Sample records for endophytic bacillus pumilus

  1. Genome Sequence of the Plant Endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7, Triggering Induced Systemic Resistance in Field Crops

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Choi, Soo-Keun; Kloepper, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus INR7 is an endophytic bacterium that has been commercialized as a biological control product against soilborne pathogens as well as foliar pathogens by direct antagonism and induction of systemic resistance. In the current study, we provide the genome sequence and a possible explanation of the function of strain INR7. PMID:25359912

  2. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    PubMed Central

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  3. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  4. Selective plasmid transduction in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed Central

    Bramucci, M G; Lovett, P S

    1977-01-01

    The inducible temperate bacteriophage phi75 and a clear-plaque-forming variant, phi75C1, mediated transduction of a 4.4 X 10(6)-dalton multicopy Bacillus pumilus plasmid, pPL10, at frequencies of 10(-5) to 10(-6) transductants per plaque-forming unit. phi75- and phi75C1-mediated transduction of several chromosome markers tested did not occur at a detectable frequency. phi75-mediated plasmid transducing activity resides in particles that are similar to infectious particles in sedimentation velocity and buoyant density. PMID:893340

  5. Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, P S; Bramucci, M G

    1975-01-01

    Two of eighteen strains of Bacillus subtilis examined contained covalently closed circular duplex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of homogeneous size and buoyant density. Strain ATCC 15841 contained about 16 copies per chromosome of plasmid pPL1, a circular DNA element having a molecular weight of about 4.7 times 10(6) and a buoyant density of 1.700. Strain ATCC 7003 contained about one to two copies per chromosome of plasmid pPL2. pPL2 had a molecular weight of about 46 times 10(6) and a buoyant density of 1.696. Strain ATCC 7003 appeared to be closely related to B. subtilis 168 by genetic, physiological, and biochemical criteria. Strain ATCC 15841 appeared to be much less closely related. B. pumilus ATCC 12140 contained two size classes of covalently closed circular duplex DNA. The plasmids pMB1 and pMB2 had molecular weights of about 6.8 times 10(6) and 5.3 times 10(6), respectively, and were present in several copies per chromosome. Images PMID:809424

  6. Microbiological bioassay using Bacillus pumilus to detect tetracycline in milk.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando Guillermo; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro

    2015-05-01

    The tetracyclines (TCs) are widely used in the treatment of several diseases of cattle and their residues may be present in milk. To control these residues it is necessary to have available inexpensive screening methods, user-friendly and capable of analysing a high number of samples. The purpose of this study was to design a bioassay of microbiological inhibition in microtiter plates with spores of Bacillus pumilus to detect TCs at concentrations corresponding to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). Several complementary experiments were performed to design the bioassay. In the first study, we determined the concentration of spores that produce a change in the bioassay's relative absorbance in a short time period. Subsequently, we assessed the concentration of chloramphenicol required to decrease the detection limit (DL) of TCs at MRLs levels. Thereafter, specificity, DL and cross-specificity of the bioassay were estimated. The most appropriate microbiological inhibition assay had a B. pumilus concentration of 1.6 × 10(9) spores/ml, fortified with 2500 ?g chloramphenicol/l (CAP) in Mueller Hinton culture medium using brilliant black and toluidine blue as redox indicator. This bioassay detected 117 ?g chlortetracycline/l, 142 ?g oxytetracycline/l and 105 ?g tetracycline/l by means of a change in the indicator's colour in a period of 5 h. The method showed good specificity (97.9%) which decreased slightly (93.3%) in milk samples with high somatic cell counts (>250,000 cells/ml). Furthermore, other antimicrobials studied (except neomycin) must be present in milk at high concentrations (from >5 to >100 MRLs) to produce positive results in this assay, indicating a low cross specificity. PMID:25720802

  7. Pyrene Degradation by Bacillus pumilus Isolated from Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purnima Khanna; Dinesh Goyal; Sunil Khanna

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus (MTCC 1002) isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was capable of growing in the presence of 50 ?g\\/ml of pyrene. During growth on pyrene B. pumilus was able to co-metabolize 64% of 50?g\\/ml pyrene in basal medium containing 0.5% glucose in 35 days while in pulse-chase studies, as assessed by HPLC

  8. Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiang; Jiang, Huaiyang; Igboeli, Okezie C.; Muzny, Donna; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Ding, Yan; Hawes, Alicia; Liu, Wen; Perez, Lesette; Kovar, Christie; Dinh, Huyen; Lee, Sandra; Nazareth, Lynne; Blyth, Peter; Holder, Michael; Buhay, Christian; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Liu, Yamei; Dasgupta, Indrani; Bokhetache, Lina; Fujita, Masaya; Karouia, Fathi; Eswara Moorthy, Prahathees; Siefert, Johnathan; Uzman, Akif; Buzumbo, Prince; Verma, Avani; Zwiya, Hiba; McWilliams, Brian D.; Olowu, Adeola; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Newcombe, David; Golebiewski, Lisa; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Fox, George E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Highlander, Sarah K.; Weinstock, George M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, ?-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard decontamination procedures of the Jet Propulsion Lab spacecraft assembly facility, and both spores and vegetative cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus species. Principal Findings The genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032 was sequenced and annotated. Lists of genes relevant to DNA repair and the oxidative stress response were generated and compared to B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. Differences in conservation of genes, gene order, and protein sequences are highlighted because they potentially explain the extreme resistance phenotype of B. pumilus. The B. pumilus genome includes genes not found in B. subtilis or B. licheniformis and conserved genes with sequence divergence, but paradoxically lacks several genes that function in UV or H2O2 resistance in other Bacillus species. Significance This study identifies several candidate genes for further research into UV and H2O2 resistance. These findings will help explain the resistance of B. pumilus and are applicable to understanding sterilization survival strategies of microbes. PMID:17895969

  9. Recurrent isolation of hydrogen peroxide-resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Michael J; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-06-01

    While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware. PMID:15941382

  10. Recurrent Isolation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Resistant Spores of Bacillus pumilus from a Spacecraft Assembly Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Michael J.; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-06-01

    While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware.

  11. Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis Using MALDI-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, João; Pintado, Manuela E.; Peixe, Luísa V.; Osório, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

  12. Bacillus pumilus Reveals a Remarkably High Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide Provoked Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jürgen, Britta; Methling, Karen; Schlüter, Rabea; Albrecht, Dirk; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael; Voigt, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus is characterized by a higher oxidative stress resistance than other comparable industrially relevant Bacilli such as B. subtilis or B. licheniformis. In this study the response of B. pumilus to oxidative stress was investigated during a treatment with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide at the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome level. Genes/proteins belonging to regulons, which are known to have important functions in the oxidative stress response of other organisms, were found to be upregulated, such as the Fur, Spx, SOS or CtsR regulon. Strikingly, parts of the fundamental PerR regulon responding to peroxide stress in B. subtilis are not encoded in the B. pumilus genome. Thus, B. pumilus misses the catalase KatA, the DNA-protection protein MrgA or the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase AhpCF. Data of this study suggests that the catalase KatX2 takes over the function of the missing KatA in the oxidative stress response of B. pumilus. The genome-wide expression analysis revealed an induction of bacillithiol (Cys-GlcN-malate, BSH) relevant genes. An analysis of the intracellular metabolites detected high intracellular levels of this protective metabolite, which indicates the importance of bacillithiol in the peroxide stress resistance of B. pumilus. PMID:24465625

  13. Draft Whole Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain 3-19, a Chemical Mutant Overproducing Extracellular Ribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. It was derived from soil-isolated B. pumilus 7P using chemical mutagenesis and is characterized by elevated production of extracellular ribonuclease which is known to possess different biological activities with potential of applications in experimental research, medicine, and biotechnology. PMID:25059870

  14. Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, José Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimarães, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Corrêa; Bressan, Wellington

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies. PMID:24031395

  15. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus W3: A strain exhibiting high laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Zhao, Hong; Liao, Xiang-Ru

    2015-08-10

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus W3, which was isolated from raw gallnut honey in Nandan County, Guangxi Province of China, showing high CotA-laccase activity. The W3 strain contains 3,745,123bp with GC content of 41.39%, and contains 3695 protein-coding genes, 21 rRNAs and 70 tRNAs. PMID:25957807

  16. Sterilization of Bacillus pumilus spores using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide containing various modifier solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edison Shieh; Andrzej Paszczynski; Chien M. Wai; Qingyong Lang; Ronald L. Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) with small amounts of chemical modifier(s) provides a very effective sterilization technique that should be useful for destroying microorganism on heat-sensitive devices such as instruments flown on planetary-bound spacecraft. Under a moderate temperature (50 °C) and pressure (100 atm), spores of Bacillus pumilus strains ATCC 7061 and SAFR 032 can be effectively inactivated\\/eliminated from metal surfaces and

  17. Characterization of Surfactin-like Cyclic Depsipeptides Synthesized by Bacillus pumilus from Ascidian Halocynthia aurantium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie I. Kalinovskaya; Tatyana A. Kuznetsova; Elena P. Ivanova; Ludmila A. Romanenko; Valery G. Voinov; Felix Huth; Hartmut Laatsch

    2002-01-01

    :   A marine bacterium (KMM 1364), identified as Bacillus pumilus, was isolated from the surface of ascidian Halocynthia aurantium. Structural analysis revealed that the strain KMM 1364 produced a mixture of lipopeptide surfactin analogs with major components\\u000a with molecular masses of 1035, 1049, 1063, and 1077. The variation in molecular weight represents changes in the number of\\u000a methylene groups in

  18. Developing a new production host from a blueprint: Bacillus pumilus as an industrial enzyme producer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch. To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. Results To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel’s industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an ?-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. Conclusions In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the basis for a next generation production host, since the strain has still a large potential for further genetic engineering. The final amylase titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer suggests that the developed B. pumilus expression platform is also suitable for an efficient production of non-proteolytic enzymes reaching a final titer of several grams per liter without complex process modifications. PMID:24661794

  19. [Properties of Bacillus pumilus subtilisin like proteinase secreted from recombinant strain on different growth stages].

    PubMed

    Balaban, N P; Danilova, Iu V; Shamsutdinov, T R; Mardanova, A M; Cheremin, A M; Rudenskaia, G N; Sharipova, M R

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus 3-19 glutamylendopeptidase has been isolated from culture liquid of Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain on different growth stages: growth retardation (early enzyme) and stationary phase (late enzyme). The effect of purified proteinase of different growth stages on insulin beta-chain, protein and oligopeptide substrates has been studied. Comparative study of physicochemical properties of early and late proteinases was carried out. Two protein fractions were different in catalytic characteristics and demonstrated different sensitivity to the presence of metal cations. PMID:23844506

  20. Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

    2014-09-30

    The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 10? cells g?¹ viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish. PMID:25266899

  1. MALDI-TOFMS compared with other polyphasic taxonomy approaches for the identification and classification of Bacillus pumilus spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle N Dickinson; Myron T La Duc; Masataka Satomi; James D Winefordner; David H Powell; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

    2004-01-01

    To verify the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for identifying and differentiating bacterial species, several strains of Bacillus pumilus were examined in a thorough taxonomic study incorporating a polyphasic approach. Sixteen isolates of putative B. pumilus isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and the International Space Station, were characterized for their

  2. Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. (Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Johnston, IA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

  3. Molecular characterization of cellulose-degrading Bacillus pumilus from the soil of tea garden, Darjeeling hills, India.

    PubMed

    Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Sarkar, Kanishendranath; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Srivastava, Sunita

    2014-05-01

    Bio-fuel produced from ethanol is economically and environmentally advantageous in context of changing global climate. A large number of microorganisms are capable of cellulase production but most of them cannot be utilized commercially due to their low activity. In the present study, an effiecient cellulose degrading strain of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after thorough screening for the production of extracellular cellulases. Out of a total of 144 microbes isolated from soils of Darjeeling hills of India, nineteen were found to be cellulose degrader under in vitro conditions as observed by clearing zone on CMC - agar plates. Isolate #35 had high cellulolytic activity as observed by a clearing zone of 26.83 mm diameter formed on CMC - agar plate. The isolate was characterized and identified as Bacillus pumilus. The isolate was submitted to National Agriculturally Important Microbial Culture Collection (NAIMCC), NBAIM, Mau with Accession number NAIMCC-B-01415. Transposon (Tn5) mutants of wild type isolate Bacillus pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 were generated and screened for the absence of cellulose degradation. Of 365 B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 mutants obtained, only two were unable to degrade cellulose under in vitro conditions. Inverse PCR studies with B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 :: TL5, a cellulose degradation mutant of B. pumilus NAIMCC -B-01415 revealed presence of Cys B (Cystein protein regulatory) gene involved in cellulose degradation. The participation of Cys B gene in cellulase degradation is reported here. PMID:24813013

  4. The abiotic and biotic plant stress tolerant and beneficial secondary metabolites produced by endophytic Bacillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of endophytic bacteria and their potential for protecting crops has targeted the endophytic species of Bacillus as a valued microorganism not only for disease protection but also for inducing plant defense mechanisms. Numerous strains of Bacillus, endophytic and non-endophytic, are widely...

  5. Cloning of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase gene ( xynB ?) and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. La Grange; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. van Zyl

    1997-01-01

    A genomic DNA library of the bacterium Bacillus pumilus PLS was constructed and the ?-xylosidase gene (xynB) was amplified from a 3-kb genomic DNA fragment with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction technique. The amplified xynB gene was inserted between the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences on a multicopy

  6. Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the one electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds. Laccase substrates include substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols. Such compounds are activated by the enzyme to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range laccases are considered to be versatile biocatalysts which are capable of oxidizing natural and non-natural industrial compounds, with water as sole by-product. Results A novel CotA-type laccase from Bacillus pumilus was cloned, expressed and purified and its biochemical characteristics are presented here. The molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 58 kDa and the enzyme was found to be associated with four copper atoms. Its catalytic activity towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and syringaldazine (SGZ) was investigated. The kinetic parameters KM and kcat for ABTS were 80 ± 4 ?M and 291 ± 2.7 s-1, for 2,6-DMP 680 ± 27 ?M and 11 ± 0.1 s-1 and for SGZ only kcat could be estimated to be 66 ± 1.5 s-1. The pH optimum for ABTS was 4, for 2,6-DMP 7 and for SGZ 6.5 and temperature optima for ABTS and 2,6-DMP were found to be around 70°C. The screening of 37 natural and non-natural compounds as substrates for B. pumilus laccase revealed 18 suitable compounds. Three of them served as redox mediators in the laccase-catalyzed decolorization of the dye indigocarmine (IC), thus assessing the new enzyme's biotechnological potential. Conclusions The fully copper loaded, thermostable CotA laccase from Bacillus pumilus is a versatile laccase with potential applications as an industrial biocatalyst. PMID:21266052

  7. Bacillus pumilus BpCRI 6, a promising candidate for cellulase production under conditions of catabolite repression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cellulose degrading organisms have been used for the conversion of cellulolytic materials into soluble sugars or solvents in several biotechnological and industrial applications. In this report, a mutant of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after chemical mutagenesis and screened for cellulase production. This mutant named BpCRI 6 was selected for its ability to produce cellulase under catabolite repression. Cellulase yield by

  8. Genomic analysis of a ginger pathogen Bacillus pumilus providing the understanding to the pathogenesis and the novel control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus has been widely identified as a pathogen of plant and human, while the genetic information is rarely available for pathogenic B. pumilus strains. B. pumilus GR8 is a pathogen that causes ginger rhizome rot disease by invading ginger rhizome parenchymatous tissues, growing in the extracellular space, and producing plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to destroy ginger cells. In this study, the genome of GR8 was sequenced and characterized. This genome was the third completely sequenced genome of the B. pumilus species, and it exhibited high similarity to the genome of the B. pumilus strain B6033. The genome of GR8 was 3.67 Mb in length and encoded 3,713 putative ORFs. Among these predicted proteins, numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and several proteins associated with invading and adapting to the environment in the extracellular space of the ginger rhizome parenchymatous tissue were found. The GR8 genome contained only one restriction-modification system and no CRISPR/Cas system. The lack of phage-resistant system suggested that phages might be potential agents for the control of GR8. The genomic analysis of GR8 provided the understanding to the pathogenesis and the phage-control strategy of pathogenic B. pumilus strains. PMID:25989507

