aphanomyces cochleoides, Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani). The 16 isolates shared a characteristic profile of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, comprising glucanolytic (cellulase, mannanase

Preben Nielsen; Jan Sørensen

1997-01-01

250

Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.  

PubMed

Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic fungi play in the galls induced by the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). PMID:22732600

Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

2012-06-01

251

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.  

PubMed

To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

2014-04-01

252

Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes? †  

PubMed Central

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

253

Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

2014-01-01

254

[Xylanase activity of phytopathogenic and endophytic strains of Ceratocystis sp].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of xylanase activity of 36 phytopathogenic and endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains was conducted. The rate of their linear growth on the medium with xylan was studied. The rate of linear growth of phytopathogenic strains was 0.003-0.004 mm/h that was almost 70 times less than in endophytic ones. There were no correlation between levels of xylanase activity of studied strains and rates of their linear growth. Xylanase activity ofendophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains varied from complete absence to high level. Phytopathogenic strains possessed only high xylanase activity; maximum values of their xylanase activity zones were three times more than in endophytic strains. The differences in xylanase activity were observed on the strain level. The xylanase activity of 24% endophytic and 64% phytopathogenic strains became higher with increasing of cultivation period. The clear dependence of xylanase activity on the species and organs of host plants was not demonstrated. It was shown that the xylanase activity level of phytopathogenic Ceratocystis sp. strains was too much higher than in such phytopathogens as Fusarium poae, F. oxysporum and Alternaria alternata strains. The conclusion was made that the studied endophytic Ceratocystis sp. strains can be related to latent pathogens, which are able to cause the diseases of host plants in conditions favorable for them. PMID:21117291

Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Iur'ieva, O M

2010-01-01

255

Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC) and fermentation broth (FB) were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC) and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB) displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents. PMID:23190550

2012-01-01

256

Botrytis species: relentless necrotrophic thugs or endophytes gone rogue?  

PubMed

Plant pathology has a long-standing tradition of classifying microbes as pathogens, endophytes or saprophytes. Lifestyles of pathogens are categorized as biotrophic, necrotrophic or hemibiotrophic. Botrytis species are considered by many to be archetypal examples of necrotrophic fungi, with B.?cinerea being the most extensively studied species because of its broad host range and economic impact. In this review, we discuss recent work which illustrates that B.?cinerea is capable of colonizing plants internally, presumably as an endophyte, without causing any disease or stress symptoms. The extent of the facultative endophytic behaviour of B.?cinerea and its relevance in the ecology and disease epidemiology may be vastly underestimated. Moreover, we discuss the recent discovery of a novel Botrytis species, B.?deweyae, which normally grows as an endophyte in ornamental daylilies (Hemerocallis), but displays facultative pathogenic behaviour, and is increasingly causing economic damage. We propose that the emergence of endophytes 'gone rogue' as novel diseases may be related to increased inbreeding of hybrid lines and reduced genetic diversity. These observations lead us to argue that the sometimes inflexible classification of pathogenic microbes by their lifestyles requires serious reconsideration. There is much more variety to the interactions of Botrytis with its hosts than the eye (or the plant pathologist) can see, and this may be true for other microbes interacting with plants. PMID:24754470

van Kan, Jan A L; Shaw, Michael W; Grant-Downton, Robert T

2014-12-01

257

Endophytic fungi: expanding the arsenal of industrial enzyme producers.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi, mostly belonging to the Ascomycota, are found in the intercellular spaces of the aerial plant parts, particularly in leaf sheaths, sometimes even within the bark and root system without inducing any visual symptoms of their presence. These fungi appear to have a capacity to produce a wide range of enzymes and secondary metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activities. However, they have been only barely exploited as sources of enzymes of industrial interest. This review emphasizes the suitability and possible advantages of including the endophytic fungi in the screening of new enzyme producing organisms as well as in studies aiming to optimize the production of enzymes through well-known culture processes. Apparently endophytic fungi possess the two types of extracellular enzymatic systems necessary to degrade the vegetal biomass: (1) the hydrolytic system responsible for polysaccharide degradation consisting mainly in xylanases and cellulases; and (2) the unique oxidative ligninolytic system, which degrades lignin and opens phenyl rings, comprises mainly laccases, ligninases and peroxidases. The obvious ability of endophytic fungi to degrade the complex structure of lignocellulose makes them useful in the exploration of the lignocellulosic biomass for the production of fuel ethanol and other value-added commodity chemicals. In addition to this, endophytic fungi may become new sources of industrially useful enzymes such as lipases, amylases and proteases. PMID:25117531

Corrêa, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes; Rhoden, Sandro Augusto; Mota, Thatiane Rodrigues; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2014-10-01

258

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

259

A bioinformatics approach to the determination of genes involved in endophytic behavior in Burkholderia spp.  

PubMed

The vast majority of plants harbor endophytic bacteria that colonize a portion of the plant's interior tissues without harming the plant. Like plant pathogens, endophytes gain entry into their plants hosts through various mechanisms. Bacterial endophytes display a broad range of symbiotic interactions with their host plants. The molecular bases of these plant-endophyte interactions are currently not fully understood. In the present study, a set of genes possibly responsible for endophytic behavior for genus Burkholderia was predicted and then compared and contrasted with a number (nine endophytes from different genera) of endophytes by comparative genome analysis. The nine endophytes included Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, Burkholderia spp. strain JK006, Azospirillum lipoferum 4B, Enterobacter cloacae ENHKU01, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Pseudomonas putida W619, Enterobacter spp. 638, Azoarcus spp. BH72, and Serratia proteamaculans 568. From the genomes of the analyzed bacterial strains, a set of bacterial genes orthologs was identified that are predicted to be involved in determining the endophytic behavior of Burkholderia spp. The genes and their possible functions were then investigated to establish a potential connection between their presence and the role they play in bacterial endophytic behavior. Nearly all of the genes identified by this bioinformatics procedure encode function previously suggested in other studies to be involved in endophytic behavior. PMID:24513137

Ali, Shimaila; Duan, Jin; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R

2014-02-21

260

Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Growing Shoot Tips of Banana ( Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the Affinity of Endophytes to the Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a\\u000a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and\\u000a to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central\\u000a core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient

Pious Thomas; Thyvalappil A. Soly

2009-01-01

261

Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata and Pteris multifida.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized As-resistant endophytic bacteria (AEB) from two arsenic hyperaccumulators. Their plant growth promoting traits and the relation between As tolerance and transformation were evaluated. A total of 41 and 33 AEB were isolated from Pteris vittata (PV) and Pteris multifida (PM) respectively. PV AEB represented 2genera while PM AEB comprised of 12 genera, with Bacillus sp. being the most dominant bacteria from both plants. All AEB had limited ability in solubilizing P and producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. All isolates tolerated 10mM arsenate (As(V)), with PV isolates being more tolerant to As(V) and PM more tolerant to arsenite (As(III)). Bacterial arsenic tolerance was related to their ability in As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction as well as their ability to retain As in the biomass to a varying extent. Though AEB showed limited plant growth promoting traits, they were important in arsenic tolerance and speciation in plants. PMID:25065783

Zhu, Ling-Jia; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

2014-10-01

262

Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

2006-06-01

263

Essential Bacillus subtilis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively

K. Kobayashi; S. D. Ehrlichb; A. Albertini; G. Amati; K. Asaig Arnaudf; M. Arnaud; K. Asai; S. Ashikaga; S. Aymerich; P. Bessieres; F. Boland; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; K. Bunai; J. Chapuis; L. C. Christiansen; A. Danchin; M. Débarbouillé; E. Dervyn; E. Deuerling; K. Devine; S. K. Devine; O. Dreesen; J. Errington; S. Fillinger; S. J. Foster; Y. Fujita; A. Galizzi; R. Gardan; C. Eschevins; T. Fukushima; K. Haga; C. R. Harwood; M. Hecker; D. Hosoya; M. F. Hullo; H. Kakeshita; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; F. Kawamura; K. Koga; P. Koski; R. Kuwana; D. Imamura; M. Ishimaru; S. Ishikawa; I. Ishio; D. Le Coq; A. Masson; C. Mauël; R. Meima; R. P. Mellado; A. Moir; S. Moriya; E. Nagakawa; H. Nanamiya; S. Nakai; P. Nygaard; M. Ogura; T. Ohanan; M. O'Reilly; M. O'Rourke; Z. Pragai; H. M. Pooley; G. Rapoport; J. P. Rawlins; L. A. Rivas; C. Rivolta; A. Sadaie; Y. Sadaie; M. Sarvas; T. Sato; H. H. Saxild; E. Scanlan; W. Schumann; J. F. Seegers; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; M. Simon; P. Stragier; R. Studer; H. Takamatsu; T. Tanaka; M. Takeuchi; H. B. Thomaides; V. Vagner; J. M. van Dijl; K. Watabe; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; M. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H. Yoshikawa; U. Zuber; N. Ogasawara

2003-01-01

264

Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Endophytic microorganisms are to be found in virtually every plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. Because of what appears to be their contribution to the host plant, the endophytes may produce a plethora of substances of potential use to modern medicine, agriculture, and industry. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation, culture, purification, and characterization of some choice endophytes in the recent past. The potential prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great. PMID:14665674

Strobel, Gary; Daisy, Bryn

2003-01-01

265

Mutualistic asexual endophytes in a native grass are usually parasitic.  

PubMed

Asexual systemic fungi that live symbiotically within grasses are viewed as strong mutualists on the basis of theory and empirical studies of introduced agronomic grasses. Evolutionary theory predicts that microbial symbionts that lose sexuality and rely on propagules of their hosts for transmission should evolve to benefit their hosts. Fungal endophytes of some cultivated turf and pasture grasses are well known for increasing plant performance and competitive abilities, especially under stress, and increasing resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and root-feeders by virtue of fungal alkaloids. The assumption of mutualism, however, has rarely been tested in native grasses, which often harbor high but variable frequencies of systemic asexual endophytes. We tested the effect of Neotyphodium infections for the native grass Arizona fescue in a 3-yr field experiment. We strictly controlled host genotype and manipulated soil moisture and nutrients. Infection generally decreased host growth in terms of plant volume, number of tillers, and dry mass of shoots and roots. Infected plants also showed decreased reproduction in terms of number and mass of seeds, and the seeds produced by infected plants had lower germination success than plants without their endophytes, suggesting that the negative effects of the symbiont are transferred to the next generation. Plant genotype strongly influenced host's growth and reproduction and interacted with the presence of the endophyte, but the interaction was usually in the direction of negative effects. Our results challenge the notion that systemic asexual endophytes must be plant mutualists for infections to persist in nature. We propose other hypotheses to explain the variable but usually high endophyte frequencies in natural populations of grasses. PMID:12675375

Faeth, Stanley H; Sullivan, T J

2003-02-01

266

The role of the Oregon state university endophyte service laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.  

PubMed

The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

2014-07-30

267

Screening of endophytic fungi with antithrombotic activity and identification of a bioactive metabolite from the endophytic fungal strain CPCC 480097.  

PubMed

Fermentation extracts from 1,075 endophytic fungi were screened by the Markwardt method. The endophytic strain CPCC 480097 had the strongest antithrombotic activity and was identified as Fusarium sp. based on morphologic tests and internal transcriptional spacer sequence analysis. The target of the antithrombotic agent from the endophytic strain CPCC 480097 was identified by analysis of the fibrinogen clotting time, amidolytic activity, and fibrinolytic assay. The results showed that this antithrombotic agent is a 28-kDa single-chain fibrinolytic enzyme. The identification of this fibrinolytic enzyme was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The two internal sequences of this enzyme were obtained, and these showed no homology with those of other known fibrinolytic enzymes. PMID:19198939

Wu, Bin; Wu, Licheng; Ruan, Lingao; Ge, Mei; Chen, Daijie

2009-05-01

268

Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis  

E-print Network

LETTER Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis Jennie Garbutt,1 infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Antagonism, Bacillus thuringiensis, evolution of virulence, interference competition, mixed infection, social

Obbard, Darren

269

Bacillus weihenstephanensis characteristics are present in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides strains.  

PubMed

The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus cytotoxicus, and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. Bacillus weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its capability to grow at 7 °C but not at 43 °C, and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA and cspA genes and in several housekeeping genes: glpF, gmK, purH, and tpi. Bacillus weihenstephanensis-specific signature sequences were found in some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains suggesting psychrotolerance. This was confirmed by growth at 7 °C but not at 43 °C. The other B. cereus and B. mycoides strains and all B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. pseudomycoides harbored the mesophilic signature sequences. The strains tested grew at 43 °C but did not grow at 7 °C. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Three groups and one branch were revealed. Group I, II, and III comprised the mesophilic B. cereus, some mesophilic B. mycoides, and all B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis strains; the psychrotolerant B. cereus and B. mycoides, and all B. weihenstephanensis strains; and some mesophilic B. mycoides and all B. pseudomycoides strains, respectively. The branch corresponds to the single B. cytotoxicus strain. Based on psychrotolerance and multilocus sequence analysis, further confirmed by comparisons of amino acid sequences, we show that some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains should be reclassified as B. weihenstephanensis. PMID:23413955

Soufiane, Brahim; Côté, Jean-Charles

2013-04-01

270

FUSARIC ACID, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDIES MIASMA TO BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS, A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antagonisms among microorganisms are strategies that maintain both inter- and intra- specific competition, which is particularly important among those microorganisms that are ecological homologues. Fusarium verticillioides is systemically localized in corn and is prevalent in the roots as opposed t...