  9. Genomic analysis of a ginger pathogen Bacillus pumilus providing the understanding to the pathogenesis and the novel control strategy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus has been widely identified as a pathogen of plant and human, while the genetic information is rarely available for pathogenic B. pumilus strains. B. pumilus GR8 is a pathogen that causes ginger rhizome rot disease by invading ginger rhizome parenchymatous tissues, growing in the extracellular space, and producing plant cell wall-degrading enzymes to destroy ginger cells. In this study, the genome of GR8 was sequenced and characterized. This genome was the third completely sequenced genome of the B. pumilus species, and it exhibited high similarity to the genome of the B. pumilus strain B6033. The genome of GR8 was 3.67 Mb in length and encoded 3,713 putative ORFs. Among these predicted proteins, numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and several proteins associated with invading and adapting to the environment in the extracellular space of the ginger rhizome parenchymatous tissue were found. The GR8 genome contained only one restriction-modification system and no CRISPR/Cas system. The lack of phage-resistant system suggested that phages might be potential agents for the control of GR8. The genomic analysis of GR8 provided the understanding to the pathogenesis and the phage-control strategy of pathogenic B. pumilus strains. PMID:25989507

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Fairview, an Isolate Recovered from a Microbial Methanogenic Enrichment of Coal Seam Gas Formation Water from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vockler, Cassandra J; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite its global abundance, Bacillus pumilus is poorly studied. The Fairview strain was obtained from a methanogenic anaerobic coal digester. The draft genome sequence was 3.8 Mbp long and contained 3,890 protein-coding genes. Like the SAFR-032 strain, it includes B. pumilus-specific proteins that likely confer enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:24744330

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Fairview, an Isolate Recovered from a Microbial Methanogenic Enrichment of Coal Seam Gas Formation Water from Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its global abundance, Bacillus pumilus is poorly studied. The Fairview strain was obtained from a methanogenic anaerobic coal digester. The draft genome sequence was 3.8 Mbp long and contained 3,890 protein-coding genes. Like the SAFR-032 strain, it includes B. pumilus-specific proteins that likely confer enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:24744330

  12. Phylogenetic Diversity of the Bacillus pumilus Group and the Marine Ecotype Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

  13. Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    2009-05-15

    are true nitrilases and convert cyanide to the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia. Cyanide dihydratases have been found in only a few bacteria including Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. Denitrificans DF3 (16), Bacillus pumilus C1 (22), and P...

  14. MALDI-TOFMS compared with other polyphasic taxonomy approaches for the identification and classification of Bacillus pumilus spores.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Danielle N; La Duc, Myron T; Satomi, Masataka; Winefordner, James D; Powell, David H; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-07-01

    To verify the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for identifying and differentiating bacterial species, several strains of Bacillus pumilus were examined in a thorough taxonomic study incorporating a polyphasic approach. Sixteen isolates of putative B. pumilus isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and the International Space Station, were characterized for their biochemical and molecular profiles using the Biolog system, DNA techniques, and MALDI-TOFMS protein profiling. MALDI-TOFMS protein profiling was more accurate than Biolog metabolic profiling, more discriminating than 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and complemented the results of gyrB sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization for the identification of the B. pumilus spores. This is the first report whereby MALDI-TOFMS generated protein profiles from a set of microbes is compared directly with DNA-DNA hybridization yielding a positive correlation. Unique, cluster-specific biomarker peaks have been identified in the spores of the B. pumilus examined in this study. MALDI-TOFMS protein profiling is a rapid and simple analysis and has been demonstrated as a useful taxonomic tool for differentiating spores of the genus Bacillus. For practical purposes, it would be ideal (and necessary) to have a publicly available, standardized MALDI profile database, to facilitate the use of the technique as a diagnostic method to differentiate bacterial species. PMID:15177898

  15. Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110?nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ?7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (?3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ?4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants as risks for forward contamination and in situ life detection. PMID:22680694

  16. Optimization of Chitinase Production by Bacillus pumilus Using Plackett-Burman Design and Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tasharrofi, Noshin; Adrangi, Sina; Fazeli, Mehdi; Rastegar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of degrading chitin on chitin agar plates was isolated and identified as Bacillus pumilus isolate U5 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In order to optimize culture conditions for chitinase production by this bacterium, a two step approach was employed. First, the effects of several medium components were studied using the Plackett-Burman design. Among various components tested, chitin and yeast extract showed positive effect on enzyme production while MgSO4 and FeSO4 had negative effect. However, the linear model proved to be insufficient for determining the optimum levels for these components due to a highly significant curvature effect. In the second step, Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum values. It was noticed that a quadratic polynomial equation fitted he experimental data appropriately. The optimum concentrations for chitin, yeast extract, MgSO4 and FeSO4 were found to be 4.76, 0.439, 0.0055 and 0.019 g/L, respectively, with a predicted value of chitinase production of 97.67 U/100 mL. Using this statistically optimized medium, the practical chitinase production reached 96.1 U/100 mL. PMID:24250411

  17. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

  18. Acetoin Catabolism and Acetylbutanediol Formation by Bacillus pumilus in a Chemically Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zijun; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Lu, Jian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most low molecular diols are highly water-soluble, hygroscopic, and reactive with many organic compounds. In the past decades, microbial research to produce diols, e.g. 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol, were considerably expanded due to their versatile usages especially in polymer synthesis and as possible alternatives to fossil based feedstocks from the bioconversion of renewable natural resources. This study aimed to provide a new way for bacterial production of an acetylated diol, i.e. acetylbutanediol (ABD, 3,4-dihydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-one), by acetoin metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings When Bacillus pumilus ATCC 14884 was aerobically cultured in a chemically defined medium with acetoin as the sole carbon and energy source, ABD was produced and identified by gas chromatography – chemical ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Conclusions/Significance Although the key enzyme leading to ABD from acetoin has not been identified yet at this stage, this study proposed a new metabolic pathawy to produce ABD in vivo from using renewable resources – in this case acetoin, which could be reproduced from glucose in this study – making it the first facility in the world to prepare this new bio-based diol product. PMID:19461961

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS with high catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jaouadi, Bassem; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir

    2008-09-01

    We have described previously the potential use of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS as an effective additive in laundry detergent formulations [B. Jaouadi, S. Ellouz-Chaabouni, M. Ben Ali, E. Ben Messaoud, B. Naili, A. Dhouib, S. Bejar, A novel alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS having a high compatibility with laundry detergent and a high feather-degrading activity, Process Biochem, submitted for publication]. Here, we purified this enzyme (named SAPB) and we cloned, sequenced and over-expressed the corresponding gene. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using salt precipitation and gel filtration HPLC. The pure protease was found to be monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 34598.19Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The NH2-terminal sequence of first 21 amino acids (aa) of the purified SAPB was AQTVPYGIPQIKAPAVHAQGY and was completely identical to proteases from other Bacillus pumilus species. This protease is strongly inhibited by PMSF and DFP, showing that it belongs to the serine proteases superfamily. Interestingly, the optimum pH is 10.6 while the optimum temperature was determined to be 65 degrees C. The enzyme was completely stable within a wide range of pH (7.0-10.6) and temperature (30-55 degrees C). One of the distinguishing properties is its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) calculated to be 45,265min(-1)mM(-1) and 147,000min(-1)mM(-1) using casein and AAPF as substrates, respectively, which is higher than that of Subtilisin Carlsberg, Subtilisin BPN' and Subtilisin 309 determined under the same conditions. In addition, SAPB showed remarkable stability, for 24h at 40 degrees C, in the presence of 5% Tween-80, 1% SDS, 15% urea and 10% H2O2, which comprise the common bleach-based detergent formulation. The sapB gene encoding SAPB was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme (rSAPB) has the same physicochemical and kinetic properties as the native one. SapB gene had an ORF of 1149bp encoding a protein of 383 aa organized into a signal peptide (29 aa), a pro-protein (79 aa) and a mature enzyme (275 aa). The deduced amino acid sequence inspection displays an important homology with other bacterial proteases. The highest homology of 98.1% was found with BPP-A protease from Bacillus pumilus MS-1, with only 8 aa of difference. PMID:18397761

  20. Production and optimization of cellulase-free, alkali-stable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus SV85S in submerged fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil Nagar; Vijay Kumar Gupta; Davender Kumar; Lalit Kumar; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the production of a cellulase-free and alkali-stable xylanase in high titre from a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using cheap and easily available agro-residue wheat bran. Optimization of fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme\\u000a production to 2995.20 ± 200.00 IU\\/ml, which was 9.91-fold higher than the activity under unoptimized basal medium (302.2 IU\\/ml).\\u000a Statistical optimization using response-surface methodology was employed to obtain

  1. Purification and Properties of a Polygalacturonic Acid Trans-Eliminase Produced by Bacillus pumilus

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhalchandra A.; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1971-01-01

    A strain of Bacillus pumilus produced an extracellular pectic enzyme with polygalacturonic acid as the substrate. This enzyme, with optimal activity at pH 8.0 to 8.5, produced reaction products that strongly absorbed light at 232 nm, indicating the presence of a pectic acid trans-eliminase (PATE). Neither pectin esterase nor polygalacturonase was detected in the cell-free culture fluid. Chromatographic examination of the end products revealed the presence of large quantities of unsaturated oligouronides unlike those found with B. polymyxa. It was found that the PATE was produced extracellularly during the negative logarithmic death phase of the organism. The filtrate from sonically treated cells did not show any activity for PATE or hydrolases for lower oligogalacturonides at any time during the growth cycle. The enzyme was inducible. Pectin, National Formulary (NF) was the best inducer, followed by polygalacturonic acid and galacturonic acid. Enzyme activity was markedly stimulated by calcium and other divalent ions. Copper and cobalt ions were inhibitory. The partially purified enzyme showed no significant activity on pectin containing a high methoxyl content (96% esterified). However, pectin NF with a lower methoxyl content (68% esterified) was attacked to a degree by the partially purified and crude enzyme preparations. The initial rate of PATE activity increased up to 60 C, about 16-fold higher than that observed at room temperature. The activation energy was calculated as 12,183 cal/mole. A protective action of calcium chloride against heat inactivation of the PATE was observed. Degradation of polygalacturonic acid by this enzyme produced several unsaturated oligouronides soon after its addition to the substrate. The major endproduct was thought to be different from that of other known PATE enzymes. Paper chromatographic studies and viscosity measurements disclosed the random cleaving nature of the enzyme an endo-PATE. PMID:5122802

  2. Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O’Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Fox, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

  3. Candidate genes that may be responsible for the unusual resistances exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.

    PubMed

    Tirumalai, Madhan R; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O'Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Fox, George E

    2013-01-01

    The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061(T). 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061(T) and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T). This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

  4. Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    2009-05-15

    This study generated two cyanide dihydratase (CynD) mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 with improved activity at higher pH by random mutagenesis. The purpose of this study was to create enzyme variants better suited to degrade cyanide under the harsh...

  5. Phylogenetic and clonality analysis of Bacillus pumilus isolates uncovered a highly heterogeneous population of different closely related species and clones.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Raquel; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Carriço, João A; Pintado, Manuela; Peixe, Luísa V

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium with a wide range of attributed applications, namely as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), animal, and human probiotic. However, a rare putative role in human diseases has been reported, namely in food poisoning or as anthrax-like cutaneous infectious agent. This species is difficult to distinguish from its closely related species on the basis of phenotypic or biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study, the phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and rpoB gene sequences of a collection of isolates previously identified as B. pumilus, assigned most of them (93%, 38 of 41 isolates) to B. safensis or to the new recently described B. invictae. Moreover, we extended the previously reported recognized habitats of these species and unveiled a human health or biotechnological relevance (e.g. as implicated in food poisoning or PGPR) for them. Additionally, we demonstrated that both B. safensis and B. invictae species encompass a clonally diverse population, which can justify their great adaptation ability to different niches, with evidence of clonal-host specificity. PMID:25230950

  6. Rice seeds as sources of endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Hiroko; Mano, Hironobu; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Asuka; Kaneko, Satoshi; Morisaki, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to originate from the external environment. To examine the hypothesis that rice (Oryza sativa, cultivar Kinuhikari) seeds are a source of endophytic bacteria, we isolated endophytic bacteria from the shoots, remains of the seeds, and roots of rice seedlings that were aseptically cultivated in vitro from surface-disinfected seeds. Of the various bacterial strains isolated, the closest relatives, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were: Bacillus firmus, B. fusiformis, B. pumilus, Caulobacter crescentus, Kocuria palustris, Micrococcus luteus, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Me. radiotolerans, and Pantoea ananatis. The latter three species have been detected frequently inside both rice seedlings and mature rice plants. These results indicate that rice seeds are an important source of endophytic bacteria. The bacteria that colonize the seed interior appear to infect the subsequent generation via rice seeds and become the dominant endophytic species in the mature plant. PMID:21566368

  7. Gene analysis, optimized production and property of marine lipase from Bacillus pumilus B106 associated with South China Sea sponge Halichondria rugosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongzhen Zhang; Fengli Zhang; Zhiyong Li

    2009-01-01

    Gene cloning, optimized production and property of marine lipase from Bacillus pumilus B106 associated with South China Sea sponge Halichondria rugosa were investigated in this paper. A lipase gene with whole ORF encoding 215 amino acids was obtained by PCR, protein domain\\u000a prediction suggested that the deduced lipase belongs to ?\\/? hydrolases family. Based on single factor Seriatim-Factorial test\\u000a and

  8. Variability and interactions between endophytic bacteria and fungi isolated from leaf tissues of citrus rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Aguilar-Vildoso, C I; Barroso, P A; Saridakis, H O; Azevedo, J L

    2001-03-01

    Fungi and bacteria were isolated from surface disinfected leaf tissues of several citrus rootstocks. The principal bacterial species isolated were Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus spp. (including B. cereus, B. lentus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. subtilis), Burkholderia cepacia, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium extorquens, and Pantoea agglomerans, with P. agglomerans and B. pumilus being the most frequently isolated species. The most abundant fungal species were Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Guignardia citricarpa, and Cladosporium sp. Genetic variability between 36 endophytic bacterial isolates was analysed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, which indicated that B. pumilus isolates were more diverse than P. agglomerans isolates, although genetic diversity was not related to the host plants. In vitro interaction studies between G. citricarpa isolates and the most frequently isolated endophytic bacteria showed that metabolites secreted by G. citricarpa have an inhibitory growth effect on some Bacillus species, and a stimulatory growth effect on P. agglomerans. PMID:11315114

  9. Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    E-print Network

    Fox, George

    Background. Bacillus spores are notoriously resistant to unfavorable conditions such as UV radiation, c-radiation cells of this strain exhibit elevated resistance to UV radiation and H2O2 compared to other Bacillus that are more resistant than vegetative cells to heat, desiccation, UV radiation, c-radiation, H2O2

  10. Exo-pectinase production by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes and optimizing of medium components using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Ozlem; Dursun, Arzu Y

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the production of exo-pectinase by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes was studied. Agricultural wastes containing pectin such as wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, sunflower plate, orange peel, banana peel, apple pomace and grape pomace were tested as substrates, and activity of exo-pectinase was determined only in the mediums containing sugar beet pulp and wheat bran. Then, effects of parameters such as concentrations of solid substrate (wheat bran and sugar beet pulp) (A), ammonium sulphate (B) and yeast extract (C) on the production of exo-pectinase were investigated by response surface methodology. First, wheat bran was used as solid substrate, and it was determined that exo-pectinase activity increased when relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulphate (0.12-0.21%?w/v) and yeast extract (0.12-0.3%?w/v) and relatively high wheat bran (~5-6%?w/v) were used. Then, exo-pectinase production was optimized by response surface methodology using sugar beet pulp as a solid substrate. In comparison to P values of the coefficients, values of not greater than 0.05 of A and B (2) showed that the effect of these process variables in exo-pectinase production was important and that changes done in these variables will alter the enzyme activity. PMID:24819433

  11. Coexpression of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase ( xynB ) gene with the Trichoderma reesei ?-xylanase 2 ( xyn2 ) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. La Grange; M. Claeyssens; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. Van Zyl

    2000-01-01

    The xynB gene encoding the Bacillus pumilus?-xylosidase was expressed separately and jointly with the Trichoderma reesei?-xylanase (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the glucose-derepressible alcohol dehydrogenase?2 promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences. The xynB gene was fused in frame to the yeast mating factor ?1 secretion

  12. Effects of Actin-Like Proteins Encoded by Two Bacillus pumilus Phages on Unstable Lysogeny, Revealed by Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yihui; Peng, Qin; Wu, Dandan; Kou, Zheng; Wu, Yan; Liu, Pengming

    2014-01-01

    We characterized two newly isolated myoviruses, Bp8p-C and Bp8p-T, infecting the ginger rhizome rot disease pathogen Bacillus pumilus GR8. The plaque of Bp8p-T exhibited a clear center with a turbid rim, suggesting that Bp8p-T could transform into latent phage. Lysogeny assays showed that both the two phages could form latent states, while Bp8p-T could form latent phage at a higher frequency and stability than Bp8p-C. The genomes of Bp8p-C and Bp8p-T were 151,417 and 151,419 bp, respectively; both encoded 212 putative proteins, and only differed by three nucleotides. Moreover, owing to this difference, Bp8p-C encoded a truncated, putative actin-like plasmid segregation protein Gp27-C. Functional analysis of protein Gp27 showed that Gp27-T encoded by Bp8p-T exhibited higher ATPase activity and assembly ability than Gp27-C. The results indicate that the difference in Gp27 affected the phage lysogenic ability. Structural proteome analysis of Bp8p-C virion resulted in the identification of 14 structural proteins, among which a pectin lyase-like protein, a putative poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolase, and three proteins with unknown function, were firstly identified as components of the phage virion. Both phages exhibited specific lytic ability to the host strain GR8. Bp8p-C showed better control effect on the pathogen in ginger rhizome slices than Bp8p-T, suggesting that Bp8p-C has a potential application in bio-control of ginger rhizome rot disease. PMID:25344242

  13. The Discovery of phiAGATE, A Novel Phage Infecting Bacillus pumilus, Leads to New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Subfamily Spounavirinae

    PubMed Central

    Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as “Bastille group”) within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily. PMID:24466180

  14. [Effect of Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease on the paramagnetic centers of microbial cells].

    PubMed

    Zelenikhin, P V; Makeeva, A V; Lozhkin, A P; Rodionov, A A; Nguen, N; Il'inskaia, O N

    2014-01-01

    Potential clinical application of Bacillus pumulus cytotoxic ribonuclease (binase) selectively inducing the death of tumor cells makes it imperative to investigate its effect on the normal human microflora. Flow cytometry was used to determine that binase concentration causing the apoptosis of cancer cells had no effect of the viability of Escherichia coli K12. The changes in the paramagnetic centers of E. coli K12 cells in the presence of nontoxic binase concentrations revealed by EPR spectroscopy included higher EPR signals from iron-containing proteins (including those from the Fe-S clusters) and of the Mn(II) hyperfine structure. The TMTH spin probe (N-(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-il)-2-methylpropanamide hydrochloride) was used to reveal a twofold increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induced oxidative stress in the enzyme-treated bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed elevated contents of alkaline (Li, Na, K), alkali earth (Mg, Ca), transition (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and post-transition metals (Bi, Pb) in the cells. Elevated levels of Cu and Zn (which impair the activity of the respiratory chain enzymes) and of Mn, which is known as a superoxide dismutase cofactor, confirmed development of the oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:25423735

  15. [Effect of Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease on the paramagnetic centers of microbial cells].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Potential clinical application of Bacillus pumulus cytotoxic ribonuclease (binase) selectively inducing the death of tumor cells makes it imperative to investigate its effect on the normal human microflora. Flow cytometry was used to determine that binase concentration causing the apoptosis of cancer cells had no effect of the viability of Escherichia coli K12. The changes in the paramagnetic centers of E. coli K12 cells in the presence of nontoxic binase concentrations revealed by EPR spectroscopy included higher EPR signals from iron-containing proteins (including those from the Fe-S clusters) and of the Mn(II) hyperfine structure. The TMTH spin probe (N-(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-il)-2-methylpropanamide hydrochloride) was used to reveal a twofold increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induced oxidative stress in the enzyme-treated bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed elevated contents of alkaline (Li, Na, K), alkali earth (Mg, Ca), transition (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and post-transition metals (Bi, Pb) in the cells. Elevated levels of Cu and Zn (which impair the activity of the respiratory chain enzymes) and of Mn, which is known as a superoxide dismutase cofactor, confirmed development of the oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:25507458

  16. Endophytic Bacillus spp. produce antifungal lipopeptides and induce host defence gene expression in maize.

    PubMed

    Gond, Surendra K; Bergen, Marshall S; Torres, Mónica S; White, James F

    2015-03-01

    Endophytes are mutualistic symbionts within healthy plant tissues. In this study we isolated Bacillus spp. from seeds of several varieties of maize. Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or Bacillus subtilis were found to be present in all maize varieties examined in this study. To determine whether bacteria may produce antifungal compounds, generally lipopeptides in Bacillus spp., bacterial cultures were screened for production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides were extracted by acid precipitation from liquid cultures of Bacillus spp. Lipopeptide extracts from Bacillus spp. isolated from Indian popcorn and yellow dent corn showed inhibitory activity against Fusarium moniliforme at 500?g per disk. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we detected the presence of antifungal iturin A, fengycin and bacillomycin in these isolates. PCR amplification also showed the presence of genes for iturin A and fengycin. B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) isolated from Indian popcorn showed strong inhibition of Arabidopsis seed mycoflora and enhanced seedling growth. We tested for the induction of defence gene expression in the host plant after treatment of plants with B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) and its lipopeptide extract using RT-qPCR. Roots of Indian popcorn seedlings treated with a suspension of B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) showed the induction of pathogenesis-related genes, including PR-1 and PR-4, which relate to plant defence against fungal pathogens. The lipopeptide extract alone did not increase the expression of these pathogenesis-related genes. Based on our study of maize endophytes, we hypothesize that, bacterial endophytes that naturally occur in many maize varieties may function to protect hosts by secreting antifungal lipopeptides that inhibit pathogens as well as inducing the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes of host plants (systemic acquired resistance). PMID:25497916

  17. Control of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii in the greenhouse using endophytic Bacillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shlomo Pleban; Fanya Ingel; Ilan Chet

    1995-01-01

    Isolates of different endophytic bacteria were recovered from surface-disinfected seeds obtained from commercial companies, plants in the field and tissue culture. The bacteria were isolated from seeds after stringent surfacedisinfection.Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolate no. 14) from bean inhibited growth of all fungi tested and was fluorescent on King B medium.Bacillus cereus fromSinapis (isolate no. 65) inhibited growth ofRhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of an antifungal protein from the endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain EDR4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Liu; Lili Huang; Heinrich Buchenauer; Zhensheng Kang

    2010-01-01

    An antifungal protein E2, from the culture filtrate of the endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain EDR4 of wheat with a high activity against numerous fungal species in vitro and take-all in wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in vivo, was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The molecular mass of the protein was

  19. lnduction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues lnoculated with Endophytic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Benhamou; Joseph W. Kloepper; Andrea Quadt-Hallman; Sadik Tuzun

    The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural leve1 using an in vitro system in which root- inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum 1.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbac- terized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the

  20. Production of cellulase-free endoxylanase from novel alkalophilic thermotolerent Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation and its application in wastepaper recycling.

    PubMed

    Asha Poorna, C; Prema, P

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed at optimization of culture condition for the enhanced production of extra cellular thermostable cellulase-free xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation. Batch studies were carried out to evaluate various agro-industrial residues such as rice bran, rice husk, rice straw, sawdust, coconut pith, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The endoxylanase production was highest on wheat bran media (5582 U/gds), which was enhanced 3.8-fold (21,431 U/gds) by optimization of cultivation conditions. The enzymatic extracts was used in mixed wastepaper recycling, which resulted in a considerable improvement of the paper strength with high drainage and easy drying up. The results of enzyme application with recycled paper clearly indicated that the effective use of enzymes in fiber separation could reduce the cost of carton paper production. PMID:16844369

  1. A marked enhancement in the production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 in submerged fermentation by using statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Satyanarayana, T

    2006-03-01

    The production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase of Bacillus pumilus was optimized in submerged fermentation using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Three fermentation variables (C:N ratio, K(2)HPO(4), and pH), which were identified to significantly affect pectinase production by Plackett-Burman design were further optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design (CCD). An over all 34- and 41-fold increase in enzyme production was achieved in shake flasks and lab fermenter by the optimization of variables using statistical approaches, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 10.5 and 50 degrees C, and selectively degraded only the noncellulosic gummy material of ramie (Boehmeria nivea) fibres causing 10.96% fibre weight loss, and therefore, the enzyme could find application in fibre processing industry. The use of the enzyme in fibre processing reduces the use of alkali, and the associated alkalinization of water bodies. PMID:15936940

  2. Antitumor activity of bacterial exopolysaccharides from the endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YI-TAO; YUAN, QIANG; SHAN, LE-TIAN; LIN, MEI-AI; CHENG, DONG-QING; LI, CHANG-YU

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 ?g/?l. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 ?g/?l, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents. PMID:23833642

  3. Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus

    PubMed Central

    Sunkar, Swetha; Nachiyar, C Valli

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity. PMID:23593575

  4. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed.

    PubMed

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2011-07-01

    Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant-beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant-beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant-beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

  5. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant?beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed

    PubMed Central

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint?Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant?beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant?beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant?beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

  6. Enhanced remediation of chlorpyrifos from soil using ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum) and chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium Bacillus pumilus C2A1.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Iqbal, Samina; Anwar, Samina; Afzal, Muhammad; Islam, Ejazul; Mustafa, Tanveer; Khan, Qaiser M

    2012-10-30

    The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for remediating soil contaminated with organic compounds such as pesticides. The objective of this study was to determine whether the bacterial inoculation influences plant growth promotion and chlorpyrifos (CP) degradation and accumulation in different parts of the plant. Ryegrass was grown in soil spiked with CP and inoculated with a pesticide degrading bacterial strain Bacillus pumilus C2A1. Inoculation generally had a beneficial effect on CP degradation and plant biomass production, highest CP degradation (97%) was observed after 45 days of inoculation. Furthermore, inoculated strain efficiently colonized in the rhizosphere of inoculated plant and enhanced CP and its primary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) degradation. There was significantly less CP accumulation in roots and shoots of inoculated plants as compared to uninoculated plants. The results show the effectiveness of inoculated exogenous bacteria to boost the remediation of CP contaminated sites and decrease levels of toxic pesticide residues in crop plants. PMID:22959266

  7. Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of an Endophytic Quinclorac Degrading Bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zeng, Aiping; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Feng; Bai, Lianyang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity. PMID:25244184

  8. Cyclic lipopeptide profile of the plant-beneficial endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis HC8.

    PubMed

    Malfanova, Natalia; Franzil, Laurent; Lugtenberg, Ben; Chebotar, Vladimir; Ongena, Marc

    2012-11-01

    In a previous study (Malfanova et al. in Microbial Biotech 4:523-532, 2011), we described the isolation and partial characterization of the biocontrol endophytic bacterium B. subtilis HC8. Using thin-layer chromatography, we have detected several bioactive antifungal compounds in the methanolic extract from the acid-precipitated supernatant of HC8. In the present study, we have further analyzed this methanolic extract using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the comparison of retention times and molecular masses with those of known antifungal compounds, we identified three families of lipopeptide antibiotics. These include four iturins A having fatty acyl chain lengths of C14 to C17, eight fengycins A (from C14 to C18 and from C15 to C17 containing a double bond in the acyl chain), four fengycins B (C15 to C18), and five surfactins (C12 to C16). Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the isolated lipopeptides showed that fengycins are the most active ones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endophytic Bacillus subtilis producing all three major families of lipopeptide antibiotics containing a very heterogeneous mixture of homologues. The questions remain open which of these lipopeptides (1) are being produced during interaction with the plant and (2) are contributing to the biocontrol activity of HC8. PMID:22648052

  9. Endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Lv, C; Zhuang, P; Zhang, H; Fan, L

    2011-11-01

    The endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis strain GXJM08, isolated from roots of Podocarpus imbricatus B1. Enum. P1. Jav., in roots of the leguminous plant Robinia pseudoacacia L. was investigated. Ultrastructure observations showed that B. subtilis caused morphological changes in the root hair and colonised the plant through infected root hairs. The structure of the infection thread was similar to that of rhizobia, but the structure of infected cells was different. B. subtilis is also different from rhizobia and plant pathogens in terms of the formation of a peribacteroid membrane and the mode of penetration through the host cell wall. Our results provide a basis for studying development of the mutualistic symbiotic relationship between B. subtilis and plants, and a basis for studying the mechanism of the B. subtilis-plant interaction. PMID:21972966

  10. Probing the Crucial Role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS Alkaline Protease in Substrate Recognition and Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide

    PubMed Central

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Aicha, Houda Slimene Ben; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

  11. Determination of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus spp. isolated from the intestines of various fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinar Kaynar; Yavuz Beyatli

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 30 strains of the genus Bacillus were isolated from various fresh fishes obtained from fish markets in Ankara, Turkey. They were identified as Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus badius, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus lentus, and Bacillus pumilus. When poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by these strains

  12. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. PMID:25847170

  13. Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

  14. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

  15. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae).

    PubMed

    de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

    2010-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

  16. Characterization of endophytic strains of Bacillus mojavensis and their production of surfactin isomers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis consists of a large collection of strains from which several cryptic species have been delineated, and most of these along with strains within the species are important biocontrol agents. Bacillus mojavensis, a species recently distinguished from this broad Bacillus subtilis grou...

  17. Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

  18. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

  19. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

    2012-01-01

    The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8?Ug?1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1?:?1?:?0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1?:?2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24?h old inoculum, in 144?h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

  20. Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain E1R-J Is a Promising Biocontrol Agent for Wheat Powdery Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yufei; Huo, Yunxia; Han, Qingmei; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biocontrol efficacies of 14 endophytic bacterial strains were tested against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus subtilis strain E1R-j significantly reduced disease index and exhibited the best control (90.97%). When different formulations of E1R-j were sprayed 24?h before Bgt inoculation, fermentation liquid without bacterial cell and crude protein suspension displayed the similar effects; and they reduced disease index more than bacterial cell suspension (109?cfu?mL?1) and fermentation liquid without protein. The control effects were not significantly different between 1011 and 109?cfu?mL?1 of bacterial cell suspension but were higher than 107?cfu?mL?1. Further observations showed that conidial germination and appressorial formation of Bgt were retarded by spraying E1R-j 24?h before Bgt inoculation. Compared with the water check, conidial germination and appressorial formation were decreased by 43.3% and 42.7%, respectively. In the treatment with E1R-j, the number of houstoria significantly reduced and the speed of mycelial extension was slowed down in the wheat leaves. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that E1R-j significantly suppressed the conidial germination and caused rupture and deformation of germ tubes. On the surface of wheat leaves, mycelia and conidiophores became shrinking. PMID:25759819

  1. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eu Jin; Hossain, Mohammad Tofajjal; Khan, Ajmal; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2015-06-01

    Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and YC7010(T), with anti-microbial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208) and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022), respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (10(7) cfu/ml) of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC 15859(T) (99.67%), Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC 13105(T) (99.65%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC 17177(T) (99.60%), and Bacillus tequilensis KACC 15944(T) (99.45%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YC7010(T) and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC 15859(T) was 50.4±3.5%, but it was 91.5±11.0% between two strains YC7007 and YC7010(T), indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-C15:0 and iso C15:0. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the two strains YC7007 and YC7010(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC7010(T) (= KACC 18228(T)). Taken together, our findings suggest that novel endophytic Bacillus strains can be used for the biological control of rice diseases. PMID:26060434

  2. Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eu Jin; Hossain, Mohammad Tofajjal; Khan, Ajmal; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and YC7010T, with anti-microbial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208) and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022), respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (107 cfu/ml) of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC 15859T (99.67%), Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC 13105T (99.65%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC 17177T (99.60%), and Bacillus tequilensis KACC 15944T (99.45%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain YC7010T and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC 15859T was 50.4±3.5%, but it was 91.5±11.0% between two strains YC7007 and YC7010T, indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-C15:0 and iso C15:0. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the two strains YC7007 and YC7010T represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC7010T (= KACC 18228T). Taken together, our findings suggest that novel endophytic Bacillus strains can be used for the biological control of rice diseases.