271

Relationships among non-Acremonium sp. fungal endophytes in five grass species.  

PubMed Central

Many cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae) possess maternally transmitted fungal symbionts which cause no known pathology and often enhance the ecological fitness and biochemical capabilities of the grass hosts. The most commonly described endophytes are the Acremonium section Albo-lanosa spp. (Acremonium endophytes), which are conidial anamorphs (strictly asexual forms) of Epichloë typhina. Other endophytes which have been noted are a Gliocladium-like fungus in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and a Phialophora-like fungus in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Here, we report the identification of additional non-Acremonium sp. endophytes (herein designated p-endophytes) in three more grass species: Festuca gigantea, Festuca arizonica, and Festuca pratensis. In each grass species, the p-endophyte was cosymbiotic with an Acremonium endophyte. Serological analysis and sequence determinations of variable portions of their rRNA genes indicated that the two previously identified non-Acremonium endophytes are closely related to each other and to the newly identified p-endophytes. Therefore, the p-endophytes represent a second group of widely distributed grass symbionts. Images PMID:8517749

An, Z Q; Siegel, M R; Hollin, W; Tsai, H F; Schmidt, D; Schardl, C L

1993-01-01

272

Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

273

Endophytic bacteria: Prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops. PMID:25078615

Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Sessitsch, Angela

2014-12-01

274

[Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].  

PubMed

A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei. PMID:25345060

2014-07-01

275

Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 comparable with HD-1. Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8, Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30, Om-4, Po-2, Po-5, Po-7, Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz., Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T. castaneum larvae, had cry1 genes along with coleopteran active cry28 genes, but not cry3 genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp., one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pumilus, four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides. PMID:24956895

Gorashi, N E; Tripathi, M; Kalia, V; Gujar, G T

2014-06-01

276

Detection of Uncultured Seed Borne Endophytes in Atriplex canesens: Methods used in: “Seed Borne Endophyte Microbiomes are Associated with Vascular Plants”  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micropropagated systems provide controlled habitats in which complex plant-endophyte interactions can be studied with minimal interference from superficial microbes. The series of protocols described herein can be used to examine seed borne endophyte consortia associated with woody plant species. ...

277

Bacterial community compositions of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) seeds and plant growth promoting activity of ACC deaminase producing Bacillus subtilis (HYT-12-1) on tomato seedlings.  

PubMed

Study of endophytic bacteria within plant seeds is very essential and meaningful on account of their heritability and versatility. This study investigated Bacillus bacterial communities within the seeds of four commercial tomato varieties, by 16S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the 22 representative isolates belonged to five species of genus Bacillus and the bacterial compositions showed remarkable differences among tomato varieties. Isolates exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits: 37 % of indole-3-acetic acid production; 37 % of phosphate solubilization; 24 % of siderophores production; 85 % of potential nitrogen fixation and 6 % of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Isolate HYT-12-1 was shown to have highest ACC deaminase activity (112.02 nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg?¹ protein h?¹) among the five ACC deamiase producing strains. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolate HYT-12-1 shared the highest sequence similarity (100 %) with B. subtilis. PGP experiments under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions revealed the ability of strain HYT-12-1 to enhance the growth of tomato seedlings. This is the first study to describe endophytic Bacillus communities within tomato seeds, and the results suggest that B. subtilis strain HYT-12-1 would have a great potential for industrial application as biofertilizer in the future. PMID:24114316

Xu, Mingshuang; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Men, Yejun; Gan, Lin; Guo, Shuntang; Shen, Lin

2014-03-01

278

Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine was detected in all parts of Astragalus lentiginosus and Astragalus mollissimus with greater concentrations found in the above ground parts. Undifilum oxytropis, a fungal endophyte re...

279

Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

280

Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans  

PubMed Central

Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment. PMID:24587715

Nair, Dhanya N.; Padmavathy, S.

2014-01-01

281

PENICILLIUM SPECIES ENDOPHYTIC IN COFFEE PLANTS AND OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tissues from Coffea arabica, C. liberica, C. dewevrei and C. congensis collected in Hawaii, Colombia and at a local plant nursery in Maryland were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized tissues including roots, leaves, stems, and various part of the berry were plated on y...

282

Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants? †  

PubMed Central

The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

2010-01-01

283

Trimeric anthracenes from the endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum.  

PubMed

The first naturally occurring trimeric anthracene derivatives, stemphylanthranols A and B (1 and 2), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Stemphylium globuliferum that had been isolated from Juncus actus growing in Egypt. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR, and by HRMS. A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for the new trimers is proposed. PMID:25010124

Liu, Yang; Wray, Victor; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Wang, Chang-Yun; Lai, Daowan; Proksch, Peter

2014-07-25

284

Metabolites of Pestalotiopsis spp., endophytic fungi of Taxus brevifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Pestalotiopsis spp. (JCM 9685 and JCM 9686), endophytic fungi of Taxus brevifolia, produced several new compounds when grown in liquid culture. Detailed investigation on the first of these strains revealed that five of these metabolites were sesquiterpenes: three of the caryophyllene type, pestalotiopsin A, B and C, one possessing the humulane skeleton, and the last one was

Maurizio Pulici; Fumio Sugawara; Hiroyuki Koshino; Gen Okada; Yasuaki Esumi; Jun Uzawa; Shigeo Yoshida

1997-01-01

285

Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

2014-01-01

286

Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus.  

PubMed

Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that induce locoism due to the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine was detected in all parts of Astragalus lentiginosus and Astragalus mollissimus , with greater concentrations found in the aboveground parts. Undifilum oxytropis , a fungal endophyte responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine, was detected in all plant parts of A. lentiginosus and A. mollissimus. The amount of endophyte within a plant part does not always correspond to the concentration of swainsonine in the same part. Plants of A. mollissimus and A. lentiginosus can be divided into two chemotypes: those that contain swainsonine (>0.1%; chemotype 1) and those that contain little or no detectable swainsonine (<0.01%; chemotype 2). Chemotype 1 plants in both species had quantitatively higher amounts of endophyte compared to chemotype 2 plants. Swainsonine and endophyte amounts were not uniformly distributed within stalks of the same plant. For that reason, repeated sampling of stalks from the same plant during one growing season may provide misleading results. Sequence variants of U. oxytropis exist within populations of A. mollissimus, A. lentiginosus, and Oxytropis sericea and do not correlate with chemotype. These findings suggest several possible reasons for differential concentrations of swainsonine that will be tested in future work. PMID:21214242

Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Grum, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Ralphs, Michael H; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T

2011-02-23

287

Endophytic Phomopsis species: host range and implications for diversity estimates.  

PubMed

Foliar endophyte assemblages of teak trees growing in dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve were compared. A species of Phomopsis dominated the endophyte assemblages of teak, irrespective of the location of the host trees. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis of 11 different Phomopsis isolates (ten from teak and one from Cassia fistula) showed that they fall into two groups, which are separated by a relatively long branch that is strongly supported. The results showed that this fungus is not host restricted and that it continues to survive as a saprotroph in teak leaf, possibly by exploiting senescent leaves as well as the litter. Although the endophyte assemblage of a teak tree growing about 500 km from the forests was also dominated by a Phomopsis sp., it separated into a different group based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Our results with an endophytic Phomopsis sp. reinforce the earlier conclusions reached by others for pathogenic Phomopsis sp., i.e., that this fungus is not host specific, and the species concept of Phomopsis needs to be redefined. PMID:16917524

Murali, T S; Suryanarayanan, T S; Geeta, R

2006-07-01

288

Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.  

PubMed

Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species. PMID:21475991

Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

2011-08-01

289

Occurrence of Fungal Endophytes in Species of Wild Triticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

creased while the cost of producing the food be de- creased. The strategic use of naturally occurring Seedborne, nonpathogenic, fungal endophytes are commonly organisms to control pest populations and increase pro- found in symbiotic relationships with many members of the cool- season grass subfamily Pooideae. The beneficial effects on plants duction of major crops represents a viable option to possessing

D. Marshall; B. Tunali; L. R. Nelson

290

Plant root carbohydrates affect growth behaviour of endophytic microfungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peucedanum alsaticum and Peucedanum cervaria represent characteristic umbellifers (Apiaceae) of calcareous grasslands in Central and Eastern Europe. Both accumulate glucose, fructose, mannitol and sucrose as dominant carbohydrates in their roots. The objective of the study was to determine if endophytes utilise host plant carbohydrates differently than rhizosphere and bulk soil microfungi. Inula ensifolia (Asteraceae), Lathyrus latifolius (Fabaceae) and Bromus erectus

Franz Hadacek; Günther F Kraus

2002-01-01

291

Extracellular Hemicellulolytic Enzymes from the Maize Endophyte Acremonium zeae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize endophyte Acremonium zeae was examined for production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. The most prominent enzyme activity in cell-free culture media from A. zeae NRRL 6415 was xylanase, with a specific activity of 60 U/mg from cultures grown on crude co...

292

Isolation and characterization of endophytic fungi from Camptotheca acuminata.  

PubMed

In this study, a total of 161 endophytic fungal isolates from Camptotheca acuminata were obtained and classified to 16 taxa according to morphological and molecular analysis. These taxa were composed of 2 frequent genera (Botryosphaeria and Fusarium) and 14 infrequent groups such as Xylaria, Diaporthe, Rhizopus, Epicoccum, and Preussia, demonstrating that fungal endophytes in C. acuminata were highly abundant and diverse. Antimicrobial activity screening using filter-paper diffusion method showed that 47.6 % of the tested isolates had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. Screening of fungal endophyte-derived camptothecin analogues by TLC and LC-MS/MS³ demonstrated that a strain Botryosphaeria dothidea, X-4 could produce 9-methoxycamptothecin (9-MCPT) when cultured in Sabouraud's dextrose broth for 12 days under shake flask and bench-scale fermention conditions. This work showed that the fungal endophytes from C. acuminata could be an alternative source for the production of 9-MCPT and other natural antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23579767

Ding, Xiaowei; Liu, Kaihui; Deng, Baiwan; Chen, Wenqiang; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Feihu

2013-10-01

293

Impact of endophytic microorganisms on plants, environment and humans.  

PubMed

Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment. PMID:24587715

Nair, Dhanya N; Padmavathy, S

2014-01-01

294

Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented. PMID:24048641

St?pniewska, Z; Ku?niar, A

2013-11-01

295

Epichloë endophytes alter inducible indirect defences in host grasses.  

PubMed

Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë-grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

Li, Tao; Blande, James D; Gundel, Pedro E; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2014-01-01

296

Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses  

PubMed Central

Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2014-01-01

297

Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations\\u000a found in the above ground parts. A fungal endophyte, Undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species, is responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine. By using quantitative PCR, the endophyte\\u000a can be quantified in locoweed species. Endophyte

Daniel Cook; Dale R. Gardner; Michael H. Ralphs; James A. Pfister; Kevin D. Welch; Benedict T. Green

2009-01-01

298

A Phylogenetic Evaluation of Whether Endophytes Become Saprotrophs at Host Senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes and saprotrophs generally play an important ecological role within plant tissues and dead plant material.\\u000a Several reports based solely on morphological observations have postulated that there is an intimate link between endophytes\\u000a and saprotrophs. This study aims to provide valuable insight as to whether some endophytic fungi manifest themselves as saprotrophs\\u000a upon host decay. Ribosomal DNA-based sequence comparison

Itthayakorn Promputtha; Saisamorn Lumyong; Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran; Eric Huge Charles McKenzie; Kevin David Hyde; Rajesh Jeewon

2007-01-01

299

Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest. PMID:23140096

2012-01-01

300

Asexual Endophytes in a Native Grass: Tradeoffs in Mortality, Growth, Reproduction, and Alkaloid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts.\\u000a Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance to herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits\\u000a are well established in infected introduced, agronomic grasses, little is known about the cost and benefits of endophyte infection\\u000a in native grass populations. These populations exist as mosaics

Stanley H. Faeth; Cinnamon J. Hayes; Dale R. Gardner

2010-01-01

301

Effects of endophytic fungi on some drought tolerance mechanisms of tall fescue in a hydroponics culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium, a seed-transmissible nonpathogenic fungal endophyte (symbiont) is considered beneficial because endophyte-infected grasses\\u000a are more drought-tolerant, produce more dry matter, utilize soil nitrogen more efficiently, and deter insects. In this study,\\u000a the effects of endophytes on physiological mechanisms of drought tolerance in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in a greenhouse. Two clonally propagated genotypes of tall fescue (F.

F. Bayat; A. Mirlohi; M. Khodambashi

2009-01-01

302

Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore preference and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungal symbionts of grasses are well known for their protective benefit of herbivory reduction. However, the majority\\u000a of studies on endophyte–grass symbioses have been conducted on economically important, agricultural species—particularly tall\\u000a fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)—raising the hypothesis that strong benefits are the product of artificial selection. We examined whether fungal endophytes\\u000a found in natural populations

Kerri M. CrawfordJohn; John M. Land; Jennifer A. Rudgers

2010-01-01

303

Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.  