  3. Induction of defense response against Rhizoctonia solani in cucumber plants by endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis GS1.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Song, Yong-Su; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2012-03-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis GS1, was isolated from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and found to have maximal production of chitinase (4.3 units/ml) at 5 days after culture. This study investigated the ability of B. thuringiensis GS1 to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani KACC 40111 (RS) in cucumber plants. Chitinase activity was greatest in RS-treated plants at 4 days. beta-1,3- Glucanase activity was highest in GS1-treated plants at 5 days. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activity increased continuously in all treated plants for 5 days. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 4 days. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 3 days. At 5 days after treatment, activity staining revealed three bands with chitinase activity (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) on SDSPAGE of cucumber plants treated with GS1+RS, whereas only one band was observed for RS-treated plants (Ch2). One GPOD isozyme (Gp1) was also observed in response to treatment with RS and GS1+RS at 4 days. One APX band (Ap2) was present on the native-PAGE gel of the control, and GS1- and GS1+RS-treated plants at 1 day. PPO bands (Po1 and Po2) from RS- and GS1+RS-treated plants were stronger than in the control and GS1-treated plants upon native-PAGE at 5 days. Taken together, these results indicate that the induction of PR proteins and defense-related enzymes by B. thuringiensis GS1 might have suppressed the damping-off caused by R. solani KACC 40111 in cucumber plants. PMID:22450798

  4. Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2002-10-01

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

  5. Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Duc; Huynh A. Hong; Teresa M. Barbosa; Adriano O. Henriques

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immuno- stimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms

  6. Induction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues Inoculated with Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Benhamou, N.; Kloepper, J. W.; Quadt-Hallman, A.; Tuzun, S.

    1996-01-01

    The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural level using an in vitro system in which root-inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbacterized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissue including the vascular stele, whereas in prebacterized roots, pathogen growth was restricted to the epidermis and the outer cortex In these prebacterized roots, typical host reactions included strengthening the epidermal and cortical cell walls and deposition of newly formed barriers beyond the infection sites. Wall appositions were found to contain large amounts of callose in addition to being infiltrated with phenolic compounds. The labeling pattern obtained with the gold-complexed laccase showed that phenolics were widely distributed in Fusarium-challenged, bacterized roots. Such compounds accumulated in the host cell walls and the intercellular spaces as well as at the surface or even inside of the invading hyphae of the pathogen. The wall-bound chitin component in Fusarium hyphae colonizing bacterized roots was preserved even when hyphae had undergone substantial degradation. These observations confirm that endophytic bacteria may function as potential inducers of plant disease resistance. PMID:12226427

  7. Bacterial endophytes: Bacillus spp. from annual crops as potential biological control agents of black pod rot of cacao

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel L. Melnick; Nina K. Zidack; Bryan A. Bailey; Siela N. Maximova; Mark Guiltinan; Paul A. Backman

    2008-01-01

    Diseases are the most important factors limiting production of Theobroma cacao in South America. Because of high disease pressure and environmental concerns, biological control is a pertinent area of research for cacao disease management. In this work, we evaluated the ability of four Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable crops, for their ability to colonize T. cacao seedlings and reduce the

  8. Induction of defense-related proteins by mixtures of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria against Banana bunchy top virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Harish; M. Kavino; N. Kumar; P. Balasubramanian; R. Samiyappan

    2009-01-01

    Rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial isolates from the roots and corms of banana were tested for their biocontrol efficiency against Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Molecular characterization using RAPD and microsatellite markers revealed genomic variability in the endophytic Pseudomonas and Bacillus isolates. Bio-formulations of mixtures of the rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) and endophytic Bacillus spp. (EPB22) were effective in reducing

  9. COFFEE ENDOPHYTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey for fungal endophytes in various coffee (Coffea arabica L.) tissues was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. More than 700 fungal endophyte isolates have been sequenced: 281 from Colombia, 240 from Hawaii, 119 from Mexico, and 68 from Puerto Rico; these comprise over 17...

  10. Endophytic bacteria mediate plant resistance against cotton bollworm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rajendran; R. Samiyappan; T. Raguchander; D. Saravanakumar

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of endophytic bacterial strains was evaluated in cotton against American bollworm infestation under greenhouse conditions. Among the 103 endophytic bacterial strains, the Bacillus strains (EPCO 102 and EPCO 16) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf1 significantly reduced the bollworm incidence. Talc-based bioformulation of EPCO 102, EPCO 16 and P. fluorescens Pf1 with and without chitin in inducing systemic resistance

  11. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  12. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  13. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  14. Effects of inoculation with PGPR Bacillus and Pisolithus tinctorius on Pinus pinea L. growth, bacterial rhizosphere colonization, and mycorrhizal infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Probanza; J. L. Mateos; J. A. Lucas Garcia; B. Ramos; M. R. de Felipe; F. J. Gutierrez Manero

    2001-01-01

    The effect of co-inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius and a PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus licheniformis CECT 5106 and Bacillus pumilus CECT 5105) in enhancing growth of Pinus pinea plants and the changes that occurred in rhizosphere microbial communities and the degree of mycorrhization were evaluated.\\u000a Both bacterial strains of Bacillus promote the growth of Pinus pinea seedlings, but

  15. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  16. Diversity and potential application of endophytic bacteria in ginger.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Chen, Z; Ma, G H; Du, B H; Shen, B; Ding, Y Q; Xu, K

    2014-01-01

    Here, 248 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated to assess the distribution and population diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginger plants. A total of 10.4 x 10(4) to 20.2 x 10(4) CFU/g fresh weight endophytic bacteria of different growth stages were isolated. Maximum bacterium numbers were obtained at the seedling stage. A total of 107 functional strains were screened, including 17 antibacterial strains and 90 indole acetic acid-producing strains. Based on 16S rDNA sequence restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rDNA sequences, these 107 strains were mapped and grouped into 16 genera. Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the dominant genera; however, the bacteria belonged to a tremendous range of genera, with the highest species richness being observed at the seedling stage. Sixteen strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Pythium myriotylum Drechsler, while 7 strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Phyllosticta zingiberi Hori. Bacillus was the dominant antibacterial strain. Pseudomonas fluorescens, B. megaterium, and Enterobacter ludwigii produced remarkably high levels of IAA. Only a few endophytic bacterial strains were inhibited in fresh ginger juice. Most of these strains were present during seedling stage, including Roseateles depolymerans, Chryseobacterium taiwanense, E. ludwigii, Agrobacterium larrymoorei, P. fluorescens, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This study indicates that the community of endophytic bacteria in ginger changes with the synthesis of antibacterial substances. PMID:25062479

  17. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu Yi; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila, and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons). The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus, and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia, and Sanguibacter spp. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests studies on endophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly. PMID:26042095

  18. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu Yi; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila, and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons). The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus, and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia, and Sanguibacter spp. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests studies on endophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly. PMID:26042095

  19. In Vitro Assessment of Marine Bacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Maria Luz; O’Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Lane, Jonathan A.; Hickey, Rita M.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2014-01-01

    Six antimicrobial-producing seaweed-derived Bacillus strains were evaluated in vitro as animal probiotics, in comparison to two Bacillus from an EU-authorized animal probiotic product. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated on solid media against porcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates were most active against the latter, had better activity than the commercial probiotics and Bacillus pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli counts in broth. All of the marine Bacillus tolerated physiological concentrations of bile, with some as tolerant as one of the probiotics. Spore counts for all isolates remained almost constant during incubation in simulated gastric and ileum juices. All of the marine Bacillus grew anaerobically and the spores of all except one isolate germinated under anaerobic conditions. All were sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and none harbored Bacillus enterotoxin genes but all, except B. pumilus WIT 588, showed some degree of ?-hemolysis. However, trypan blue dye exclusion and xCELLigence assays demonstrated a lack of toxicity in comparison to two pathogens; in fact, the commercial probiotics appeared more cytotoxic than the majority of the marine Bacillus. Overall, some of the marine-derived Bacillus, in particular B. pumilus WIT 588, demonstrate potential for use as livestock probiotics. PMID:24796302

  20. Antibiotic oxylipins from Alternanthera brasiliana and its endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Marília Almeida; Kai, Marco; Mithöfer, Axel; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2015-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alternanthera brasiliana stem extracts resulted in the isolation of an antibiotically active fraction. Five human pathogenic bacteria were used to guide the fractionation process for the isolation of antimicrobial compounds. Finally, 17 linoleate oxylipins were identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Five of the isolated compounds present in A. brasiliana tissues were also detected to be synthesized by endophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that were isolated from A. brasiliana. It is speculated that the antibiotic oxylipins from A. brasiliana might derive from bacteria and be involved in an ecological relationship between this plant and its endophytes. PMID:25433629

  1. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  2. [Influence of bacteria of Bacillus genus on the causative agent of bacterial cancer of tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Ro?, A A; Pasichnik, L A; Tserkovniak, L S; Khodos, S F; Kurdish, I K

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that bacteria of the genus Bacillus inhibited the development of infection caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, in tomatoes. Pre-sowing seed treatment with suspensions of Bacillus subtilis IMV B-7023 and Bacillus pumilus 3 enhanced resistance of plants to bacterial disease of cancer, probably due to the synthesis of biologically active substances with antimicrobial properties by these bacteria. Of the two strains of bacillus, differing by antagonist properties to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, a significant stimulating effect on the growth and development of tomatoes was provided by the strain B. subtilis IMV B-7023, which is part of the bacterial preparations for crop production. PMID:23120989

  3. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  4. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

  5. Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria basssiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common be...

  6. The role of endophytic bacteria during seed piece decay and potato tuberization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Sturz

    1995-01-01

    Healthy potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kennebec were found to be internally colonized by non-pathogenic bacterial populations originating from root zone soil. These endophytic bacteria were categorized, on the basis of bioassays, as plant growth promoting (PGP), plant growth retarding (PGR) and plant growth neutral (PGN). Genera isolated from tubers included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Actinomyces and Acinetobacter. The

  7. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  8. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  9. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID:25097431

  10. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

  11. Bacillus safensis sp. nov., isolated from spacecraft and assembly-facility surfaces.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; La Duc, Myron T; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2006-08-01

    Thirteen strains of a novel spore-forming, Gram-positive, mesophilic heterotrophic bacterium were isolated from spacecraft surfaces (Mars Odyssey Orbiter) and assembly-facility surfaces at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California and the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has placed these novel isolates within the genus Bacillus, the greatest sequence similarity (99.9 %) being found with Bacillus pumilus. However, these isolates share a mere 91.2 % gyrB sequence similarity with Bacillus pumilus, rendering their 16S rRNA gene-derived relatedness suspect. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 54-66 % DNA relatedness between the novel isolates and strains of B. pumilus. rep-PCR fingerprinting and previously reported matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry protein profiling clearly distinguished these isolates from B. pumilus. Phenotypic analyses also showed some differentiation between the two genotypic groups, although the fatty acid compositions were almost identical. The polyphasic taxonomic studies revealed distinct clustering of the tested strains into two distinct species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and the results of phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, repetitive element primer-PCR fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization, the 13 isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus safensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FO-36b(T) (=ATCC BAA-1126(T)=NBRC 100820(T)). PMID:16902000

  12. Microbial endophytes: future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytes are represented by a diverse group of prokaryotic (bacteria or cyanobacteria) or eukaryotic (fungi or parasitic vascular plants) organisms that form life-long associations within tissues of plants. Ecologically, these associations are usually viewed as advantageous although in some insta...

  13. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems. PMID:25110630

  14. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of a Marine-Derived Bacillus Strain for Use as an In-Feed Probiotic for Newly Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C.; Kent, Robert M.; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2014-01-01

    Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n?=?16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 1010 spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05) for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05), perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001). However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001) and cecal (P<0.05) Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P?=?0.10). Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05) in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001) and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01) than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

  15. Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and

    E-print Network

    Coley, Phyllis

    Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders C, Coley PD, et al. (2013) Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy

  16. Altitudinal Effects on The Behavior and Morphology of Pygmy Tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus) in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia 

    E-print Network

    Grow, Nanda Bess

    2013-08-06

    Pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus) of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia are the only species of tarsier known to live exclusively at high altitudes. This study was the first to locate and observe multiple groups of this elusive primate. This research...

  17. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

  18. BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTES: THE ENDOPHYTIC NICHE, ITS OCCUPANTS, AND ITS UTILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic niche offers a unique habitat for the control of pathogens since the endophyte is contained and is not subject to the direct influence of the environment and will multiply within the intercellular spaces as the plant grows, thereby potentially colonizing the entire plant axis. The ba...

  19. bac genes for recombinant bacilysin and anticapsin production in Bacillus host strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Steinborn; Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei; Jürgen Hofemeister

    2005-01-01

    The genes encoding the biosynthesis of the dipeptide bacilysin and its antibiotic constituent anticapsin were isolated from several strains of Bacillus subtilis as well as B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus. The ywfBCDEF genes of B. subtilis 168 were shown to carry the biosynthetic core functions and were renamed bacABCDE. Mutation of the bacD gene or transformation of the bacABC genes

  20. Bacillus invictae sp. nov., isolated from a health product.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Osório, Hugo; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Lopes, João; Carriço, João A; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Pintado, Manuela E; Peixe, Luísa V

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming Bacillus isolate, Bi.(FFUP1) (T), recovered in Portugal from a health product was subjected to a polyphasic study and compared with the type strains of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus xiamenensis, the phenotypically and genotypically most closely related species. Acid production from cellobiose, D-glucose and D-mannose and absence of acid production from D-arabinose, erythritol, inositol, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, starch and L-tryptophan discriminated this new isolate from the type strains of the most closely related species. Additionally, a significant different protein and carbohydrate signature was evidenced by spectroscopic techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Using a chemometric approach, the score plot generated by principal component analysis clearly delineated the isolate as a separate cluster. The quinone system for strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) comprised predominantly menaquinone MK-7 and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. Strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) showed ? 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. pumilus (7061(T) and SAFR-032), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T). Differences in strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) gyrB and rpoB sequences in comparison with the most closely related species and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with Bi.FFUP1 (T) and B. pumilus ATCC 7061(T), B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T) gave relatedness values of 39.6% (reciprocal 38.0%), 49.9% (reciprocal 42.9%), 61.9% (reciprocal 52.2%) and 61.7% (reciprocal 49.2%), respectively, supported the delineation of strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus invictae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) (?=DSM 26896(T)?=CCUG 64113(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25171924

  1. [Isolation of endophytic bacteria in potato and test of antagonistic action to bacterial ring rot of potato].

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Sun, Zhen; Tian, Hong Xian; Wang, Li Qin; Xu, Huei Yuen; Sun, Fu Zai; Yuan, Jun

    2002-12-01

    In this study, two hundred and forty bacterial strains were isolated from inner tissue of potato tubers collected from DaTong, TaiYuan and Inner Mongolia Autonomous regions. On the basis of antagonistic examination in vitro, fifty and five bacteria strains were characterized for antagonistic bacteria to ring rot of potato. It was 22.9 percentage of all bacteria strains. The biggest radius of suppression circle was 13 mm. Nine strains were chosen for their suppression of bacterial ring rot, blackleg and dry rot of potato. These strains were bacteriologically ideatified. Strain 118 was Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V. Strain 110 was Bacillus pumilus. Strain 085 was Bacillus stearothermophilus. Strain 069 was Erwinia herbicola. Strain 043 was Xanthomomas fragariae. Strain 116 was Curtobacterium. Strains A-10' and T3 were Bacillus. Strain H1-6 was Pseudomonas fluorescens. PMID:15346992

  2. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...R, et al., Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press...and T.J. Montville. 1997. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC 5. World...