PubMed

Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

2013-01-01

304

The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

2010-11-01

305

Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?  

PubMed

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

2013-05-01

306

A fungal endophyte induces transcription of genes encoding a redundant fungicide pathway in its host plant  

PubMed Central

Background Taxol is an anti-cancer drug harvested from Taxus trees, proposed ecologically to act as a fungicide. Taxus is host to fungal endophytes, defined as organisms that inhabit plants without causing disease. The Taxus endophytes have been shown to synthesize Taxol in vitro, providing Taxus with a second potential biosynthetic route for this protective metabolite. Taxol levels in plants vary 125-fold between individual trees, but the underlying reason has remained unknown. Results Comparing Taxus trees or branches within a tree, correlations were observed between Taxol content, and quantity of its resident Taxol-producing endophyte, Paraconiothyrium SSM001. Depletion of fungal endophyte in planta by fungicide reduced plant Taxol accumulation. Fungicide treatment of intact plants caused concomitant decreases in transcript and/or protein levels corresponding to two critical genes required for plant Taxol biosynthesis. Taxol showed fungicidal activity against fungal pathogens of conifer wood, the natural habitat of the Taxol-producing endophyte. Consistent with other Taxol-producing endophytes, SSM001 was resistant to Taxol. Conclusions These results suggest that the variation in Taxol content between intact Taxus plants and/or tissues is at least in part caused by varying degrees of transcriptional elicitation of plant Taxol biosynthetic genes by its Taxol-producing endophyte. As Taxol is a fungicide, and the endophyte is resistant to Taxol, we discuss how this endophyte strategy may be to prevent colonization by its fungal competitors but at minimal metabolic cost to itself. PMID:23802696

2013-01-01

307

Fungal endophytes directly increase the competitive effects of an invasive forb.  

PubMed

Competitive outcomes among plants can vary in different abiotic and biotic conditions. Here we tested the effects of two phylotypes of Alternaria endophytes on the growth, competitive effects, and competitive responses of the exotic invasive forb Centaurea stoebe. Centaurea stoebe was a better competitor against North American grass species than grasses from its European home range in the absence of endophytes. However, one endophyte both increased the biomass of C. stoebe and reduced the competitive effect of North American grasses on C. stoebe. The competitive effects of C. stoebe on grass species native to North America were enhanced by both fungal endophytes, but not for native European grasses. We do not know the mechanism by which endophytes increased C. stoebe's competitive ability, and particularly against biogeographically new neighbors, but one endophyte increased the competitive ability of C. stoebe without increasing its size, suggesting mechanisms unrelated to increased growth. We tested only a fraction of the different endophytic fungi that have been found in C. stoebe, only scratching the surface of understanding their indirect effects. However, our results are the first to demonstrate such effects of a fungal endophyte infecting an invasive forb, and one of the few to show that endophyte effects on competition do not have to be mediated through herbivory. PMID:22486080

Aschehoug, Erik T; Metlen, Kerry L; Callaway, Ragan M; Newcombe, George

2012-01-01

308

Bacillus arenosi sp. nov., Bacillus arvi sp. nov. and Bacillus humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A group of nine Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria was isolated from soil of the Drentse A agricultural research area in The Netherlands. Using (GTG)5-PCR genomic fingerprinting and fatty acid analysis, the nine isolates were divided into three consistent groups. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of representative strains, the nine isolates were shown to belong to the genus Bacillus. The first group of four isolates was most closely related to Bacillus carboniphilus (95.5 %) and Bacillus sporothermodurans (95.5 %). The second and third groups of three and two isolates, respectively, showed highest sequence similarity to Bacillus neidei (97.0 and 97.1 %, respectively) and Bacillus pycnus (both 96.7 %). A DNA-DNA relatedness study confirmed the consistency of the three groups delineated by (GTG)5-PCR and fatty acid analysis. A small number of phenotypic characters allowed differentiation of the three groups of isolates. The three groups therefore represent novel species, for which the names Bacillus humi, Bacillus arenosi and Bacillus arvi are proposed, with LMG 22167T (=DSM 16318T), LMG 22166T (=DSM 16319T) and LMG 22165T (=DSM 16317T) as the respective type strains. PMID:15653863

Heyrman, Jeroen; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Devos, Joke; Felske, Andreas; Logan, Niall A; De Vos, Paul

2005-01-01

309

77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elicitor of Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain...Elicitor of Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain...certain virus, fungi, and bacteria pathogens. Contact: Jeannine...Biochemical Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) Inducer with...

2012-06-27

310

Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants  

PubMed Central

Summary The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP?marked bacteria could be re?isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control. PMID:21255282

Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Érica Soares; Praça, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin

2009-01-01

311

Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes to invasion by the non-native  

E-print Network

endophytes. These microorganisms can mitigate nutrient and water limitation, improve compet- itive abilityPotential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes grass, Poa alsodes, and a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) improved the grass's ability to compete

Whitney, Kenneth

312

Enhancement of the immune response and protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus by indigenous probiotic Bacillus strains in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).  

PubMed

In a previous study, bacterial communities of the intestine in three populations of crabs (wild crabs, pond-raised healthy crabs and diseased crabs) were probed by culture-independent methods. In this study, we examined the intestinal communities of the crabs by bacterial cultivation with a variety of media. A total of 135 bacterial strains were isolated from three populations of mud crabs. The strains were screened for antagonistic activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus using an agar spot assay. Antagonistic strains were then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Three strains (Bacillus subtilis DCU, Bacillus pumilus BP, Bacillus cereus HL7) with the strongest antagonistic activity were further evaluated for their probiotic characteristics. The results showed that two (BP and DCU) of them were able to survive low pH and high bile concentrations, showed good adherence characteristics and a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance. The probiotic effects were then tested by feeding juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) with foods supplemented with 10(5) CFU/g of BP or DCU for 30 days before being subjected to an immersion challenge with V. parahaemolyticus for 48 h. The treated crabs showed significantly higher expression levels of immune related genes (CAT, proPO and SOD) and activities of respiratory burst than that in controlled groups. Crabs treated with BP and DCU supplemented diets exhibited survival rates of 76.67% and 78.33%, respectively, whereas survival rate was 54.88% in crabs not treated with the probiotics. The data showed that indigenous mud-associated microbiota, such as DCU and BP, have potential application in controlling pathogenic Vibriosis in mud crab aquaculture. PMID:25193866

Wu, Hui-Juan; Sun, Ling-Bin; Li, Chuan-Biao; Li, Zhong-Zhen; Zhang, Zhao; Wen, Xiao-Bo; Hu, Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Ling; Li, Sheng-Kang

2014-12-01

313

Screening Mangrove Endophytic Fungi for Antimalarial Natural Products  

PubMed Central

We conducted a screening campaign to investigate fungi as a source for new antimalarial compounds. A subset of our fungal collection comprising Chinese mangrove endophytes provided over 5000 lipophilic extracts. We developed an accelerated discovery program based on small-scale cultivation for crude extract screening and a high-throughput malaria assay. Criteria for hits were developed and high priority hits were subjected to scale-up cultivation. Extracts from large scale cultivation were fractionated and these fractions subjected to both in vitro malaria and cytotoxicity screening. Criteria for advancing fractions to purification were developed, including the introduction of a selectivity index and by dereplication of known metabolites. From the Chinese mangrove endophytes, four new compounds (14–16, 18) were isolated including a new dimeric tetrahydroxanthone, dicerandrol D (14), which was found to display the most favorable bioactivity profile. PMID:24351903

Calcul, Laurent; Waterman, Carrie; Ma, Wai Sheung; Lebar, Matthew D.; Harter, Charles; Mutka, Tina; Morton, Lindsay; Maignan, Patrick; Van Olphen, Alberto; Kyle, Dennis E.; Vrijmoed, Lilian; Pang, Ka-Lai; Pearce, Cedric; Baker, Bill J.

2013-01-01

314

[The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi].  

PubMed

Nine secondary metaboites of cyclic peptide were isolated from three mangrove endophytic fungi Paecilomyces sp. (treel-7), 4557,ZZF65. They were viscumamide(1),cyclo(Pro-Iso)(2),cyclo(Phe-Gly)(3),cyclo(Phe-Ana)(4),cyclo(Gly-Pro) (5),cyclo(Gly-Leu)(6), cyclo(Trp-Ana)(7),neoechinulin A(8),cyclo(Pro-Thr)(9). The compounds 1,7,8,9 were firstly isolated from marine fungus. PMID:18422185

Guo, Zhi-yong; Huang, Zhong-jing; Wen, Lu; Wan, Qiao; Liu, Fan; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng; Zhou, Shi-ning

2007-12-01

315

Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: Alkaloid accumulation and aphid response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of the alkaloidsN-formyl andN-acetyl loline, peramine, lolitrem B, and ergovaline and the response of aphids to plants containing these compounds were determined in species and cultivars ofFestuca,Lolium, and other grass genera infected with fungal endophytes (Acremonium spp., andEpichloe typhina). Twenty-nine of 34 host-fungus associations produced one or more of the alkaloids, most frequently peramine or ergovaline. Three alkaloids

M. R. Siegel; G. C. M. Latch; L. P. Bush; F. F. Fannin; D. D. Rowan; B. A. Tapper; C. W. Bacon; M. C. Johnson

1990-01-01

316

Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Liquid medium and an enriched agar were used to detect endophytic bacteria in micropropagated mints (Mentha spp.) within 2 to 6 d of inoculation. Bacteria isolated from the cultures were screened on several antibiotic concentrations\\u000a to determine bactericidal doses. Antibiotics were also tested for phytotoxic effects. Shoot tips from infected plants were\\u000a treated by immersion in liquid MS medium containing

Barbara M. Reed; Patricia M. Buckley; Traci N. DeWilde

1995-01-01

317

Two new compounds from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor.  

PubMed

A new coumarin, 4,6-dihydroxy-7-formyl-3-methylcoumarin (1), and an ?-pyrone derivative, 6-[(7S,8R)-8-propyloxiran-1-yl]-4-methoxy-pyran-2-one (2), together with four known ?-pyrone derivatives (3-6), were isolated from the broth extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. PMID:25290251

Yang, Xiao-Long; Huang, Le; Li, Hai-Ying; Yang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zhuang-Zhuang

2014-10-01

318

Bioactive natural compounds from the plant endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis spp.  

PubMed

The plant-endophytic strains of the fungus Pestalotiopsis (Amphisphaeriaceae) are distributed throughout the world. Previous chemical investigation of members of the genus resulted in the discovery of various bioactive secondary metabolites including chromones, cytosporones, polyketides, terpenoids and coumarins with diverse structural features. The present report reviews the papers, which have appeared in the literature till now, concerning the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of the secondary metabolites from Pestalotiopsis species. PMID:22876952

Wang, Kuiwu; Lei, Jinxiu; Wei, Jiguang; Yao, Nan

2012-11-01

319

Two compounds from the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. of Ginkgo biloba.  

PubMed

Two compounds, apigenin-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2-(hydroxymethylthio)ethanol, were extracted from the fermentation products of a strain of endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp. NTB-2, isolated from the leafstalk of Ginkgo biloba. The structures of the two compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. The compounds wereobtained from microorganisms for the first time. PMID:21922917

Zhou, Sheng-Liang; Zhou, Song-Lin; Wang, Mei-Xia; Chen, Shuang-Lin

2011-08-01

320

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp.  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Synergy Between Zwittermicin A and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki resistance are discussed. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, zwittermicin A, Lymantria dispar widely used biopesti- cide is Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, a bacterium that kills insect larvae

Goodman, Robert M.

321

An Integrated Database for Grass and Endophyte Genomics at www.grassendophyte.org  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endophytic microbes are able to promote plant growth and health under various stresses via their symbiotic association with host plants. Genome-wide comparative analysis has been extensively employed to decipher complex mechanisms of interactions between endophytic microbes and host plants, resu...

322

Screening the endophytic flora of Wollemia nobilis for alternative paclitaxel sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endophytic flora of Wollemia nobilis was investigated in search for alternative paclitaxel producers. On one hand, metabolic profiling of the obtained specimens using an immunoenzymatic technique was carried out. On the other, we aimed at revealing the genetic background of presumed paclitaxel biosynthesis in the isolates.We found an indication of endophytic taxane production in the extracts of two strains,

Agata Staniek; Herman J. Woerdenbag; Oliver Kayser

2010-01-01

323

Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant endophytic microorganisms may play an important role in plant evolution, development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the use of these microorganisms to benefit agriculture is in its infancy. We isolated endophytic fungi from plum leaves, identified them using ITS1 an...