  3. Bacillus pumilus laccase: a heat stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Reiss; Julian Ihssen; Linda Thöny-Meyer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the one electron oxidation of a broad range of compounds. Laccase substrates include substituted phenols, arylamines and aromatic thiols. Such compounds are activated by the enzyme to the corresponding radicals. Owing to their broad substrate range laccases are considered to be versatile biocatalysts which are capable of oxidizing natural and non-natural industrial compounds,

  4. Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E

    2013-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 10(8) conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

  5. Bacillus spp. among hospitalized patients with haematological malignancies: clinical features, epidemics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ozkocaman, V; Ozcelik, T; Ali, R; Ozkalemkas, F; Ozkan, A; Ozakin, C; Akalin, H; Ursavas, A; Coskun, F; Ener, B; Tunali, A

    2006-10-01

    Between April 2000 and May 2005, 350 bacteraemic episodes occurred among patients treated in our haematology unit. Two hundred and twenty-eight of these episodes were caused by Gram-positive pathogens, most commonly coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. One hundred and twenty-two episodes were due to Gram-negative pathogens, with a predominance of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacillus bacteraemias constituted 12 of these episodes occurring in 12 patients, and accounted for 3.4% of all bacteraemic episodes. Of the 12 strains evaluated, seven were Bacillus licheniformis, three were Bacillus cereus and two were Bacillus pumilus. Seven episodes presented with bloodstream infection, three with pneumonia, one with severe abdominal pain and deterioration of liver function, and one with a catheter-related bloodstream infection. B. licheniformis was isolated from five patients who had been hospitalized at the same time. This outbreak was related to non-sterile cotton wool used during skin disinfection. B. cereus and B. licheniformis isolates were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and vancomycin, but B. pumilus isolates were resistant to all antibiotics except for quinolones and vancomycin. Two deaths were observed. In conclusion, Bacillus spp. may cause serious infections, diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, and high morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. Both B. cereus and B. licheniformis may be among the 'new' Gram-positive pathogens to cause serious infection in patients with neutropenia. PMID:16891037

  6. Plant Growth Promoting of Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 Isolated from the Pneumatophores of Avicennia marina L.

    PubMed Central

    Janarthine, S. Rylo Sona; Eganathan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic Sporosarcina aquimarina SjAM16103 was isolated from the inner tissues of pneumatophores of mangrove plant Avicennia marina along with Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was Gram variable, and motile bacterium measured 0.6–0.9??m wide by 1.7–2.0??m long and light orange-brown coloured in 3-day cultures on tryptone broth at 26°C. Nucleotide sequence of this strain has been deposited in the GenBank under accession number GU930359. This endophytic bacterium produced 2.37??Mol/mL of indole acetic acid and siderophore as it metabolites. This strain could solubilize phosphate molecules and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 was inoculated into four different plants under in vitro method to analyse its growth-promoting activity and role inside the host plants. The growth of endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants were highly significant than the uninoculated control explants. Root hairs and early root development were observed in the endophytic S. aquimarina SjAM16103 inoculated explants. PMID:22811715

  7. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of thermal tolerance in bacillus subtilis. Final report, August 15, 1980-August 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, N.; Alexander, J.; Ch'ih, J.

    1981-08-14

    We have studied Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus caldolyticus to ascertain the molecular mechanism of the ability to growth at high temperatures. B. subtilus wild type strains grow in minimal salts medium at a mesophilic temperature (37/sup 0/C) but not at a thermophilic temperature (56/sup 0/C). However, they do grow at 56/sup 0/C in complex rich media. Analysis of their nutritional requirements revealed that these bacteria require pyridoxine or aspartic acid and threonine to grow at 56/sup 0/C indicating that they are temperature sensitive mutants. Furthermore, mutants of B. subtilis which are able to grow on minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C can be readily isolated. Therefore, it appears that the lack of growth of the wild type strain in minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C is due to the instability of an anabolic enzyme. In contrast to B. subtilis, B. pumilus has never been observed to growth above 50/sup 0/C. However, our studies show that mutants of B. pumilus and B. subtilis which grow at 68/sup 0/C can be easily isolated. The isolation of such mutants strongly supports the idea that one gene can determine the ability to grow at extreme temperatures.

  8. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  9. Distribution of Endophytic Bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from Soils Contaminated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

    2013-01-01

    The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg?1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg?1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg?1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species resource for the isolation of PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:24358247

  10. Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1993-10-01

    Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma rays, converted X rays (bremsstrahlung) and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1 % glycerin on glass fiber filters. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased.

  11. Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed. PMID:19400639

  12. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  13. Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

  14. Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-06-01

    The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

  15. Characterization of strains of Bacillus mojavensis for biocontrol of a maize pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to a pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. Extracts prepared from cultures of B. mojavensis contained an...

  16. MICROARRAY COMPARISON OF TALL FESCUE GENE EXPRESSION IN ENDOPHYTE INFECTED AND ENDOPHYTE FREE PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. The endophyte receives shelter and nutrients from the host ...

  17. WHAT DOES AN ENDOPHYTE LOOK LIKE? ENDOPHYTE PROFILES OF NATIVE GRASSES AND SHRUBS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obligate fungal endophytes often defy detection and isolation by conventional microbiology techniques. Staining methods, including the use of trypan blue and sudan IV have effectively detected endophytes in plant tissues. However, stains fail to distinguish one fungal endophyte from another, thus ...

  18. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  19. Endophytes of grapevine flowers, berries, and seeds: identification of cultivable bacteria, comparison with other plant parts, and visualization of niches of colonization.

    PubMed

    Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Colli-Mull, Juan Gualberto; Gangl, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria can colonize various plants and organs. However, endophytes colonizing plant reproductive organs have been rarely analyzed. In this study, endophytes colonizing flowers as well as berries and seeds of grapevine plants grown under natural conditions were investigated by cultivation as well as by fluorescence in situ hybridization. For comparison, bacteria were additionally isolated from other plant parts and the rhizosphere and characterized. Flowers, fruits, and seeds hosted various endophytic bacteria. Some taxa were specifically isolated from plant reproductive organs, whereas others were also detected in the rhizosphere, endorhiza or grape inflo/infructescence stalk at the flowering or berry harvest stage. Microscopic analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of resin-embedded samples confirmed the presence of the isolated taxa in plant reproductive organs and enabled us to localize them within the plant. Gammaproteobacteria (including Pseudomonas spp.) and Firmicutes (including Bacillus spp.) were visualized inside the epidermis and xylem of ovary and/or inside flower ovules. Firmicutes, mainly Bacillus spp. were additionally visualized inside berries, in the intercellular spaces of pulp cells and/or xylem of pulp, but also along some cell walls inside parts of seeds. Analysis of cultivable bacteria as well as microscopic results indicated that certain endophytic bacteria can colonize flowers, berries, or seeds. Our results also indicated that some specific taxa may not only derive from the root environment but also from other sources such as the anthosphere. PMID:21625971

  20. Actinobacterial endophytes for improved crop performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Franco; Philip Michelsen; Nigel Percy; Vanessa Conn; Erna Listiana; Simon Moll; Rosemary Loria; Justin Coombs

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria are being isolated and identified revealing a rich vein of microbial interaction\\u000a within a variety of crop plants. In addition, cultivation-independent studies have exposed a broader diversity, with many\\u000a of the species belonging to culturable genera. Microscopic evidence of endophytic colonisation has been shown in some cases,\\u000a proving ‘true’ endophytic status and providing an understanding

  1. Plant-endophyte symbiosis, an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wani, Zahoor Ahmed; Ashraf, Nasheeman; Mohiuddin, Tabasum; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-04-01

    Endophytism is the phenomenon of mutualistic association of a plant with a microorganism wherein the microbe lives within the tissues of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to being a treasured biological resource, endophytes play diverse indispensable functions in nature for plant growth, development, stress tolerance, and adaptation. Our understanding of endophytism and its ecological aspects are overtly limited, and we have only recently started to appreciate its essence. Endophytes may impact plant biology through the production of diverse chemical entities including, but not limited to, plant growth hormones and by modulating the gene expression of defense and other secondary metabolic pathways of the host. Studies have shown differential recruitment of endophytes in endophytic populations of plants growing in the same locations, indicating host specificity and that endophytes evolve in a coordinated fashion with the host plants. Endophytic technology can be employed for the efficient production of agricultural and economically important plants and plant products. The rational application of endophytes to manipulate the microbiota, intimately associated with plants, can help in enhancement of production of agricultural produce, increased production of key metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants, as well as adaption to new bio-geographic regions through tolerance to various biotic and abiotic conditions. However, the potential of endophytic biology can be judiciously harnessed only when we obtain insight into the molecular mechanism of this unique mutualistic relationship. In this paper, we present a discussion on endophytes, endophytism, their significance, and diverse functions in nature as unraveled by the latest research to understand this universal natural phenomenon. PMID:25750045

  2. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Caamaño-Antelo, S; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this work was the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp. that may be useful for typing purposes. These species include, among others, Bacillus cereus, an important pathogenic species involved in food poisoning, and Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, which are causative agents of food spoilage described as responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks. With this purpose in mind, 52 Bacillus strains isolated from culture collections and fresh and processed food were considered. SNP type "Y" at sites 212 and 476 appeared in the majority of B. licheniformis studied strains. SNP type "R" at site 278 was detected in many strains of the B. subtilis/Bacillus amyloliquefaciens group, while polymorphism "Y" at site 173 was characteristic of the majority of strains of B. cereus/Bacillus thuringiensis group. The analysis of SNPs provided more intra-specific information than phylogenetic analysis in the cases of B. cereus and B. subtilis. Moreover, this study describes novel SNPs that should be considered when designing 16S rRNA-based primers and probes for multiplex-PCR, Real-Time PCR and microarray systems for foodborne Bacillus spp. PMID:25475292

  3. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    PubMed Central

    Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

  4. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  5. Surfactin A production and isoforms characterizations in strains of Bacillus mojavensis for control of a maize pathogen, Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by B. moj...

  6. Relationship of substrate and surfactin production by Bacillus mojavensis strains and their antagonistical response to Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal lipopeptide produced by B. mojavensi...

  7. Biological Control of Black Rot ( Xanthomonas Campestris Pv. campestris ) of Brassicas with an Antagonistic Strain of Bacillus Subtilis in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ednar G. Wulff; Cames M. Mguni; Carmen N. Mortensen; Chandroo L. Keswani; John Hockenhull

    2002-01-01

    Biological control efficiency of an antagonistic, endophytic strain of Bacillus subtilis (strain BB) was evaluated against three strains of the black rot pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), in four Brassica crops (cabbage, cauliflower, rape and broccoli) grown during three consecutive growing seasons and on two soil types, in two different areas in Zimbabwe. Strain BB controlled the disease caused

  8. Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; Germaine, Kieran; Franks, Ashley; Ryan, David J; Dowling, David N

    2008-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found in virtually every plant studied, where they colonize the internal tissues of their host plant and can form a range of different relationships including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and trophobiotic. Most endophytes appear to originate from the rhizosphere or phyllosphere; however, some may be transmitted through the seed. Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth and yield and can act as biocontrol agents. Endophytes can also be beneficial to their host by producing a range of natural products that could be harnessed for potential use in medicine, agriculture or industry. In addition, it has been shown that they have the potential to remove soil contaminants by enhancing phytoremediation and may play a role in soil fertility through phosphate solubilization and nitrogen fixation. There is increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of endophytes for improving phytoremediation and the sustainable production of nonfood crops for biomass and biofuel production. PMID:18034833

  9. Four new tetramic acid and one new furanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shasha; Chen, Shenxi; Wang, Bo; Niu, Shubin; Wu, Wenping; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-06-01

    Four new tetramic acid analogues neopestalotins A-D (1-4), one new furanone derivative neopestalotin E (6), and the known compound hymenosetin have been isolated from the solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Neopestalotiopsis sp. The structures of the new compounds were determined mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by circular dichroism (CD) data, whereas those of 3 and 4 were deduced by a combination of CD and heteronuclear long range coupling (HETLOC) data. Compound 2 showed modest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus col, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:25818228

  10. Activation of Bacillus spores at moderately elevated temperatures (30-33 °C).

    PubMed

    Løvdal, Irene Stranden; Granum, Per Einar; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Løvdal, Trond

    2013-03-01

    The time/temperature profiles experienced by spores on the track from their natural sporulation environment to consumable food products may be highly diverse. Temperature has been documented as an important factor that may activate spores, i.e. potentiates spores to germinate. There is, however, limited knowledge about the relationship between the expected temperature history and the subsequent germination characteristics of bacterial spores. We show here that the germination rate of five different Bacillus spore populations, represented by strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis could be increased following 1 week storage at moderately elevated temperatures, 30-33 °C, compared to spores stored at 3-8 °C. The results imply that spores contamination routes to foods, specifically the temperature history, could be highly relevant data in predictive modeling of food spoilage and safety. Activation at these moderately elevated temperatures may be a native form of spore activation in their natural habitats, knowledge that also could be useful in development of decontamination strategies for mildly heated foods. PMID:23132276

  11. A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

    2004-01-01

    The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

  12. Diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from korean ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

  13. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

  14. Screening of endophytic Streptomycetes isolated from Parthenium hysterophorus L. against nosocomial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2013-03-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus L. is an obnoxious weed of the family asteraceae recognized for its detrimental effects and significant economic losses to agriculture. In this study 42 endophytic streptomycetes strains were isolated from its roots and leaves. The isolates were identified by morphological, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characterization as members of genus Streptomyces. In 16S rRNA gene sequencing the selected isolates exhibited maximum similarity with Streptomyces rochei (99%), Streptomyces litmocidini (99%), Streptomyces enissocaesili (99%), Streptomyces djakartensis (99%), Streptomyces olivaceus (99%), Streptomyces spp (99%), Streptomyces plicatus (99%), Streptomyces geysiriensis (99%) and Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus (99%). In biological screening the crude extracts of 12 strains exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistant nosocomial pathogens including Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Escherichia coli, Staphlococcus aureus and Candida albicans. In chemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) the extracts exhibited an impressive diversity of the bioactive secondary metabolites. Additionally high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) chromatographs revealed many impressive peaks of unidentified bioactive metabolites. As such this is a first study reporting the isolation, identification and screening of endophytic Streptomyces from the invasive weed. The results provide an insight into an untapped endophytic environment yet to be explored which might be a promising source of lead antimicrobial agents. PMID:23455197

  15. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  16. Phylogeny in Aid of the Present and Novel Microbial Lineages: Diversity in Bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Shalini; Lal, Sadhana; Cheema, Simrita; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains), B. cereus (211 strains), B. thuringiensis (108 strains), B. subtilis (271 strains), B. licheniformis (131 strains), B. pumilus (83 strains), B. megaterium (47 strains), B. sphaericus (42 strains), B. clausii (39 strains) and B. halodurans (36 strains) were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed. PMID:19212464

  17. Genetic diversity and characterization of heavy metal-resistant-endophytic bacteria from two copper-tolerant plant species on copper mine wasteland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le-Ni Sun; Yan-Feng Zhang; Lin-Yan He; Zhao-Jin Chen; Qing-Ya Wang; Meng Qian; Xia-Fang Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of endophytic bacteria from the copper-tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens and Commelina communis was evaluated by using cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the Cu-resistant isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were predominant among the Cu-resistant isolates. Sequence analysis from the 16S rDNA clone

  18. Endophytic Actinomycetes: Biocontrol Agents and Growth Promoters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masafumi Shimizu

    \\u000a Diverse endophytic microbes construct complex interactions with their living hosts. Some are mutually supportive and others\\u000a parasitic, giving a large influence to plant health. Endophytic actinomycetes have attracted interest of microbiologists,\\u000a agrochemists and pharmacologists as the promising producers of novel antibiotics, growth promoters, and lead compounds to\\u000a develop new medicines and agrochemicals. Although the fruits of basic research concerning these

  19. Endophytes as producers of peptides: an overview about the recently discovered peptides from endophytic microbes.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C

    2014-10-01

    An endophyte is a fungus or bacterium that lives within a plant in a symbiotic relationship. Extensive colonization of the plant tissue by endophytes creates a barrier effect, where they outcompete and prevent pathogenic organisms from taking hold. This happens by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth of the competitors or pathogens. In this way they play a very important role in the plant defence mechanisms. The metabolites produced by these endophytes fall within a wide range of classes of compounds that include peptides which are the focus of this review. Peptides are increasingly being selected for drug development because they are specific for their targets and have a higher degree of interactions. There have been quite a number of endophytic peptides reported in the recent past indicating that endophytes can be used for the production of peptide based drugs. Molecular screening for NRPS, which shows peptide producing capability, has also shown that endophytes are potential producers of peptides. The presence of NRPS also offers the possibility of genetic modifications which may generate peptides with high pharmacological activities. This review, therefore, aims to show the current status of peptides isolated from endophytic bacteria and fungi in the recent decade. Endophytes as potential sources of peptides according to NRPS studies will also be discussed. PMID:25205333

  20. ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES

    E-print Network

    ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

  1. Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amal Hassan Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Peter Proksch

    2011-01-01

    Fungal endophytes residing in the internal tissues of living plants occur in almost every plant on earth from the arctic to\\u000a the tropics. The endophyte–host relationship is described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through\\u000a commensalism to parasitism. This overview will highlight selected aspects of endophyte diversity, host specificity, endophyte–host\\u000a interaction and communication as well as regulation of

  2. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  3. Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R C

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN SOYBEAN ( GLYCINE SP.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Quang Hung; K. Annapurna

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any harm to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present investigation was carried out to analyse the phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the bacterial endophytes of two species of soybean viz. Glycine max and G. soja . A total of 65 bacterial endophytes were isolated from three tissues: stem, root

  5. Poplar and its Bacterial Endophytes: Coexistence and Harmony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel van der Lelie; Safiyh Taghavi; Sébastien Monchy; Jorg Schwender; Lisa Miller; Richard Ferrieri; Alistair Rogers; Xiao Wu; Wei Zhu; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman

    2009-01-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an

  6. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties.