324

Does a toxic fungal endophyte of tall fescue affect reproduction of  

E-print Network

SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES # Ian Jamieson and H. Sydney Easton Published by Department of Conservation P. References 9 #12;4 Jamieson & Easton--Tall fescue-endophytes and takahe reproction on offshore islands Final of Conservation. This paper may be cited as: Jamieson, I.; Sydney Easton, H. 2002: Does a toxic fungal endophyte

Jamieson, Ian

325

Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-years old were colonized by 2, 6, 8, and 5 species of fungal endophytes, respectively. While Phoma radicina was the most frequent fungal endophyte in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, Fusarium solani was the dominant endophyte in 1-year-old ginseng roots. The colonization frequencies (CF) varied with the host age. The CF were 12%, 40%, 31%, and 40% for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, respectively. We found a variety of fungal endophytes that were distributed depending on the age of ginseng plants. PMID:23717135

Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

326

Endophytic fungi alter foraging and dispersal by desert seed-harvesting ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are thought to interact mutualistically with host plants by producing alkaloid metabolites that deter herbivory. Since such fungi are transmitted via seed in some grasses, the presence of endophytes may also protect plants from seed predators. We conducted seed choice experiments for two dominant seed harvesting ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus in the Sonoran desert and Pogonomyrmex occidentalis at a

Tom R. Knoch; Stanley H. Faeth; Diane L. Arnott

1993-01-01

327

Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. RESULTS: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is

Marcelo Bertalan; Rodolpho Albano; Vânia de Pádua; Luc Rouws; Cristian Rojas; Adriana Hemerly; Kátia Teixeira; Stefan Schwab; Jean Araujo; André Oliveira; Leonardo França; Viviane Magalhães; Sylvia Alquéres; Alexander Cardoso; Wellington Almeida; Marcio Martins Loureiro; Eduardo Nogueira; Daniela Cidade; Denise Oliveira; Tatiana Simão; Jacyara Macedo; Ana Valadão; Marcela Dreschsel; Flávia Freitas; Marcia Vidal; Helma Guedes; Elisete Rodrigues; Carlos Meneses; Paulo Brioso; Luciana Pozzer; Daniel Figueiredo; Helena Montano; Jadier Junior; Gonçalo de Souza Filho; Victor Martin Quintana Flores; Beatriz Ferreira; Alan Branco; Paula Gonzalez; Heloisa Guillobel; Melissa Lemos; Luiz Seibel; José Macedo; Marcio Alves-Ferreira; Gilberto Sachetto-Martins; Ana Coelho; Eidy Santos; Gilda Amaral; Anna Neves; Ana Beatriz Pacheco; Daniela Carvalho; Letícia Lery; Paulo Bisch; Shaila C Rössle; Turán Ürményi; Alessandra Rael Pereira; Rosane Silva; Edson Rondinelli; Wanda von Krüger; Orlando Martins; José Ivo Baldani; Paulo CG Ferreira

2009-01-01

328

Genetic relationships of endophytic Lophodermium nitens isolates from needles of Pinus strobus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foliage of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), as that of all other conifers examined, is occupied by endophytic fungi, the most frequent of which is Lophodermium nitens. The number and extent of endophytic infections and the genetic relationship of individual isolates within living needles as well as their relationship to isolates from forest floor needles is unknown. To examine

Ron J. Deckert; Tom Hsiang; R. Larry Peterson

2002-01-01

329

Host plant genetics affect hidden ecological players: links among Populus , condensed tannins, and fungal endophyte infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown effects of host plant genetics on community and ecosystem processes, which makes understanding the impacts of genetically based traits on hidden or non-apparent organisms more important. Here we examined links among genetic variation in hybrid cottonwoods, plant phytochemistry, and twig fungal endophytes (i.e., a common hidden organism). We found three major patterns: (1) twig fungal endophyte

Joseph K. Bailey; Ron Deckert; Jennifer A. Schweitzer; Brian J. Rehill; Richard L. Lindroth; Catherine Gehring; Thomas G. Whitham

2005-01-01

330

USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

331

Enhancing native grass productivity by cocultivating with endophyte-laden calli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence native endophytes have on grass establishment and productivity was evaluated by co-cultivating Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. (black grama) or Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray (sand dropseed) seedlings with endophyte-laden calli from three of four native grass and shrub species; A...

332

Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

333

INSECTSYMBIONT INTERACTIONS Endophyte-Mediated Resistance to Herbivores Depends on Herbivore  

E-print Network

interactions has been identi�ed as a critical research area in ecology. The presence of symbionts in host, herbivore identity can alter the outcome of plantÐsymbiont interactions. Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes the production of alkaloids. Although endophytes are common in nature, relatively little is known about

Rudgers, Jennifer

334

Evolutionary Diversification of Fungal Endophytes of Tall Fescue Grass by Hybridization with Epichloddot{e} Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutualistic associations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with seed-borne fungal symbionts (endophytes) are important for fitness of the grass host and its survival under biotic and abiotic stress. The tall fescue endophytes are asexual relatives of biological species (mating populations) of genus Epichloddot{e} (Clavicipitaceae), sexual fungi that cause grass choke disease. Isozyme studies have suggested considerable genetic diversity among

Huei-Fung Tsai; Jih-Shiou Liu; Chuck Staben; Michael J. Christensen; Garrick C. M. Latch; Malcolm R. Siegel; Christopher L. Schardl

1994-01-01

335

Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.  

PubMed

Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

2012-01-01

336

A mixed culture of endophytic fungi increases production of antifungal polyketides.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites produced by endophytic microorganisms can provide benefits to host plants, such as stimulating growth and enhancing the plant's resistance toward biotic and abiotic factors. During its life, a host plant may be inhabited by many species of endophytes within a restrictive environment. This condition can stimulate secondary metabolite production that improves microbial competition and may consequently affect both the neighboring microorganisms and the host plant. The interactions between the endophytes that co-habit the same host plant have been studied. However, the effect of these interactions on the host plant has remained neglected. When using mixed microbial cultures, we found that the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima significantly increased the production of some polyketides, including antifungal stemphyperylenol in response to the endophytic Nigrospora sphaerica. Biological activity assays revealed that stemphyperylenol can cause cytotoxic effects against N. sphaerica, although no phytotoxicity was observed in the host plant Smallanthus sonchifolius, even at concentrations much higher than those toxic to the fungus. The polyketides produced by A. tenuissima may be important for the ecological relationships between endophyte-endophyte and endophytes-host plants in the natural environment. PMID:24114180

Chagas, Fernanda O; Dias, Luís G; Pupo, Mônica T

2013-10-01

337

Restructuring of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Grapevine Yellows-Diseased and Recovered Vitis vinifera L. Plants ?  

PubMed Central

Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response. PMID:21622794

Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

2011-01-01

338

REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSES AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RAM LAMBS FED ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of endophyte-infected tall fescue on reproductive development and function and carcass characteristics of ram lambs. Hampshire and Suffolk rams, 214 d of age, were fed individually a diet of endophyte-free (EF; n = 8) or infected (EI; n = 9) ...

339

Site and species-specific differences in endophyte occurrence in two herbaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Endophyte fungi exist within the living tissues of all plants, but compared with grasses and trees, remarkably little is known about their ecology in herbaceous species. These fungi produce an array of metabolites in culture and there is some evidence that they can increase the resistance of plants to herbivorous insects. 2 As herbaceous plant endophytes are thought

ALAN C. GANGE; SOMA DEY; AMANDA F. CURRIE; BRIAN C. SUTTON

2007-01-01

340

The communities of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L .)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though attempts have been made to use endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as biofertilizers for rice cultivation, their community structure and complexity in rice tissues is not well understood. In this study, the diversity and the community structure of endophytic diazotrophs as well as the nifH gene expression within each plant part and growth stage of rice under different soil conditions

Janpen Prakamhang; Kiwamu Minamisawa; Kamonluck Teamtaisong; Nantakorn Boonkerd; Neung Teaumroong

2009-01-01

341

Ecological implications of anti-pathogen effects of tropical fungal endophytes and mycorrhizae.  

PubMed

We discuss studies of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Theobroma cacao in Panama. Direct, experimentally controlled comparisons of endophyte free (E-) and endophyte containing (E+) plant tissues in T. cacao show that foliar endophytes (FEF) that commonly occur in healthy host leaves enhance host defenses against foliar damage due to the pathogen (Phytophthora palmivora). Similarly, root inoculations with commonly occurring AMF also reduce foliar damage due to the same pathogen. These results suggest that endophytic fungi can play a potentially important mutualistic role by augmenting host defensive responses against pathogens. There are two broad classes of potential mechanisms by which endophytes could contribute to host protection: (1) inducing or increasing the expression of intrinsic host defense mechanisms and (2) providing additional sources of defense, extrinsic to those of the host (e.g., endophyte-based chemical antibiosis). The degree to which either of these mechanisms predominates holds distinct consequences for the evolutionary ecology of host-endophyte-pathogen relationships. More generally, the growing recognition that plants are composed of a mosaic of plant and fungal tissues holds a series of implications for the study of plant defense, physiology, and genetics. PMID:17503581

Herre, Edward Allen; Mejía, Luis C; Kyllo, Damond A; Rojas, Enith; Maynard, Zuleyka; Butler, Andre; Van Bael, Sunshine A

2007-03-01

342

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens  

PubMed Central

Interactions among the component members of different symbioses are not well studied. For example, leaf-cutting ants maintain an obligate symbiosis with their fungal garden, while the leaf material they provide to their garden is usually filled with endophytic fungi. The ants and their cultivar may interact with hundreds of endophytic fungal species, yet little is known about these interactions. Experimental manipulations showed that (i) ants spend more time cutting leaves from a tropical vine, Merremia umbellata, with high versus low endophyte densities, (ii) ants reduce the amount of endophytic fungi in leaves before planting them in their gardens, (iii) the ants' fungal cultivar inhibits the growth of most endophytes tested. Moreover, the inhibition by the ants' cultivar was relatively greater for more rapidly growing endophyte strains that could potentially out-compete or overtake the garden. Our results suggest that endophytes are not welcome in the garden, and that the ants and their cultivar combine ant hygiene behaviour with fungal inhibition to reduce endophyte activity in the nest. PMID:19364739

Van Bael, Sunshine A.; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Valencia, Mariana C.; Rojas, Enith I.; Wcislo, William T.; Herre, Edward A.

2009-01-01

343

Two fungal symbioses collide: endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens.  

PubMed

Interactions among the component members of different symbioses are not well studied. For example, leaf-cutting ants maintain an obligate symbiosis with their fungal garden, while the leaf material they provide to their garden is usually filled with endophytic fungi. The ants and their cultivar may interact with hundreds of endophytic fungal species, yet little is known about these interactions. Experimental manipulations showed that (i) ants spend more time cutting leaves from a tropical vine, Merremia umbellata, with high versus low endophyte densities, (ii) ants reduce the amount of endophytic fungi in leaves before planting them in their gardens, (iii) the ants' fungal cultivar inhibits the growth of most endophytes tested. Moreover, the inhibition by the ants' cultivar was relatively greater for more rapidly growing endophyte strains that could potentially out-compete or overtake the garden. Our results suggest that endophytes are not welcome in the garden, and that the ants and their cultivar combine ant hygiene behaviour with fungal inhibition to reduce endophyte activity in the nest. PMID:19364739

Van Bael, Sunshine A; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Valencia, Mariana C; Rojas, Enith I; Wcislo, William T; Herre, Edward A

2009-07-01

344

Charting the Isophasic Endophyte of Dwarf Mistletoe Arceuthobium douglasii (Viscaceae) in Host Apical Buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium; Viscaceae) are highly specialized dioecious angiosperms parasitic on many gymnosperm hosts in the northern hemisphere. Several dwarf mistletoe species are capable of inducing an unusual form of isophasic infection in which the internal (endophytic) system proliferates even into the apical buds of its hosts. Studies of the internal endophytic system have, for the most

DAVID LYE

2006-01-01

345

Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host-parasite interaction webs.  

PubMed

Symbiotic microorganisms that live intimately associated with terrestrial plants affect both the quantity and quality of resources, and thus the energy supply to consumer populations at higher levels in the food chain. Empirical evidence on resource limitation of food webs points to primary productivity as a major determinant of consumer abundance and trophic structure. Prey quality plays a critical role in community regulation. Plants infected by endophytic fungi are known to be chemically protected against herbivore consumption. However, the influence of this microbe-plant association on multi-trophic interactions remains largely unexplored. Here we present the effects of fungal endophytes on insect food webs that reflect limited energy transfer to consumers as a result of low plant quality, rather than low productivity. Herbivore-parasite webs on endophyte-free grasses show enhanced insect abundance at alternate trophic levels, higher rates of parasitism, and increased dominance by a few trophic links. These results mirror predicted effects of increased productivity on food-web dynamics. Thus 'hidden' microbial symbionts can have community-wide impacts on the pattern and strength of resource-consumer interactions. PMID:11343116

Omacini, M; Chaneton, E J; Ghersa, C M; Müller, C B

2001-01-01

346

Fungal endophyte communities reflect environmental structuring across a Hawaiian landscape.  

PubMed

We surveyed endophytic fungal communities in leaves of a single tree species (Metrosideros polymorpha) across wide environmental gradients (500-5,500 mm of rain/y; 10-22 °C mean annual temperature) spanning short geographic distances on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai'i. Using barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing at 13 sites (10 trees/site; 10 leaves/tree), we found very high levels of diversity within sites (a mean of 551 ± 134 taxonomic units per site). However, among-site diversity contributed even more than did within-site diversity to the overall richness of more than 4,200 taxonomic units observed in M. polymorpha, and this among-site variation in endophyte community composition correlated strongly with temperature and rainfall. These results are consistent with suggestions that foliar endophytic fungi are hyperdiverse. They further suggest that microbial diversity may be even greater than has been assumed and that broad-scale environmental controls such as temperature and rainfall can structure eukaryotic microbial diversity. Appropriately constrained study systems across strong environmental gradients present a useful means to understand the environmental factors that structure the diversity of microbial communities. PMID:22837398

Zimmerman, Naupaka B; Vitousek, Peter M

2012-08-01

347

Chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

A new oxysporidinone analogue (1) and a new 3-hydroxyl-2-piperidinone derivative (2), along with the known compounds (-)-4,6'-anhydrooxysporidinone (3), (+)-fusarinolic acid (4), gibepyrone D (5), beauvercin (6),cerevisterol (7), fusaruside (8), and (2S,2'R,3R,3'E,4E,8E)-1-O-D-glucopyranosyl-2-N-(2'-hydroxy-3'-octadecenoyl)-3-hydroxy-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine (9) were isolated from Fusarium oxysporum. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for cytotoxicity using the MTT method against cancer cell lines, PC-3, PANC-1, and A549. Beauvericin showed cytotoxicity against PC-3, PANC-1, and A549 with IC(50) value of 49.5 ± 3.8, 47.2 ± 2.9, and 10.4 ± 1.6?M, respectively. Beauvericin also exhibited anti-bacterial activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=3.125 ?g/mL) and Bacillus subtilis (MIC=3.125 ?g/mL). PMID:21497643

Wang, Quan-Xin; Li, Sai-Fei; Zhao, Feng; Dai, Huan-Qin; Bao, Li; Ding, Rong; Gao, Hao; Zhang, Li-Xin; Wen, Hua-An; Liu, Hong-Wei

2011-07-01

348

CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES  

EPA Science Inventory

The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

349

The Insect Pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt is a widespread toxic bacterium of many groups of insects. Some are more specific than others. This page discusses the varieties and target insects, use, and mode of action.

0000-00-00

350

Spore Stain of Bacillus cereus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This strain of Bacillus cereus was isolated from a sample of gasoline-contaminated soil and cultured on blood agar. This picture allows students to see spores utilizing a simple, reliable method of staining.

American Society For Microbiology;

2002-01-01

351

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

2004-01-01

352

Endophyte-mediated resistance to herbivores depends on herbivore identity in the wild grass Festuca subverticillata.  

PubMed

Understanding factors that affect the context dependency of species interactions has been identified as a critical research area in ecology. The presence of symbionts in host plants can be an important factor influencing the outcome of plant-insect interactions. Similarly, herbivore identity can alter the outcome of plant-symbiont interactions. Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes confer resistance to herbivores in economically important agronomic grasses, in part through the production of alkaloids. Although endophytes are common in nature, relatively little is known about their effects on herbivores of native, wild grass species, and a recent meta-analysis suggested that endophytes are only beneficial in agronomic settings. In this study, we performed choice trials for five insect species and a greenhouse experiment with one species to assess effects of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium sp. on herbivores of the wild grass Festuca subverticillata. In feeding trials, endophyte presence altered the preference of all five insect species tested. However, the magnitude and direction of preference varied among species, with Pterophylla camellifolia (F.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and Rhopalosiphum padi L. preferring endophyte-disinfected plants and Encoptolophus costalis (Scudder) and Romalea guttata (Houttuyn) preferring endophyte-symbiotic plants. Despite reducing insect preference, the endophyte had no significant effect on S. frugiperda performance in a no-choice greenhouse experiment and did not increase plant growth in response to this herbivore. Our results show that endophyte-mediated resistance to herbivory depends strongly on herbivore identity and suggest that the fitness consequences of endophyte symbiosis for host plants will be context dependent on the local composition of insect herbivores. PMID:19689887

Afkhami, Michelle E; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2009-08-01

353

Endophytic fungi associated with Macrosolen tricolor and its host Camellia oleifera.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystem, while little is known about those in hemi-parasitic plants, a group of special plants which absorb nutrients from its hosts by haustoria. The relationship of the endophytes in the two parts of the bipartite systems (hemiparasites together with their hosts) is also poorly understood. Endophytic fungi of a hemi-parasitic plant Macrosolen tricolor, and its host plant Camellia oleifera were investigated and compared in this study. M. tricolor contained rich and diversified endophytic fungi (H' = 2.829), which consisted mainly of ascomycetes, distributed in more than ten orders of four classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes) besides Incertae sedis strains (23.2 % of total). In addition, 2.2 % of isolates were identified to be Basidiomycota, all of which belonged to Agaricomycetes. Obvious differences were observed between the endophytic fungal assembles in the leaves and those in the branches of M. tricolor. The endophytic fungi isolated from C. oleifera distributed in nearly same orders of the four classes of Ascomycota and one class (Agaricomycetes) of Basidiomycota as those from M. tricolor with similar proportion. For both M. tricolor and C. oleifera, Valsa sp. was the dominant endophyte species in the leaves, Torula sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 were the dominant endophytic fungi in the branches. The similarity coefficient of the endophyte assembles in the two host was 64.4 %. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the endophyte assembles of M. tricolor and C. oleifera were significantly different (p < 0.01). PMID:24442818

Sheng-Liang, Zhou; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhen-Ying, Wu; Shuang-Lin, Chen

2014-06-01

354

Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.  

PubMed

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

355

Methylobacterium-Induced Endophyte Community Changes Correspond with Protection of Plants against Pathogen Attack  

PubMed Central

Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

356

Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparisons of Tall Fescue Gene Expression in Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In a...

357

Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.  

PubMed

Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

2014-10-01

358

Control of Diatraea saccharalis by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans 33.1 expressing cry1Ac7.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is found in more than 90 % of the products used against insects, it has some difficulty reaching the internal regions where the larvae feed. To solve this problem, many genetically modified microorganisms that colonize the same pests have been developed. Thus, the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (33.1), which has been recently described as a promising sugarcane growth promoter, was genetically modified with the pJTT vector (which carries the gene cry1Ac7) to control the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. Firstly, the bioassays for D. saccharalis control by 33.1:pJTT were conducted with an artificial diet. A new in vivo methodology was also developed, which confirmed the partial control of larvae by 33.1:pJTT. The 33.1:pJTT strain was inoculated into sugarcane stalks containing the D. saccharalis larvae. In the sugarcane stalks, 33.1:pJTT was able to increase the mortality of D. saccharalis larvae, impair larval development and decrease larval weight. Sugarcane seedlings were inoculated with 33.1:pJTT, and re-isolation confirmed the capacity of 33.1:pJTT to continuously colonize the sugarcane. These results prove that P. agglomerans (33.1), a sugarcane growth promoter, can be improved by expressing the Cry protein, and the resulting strain is able to control the sugarcane borer. PMID:24531524

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Tsui, S; Parra, J R P; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2014-04-01

359

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

360

Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

2014-01-01

361

Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.  

PubMed

The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection. PMID:19259463

Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

2006-12-01

362

Neotyphodium Endophyte Changes Phytoextraction of Zinc in Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.  

PubMed

The effect of Neotyphodium endophytes on growth parameters and zinc (Zn) tolerance and uptake was studied in two grass species of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Plants were grown under different Zn concentrations (control, 200, 400, 800, and 1800 mg kg(-1)) in potted soil for 5 months. The results showed that the number of plant tillers was 85 and 51% greater in endophyte infected Festuca (FaEI) and Lolium (LpEI), respectively, compared to their endophyte free (EF) plants. Roots and shoots dry weights in infected Festuca were 87 and 9% greater than non-infected counterparts but in opposite, EF Lolium had 47 and 8% greater root and shoot dry weights than LpEI. Endophyte infected Festuca and Lolium improved chlorophyll fluorescence as Fv/Fm at high concentrations of Zn, showing their better chlorophyll functions and significant reduction of Zn stress in endophyte infected plants. Shoots of endophyte infectedFestuca had 82% greater concentration of Zn than EF Festuca when grown in soil containing 1800 mg kg(-1) Zn. Festuca and Lolium may tolerate high Zn concentration in soil without reduction in shoot and root growth. Endophyte infection in Festuca may help the grass accumulate and transport more Zn in aboveground parts under Zn-stress, thereby aiding phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25495936

Zamani, Narges; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amirhossein; Afyuni, Majid

2015-01-01

363

Functional characteristics of an endophyte community colonizing rice roots as revealed by metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

Roots are the primary site of interaction between plants and microorganisms. To meet food demands in changing climates, improved yields and stress resistance are increasingly important, stimulating efforts to identify factors that affect plant productivity. The role of bacterial endophytes that reside inside plants remains largely unexplored, because analysis of their specific functions is impeded by difficulties in cultivating most prokaryotes. Here, we present the first metagenomic approach to analyze an endophytic bacterial community resident inside roots of rice, one of the most important staple foods. Metagenome sequences were obtained from endophyte cells extracted from roots of field-grown plants. Putative functions were deduced from protein domains or similarity analyses of protein-encoding gene fragments, and allowed insights into the capacities of endophyte cells. This allowed us to predict traits and metabolic processes important for the endophytic lifestyle, suggesting that the endorhizosphere is an exclusive microhabitat requiring numerous adaptations. Prominent features included flagella, plant-polymer-degrading enzymes, protein secretion systems, iron acquisition and storage, quorum sensing, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Surprisingly, endophytes might be involved in the entire nitrogen cycle, as protein domains involved in N(2)-fixation, denitrification, and nitrification were detected and selected genes expressed. Our data suggest a high potential of the endophyte community for plant-growth promotion, improvement of plant stress resistance, biocontrol against pathogens, and bioremediation, regardless of their culturability. PMID:21970692

Sessitsch, A; Hardoim, P; Döring, J; Weilharter, A; Krause, A; Woyke, T; Mitter, B; Hauberg-Lotte, L; Friedrich, F; Rahalkar, M; Hurek, T; Sarkar, A; Bodrossy, L; van Overbeek, L; Brar, D; van Elsas, J D; Reinhold-Hurek, B

2012-01-01

364

Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells.  

PubMed

Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to characterize fungal cell morphology within lactofuchsin-stained roots. Cell form regularity Ireg and cell growth direction Idir, indexes were used to quantify changes in fungal morphology. Endophyte fungi in living roots had a variable Ireg and Idir values, low colonization abundance and patchy colonization patterns, whereas the same endophyte species in dead (gamma-irradiated) roots had consistent form of cells and mostly grew parallel to the root axis. Knot, coil and vesicle structures dominated in living roots, as putative symbiotic functional organs. Finally, an increased hypha septation in living roots might indicate local specialization within endophytic Ascomycota. Our results suggested that the applied method could be expanded to other septate fungal symbionts (e.g. Basidiomycota). The latter is discussed in light of our results and other recent discoveries. PMID:19269322

Abdellatif, Lobna; Bouzid, Sadok; Kaminskyj, Susan; Vujanovic, Vladimir

2009-01-01

365

Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.  

PubMed

1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other. PMID:18312338

Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

2008-05-01

366

Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore preference and performance.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungal symbionts of grasses are well known for their protective benefit of herbivory reduction. However, the majority of studies on endophyte-grass symbioses have been conducted on economically important, agricultural species-particularly tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-raising the hypothesis that strong benefits are the product of artificial selection. We examined whether fungal endophytes found in natural populations of native grass species deterred insect herbivores. By testing several native grass-endophyte symbiota, we examined phylogenetic signals in the effects of endophytes on insects and compared the relative importance of herbivore and symbiotum identity in the outcome of the interactions. Preference was assessed using three herbivore species [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Schistocerca americana (Orthoptera), Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera)] and ten native symbiota, which spanned seven grass genera. We also assessed herbivore performance in a no choice experiment for five native symbiota against S. frugiperda. We compared greenhouse and laboratory trials with natural levels of herbivory measured in experimental field populations. In all cases, we included the agronomic grass species, L. arundinaceum, to compare with results from the native grasses. Both in the field and in experimental trials, herbivores showed a significant preference for endophyte-free plant material for the majority of native grasses, with up to three times lower herbivory for endophyte-symbiotic plants; however, the degree of response depended on the identity of the herbivore species. Endophyte presence also significantly reduced performance of S. frugiperda for the majority of grass species. In contrast, the endophyte in L. arundinaceum had few significant anti-herbivore effects, except for a reduction in herbivory at one of two field sites. Our results demonstrate that the mechanisms by which native symbionts deter herbivores are at least as potent as those in model agricultural systems, despite the absence of artificial selection. PMID:20585809

Crawford, Kerri M; Land, John M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

2010-10-01

367

Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

PubMed Central

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars. Differences in reproduction were not detected among the tall fescue cultivars and all cultivars were rated as either poor or nonhosts for M. incognita. Suppression of M. incognita reproduction was not influenced by endophyte status. In two other greenhouse experiments, host susceptibility of tall fescue grasses to two M. incognita isolates (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) did not appear to be related to fungal endophyte strain [i.e., Jesup (Max-Q; nontoxic endophyte strain) vs. Bulldog 51 (toxic endophyte strain)]. Host status of tall fescue varied with species of root-knot nematode. Jesup (Max-Q) was rated as a nonhost for M. incognita (BY-peach isolate and GA-peach isolate) and M. hapla, a poor host for M. javanica and a good host for M. arenaria. Bulldog 51 tall fescue was also a good host for M. arenaria and M. javanica, but not M. incognita. Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue may have potential as a preplant control strategy for M. incognita and M. hapla in southeastern and northeastern United States, respectively. PMID:22736851

Meyer, S.L.F.