    PubMed

    Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J B; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5-1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

  7. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    PubMed Central

    Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J. B.; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C.; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T.; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5–1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of endophytic bacterial isolates from leaves of the medicinal plant Trichilia elegans A. Juss. (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Rhoden, S A; Garcia, A; Santos E Silva, M C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-01-01

    Various organisms such as fungi and bacteria can live inside plants, inhabiting the aerial parts (primarily the leaves) without causing damage. These microorganisms, called endophytes, produce an extensive variety of compounds that can be useful for medical and agronomic purposes. Trichilia elegans A. Juss., belonging to the Meliaceae family, shows wide dispersion in South America, and phytochemical analyses from these plants and endophyte isolates have shown biological activity. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to verify the diversity of bacterial endophytes from T. elegans using partial sequencing of 16S rRNA, followed by phylogenetic analysis. Isolation was performed by cutting the leaves, after disinfection with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), in 1-2-mm2 fragments, which were equally placed on dishes containing TSA and fungicide BENLATE at 75 ?g/mL. All dishes were incubated at 28°C in the biochemical oxygen demand system for 5 days and periodically checked. Afterwards, the colonization frequency (%) was determined: (number of fragments colonized by bacteria/total number of fragments) x 100. Three isolations between September 2011 and March 2012 were performed; the growth frequency ranged between 1.6 and 13.6%. Following sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis, the genera identified were: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, and Pantoea. These results will provide important knowledge on the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting medicinal plants, and a better understanding of the microbiome of T. elegans would reinforce the necessity of endophyte studies with a focus on their future applications in biotechnological areas of agriculture, medicine, and the environment. PMID:25730091

  9. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

  10. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1). PMID:24772371

  11. Bioactive spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

    2014-10-24

    Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

  12. Isolation of potential probiotic Bacillus spp. and assessment of their subcellular components to induce immune responses in Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Vinothkanna, Annadurai; Rai, Amit Kumar; Vignesh, Venkada Subramanian

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus species isolated from the gut of healthy Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were screened for antibacterial activity against selected fish pathogens. Among the isolates, KADR5 and KADR6 showed antibacterial activity, tolerated low pH and high bile concentrations and were susceptibility to various antibiotics. Based on morphological and biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis the probiotic strains KADR5 and KADR6 were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, respectively. The immune stimulatory effect of subcellular components of probiotic Bacillus licheniformis KADR5 and Bacillus pumilus KADR6 in L. rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila infection was studied. Fish were immunized intraperitoneally in case of subcellular components [cell wall proteins (CWPs), extracellular proteins (ECPs), whole cell proteins (WCPs)] and orally in case of live cells (10(8) CFU/g of feed). After 14th day of administration, fishes from each group were challenged intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of A. hydrophila cell suspension in PBS (10(5) cells ml(-1)). Groups immunized with subcellular components and live cells had significantly lower mortalities of 20-40% and 23-33%, respectively in comparison to control (80% mortality). The non specific immune factors in the cellular components and viable cells of the probiotics increased the expression of lysozyme and respiratory burst. Use of WCPs and CWPs resulted in better protection against A. hydrophila in L. rohita. Our results clearly reflect the potential of cellular components of the probiotics Bacillus species for the protection of fish against A. hydrophila infection by enhancing the immune response. PMID:25917974

  13. Metabolite and gene expression studies in endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue under water deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions, how endop...

  14. Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

  15. Characterization of Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Mi; Park, Min Hi; Jung, Tae Sung; Moon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Kang Min; Kang, Jae Seon

    2011-02-01

    One of the strains of the Bacillus mojavensis group, Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 (B. mojavensis KJS-3), which has been demonstrated to play a role in protecting plants against diseases as a bacterial endophyte and in reducing the accumulation of mycotoxins generated by an endophytic fungus, was recently discovered in food waste. In this study, the identification and characterization of B. mojavensis KJS-3 was performed via TEM analysis, API-zym test, API 50 CHB test, assays of catalase and oxidase activity, lactic acid production, stability under various conditions, antibiotic susceptibility, and cellular fatty acid composition. The overall results of this study demonstrate that B. mojavensis KJS-3 may have great potential as a probiotic product, as this bacterium is quite stable in somewhat harsh environments. B. mojavensis KJS-3 was positive on oxidase and catalase tests, and the conversion rate of glucose to lactic acid was 58.9%. Finally, anteiso-C(15:0) (43.10%) was identified as the major fatty acid. PMID:21380813

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  17. Endophytic bacterial diversity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves described by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and length heterogeneity-PCR.

    PubMed

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Quaglino, Fabio; Brasca, Milena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2009-08-01

    Diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with grapevine leaf tissues was analyzed by cultivation and cultivation-independent methods. In order to identify bacterial endophytes directly from metagenome, a protocol for bacteria enrichment and DNA extraction was optimized. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries underscored five diverse Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), showing best sequence matches with gamma-Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, with a dominance of the genus Pantoea. Bacteria isolation through cultivation revealed the presence of six OTUs, showing best sequence matches with Actinobacteria, genus Curtobacterium, and with Firmicutes genera Bacillus and Enterococcus. Length Heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) electrophoretic peaks from single bacterial clones were used to setup a database representing the bacterial endophytes identified in association with grapevine tissues. Analysis of healthy and phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed that LH-PCR could be a useful complementary tool for examining the diversity of bacterial endophytes especially for diversity survey on a large number of samples. PMID:19763412

  18. Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

  19. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  20. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:25792513

  1. Bacterial endophytes contribute to abiotic stress adaptation in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Sziderics, A H; Rasche, F; Trognitz, F; Sessitsch, A; Wilhelm, E

    2007-11-01

    Endophytes are nonpathogenic plant-associated bacteria that can play an important role in plant vitality and may confer resistance to abiotic or biotic stress. The effects of 5 endophytic bacterial strains isolated from pepper plants showing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity were studied in sweet pepper under in vitro conditions. Four of the strains tested showed production of indole acetic acid. Plant growth, osmotic potential, free proline content, and gene expression were monitored in leaves and roots under control and mild osmotic stress conditions. All indole acetate producers promoted growth in Capsicum annuum L. 'Ziegenhorn Bello', from which they were isolated. Osmotic stress caused an increase in the content of free proline in the leaves of both inoculated and noninoculated plants. Inoculated control plants also revealed higher proline levels in comparison with noninoculated control plants. Differential gene expression patterns of CaACCO, CaLTPI, CaSAR82A, and putative P5CR and P5CS genes during moderate stress were observed, depending on the bacterium applied. Inoculation with 2 bacterial strains, EZB4 and EZB8 (Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively), resulted in a significantly reduced upregulation or even downregulation of the stress-inducible genes CaACCO and CaLTPI, as compared with the gene expression in noninoculated plants. This indicates that both strains reduced abiotic stress in pepper under the conditions tested. PMID:18026213

  2. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  3. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: Effects and potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. M. S. Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S. A. Kulasooriya

    2006-01-01

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to\\u000a various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained.\\u000a Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and

  4. Colonisation of poplar trees by gfp expressing bacterial endophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieran Germaine; Elaine Keogh; Guiomar Garcia-Cabellos; Brigitte Borremans; Daniel van der Lelie; Tanja Barac; Licy Oeyen; Jaco Vangronsveld; Fiona Porteous Moore; Edward R. B Moore; Colin D Campbell; David Ryan; David N Dowling

    2004-01-01

    With the exception of nitrogen fixing bacteria, there is little known about the colonisation patterns or population sizes of bacterial endophytes in deciduous trees. This study describes the isolation, identification, construction and re-colonisation patterns of three green fluorescent protein(gfp):kanamycinR labelled bacterial endophytes when re-introduced into poplar trees, their original host plant. Two of these endophytes showed considerable colonisation in the

  5. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    SciTech Connect

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  6. Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

  7. Elimination of ergovaline from a grass–Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Panaccione, Daniel G.; Johnson, Richard D.; Wang, Jinghong; Young, Carolyn A.; Damrongkool, Prapassorn; Scott, Barry; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2001-01-01

    The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of ergopeptines requires the activities of two peptide synthetases, LPS1 and LPS2. A peptide synthetase gene hypothesized to be important for ergopeptine biosynthesis was identified in C. purpurea by its clustering with another ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene, dmaW. Sequence analysis conducted independently of the research presented here indicates that this gene encodes LPS1 [Tudzynski, P., Holter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N. & Keller, U. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133–141]. We have cloned a similar peptide synthetase gene from Neotyphodium lolii and inactivated it by gene knockout in Neotyphodium sp. Lp1. The resulting strain retained full compatibility with its perennial ryegrass host plant as assessed by immunoblotting of tillers and quantitative PCR. However, grass–endophyte associations containing the knockout strain did not produce detectable quantities of ergovaline as analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergovaline in endophyte-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock. PMID:11592979

  8. Grass-herbivore interactions altered by strains of a native endophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy Tintjer; Jennifer A. Rudgers

    2006-01-01

    Summary • Many plants support symbiotic microbes, such as endophytic fungi, that can alter interactions with herbivores. Most endophyte research has focused on agronomi- cally important species, with less known about the ecological roles of native endo- phytes in native plants. In particular, whether genetic variation among endophyte symbionts affects herbivores of plant hosts remains unresolved for most native endophytes.

  9. Transcriptome response in different tissues of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Epichloe coenophiala , (E+), have been shown to have better survivability and persistence than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions and how endophyte affects the ho...

  10. Endophytic Fusarium verticillioides â??reduces disease severity caused by Ustilago maydis on maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keunsub Lee; Jean J. Pan; Georgiana May

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. We used endophytic isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis DC (Corda). Endophytic F. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto maize seedlings before, simulta- neously, or after inoculation with U. maydis, and

  11. Endophytic fungus decreases plant virus infections in meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense).

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Päivi T; Helander, Marjo; Siddiqui, Shahid A; Lehto, Kirsi; Saikkonen, Kari

    2006-12-22

    We studied the effects of fungal endophyte infection of meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense=Festuca pratensis) on the frequency of the barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The virus is transferred by aphids, which may be deterred by endophyte-origin alkaloids within the plant. In our experiment, we released viruliferous aphid vectors on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants in a common garden. The number of aphids and the percentage of BYDV infections were lower in endophyte-infected plants compared to endophyte-free plants, indicating that endophyte infection may protect meadow ryegrass from BYDV infections. PMID:17148304

  12. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2, produce volatile and non-volatile organic acids, and reduce rock particle size to form mineral

  13. Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria in Forest Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironari Izumi

    \\u000a A group of studies on the diversity of endophytic bacteria in forest trees is presented in terms of host plant species variety\\u000a and the number of reports. Many host tree species are underrepresented in these studies: Trees in the tropics as well as some\\u000a important temperate tree species, such as those belonging to the genera of Alnus and Fagus, have

  14. Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

  15. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  16. Assessment of root endophytic aquatic hyphomycetous fungi on plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Sati; P. Arya

    2010-01-01

    The role of root endophytic aquatic hyphomyce- tous fungi in plant health was studied by employing pot experiments. Three aquatic hyphomycetous fungi Heliscus lugdunensis, Tetrachaetum elegans and Tetracladium nai- nitalense isolated as root endophytes of riparian plants were artificially inoculated into two test plants viz., Solanum melongena and Hibiscus esculentus. T. elegans and H. lugdunensis showed significant effects (fresh weight,

  17. Fungal endophyte increases the allelopathic effects of an invasive forb.

    PubMed

    Aschehoug, Erik T; Callaway, Ragan M; Newcombe, George; Tharayil, Nishanth; Chen, Shuyan

    2014-05-01

    Endophytic plant symbionts can have powerful effects on the way their hosts interact with pathogens, competitors, and consumers. The presence of endophytes in plants can alter food webs, community composition and ecosystem processes, suggesting that endophyte-plant symbioses may represent unique forms of extended phenotypes. We tested the impact of the fungal endophyte Alternaria alternata (phylotype CID 120) on the allelopathic effect of the invasive forb Centaurea stoebe when in competition with the North American native bunchgrass Koeleria macrantha in a greenhouse competition experiment. The allelopathic effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha when infected with the fungal endophyte was more than twice that of endophyte-free C. stoebe. However, this allelopathic effect was a small part of the very large competitive effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha in all treatments, likely because of the priority effects in our experimental design. To our knowledge, these results are the first experimental evidence for a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungal endophytes affecting allelopathic interactions between competing plants, and thus provide insight into the mechanisms by which fungal endophytes may increase the competitive ability of their hosts. PMID:24488227

  18. Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Helander; S. Neuvonen; T. Sieber; O. Petrini

    1993-01-01

    Endophytes were frequently isolated from mountain birch (Betula pubescens var. tortuosa (Ledeb.) Nyman) leaves at a subarctic site where natural air pollution is low. We tested whether simulated acid rain had any influence on the occurrence of endophytes. Dry controls with only ambient rain and irrigated controls treated with spring water of pH 6 were compared with acid treatments at

  19. Endophytic fungal diversity: review of traditional and molecular techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Sun; Liang-Dong Guo

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are an important component, are ubiquitous and occur within all know plants, including a broad range of hosts in various ecosystems, and therefore play an important role in the natural environment. More than 1 million species of endophytic fungi are estimated to exist based on a ratio of vascular plants to fungal species of 1:4 or 1:5. Nevertheless,

  20. Anti-Candida metabolites from endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland W S; Kappe, Reinhard; Paululat, Thomas; Mösker, Eva; Anke, Heidrun

    2007-03-01

    Submerged cultures of some 1500 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota isolated from their fruit-bodies or as soil-borne, coprophilous or endophytic fungi were screened for activity against Candida albicans and a range of other pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. Considerably more Ascomycota (11-16%) than Basidiomycota (3.5%) produced metabolites with activity against C. albicans. From five species of endophytes, six bioactive compounds were isolated and identified, viz. cerulenin (1), arundifungin (2), sphaeropsidin A (3), 5-(1,3-butadiene-1-yl)-3-(propene-1-yl)-2-(5H)-furanone (4), ascosteroside A (formerly called ascosteroside; 5) and a derivative of 5, ascosteroside B (6). 1, 3 and 5 were isolated from fungi belonging to different orders than previously described producers. Antifungal activities of 2 and 4-6 in the agar diffusion test were comparable with those of amphotericin B. Compound 6 exhibited a similar antifungal activity as 5 but its cytotoxicity towards Hep G2 cells was considerably lower. This study points to endophytic fungi related to hemibiotrophic or latent plant pathogens as an important source of bio- and chemodiversity. PMID:17286994

  1. Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Luz Prieto, Maria; O’Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O’Connor, Paula M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins. PMID:23170084

  2. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities. PMID:26093915

  3. Altitude and forest edges influence the density and distribution of pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus).