2010-01-01

368

Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability  

PubMed Central

Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E?) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands. PMID:24367672

Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R.; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

2013-01-01

369

Protein secretion in Bacillus species.  

PubMed Central

Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

Simonen, M; Palva, I

1993-01-01

370

A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.  

PubMed

Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

2014-07-01

371

Tubulin inhibitors from an endophytic fungus isolated from Cedrus deodara.  

PubMed

From an endophytic fungus, a close relative of Talaromyces sp., found in association with Cedrus deodara, four compounds including two new ones (2 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The structures of two compounds (1 and 4) were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compounds displayed a range of cytotoxicities against human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A-549, HEP-1, THP-1, and PC-3). All the compounds were found to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy studies. Also, the compounds caused significant microtubule inhibition in HL-60 cells. PMID:23387901

Kumar, Manjeet; Qadri, Masroor; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Kumar, Arvind; Andotra, Samar S; Kaur, Tandeep; Kapoor, Kamini; Gupta, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Hamid, Abid; Johri, Sarojini; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Shah, Bhahwal Ali

2013-02-22

372

Complete genome of the switchgrass endophyte Enterobacter clocace P101.  

PubMed

The Enterobacter cloacae complex is genetically very diverse. The increasing number of complete genomic sequences of E. cloacae is helping to determine the exact relationship among members of the complex. E. cloacae P101 is an endophyte of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and is closely related to other E. cloacae strains isolated from plants. The P101 genome consists of a 5,369,929 bp chromosome. The chromosome has 5,164 protein-coding regions, 100 tRNA sequences, and 8 rRNA operons. PMID:25197457

Humann, Jodi L; Wildung, Mark; Pouchnik, Derek; Bates, Austin A; Drew, Jennifer C; Zipperer, Ursula N; Triplett, Eric W; Main, Dorrie; Schroeder, Brenda K

2014-06-15

373

Two new compounds from an endophytic fungus Alternaria solani.  

PubMed

Two new secondary metabolites, named 7-dehydroxyl-zinniol (1) and 20-hydroxyl-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (2), were isolated from the culture of Alternaria solani, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the roots of Aconitum transsectum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Biological activity tests indicated that compound 1 showed moderate anti-HBV activity. PMID:23106531

Ai, Hong-Lian; Zhang, Li-Mei; Chen, Yan-Ping; Zi, Shu-Hui; Xiang, Hong; Zhao, Da-Ke; Shen, Yong

2012-01-01

374

Isoprenylated chromone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.  

PubMed

Pestaloficiols F-L (1-7), new isoprenylated chromone derivatives including one heterodimer (7), have been isolated from a scale-up fermentation extract of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 were assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 4-7 showed cytotoxic activity against the human tumor cell lines HeLa and MCF7. PMID:19618920

Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Niu, Shubin; Guo, Liangdong; Chen, Xulin; Che, Yongsheng

2009-08-01

375

Two new compounds from an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnosyl-phthalide and 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethyl-7-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-phthalide, along with one known and related metabolite 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4,6-dimethylphthalide were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis heterocornis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR). PMID:22115029

Xing, Jian-Guang; Deng, Hui-Ying; Luo, Du-Qiang

2011-12-01

376

Sesquiterpenoids from the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp.  

PubMed

A new sesquiterpenoid, diaporol A (1), possessing a unique tricyclic lactone framework, eight new drimane sesquiterpenoids, diaporols B-I (2-9), and the known compounds 10 and 11 were isolated from a culture of the mangrove-derived endophyte Diaporthe sp. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by low-temperature (100 K) single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity; however, no compound showed significant cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines at a concentration of 20 ?M. PMID:23006147

Zang, Le Yun; Wei, Wei; Guo, Ye; Wang, Ting; Jiao, Rui Hua; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

2012-10-26

377

Aminopeptidase activities of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis  

E-print Network

, however, was not activated by Co iona. Ef facts of pH on the Enz~wes. In Figure 13 ara shown tl. e ef- zects of oH on the intracellular cnd extracel 1 lar aminopeptifiase activities preset. t in Bacillus subtil is 9943. The marines! iiNA ny- drolysis...

Liu, Justin Sing

2012-06-07

378

Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, ?-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

2014-07-01

379

Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Visualization of an Endophytic Streptomyces Species in Wheat Seed  

E-print Network

Endophytic filamentous actinobacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of wheat plants. Endophytic colonization of germinating wheat seed was examined using one of these endophytes, Streptomyces sp. strain EN27, tagged with the egfp gene. Endophytic colonization was observed from a very early stage of plant development with colonization of the embryo, endosperm, and emerging radicle. In order to find effective biocontrol agents for fungal plant pathogens of cereal crops, we isolated actinobacterial strains from surface-sterilized roots of healthy wheat plants (3; J. T. Coombs and C. M. M. Franco, submitted for publication). There have been reports of actinobacteria, other than Frankia spp., inhabiting the tissues of healthy plants (5, 15, 16). However, spatial colonization of the root tissue of cereals by actinobacteria has not been reported, and evidence of their distribution as endophytes is required to prove endorhizosphere competence. A representative endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. strain EN27, was tagged with green fluorescent protein

Justin T. Coombs; Christopher M. M. Franco

2002-01-01

380

Antimicrobial drimane sesquiterpenes and their effect on endophyte communities in the medical tree Warburgia ugandensis  

PubMed Central

Metabolite profiles (GC–?MS), drimane sesquiterpenes, sugars and sugar alcohols, were compared with bacterial and fungal endophyte communities (T-RFLP, DNA clones, qPCR) in leaves and roots of the pepper bark tree, Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae). Ten individuals each were assessed from two locations east and west of the Great Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa, which differed in humidity and vegetation, closed forest versus open savannah. Despite organ- and partially site-specific variation of drimane sesquiterpenes, no clear effects on bacterial and fungal endophyte communities could be detected. The former were dominated by gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as well as gram-positive Firmicutes; the fungal endophyte communities were more diverse but no specific groups dominated. Despite initial expectations, the endophyte community of the pepper bark tree did not differ from other trees that much. PMID:21686123

Drage, Sigrid; Mitter, Birgit; Tröls, Christina; Muchugi, Alice; Jamnadass, Ramni H.; Sessitsch, Angela; Hadacek, Franz

2013-01-01

381

Effects of endophytic Fusarium oxysporum towards Radopholus similis activity in absence of banana.  

PubMed

Four endophytic fungi (Fusarium spp.) isolated from the cortical tissue of surface-sterilised banana as well as from tomato roots were tested for their capacity of biological control towards the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis on banana. The pathogenic and parasitic capacities of endophytic fungi towards R. similis were tested in in vitro experiments. No parasitism of fungi on R. similis was observed. However, nematode activity decreased significantly in the presence of all endophytic fungi in vitro when compared to nematodes in the absence of fungi. The effects of fungi on R. similis activities in the soil were tested in the absence of plants. Nematode activities were reduced significantly by 16-30% by endophytic fungi when compared to untreated soil. PMID:15759438

Vu, T T; Sikora, R A; Hauschild, R

2004-01-01

382

Methods for the study of endophytic microorganisms from traditional Chinese medicine plants.  

PubMed

Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. PMID:23084931

Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

2012-01-01

383

Alkaloids May Not be Responsible for Endophyte Associated Reductions in Tall Fescue Decomposition Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Fungal endophyte - grass symbioses can have dramatic ecological effects, altering individual plant physiology, plant and animal community structure and function, and ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. 2. Within the tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) - funga...

384

Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens.  

PubMed

Legumes belonging to the Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Swainsona genera have been noted by ranchers in the Americas, Asia, and Australia to cause a neurologic disease often referred to as locoism or peastruck. The toxin in these legumes is swainsonine, an ?-mannosidase and mannosidase II inhibitor. Recent research has shown that in Astragalus and Oxytropis species swainsonine is produced by a fungal endophyte belonging to the Undifilum genus. Here Swainsona canescens is shown to harbor an endophyte that is closely related to Undifilum species previously cultured from locoweeds of North America and Asia. The endophyte produces swainsonine in vitro and was detected by PCR and culturing in S. canescens. The endophyte isolated from S. canescens was characterized as an Undifilum species using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24053110

Grum, Daniel S; Cook, Daniel; Baucom, Deana; Mott, Ivan W; Gardner, Dale R; Creamer, Rebecca; Allen, Jeremy G

2013-10-25

385

A complex ergovaline gene cluster in epichloe endophytes of grasses.  

PubMed

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosynthesis containing a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite conservation of gene sequence, gene order is substantially different between the N. lolii, C. purpurea, and A. fumigatus ergot alkaloid gene clusters. Southern analysis indicated that the N. lolii cluster was linked with previously identified ergovaline biosynthetic genes dmaW and lpsA. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons and autonomous and nonautonomous DNA transposons. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta, but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta. PMID:17308187

Fleetwood, Damien J; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D

2007-04-01

386

Culturable fungal endophytes in roots of Enkianthus campanulatus (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Roots of plants in the genus Enkianthus, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage in the Ericaceae, are commonly colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We documented the community of fungal root endophytes associated with Enkianthus species using a culture-based method for better understanding the members of root-colonizing fungi, except for AM fungi. Fungal isolates were successfully obtained from 610 out of 3,599 (16.9 %) root segments. Molecular analysis of fungal cultures based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences yielded 63 operational taxonomical units (OTUs: 97 % sequence similarity cutoff) from 315 representative isolates. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that most (296 isolates) belonged to Ascomycota and were either members of Helotiales (Dermataceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Phialocephala and Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate), Oidiodendron, or other Pezizomycotina. Twenty-three out of 63 OTUs, which mainly consisted of Leotiomycetes, showed high similarities with reference sequences derived from roots of other ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron. The results indicated that Enkianthus houses variable root mycobionts including putative endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi in addition to AM fungi. PMID:24795166

Obase, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yosuke

2014-11-01

387

Potential xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidase is considered as a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is predisposing factor for gout, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis, tissue injury, and ischemia. To date, only two inhibitors of xanthine oxidase viz. allopurinol and febuxostat have been clinically approved for used as drugs. In the process of searching for new xanthine oxidase inhibitors, we screened culture filtrates of 42 endophytic fungi using in vitro qualitative and quantitative XO inhibitory assays. The qualitative assay exhibited potential XO inhibition by culture filtrates of four isolates viz. #1048 AMSTITYEL, #2CCSTITD, #6AMLWLS, and #96 CMSTITNEY. The XO inhibitory activity was present only in the chloroform extract of the culture filtrates. Chloroform extract of culture filtrate #1048 AMSTITYEL exhibited the highest inhibition of XO with an IC50 value of 0.61 ?g ml(-1) which was better than allopurinol exhibiting an IC50 of 0.937 ?g ml(-1) while febuxostat exhibited a much lower IC50 of 0.076 ?g ml(-1). Further, molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify #1048 AMSTITYEL as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This is the first report of an endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Aegle marmelos exhibiting potential XO Inhibitory activity. PMID:24801403

Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

2014-07-01

388

Fungal endophytes: a potential source of antifungal compounds.  

PubMed

The prevalence of invasive fungal infections has increased significantly during organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. However, only a limited number of antifungal agents are currently available for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. Although new antifungal agents have been introduced in the market, the development of resistance to antifungal drugs has become increasingly apparent, especially in patients with long term treatment. Microbial natural products have always been an alternative natural source for the isolation of novel molecules for various therapeutic applications. Endophytes are the microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species and represent an abundant and dependable source of bioactive and chemically novel compounds with potential for exploitation in a wide variety of medical, agricultural and industrial arenas. In the present review several metabolites obtained from endophytic fungi with a potential as antifungal agents are mentioned with bioactivity including volatile organic compounds. The compounds reported here with a diverse scaffold can be a potential starting point for new antifungal agents either as such or after chemical modification. PMID:22202019

Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar; Verekar, Shilpa Amit

2012-01-01

389

Plant root carbohydrates affect growth behaviour of endophytic microfungi.  

PubMed

Abstract Peucedanum alsaticum and Peucedanum cervaria represent characteristic umbellifers (Apiaceae) of calcareous grasslands in Central and Eastern Europe. Both accumulate glucose, fructose, mannitol and sucrose as dominant carbohydrates in their roots. The objective of the study was to determine if endophytes utilise host plant carbohydrates differently than rhizosphere and bulk soil microfungi. Inula ensifolia (Asteraceae), Lathyrus latifolius (Fabaceae) and Bromus erectus (Poaceae), all plants that grow along with the two umbellifers, accumulated only sucrose as major sugar in their roots. Germ tube growth of 30 microfungal isolates, recovered from various rhizosphere habitats, was quantified in microdilutions (10-5000 mug ml(-1)) of a number of substrates, including glucose, sucrose, mannitol and the water-soluble plant root carbohydrate mixtures. Multivariate analysis of variance and subsequent least significant difference analysis of isolate group means revealed that sucrose and mannitol utilisation affected affiliation to a certain fungal lifestyle. Endophytes utilised host plant carbohydrates more efficiently at lower concentrations. Conversely, higher concentrations slowed their growth. Non-host carbohydrates did not cause comparable effects. The results suggest that root carbohydrate diversity may determine fungal diversity in natural rhizosphere environments. PMID:19709250

Hadacek, Franz; Kraus, Günther F

2002-08-01

390

Isolation and characterization endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance and their potential to promote phytoextraction of zinc polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from roots, stems and leaves of Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator\\u000a Sedum alfredii. Endophytic bacteria were observed in roots, stems and leave of S. alfredii, with a significantly higher density in roots, followed by leave and stems. A total of fourteen bacterial endophytes were\\u000a isolated and are closely related phylogenetically to

Long Xinxian; Chen Xuemei; Chen Yagang; Wong Jonathan Woon-Chung; Wei Zebin; Wu Qitang

2011-01-01

391

Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).  

PubMed

Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides candidates for further evaluation as potential management tools against a variety of pests and diseases when present as endophytes in cotton and other plants. PMID:23776604

Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

2013-01-01

392

A review: recent advances and future prospects of taxol-producing endophytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the urgent search for more effective ways to treat cancer, new extraction methods of taxol from endophytic fungus have\\u000a demonstrated high potential in increasing the efficiency of taxol extraction for more efficient and sustainable production\\u000a of taxol and cancer treatment products. This paper summarizes recent advances in taxol-producing endophytic fungi, both in\\u000a China and abroad, in the following areas:

Xuanwei Zhou; Huifang Zhu; Lu Liu; Juan Lin; Kexuan Tang

2010-01-01

393

Structure and Development of the Endophyte in the Parasitic Angiosperm Cuscuta japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endophyte, that is, the haustorial part within the tissues of the host plant Impatiens balsamina, of the parasitic angiosperm Cuscuta japonica was studied with light and electron microscopy. The endophyte consisted mainly of vacuolated parenchymatous axial cells and\\u000a elongate, superficial (epidermal) cells. Then the elongate, epidermal cells separated from each other and transformed into\\u000a filamentous cells, called searching hyphae.

Kyu Bae Lee

2009-01-01

394

The effect of inoculating endophytic N 2 -fixing bacteria on micropropagated sugarcane plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of endophytic N2-fixing bacteria on the development of micropropagated sugarcane plants. The endophytic population of each inoculated species was monitored during the growth period, and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) contribution of each inoculation treatment was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Seven different combinations of inoculum were

A. L. M. Oliveira; S. Urquiaga; J. Döbereiner; J. I. Baldani

2002-01-01

395

Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria

Yan Hong Li; Qun Fang Liu; Yin Liu; Jing Nan Zhu; Qiang Zhang

2011-01-01

396

New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea  

PubMed Central

Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

2013-01-01

397

New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.  

PubMed

Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

2013-03-01

398

Diverse non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes inhabiting an epiphytic, medicinal orchid ( Dendrobium nobile ): estimation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the terrestrial and temperate orchids–fungal biology have been largely explored, knowledge of tropical epiphytic\\u000a orchids–fungus relationships, especially on the ecological roles imparted by non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes, is less known.\\u000a Exploitation of the endophytic fungal mycobiota residing in epiphytic orchid plants may be of great importance to further\\u000a elucidate the fungal ecology in this special habitat as well as developing

Zhi-lin Yuan; Yi-cun Chen; Yun Yang

2009-01-01

399

Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Ginseng and their Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant roots are associated with diverse communities of endophytic bacteria which do not exert adverse effects. The diversity\\u000a of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng roots cultivated in three different areas in Korea was investigated. Sixty-three\\u000a colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng roots. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that\\u000a the isolates belonged to three major

Kye Man Cho; Su Young Hong; Sun Mi Lee; Yong Hee Kim; Goon Gjung Kahng; Yong Pyo Lim; Hoon Kim; Han Dae Yun

2007-01-01

400

Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from surface-sterilized tissues of 36 plant species was made using humic acid–vitamin (HV) agar as a selection medium. Of the 330 isolates recovered, 212 were from roots, 97 from leaves and 21 isolates from stems with a prevalence of 3.9, 1.7 and 0.3%, respectively. Identification of endophytic actinomycetes was based on their morphology and the

Thongchai Taechowisan; John F. Peberdy; Saisamorn Lumyong

2003-01-01

401

Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from higher plants, are attracting considerable attention from\\u000a natural product chemists and biologists alike as indicated by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during\\u000a recent years (113 research articles on secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi in the period of 2008–2009, 69 in 2006–2007,\\u000a 36 in 2004–2005, 14 in 2002–2003, and

Amal H. Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Julia Kjer; Peter Proksch

2010-01-01

402

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

403

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COFFEE AND SHADE TREES IDENTIFIED WITH ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA USING DAS-ELISA FOR Xylella fastidiosa  

E-print Network

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COFFEE AND SHADE TREES IDENTIFIED WITH ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA USING DAS leafhoppers which are common and abundant insects of tropical and subtropical environments and play important

Gilbes, Fernando

404

Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica. PMID:23350605

Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

2013-04-01

405

Are endophyte-mediated effects on herbivores conditional on soil nutrients?  

PubMed

Neotyphodium endophytes are assumed to have mutualistic relationship with their grass hosts, mainly resulting from mycotoxin production increasing plant resistance to herbivores by the fungus that subsists on the plant. To study importance of often ignored environmental effects on these associations, we performed a greenhouse experiment to examine the significance of endophyte infection and nutrient availability for bird-cherry aphid ( Rhopalosiphum padi) performance on meadow fescue ( Lolium pratense). Naturally endophyte-infected (E+), uninfected (E-), or manipulatively endophyte-free (ME-) half-sib families of meadow fescue were grown on two soil nutrient levels. Endophyte infection reduced aphid performance in general. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that herbivore performance decreases on E+ host plants with increasing availability of nutrients in soils. Potential improvement in herbivore performance in high nutrient soils and decreased plant performance in low nutrient soils in ME- plants, compared to E- and E+ plants, suggests that loss of endophyte infection after long coevolutionary relationship may be critical to plant fitness. PMID:15351881

Lehtonen, Päivi; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

2005-01-01

406

Diversity of Cultivated Endophytic Bacteria from Sugarcane: Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid, and this trait was more frequently found among bacteria from the stem. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the selected isolates of the endophytic bacterial community of sugarcane belong to the genera of Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Burkholderia were the most predominant among the endophytic bacteria. Many of the Burkholderia isolates produced the antifungal metabolite pyrrolnitrin, and all were able to grow at 37°C. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and recA gene sequences indicated that the endophytic Burkholderia isolates from sugarcane are closely related to clinical isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex and clustered with B. cenocepacia (gv. III) isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These results suggest that isolates of the B. cepacia complex are an integral part of the endophytic bacterial community of sugarcane in Brazil and reinforce the hypothesis that plant-associated environments may act as a niche for putative opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:17905875

Mendes, Rodrigo; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.; Araujo, Welington L.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

2007-01-01

407

Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431  

PubMed Central

Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

2014-01-01

408

Swainsoninine concentrations and endophyte amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in different plant parts of Oxytropis sericea.  

PubMed

Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations found in the above ground parts. A fungal endophyte, Undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species, is responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine. By using quantitative PCR, the endophyte can be quantified in locoweed species. Endophyte amounts differ between plant parts and in some instances do not mirror the concentrations of swainsonine in the corresponding parts. Two groups of Oxytropis sericea were identified: one that accumulated high concentrations of swainsonine and another where swainsonine was not detected, or concentrations were near the detection threshold. The plants with high swainsonine concentrations had quantitatively higher amounts of endophyte. Alternatively, plants with low or no swainsonine detected had quantitatively lower endophyte amounts. In addition, swainsonine and endophyte concentrations were not distributed uniformly within the same plant when separated into stalks (leaves, scape(s), and flowers/pods). These findings provide evidence as to why plants in the same population accumulate different concentrations of swainsonine, and they have important implications for sampling of locoweed plants. PMID:19904570

Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Ralphs, Michael H; Pfister, James A; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T

2009-10-01

409

Aboveground endophyte affects root volatile emission and host plant selection of a belowground insect.  

PubMed

Plants emit specific blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that serve as multitrophic, multifunctional signals. Fungi colonizing aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) plant structures can modify VOC patterns, thereby altering the information content for AG insects. Whether AG microbes affect the emission of root volatiles and thus influence soil insect behaviour is unknown. The endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum colonizes the aerial parts of the grass hybrid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne and is responsible for the presence of insect-toxic loline alkaloids in shoots and roots. We investigated whether endophyte symbiosis had an effect on the volatile emission of grass roots and if the root herbivore Costelytra zealandica was able to recognize endophyte-infected plants by olfaction. In BG olfactometer assays, larvae of C. zealandica were more strongly attracted to roots of uninfected than endophyte-harbouring grasses. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry revealed that endophyte-infected roots emitted less VOCs and more CO2. Our results demonstrate that symbiotic fungi in plants may influence soil insect distribution by changing their behaviour towards root volatiles. The well-known defensive mutualism between grasses and Neotyphodium endophytes could thus go beyond bioactive alkaloids and also confer protection by being chemically less apparent for soil herbivores. PMID:25284612

Rostás, Michael; Cripps, Michael G; Silcock, Patrick

2015-02-01

410

Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.  

PubMed Central

Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

2011-01-01

411

Anti-insect secondary metabolites from fungal endophytes of conifer trees.  

PubMed

Choristoneura fumiferana is the most economically-important insect pest in eastern North America. Historically, strategies to control epidemics have relied on chemical pesticides that are no longer approved for use. The presence of fungal endophytes in cool area grass species and their role in reducing the impact of herbivorous insects is well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that foliar endophytes of conifers also produce anti-insect toxins. Field and nursery studies testing trees infected with the rugulosin producing endophyte Phialocephala scopiformis reduced the growth and development of C. fumiferana. The study of foliar endophytes from a variety of conifers including: Picea mariana, P. rubens and P. glauca as well as Abies balsamea and Larix laricina for the discovery of other anti-insect toxins are discussed. These endophytes are horizontally transmitted thus they are not present in nursery seedlings. Inoculating seedlings with toxigenic endophyte strains has been demonstrated to be effective in providing the tree with tolerance to herbivorous insects. PMID:19967982

Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

2009-11-01

412

Friend or foe: genetic and functional characterization of plant endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BP35 was originally isolated from black pepper grown in the rain forest in Kerala, India. Strain PaBP35 was shown to provide significant protection to black pepper against infections by Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis. For registration and implementation in disease management programmes, several traits of PaBP35 were investigated including its endophytic behaviour, biocontrol activity, phylogeny and toxicity to mammals. The results showed that PaBP35 efficiently colonized black pepper shoots and displayed a typical spatiotemporal pattern in its endophytic movement with concomitant suppression of Phytophthora rot. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed high populations of PaBP35::gfp2 inside tomato plantlets, supporting its endophytic behaviour in other plant species. Polyphasic approaches to genotype PaBP35, including BOX-PCR, recN sequence analysis, multilocus sequence typing and comparative genome hybridization analysis, revealed its uniqueness among P.?aeruginosa strains representing clinical habitats. However, like other P.?aeruginosa strains, PaBP35 exhibited resistance to antibiotics, grew at 25-41°C and produced rhamnolipids and phenazines. PaBP35 displayed strong type II secretion effectors-mediated cytotoxicity on mammalian A549 cells. Coupled with pathogenicity in a murine airway infection model, we conclude that this plant endophytic strain is as virulent as clinical P.?aeruginosa strains. Safety issues related to the selection of plant endophytic bacteria for crop protection are discussed. PMID:23171326

Kumar, A; Munder, A; Aravind, R; Eapen, S J; Tümmler, B; Raaijmakers, J M

2013-03-01

413

Horizontal Gene Transfer to Endogenous Endophytic Bacteria from Poplar Improves Phytoremediation of Toluene  

PubMed Central

Poplar, a plant species frequently used for phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents, was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468. This strain, whose natural host is yellow lupine, contains the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid coding for constitutively expressed toluene degradation. Noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with the soil bacterium B. cepacia Bu61(pTOM-Bu61) were used as controls. Inoculation of poplar had a positive effect on plant growth in the presence of toluene and reduced the amount of toluene released via evapotranspiration. These effects were more dramatic for VM1468, the endophytic strain, than for Bu61. Remarkably, none of the strains became established at detectable levels in the endophytic community, but there was horizontal gene transfer of pTOM-Bu61 to different members of the endogenous endophytic community, both in the presence and in the absence of toluene. This work is the first report of in planta horizontal gene transfer among plant-associated endophytic bacteria and demonstrates that such transfer could be used to change natural endophytic microbial communities in order to improve the remediation of environmental insults. PMID:16332840

Taghavi, Safiyh; Barac, Tanja; Greenberg, Bill; Borremans, Brigitte; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

2005-01-01

414

Genome Differences That Distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic diversity among a collection of non-anthrax-causing Bacillus species, some of which show significant similarity to B. anthracis. Suppression subtractive hybridization was then used to characterize the genomic differences that distinguish three of the non-anthrax-causing bacilli from B. anthracis Ames. Ninety-three DNA sequences that were present in B. anthracis but absent from the non-anthrax-causing Bacillus genomes were isolated. Furthermore, 28 of these sequences were not found in a collection of 10 non-anthrax-causing Bacillus species but were present in all members of a representative collection of B. anthracis strains. These sequences map to distinct loci on the B. anthracis genome and can be assayed simultaneously in multiplex PCR assays for rapid and highly specific DNA-based detection of B. anthracis. PMID:12732546

Radnedge, Lyndsay; Agron, Peter G.; Hill, Karen K.; Jackson, Paul J.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Keim, Paul; Andersen, Gary L.

2003-01-01

415

Genome differences that distinguish bacillus anthracis from bacillus cereus and bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic

Lyndsay Radnedge; Peter G. Agron; Karen K. Hill; Paul J. Jackson; Lawrence O. Tickner; Paul Neim; Gary L. Andersen

2003-01-01

416

FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

417

Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers  

SciTech Connect

Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2006-03-01

418

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates, Joshua Hodgson, Neil J. Morley, Brian C. Sutton &  

E-print Network

Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs Susan Hodgson, Catherine de Cates(8): 1199­ 1208 doi: 10.1002/ece3.953 Abstract To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs field- grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyle- dons and true leaves

Chittka, Lars

419

Supporting Information available online1 Van Bael et al., Endophytic fungi increase the processing rate of leavesby leaf-cutting ants2  

E-print Network

1 Supporting Information available online1 Van Bael et al., Endophytic fungi increase7 Gamboa (Van Bael, personal observation). In Gamboa, foliar endophyte communities of M.8 umbellata to select a species for leaf inoculation12 experiments and manipulation of endophyte densities within plants

Bermingham, Eldredge

420

Characterization of Cd and Pb-resistant fungal endophyte Mucor sp. CBRF59 isolated from rapes ( Brassica chinensis) in a metal-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the characteristics of fungal endophytes in the development of effective phytoremediation of heavy metals, the objectives of this study were to isolate a fungal endophyte tolerant Cd and Pb from rape roots grown in a heavy metal-contaminated soil, to characterize the metal-resistant fungal endophyte, and to assess its potential applications in removal of Cd and Pb from

Zujun Deng; Lixiang Cao; Haiwei Huang; Xinyu Jiang; Wenfeng Wang; Yang Shi; Renduo Zhang

2011-01-01

421

Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus from different pines and areas; and B. xylophilus strains with different virulence possessed various endophytic bacteria and diverse carbon metabolism which suggested that the endophytic bacteria species and carbon metabolism might be related with the B. xylophilus virulence. PMID:23289015

Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

2013-01-01

422

Wood decomposition and fungal community dynamics mediated by temperature and endophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood decomposition is primarily fulfilled by brown rot and white rot fungi in temperate and boreal forests. The competition balance between these fungi determines the patterns of wood decomposition and carbon cycle in forests. But this balance may shift in a warmer future, especially in high latitude forests. Additionally, endophytes may assert influence over the fungal competition through priority effect and interact with the effect of climate change. In this study, we use paper birch and two common fungi to answer two questions 1) How does increased temperature affect the competition between brown rot and white rot fungi? 2) How do endophytes interact with fungi from the soil and influence wood decomposition? A microcosm system was used to simulate competition between Piptoporus betulinus (brown rot fungi) and Fomes fomentarius (white rot fungi) on small birch stem on the effect of increased temperature and endophytes. Activity of P. betulinus was slower in higher temperature, but F. fomentarius was not affected. Character of residue showed that when both fungi were present, wood tend to have white rot in higher temperature. Presence of endophytes significantly reduced the decay rate when they were competing with external fungi, indicating that part of their energy was allocated to interspecies antagonism from metabolizing wood. In the absence of external fungus, endophytes alone caused significant amount of wood decay. Higher temperature also tends to shift the community of endophyte toward more white rot fungi. Our results highlighted the role of endophytes in wood decomposition. Major wood decomposers, not just plant pathogen, may remain dormant in live trees and regain their activity right after tree death. The endophytes could be an important part of assembly history in forming microbial community in dead wood and may have complex interactions with fungi and bacteria in soil. An increased temperature obviously favors white rot fungi, which is in accordance with the theory that brown rot fungi evolved from white rot fungi to adapt to cold environment. But how increased temperature interacts with endophytes still need further studies. Future studies on temperature and endophytes will deepen our understanding on forest carbon cycle under the influence of climate change. Brown rot and white rot fungi compete on birch in a microcosm

Song, Z.; Schilling, J. S.

2013-12-01

423

Comparative Sensitivity to UV-B Radiation of Two Bacillus thuringiensis Subspecies and Other Bacillus sp.  

E-print Network

Comparative Sensitivity to UV-B Radiation of Two Bacillus thuringiensis Subspecies and Other Received: 13 December 2000/Accepted: 19 January 2001 Abstract. Susceptibility of Bacillus thuringiensis diseases by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an im- portant alternative to chemical pesticides [17, 23

Zaritsky, Arieh

424

Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the

Natalia Ivanova; Alexei Sorokin; Iain Anderson; Nathalie Galleron; Benjamin Candelon; Vinayak Kapatral; Anamitra Bhattacharyya; Gary Reznik; Natalia Mikhailova; Alla Lapidus; Lien Chu; Michael Mazur; Eugene Goltsman; Niels Larsen; Mark D'Souza; Theresa Walunas; Yuri Grechkin; Gordon Pusch; Robert Haselkorn; Michael Fonstein; S. Dusko Ehrlich; Ross Overbeek; Nikos Kyrpides

2003-01-01

425

Diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi from different agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in two regions of Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; González, María C

2014-01-01

426

Taxonomy of Psychrophilic Strains of Bacillus  

PubMed Central

The morphological and physiological characteristics of 20 isolates of psychrophilic Bacillus were compared with 29 strains representing nine species of mesophilic Bacillus and 2 strains of Sporosarcina ureae to determine the taxonomic position of the psychrophiles. The psychrophiles formed four distinct groups which were sufficiently different from the mesophiles to warrant their designation as new species of Bacillus. The names B. psychrosaccharolyticus, B. insolitus, B. globisporus, and B. psychrophilus are proposed for the new species. Images PMID:6051360

Larkin, J. M.; Stokes, J. L.

1967-01-01

427

Taxonomy of psychrophilic strains of Bacillus.  

PubMed

The morphological and physiological characteristics of 20 isolates of psychrophilic Bacillus were compared with 29 strains representing nine species of mesophilic Bacillus and 2 strains of Sporosarcina ureae to determine the taxonomic position of the psychrophiles. The psychrophiles formed four distinct groups which were sufficiently different from the mesophiles to warrant their designation as new species of Bacillus. The names B. psychrosaccharolyticus, B. insolitus, B. globisporus, and B. psychrophilus are proposed for the new species. PMID:6051360

Larkin, J M; Stokes, J L

1967-10-01

428

Endophyte fungal isolates from Podophyllum peltatum produce podophyllotoxin.  

PubMed

The lignan podophyllotoxin (1) is highly valued as the precursor to clinically useful anticancer drugs. Substantial drug development of this compound class continues, including potential new use for inflammatory disease. We have isolated two endophyte fungi, both strains of Phialocephala fortinii, from rhizomes of the plant Podophyllum peltatum. The fungi were identified through DNA sequencing and morphology. Both strains of fungi are slow-growing and produce 1 at low but measurable amounts in broth culture. The compound was confirmed through matching HPLC retention times, absorption spectra, and MS data to authentic 1. The yield of 1 has ranged from 0.5 to 189 microg/L in 4 weeks of culture. These fungi have implications for the sustained production of 1 independent of wild populations of the source plants. PMID:16933860

Eyberger, Amy L; Dondapati, Rajeswari; Porter, John R

2006-08-01

429

Two new steroids from an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp.  

PubMed

Two new steroids, (14?,22E)-9,14-dihydroxyergosta-4,7,22-triene-3,6-dione (1) and (5?,6?,15?,22E)-6-ethoxy-5,15-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (2), together with three known steroids, calvasterols A and B (3 and 4, resp.), and ganodermaside D (5), were isolated from the culture broth of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. isolated from Aconitum carmichaeli. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and their inhibitory activities against six pathogenic fungi were evaluated. Most of the compounds showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth-microdilution assay. PMID:23847072

Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Rong; Miao, Cui-Ping; Chen, You-Wei

2013-07-01

430

Chloramine Mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloramine (which occurs widely as a by-product of sanitary chlorination of water supplies) is shown to be a weak mutagen, when reversion of trpC to trp+ in Bacillus subtilis is used as an assay. Some DNA-repair mutants appear to be more sensitive to chloramine, suggesting the involvement of DNA targets in bactericide. The influence of plating media on survival of

Katherine Lu Shih; Joshua Lederberg

1976-01-01

431

Endophytic fungi: novel sources of anticancer lead molecules.  

PubMed

Cancer is a major killer disease all over the world and more than six million new cases are reported every year. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic compounds, as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. These include vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, and taxol. Production of a plant-based natural drug is always not up to the desired level. It is produced at a specific developmental stage or under specific environmental condition, stress, or nutrient availability; the plants may be very slow growing taking several years to attain a suitable growth phase for product accumulation and extraction. Considering the limitations associated with the productivity and vulnerability of plant species as sources of novel metabolites, microorganisms serve as the ultimate, readily renewable, and inexhaustible source of novel structures bearing pharmaceutical potential. Endophytes, the microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants, are relatively unstudied and offer potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry. They develop special mechanisms to penetrate inside the host tissue, residing in mutualistic association and their biotransformation abilities opens a new platform for synthesis of novel secondary metabolites. They produce metabolites to compete with the epiphytes and also with the plant pathogens to maintain a critical balance between fungal virulence and plant defense. It is therefore necessary that the relationship between the plants and endophytes during the accumulation of these secondary metabolites is studied. Insights from such research would provide alternative methods of natural product drug discovery which could be reliable, economical, and environmentally safe. PMID:22622838

Chandra, Sheela

2012-07-01

432

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants†  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize their original hosts at 42 days postinoculation at levels of 3.5 to 7.7 log10 CFU/g (fresh weight). More comprehensive colonization studies were conducted with 373 corn and sorghum endophytes. In growth room studies, none of the isolates displayed pathogenicity, and 69 of the strains were recovered from corn or sorghum seedlings at levels of 8.3 log10 CFU/plant or higher. Host range greenhouse studies demonstrated that 26 of 29 endophytes were recoverable from at least one host other than corn and sorghum at levels of up to 5.8 log10 CFU/g (fresh weight). Long-range dent corn greenhouse studies and field trials with 17 wild-type strains and 14 antibiotic-resistant mutants demonstrated bacterial persistence at significant average colonization levels ranging between 3.4 and 6.1 log10 CFU/g (fresh weight) up to 78 days postinoculation. Three prairie and three agronomic endophytes exhibiting the most promising levels of colonization and an ability to persist were identified as Cellulomonas, Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, and Microbacterium isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence, fatty acid, and carbon source utilization analyses. This study defines for the first time the endophytic nature of Microbacterium testaceum. These microorganisms may be useful for biocontrol and other applications. PMID:11976089

Zinniel, Denise K.; Lambrecht, Pat; Harris, N. Beth; Feng, Zhengyu; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Higley, Phyllis; Ishimaru, Carol A.; Arunakumari, Alahari; Barletta, Raúl G.; Vidaver, Anne K.

2002-01-01

433

Bacillus anthracis Physiology and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the “group 1 bacilli”), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the Bacillus cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related to pathogenicity. B. anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax. Vegetative cells of B. anthracis produce anthrax toxin proteins and a poly-D-glutamic acid capsule during infection of mammalian hosts and when cultured in conditions considered to mimic the host environment. The genes associated with toxin and capsule synthesis are located on the B. anthracis plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. Although plasmid content is considered a defining feature of the species, pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids have been identified in strains that more closely resemble other members of the B. cereus group. The developmental nature of B. anthracis and its pathogenic (mammalian host) and environmental (soil) lifestyles of make it an interesting model for study of niche-specific bacterial gene expression and physiology. PMID:19654018

Koehler, Theresa M.

2009-01-01

434

Root Colonization by Ericoid Mycorrhizae and Dark Septate Endophytes in Organic and Conventional Blueberry Fields in Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ericoid mycorrhizae are interfaces for nutrient exchange between specialized fungi and roots of blueberries and other ericaceous plants. Dark septate endophytes also associate with roots of the Ericaceae and many other plant families, but the nature of the interaction is not well understood. We measured ericoid mycorrhizae and dark septate endophyte colonization in organic and conventional blueberry fields matched by

J. J. Sadowsky; E. J. Hanson; A. M. C. Schilder

2012-01-01

435

Genome Survey and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Exhibiting a Beneficial Effect on Growth and Development of Poplar Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the

Safiyh Taghavi