    PubMed

    Grow, Nanda; Gursky, Sharon; Duma, Yulius

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we examine how high-altitude ecology and anthropogenic edges relate to the density and distribution of pygmy tarsiers. Pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus) are extremely small-bodied primates (55 g) that are endemic to high-altitude forest and exhibit several differences from lowland Sulawesian tarsier species. From June to September 2010 and January to March 2012, we conducted a population census of pygmy tarsiers across multiple altitudes. Sampling took place within a 1.2 km(2) area encompassing altitudes of 2,000-2,300 m a.s.l. on Mt. Rore Katimbu in Lore Lindu National Park, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We observed 22 individuals, with an estimated population density of 92 individuals per 100 ha. These results indicate that pygmy tarsiers live at a lower density than lowland Sulawesian tarsier species. Lower density was associated with decreased resources at higher altitudes, including decreased tree size, tree density, and insect biomass. Within the sample area, we found pygmy tarsiers in only 8 of 24 (33%) quadrats, suggesting a nonrandom distribution that probably overinflated this population density estimate. Pygmy tarsiers exhibited a clumped distribution near anthropogenic edges that were associated with increased insect abundance and biomass. Airborne insects were more abundant along forest edges than within the forest interior, and pygmy tarsiers were observed to forage along edges where there was a higher abundance of Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. Tarsiers may mitigate the decreased availability of insects at high altitudes by adjusting their ranging patterns to remain near forest edges. PMID:23325720

  4. Fungal epiphytes and endophytes of coffee leaves (Coffea arabica).

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Johanna; Bayman, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities, whether endophyte and epiphyte communities are equally diverse, and whether epiphytes and endophytes exhibit similar patterns of spatial heterogeneity among sites. Leaves of naturalized coffee plants were collected from six sites in Puerto Rico. Epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated by placing leaf pieces on potato dextrose agar without and with surface sterilization, respectively. A total of 821 colonies were isolated and grouped into 131 morphospecies. The taxonomic affinities of the four most common nonsporulating fungi were determined by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region: two grouped with Xylaria and one each with Botryosphaeria and Guignardia. Of the most common genera, Pestalotia and Botryosphaeria were significantly more common as epiphytes; Colletotrichum, Xylaria, and Guignardia were significantly more common as endophytes. Suprisingly, more morphospecies occurred as endophytes than as epiphytes. Differences among sites in number of fungi per plant were significant. Thus epiphytic and endophytic communities differed greatly on a single leaf, despite living only millimeters apart, and both communities differed from site to site. Significant correlations between occurrence of fungal morphospecies suggested that fungi may have positive or negative effects on their neighbors. This is the first quantitative comparison of epiphytic and endophytic fungal floras in any plant, and the first to examine endophytic fungi or epiphytic fungi in leaves of coffee, one of the world's most valuable crops. PMID:16132426

  5. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  6. Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

  7. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis---One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERLENDUR HELGASON; O. A. Okstad; DOMINIQUE A. CAUGANT; HENNING A. JOHANSEN; AGNES FOUET; MICHELE MOCK; IDA HEGNA; A.-B. Kolsto

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most

  8. Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Welch, Kevin D; Roper, Jessie M; Ralphs, Michael H; Green, Benedict T

    2009-07-22

    A fungal endophyte ( Undifilum oxytropis ) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in Oxytropis and Astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds. A quantitative PCR method has been developed to measure the amount of endophyte in Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The limit of quantitation was estimated to be 0.2 pg of endophyte/ng of total DNA. This method of analysis was used to quantify the amount of endophyte in 10 plants each of Oxytropis sericea (white point locoweed), Astragalus mollissimus (wooly locoweed), and Astragalus lentiginosus (spotted locoweed). A significant amount of individual plant variability was observed in endophyte content among individuals in all three species. In one O. sericea and one A. lentiginosus plant swainsonine concentrations were near or below the limit of detection. These plants also had the lowest amounts of endophyte when compared to the other specimens. This method will be a useful tool in further investigating the role the endophyte plays in swainsonine production in various locoweed species. PMID:19545150

  9. Endophyte-mediated resistance to black cutworm as a function of plant cultivar and endophyte strain in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Michael W; Mace, Wade J; Richmond, Douglas S

    2011-06-01

    To improve Neotyphodium endophyte-mediated resistance to black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (BCW), a series of experiments was conducted by using several different cultivars of tall fescue, Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. in combination with several different haplotypes of the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones & Gams) (plant cultivar × endophyte haplotype = plant line), each producing unique alkaloid profiles. BCW settling response, survival at 5 and 10 d, and larval biomass varied significantly among plant lines. In general, greater variation BCW performance was observed within a single plant cultivar infected with different endophyte haplotypes than among different plant cultivars infected with the same endophyte haplotype, but comparisons among the former were far more numerous. Although five endophyte-mediated alkaloids representing three alkaloid classes were quantified in the plants, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-acetyl norloline was consistently the single best predictor of BCW performance. BCW settling response, 5-d survival, and 10-d survival decreased as levels of the alkaloid N-acetyl norloline increased. The same three response variables also decreased with increasing levels of peramine, but increased with increasing levels of ergovaline. Minor variation in endophyte infection levels occurring among infected plant lines had no significant influence on BCW performance. Results indicate a potentially important role for N-acetyl norloline and peramine in providing resistance to black cutworm whereas ergovaline appears to be much less important. Therefore, endophyte haplotypes expressing high levels of N-acetyl norloline and peramine may be of particular importance for developing 'friendly' endophyte-enhanced turf and pasture grasses that resist challenging lepidopteran pests, although remaining safe for wildlife and grazing mammals. PMID:22251642

  10. Diversity of sporadic symbionts and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria isolated from nodules of woody, shrub, and food legumes in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Aseffa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    Fifty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from surface-sterilized nodules of woody and shrub legumes growing in Ethiopia: Crotalaria spp., Indigofera spp., and Erythrina brucei, and the food legumes soybean and common bean. Based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the majority of the isolates were identified as Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Enterobacter, Mesorhizobium, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Rhizobium, Serratia, and Variovorax. Seven isolates were Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Planomicrobium, and Rhodococcus. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting showed that each strain was genetically distinct. According to phylogenetic analysis of recA, glnII, rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequences, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Agrobacterium were further classified into six different genospecies: Agrobacterium spp., Agrobacterium radiobacter, Rhizobium sp., Rhizobium phaseoli, Mesorhizobium sp., and putative new Rhizobium species. The strains from R. phaseoli, Rhizobium sp. IAR30, and Mesorhizobium sp. ERR6 induced nodules on their host plants. The other strains did not form nodules on their original host. Nine endophytic bacterial strains representing seven genera, Agrobacterium, Burkholderia, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Serratia, were found to colonize nodules of Crotalaria incana and common bean on co-inoculation with symbiotic rhizobia. Four endophytic Rhizobium and two Agrobacterium strains had identical nifH gene sequences with symbiotic Rhizobium strains, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Most symbiotic and nonsymbiotic endophytic bacteria showed plant growth-promoting properties in vitro, which indicate their potential role in the promotion of plant growth when colonizing plant roots and the rhizosphere. PMID:24196581

  11. Bacillus anthracis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic spore-forming bacterium that causes disease in humans and animals. The bacteria is found in two forms cutaneous anthrax and inhalation anthrax. Cutaneous anthrax is an infection ...

  12. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi?

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  13. Colonisation of poplar trees by gfp expressing bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Germaine, Kieran; Keogh, Elaine; Garcia-Cabellos, Guiomar; Borremans, Brigitte; Lelie, Daniel; Barac, Tanja; Oeyen, Licy; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Moore, Fiona Porteous; Moore, Edward R B; Campbell, Colin D; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2004-04-01

    With the exception of nitrogen fixing bacteria, there is little known about the colonisation patterns or population sizes of bacterial endophytes in deciduous trees. This study describes the isolation, identification, construction and re-colonisation patterns of three green fluorescent protein(gfp):kanamycin(R) labelled bacterial endophytes when re-introduced into poplar trees, their original host plant. Two of these endophytes showed considerable colonisation in the roots and stems of inoculated plants. gfp expressing cells of all three strains were observed to colonise the xylem tissue of the root. All three strains proved to be efficient rhizosphere colonisers, supporting the theory that the rhizosphere can serve as a source of bacterial endophytes. PMID:19712436

  14. Fungal endophyte metabolism and allelopathic interactions with host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity caused by inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisin-producing strains associated with maize cause leaf lesions, develo...

  15. Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Characterization ofCharacterization of Bacillus anthracisBacillus anthracis andand Bacillus cereusBacillus cereus Spore Germination:Spore Germination: INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Historically, Bacillus anthracis-Santos, E. 2007. Identification of an in Vivo inhibitor of Bacillus anthracis spore germination. The Journal

  16. Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. McInroy; Joseph W. Kloepper

    1995-01-01

    The genotypic diversity of indigenous bacterial endophytes within stems and roots of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was determined in field trials throughout one growing season. Strains were isolated from surface-disinfested tissues and identified by fatty acid analysis. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 70.5% of the endophytic bacteria and 27 of the 36 genera identified. The most

  17. Isolation of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from wetland rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Barraquio; L. Revilla; J. K. Ladha

    1997-01-01

    Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are believed to contribute substantial amounts of N to certain gramineous crops. We have been interested to find (a) a diazotroph(s) in rice which can aggressively and stably persist and fix nitrogen in interior tissues and (b) unique rice-diazotrophic endophyte combinations. To achieve these objectives, it has been essential to find an efficient method to surface sterilize

  18. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Quilliam; David L. Jones

    2010-01-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations\\u000a are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound\\u000a impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the

  19. Spectrum and Population Dynamics of Bacterial Root Endophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hallmann; Gabriele Berg

    In conclusion, of the plants thus far studied, the spectrum and diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots varies greatly.\\u000a What about the endophytic bacterial spectrum of plants growing under extreme climatic conditions, such as halophytes and xerophytes?\\u000a Survival mechanisms developed by those bacteria may have some interesting industrial or pharmaceutical applications. Newly\\u000a developed cultivation-independent methods have made clear that

  20. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

  1. Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes

    E-print Network

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mycorrhizal fungi) belowground. In a greenhouse experiment, we manipulated the presence/ absence of both fungi mycorrhizal colonization of roots. Additionally, for plants with the endophyte, the density of endophyte

  2. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  3. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue Gene Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont. = Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.)] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. To d...

  4. Study on the communities of endophytic fungi and endophytic actinomycetes from rice and their antipathogenic activities in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Tian; L. X. Cao; H. M. Tan; Q. G. Zeng; Y. Y. Jia; W. Q. Han; S. N. Zhou

    2004-01-01

    The populations of endophytic fungi and actinomycetes from four rice cultivars in the Panyu district (Site 1) and Wushan district\\u000a (Site 2) in Guangdong province, South China, were studied. The preponderant endophytic fungi and actinomycetes isolated belonged\\u000a to Fusarium and Streptomyces respectively. The incidence of Streptomycetes griseofuscus ranged from 36.1 to 69% out of all the different rice cultivars from

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Biodiversity of Endophytic Fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Mei XingJuan; Juan Chen; Jin-Long Cui; Xiao-Mei Chen; Shun-Xing Guo

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and\\/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in\\u000a D. devonianum were categorized into

  6. Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise K. Zinniel; Patricia A. Lambrecht; N. Beth Harris; Zhengyu Feng; Daniel Kuczmarski; Phyllis Higley; Carol A. Ishimaru; Alahari Arunakumari; Raul G. Barletta; Anne M. Vidaver

    2002-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize

  8. Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata and Pteris multifida

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata March 2014 Accepted 20 March 2014 Handling Editor: O. Hao Keywords: Endophytic bacteria Pteris vittata-resistant endophytic bacteria (AEB) from two arsenic hyperaccumula- tors. Their plant growth promoting traits

  9. Interactions between Meloidogyne incognita and endophytic bacteria in cotton and cucumber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hallmann; A. Quadt-Hallmann; R. Rodr??guez-Kábana; J. W. Kloepper

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse studies with cotton and cucumber were made to determine the effects of inoculation of the parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita on population dynamics of indigenous bacterial endophytes and introduced endophytic bacterial strains JM22 (Enterobacter asburiae) and 89B-61 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) applied as seed treatments. Internal communities of endophytic bacteria in roots were generally largest in the presence of M. incognita. Recovery

  10. ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM SEEDS OF NICOTIANA TABACUM CAN REDUCE CADMIUM PHYTOTOXICITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Mastretta; Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Alessio Mengoni; Francesca Galardi; Christina Gonnelli; Tanja Barac; Jana Boulet; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld

    2009-01-01

    Although endophytic bacteria seem to have a close association with their host plant, little is known about the influence of seed endophytic bacteria on initial plant development and on their interactions with plants under conditions of metal toxicity. In order to further elucidate this close relationship, we isolated endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized Nicotiana tabacum seeds that were collected from

  11. Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

    2015-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties. PMID:25501262

  12. Evidence for alteration of fungal endophyte community assembly by host defense compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Saunders; Linda Myra Kohn

    2009-01-01

    Summary • Plant defense compounds are common stressors encountered by endophytes. Fungi readily evolve tolerance to these compounds, yet few studies have addressed the influence of intraspecific variation in defense compound production on endophyte colonization. We compared the influence of defense compound production on the composition of fungal endophyte communities in replicated field experiments. M aize (Zea mays) produces benzoxazinoids

  13. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  14. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution,

    E-print Network

    Raizada, Manish N.

    screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytesConservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution

  15. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant in Saudi Arabia desert and their antimicrobial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahig El-Deeb; Khalaf Fayez; Youssuf Gherbawy

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and beneficial characteristics of endophytic microorganisms have been studied in Plectranthus tenuiflorus medicinal plant. However, information regarding naturally occurring P. tenuiflorus plant associated endophytes among different organs of host is limited. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stem, and leaves of P. tenuiflorus plant. Among 28 endophytic bacterial isolates from different organs of P. tenuiflorus plant, 8 isolates

  16. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  17. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  18. Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes? †

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

  19. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic fungi play in the galls induced by the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). PMID:22732600

  20. Starch properties of Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth): a threatened plant species with potential benefits for the breeding\\/amelioration of present Amaranthus cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo F. Marcone

    2001-01-01

    This study reports on the physicochemical properties of starch isolated from the seeds of Amaranthus pumilus (a threatened plant species) and compares it to that of the commonly cultivated\\/commercially produced Amaranthus hypochondriacus K343 (Plainsman). Seeds of both investigated species were found to possess comparable quantities\\/levels of total starch. Although no significant differences (P?0.05) were found between the composition of the

  1. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen K. Hill; Lawrence O. Ticknor; Richard T. Okinaka; Michelle Asay; Heather Blair; Katherine A. Bliss; Mariam Laker; Paige E. Pardington; Amber P. Richardson; Melinda Tonks; Douglas J. Beecher; John D. Kemp; A.-B. Kolsto; Amy C. Lee Wong; Paul Keim; Paul J. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates

  2. Strategy for Identification of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Daffonchio; Noura Raddadi; Maya Merabishvili; Ameur Cherif; Lorenzo Carmagnola; Lorenzo Brusetti; Aurora Rizzi; Nina Chanishvili; Paolo Visca; Richard Sharp; Sara Borin

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are rather important microorganisms that interfere with or are related to human activities. B. anthracis is the active agent of anthrax disease (41), B. cereus causes food-borne disease syn- dromes associated with enterotoxin and emetic toxin (17, 27), and B. thuringiensis is an insect pathogen (39) currently used for the biological control of

  3. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff S. Han; Gary Xie; Jean F. Challacombe; Michael R. Altherr; Smriti S. Bhotika; N. Brown; Connie S. Campbell; M. L. Campbell; Olga Chertkov; Mira Dimitrijevic; N. A. Doggett; J. J. Fawcett; Lynne A. Goodwin; Penny Hitchcock; Paul J. Jackson; Avinash Ramesh Kewalramani; Jon Longmire; Kim McMurry; Linda J. Meincke; M. Misra; B. L. Moseman; Richard T. Okinaka; B. Parson-Quintana; Donna L. Robinson; P. Richardson; E. Rubin; E. Saunders; Nina Thayer; Linda S. Thompson; Patti L. Wills; L. O. Ticknor; T. S. Brettin; P. Gilna

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspic- uous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the

  4. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

  5. Characterization of cellulases of fungal endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Luisa; Calderon, Carolina; Medina, Luis Miguel; Bahamon, Isabela; Cardenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Gonzalez, Andrés; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that asymptomatically invade plant tissues. They can stimulate plant growth and/or provide defense against pathogen attacks through the production of secondary metabolites. Most endophyte species are still unknown, and because they may have several applications, the study of their metabolic capabilities is essential. We characterized 100 endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp., a genus unique to the paramo ecosystem, an extreme environment in the Andean mountain range. We evaluated the cellulolytic potential of these endophytes on the saccharification of the oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The total cellulolytic activity was measured for each endophyte on filter paper (FPA). In addition, the specific carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), exoglucanase, and ?-glucosidase activities were determined. We found four fungi positive for cellulases. Of these fungi, Penicillium glabrum had the highest cellulolytic activity after partial purification, with maximal CMCase, exoglucanase and ?-glucosidase enzyme activities of 44.5, 48.3, and 0.45 U/ml, respectively. Our data showed that the bioprospection of fungi and the characterization of their enzymes may facilitate the process of biofuel production. PMID:23274988

  6. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  7. A phylogenetic evaluation of whether endophytes become saprotrophs at host senescence.

    PubMed

    Promputtha, Itthayakorn; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Dhanasekaran, Vijaykrishna; McKenzie, Eric Huge Charles; Hyde, Kevin David; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2007-05-01

    Fungal endophytes and saprotrophs generally play an important ecological role within plant tissues and dead plant material. Several reports based solely on morphological observations have postulated that there is an intimate link between endophytes and saprotrophs. This study aims to provide valuable insight as to whether some endophytic fungi manifest themselves as saprotrophs upon host decay. Ribosomal DNA-based sequence comparison and phylogenetic relationships from 99 fungal isolates (endophytes, mycelia sterilia, and saprotrophs) recovered from leaves and twigs of Magnolia liliifera were investigated in this study. Molecular data suggest there are fungal taxa that possibly exist as endophytes and saprotrophs. Isolates of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Guignardia, and Phomopsis, which are common plant endophytes, have high sequence similarity and are phylogenetically related to their saprotrophic counterparts. This provides evidence to suggest that some endophytic species change their ecological strategies and adopt a saprotrophic lifestyle. The implication of these findings on fungal biodiversity and host specificity is also discussed. PMID:17410394

  8. Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.

    PubMed

    Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

    2006-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

  9. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kobayashi; S. D. Ehrlichb; A. Albertini; G. Amati; K. Asaig Arnaudf; M. Arnaud; K. Asai; S. Ashikaga; S. Aymerich; P. Bessieres; F. Boland; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; K. Bunai; J. Chapuis; L. C. Christiansen; A. Danchin; M. Débarbouillé; E. Dervyn; E. Deuerling; K. Devine; S. K. Devine; O. Dreesen; J. Errington; S. Fillinger; S. J. Foster; Y. Fujita; A. Galizzi; R. Gardan; C. Eschevins; T. Fukushima; K. Haga; C. R. Harwood; M. Hecker; D. Hosoya; M. F. Hullo; H. Kakeshita; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; F. Kawamura; K. Koga; P. Koski; R. Kuwana; D. Imamura; M. Ishimaru; S. Ishikawa; I. Ishio; D. Le Coq; A. Masson; C. Mauël; R. Meima; R. P. Mellado; A. Moir; S. Moriya; E. Nagakawa; H. Nanamiya; S. Nakai; P. Nygaard; M. Ogura; T. Ohanan; M. O'Reilly; M. O'Rourke; Z. Pragai; H. M. Pooley; G. Rapoport; J. P. Rawlins; L. A. Rivas; C. Rivolta; A. Sadaie; Y. Sadaie; M. Sarvas; T. Sato; H. H. Saxild; E. Scanlan; W. Schumann; J. F. Seegers; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; M. Simon; P. Stragier; R. Studer; H. Takamatsu; T. Tanaka; M. Takeuchi; H. B. Thomaides; V. Vagner; J. M. van Dijl; K. Watabe; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; M. Yamamoto; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H. Yoshikawa; U. Zuber; N. Ogasawara

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively

  10. A multiphasic approach for the identification of endophytic bacterial in strawberry fruit and their potential for plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Lorenzetii, Emi Rainildes; Souza, Thiago Pereira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-02-01

    This study used a multiphasic approach, characterized by the simultaneous use of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, to investigate endophytic bacterial communities in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit. A total of 92 bacterial endophytes were isolated and initially grouped by their repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep)-PCR banding pattern and biochemical features. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 45 representatives showed that the isolates belonged to the species Bacillus subtilis (eight isolates), Bacillus sp. (seven isolates), Enterobacter sp. (seven isolates), Enterobacter ludwigii (six isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (six isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (five isolates), Pantoea punctata (three isolates), and Curtobacterium citreum (three isolates). Nucleic acids were extracted from the strawberry fruit and subjected to 16S rRNA gene directed polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (16S rRNA PCR-DGGE). The species B. subtilis, Enterobacter sp., and Pseudomonas sp. were detected both by isolation and DGGE. The DGGE fingerprints of total bacterial DNA did not exhibit bands corresponding to several of the representative species isolated in the extinction dilution (L. plantarum, C. citreum, and P. punctata). In contrast, bands in the DGGE profile that were identified as relatives of Arthrobacter sp. and one uncultivable Erythrobacter sp. were not recovered by cultivation techniques. After isolation, the nitrogen fixation ability and the in vitro production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) equivalents and siderophores were evaluated. A high percentage of isolates were found to possess the ability to produce siderophores and IAA equivalents; however, only a few isolates belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter showed the ability to fix nitrogen. Plant growth promotion was evaluated under greenhouse conditions and revealed the ability of the Bacillus strains to enhance the number of leaves, shoot length, root dry weight, and shoot dry weight. The activity of the bacterial isolate identified as B. subtilis NA-108 exerted the greatest influence on strawberry growth and showed a 42.8% increase in number of leaves, 15.26% for high shoot, 43.5% increase in root dry weight, and a 77% increase in shoot dry weight when compared with untreated controls. PMID:21837472

  11. Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Gary; Daisy, Bryn

    2003-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms are to be found in virtually every plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. Because of what appears to be their contribution to the host plant, the endophytes may produce a plethora of substances of potential use to modern medicine, agriculture, and industry. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation, culture, purification, and characterization of some choice endophytes in the recent past. The potential prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great. PMID:14665674

  12. Screening of endophytic fungi with antithrombotic activity and identification of a bioactive metabolite from the endophytic fungal strain CPCC 480097.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Wu, Licheng; Ruan, Lingao; Ge, Mei; Chen, Daijie

    2009-05-01

    Fermentation extracts from 1,075 endophytic fungi were screened by the Markwardt method. The endophytic strain CPCC 480097 had the strongest antithrombotic activity and was identified as Fusarium sp. based on morphologic tests and internal transcriptional spacer sequence analysis. The target of the antithrombotic agent from the endophytic strain CPCC 480097 was identified by analysis of the fibrinogen clotting time, amidolytic activity, and fibrinolytic assay. The results showed that this antithrombotic agent is a 28-kDa single-chain fibrinolytic enzyme. The identification of this fibrinolytic enzyme was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The two internal sequences of this enzyme were obtained, and these showed no homology with those of other known fibrinolytic enzymes. PMID:19198939

  13. The role of the Oregon State University Endophyte Service Laboratory in diagnosing clinical cases of endophyte toxicoses.

    PubMed

    Craig, A Morrie; Blythe, Linda L; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2014-07-30

    The Oregon State University Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Sciences instituted the Endophyte Service Laboratory to aid in diagnosing toxicity problems associated with cool-season grasses in livestock. The endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophalum) present in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) produces ergopeptine alkaloids, of which ergovaline is the molecule used to determine exposure and toxicity thresholds for the vasoconstrictive conditions "fescue foot" and "summer slump". Another vasoconstrictive syndrome, "ergotism," is caused by a parasitic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, and its primary toxin, ergotamine. "Ryegrass staggers" is a neurological condition that affects livestock consuming endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii)-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with high levels of lolitrem B. HPLC-fluorescent analytical methods for these mycotoxins are described and were used to determine threshold levels of toxicity for ergovaline and lolitrem B in cattle, sheep, horses, and camels. In addition, six clinical cases in cattle are presented to illustrate diagnosis of these three diseases. PMID:25017309

  14. FUSARIC ACID, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDIES MIASMA TO BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS, A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antagonisms among microorganisms are strategies that maintain both inter- and intra- specific competition, which is particularly important among those microorganisms that are ecological homologues. Fusarium verticillioides is systemically localized in corn and is prevalent in the roots as opposed t...

  15. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  16. Endophytic bacteria: prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops. PMID:25078615

  17. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  18. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  19. Nematode suppression by endophyte-associated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is planted as a forage and turf grass and a postplant ground cover for reducing soil erosion. It withstands drought and is resistant to various pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes. The presence of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum can increase tall fescue grow...

  20. LOLINE ALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENE EXPRESSION IN EPICHLOE ENDOPHYTES OF GRASSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONG-XIU ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Loline alkaloids (LA) are secondary metabolites produced by Epichloandamp;euml; (anamorph, Neotyphodium) grass endophytes. They are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects but not to livestock. This protective bioactivity has spurred considerable research into the LA biosynthetic pathway. LOL, the gene cluster containing nine genes, is required for LA biosynthesis. The regulation of LOL genes during LA

  1. Endophytic bacteria in potato tubers affected by zebra chip disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato zebra chip disease (ZCD) could drastically reduce quality and value of all market classes of potato, costing growers and processors millions of dollars in losses in North America. Endophytic bacteria colonize the internal tissue and could have both positive and negative effects on host plants...

  2. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nele Weyens; Daniel van der Lelie; Tom Artois; Karen Smeets; Safiyh Taghavi; Lee Newman; Robert Carleer; Jaco Vangronsveld

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must

  3. An endophytic Coniochaeta velutina producing broad spectrum antimycotics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Feng, Tao; Ren, Huishuang; Mends, Morgan T; Zhou, Zeyang; Geary, Brad

    2015-06-01

    An endophyte (PC27-5) was isolated from stem tissue of Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Phylogenetic analyses, based on ITS-5.8S rDNA and 18S rDNA sequence data, combined with cultural and morphological analysis showed that endophyte PC27-5 exhibited all characteristics of a fungus identical to Coniochaeta velutina. Furthermore, wide spectrum antimycotics were produced by this endophyte that were active against such plant pathogens as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pythium ultimum, and Verticillium dahliae and lethal to Phythophthora cinnamomi, Pythium ultimum, and Phytophthora palmivora in plate tests. The bioactive components were purified through organic solvent extraction, followed by silica column chromatography, and finally preparative HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the active fraction to Pythium ultimum, which was gained from preparative HPLC, was 11 ?g/ml. UPLC-HRMS analysis showed there were two similar components in the antimycotic fraction. Their molecular formulae were established as C30H22O11 (compound I) and C30H22O10 (compound II) respectively, and preliminary spectral results indicate that they are anthroquinone glycosides. Other non-biologically active compounds were identified in culture fluids of this fungus by spectral means as emodin and chrysophanol - anthroquinone derivatives. This is the first report that Coniochaeta velutina as an endophyte produces bioactive antifungal components. PMID:26025171

  4. Host associations between fungal root endophytes and boreal trees.

    PubMed

    Kernaghan, Gavin; Patriquin, Glenn

    2011-08-01

    Fungal root endophytes colonize root tissue concomitantly with mycorrhizal fungi, but their identities and host preferences are largely unknown. We cultured fungal endophytes from surface-sterilized Cenococcum geophilum ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea, and Picea glauca from two boreal sites in eastern Canada. Isolates were initially grouped on the basis of cultural morphology and then identified by internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data revealed 31 distinct phylotypes among the isolates, comprising mainly members of the ascomycete families Helotiaceae, Dermateaceae, Myxotrichaceae, and Hyaloscyphaceae, although other fungi were also isolated. Multivariate analyses indicate a clear separation among the endophyte communities colonizing each host tree species. Some phylotypes were evenly distributed across the roots of all three host species, some were found preferentially on particular hosts, and others were isolated from single hosts only. The results indicate that fungal root endophytes of boreal trees are not randomly distributed, but instead form relatively distinct assemblages on different host tree species. PMID:21475991

  5. Elucidating biotic factors that influence assembly of fungal endophyte communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most plants harbor a diverse assemblage of non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. These fungi can directly influence the host plant, and can instigate trophic cascades that affect surrounding communities of herbivores, plants, and animals. Despite this, biotic mechanisms that influence assembly of funga...

  6. Beauveria bassiana: Endophytic colonization and plant disease control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie H. Ownley; Mary R. Griffin; William E. Klingeman; Kimberly D. Gwinn; J. Kevin Moulton; Roberto M. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Seed application of Beauveria bassiana 11-98 resulted in endophytic colonization of tomato and cotton seedlings and protection against plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium myriotylum. Both pathogens cause damping off of seedlings and root rot of older plants. The degree of disease control achieved depended upon the population density of B. bassiana conidia on seed. Using standard plating techniques onto

  7. Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Grum, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Ralphs, Michael H; Welch, Kevin D; Green, Benedict T

    2011-02-23

    Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that induce locoism due to the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine was detected in all parts of Astragalus lentiginosus and Astragalus mollissimus , with greater concentrations found in the aboveground parts. Undifilum oxytropis , a fungal endophyte responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine, was detected in all plant parts of A. lentiginosus and A. mollissimus. The amount of endophyte within a plant part does not always correspond to the concentration of swainsonine in the same part. Plants of A. mollissimus and A. lentiginosus can be divided into two chemotypes: those that contain swainsonine (>0.1%; chemotype 1) and those that contain little or no detectable swainsonine (<0.01%; chemotype 2). Chemotype 1 plants in both species had quantitatively higher amounts of endophyte compared to chemotype 2 plants. Swainsonine and endophyte amounts were not uniformly distributed within stalks of the same plant. For that reason, repeated sampling of stalks from the same plant during one growing season may provide misleading results. Sequence variants of U. oxytropis exist within populations of A. mollissimus, A. lentiginosus, and Oxytropis sericea and do not correlate with chemotype. These findings suggest several possible reasons for differential concentrations of swainsonine that will be tested in future work. PMID:21214242

  8. Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine was detected in all parts of Astragalus lentiginosus and Astragalus mollissimus with greater concentrations found in the above ground parts. Undifilum oxytropis, a fungal endophyte re...

  9. Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid bodies are universal components of plant cells and provide a mobilized carbon source for essential biological processes. Plant oils harvested for food and fuel often reside in these lipid bodies. Plants also host diverse populations of endophytic fungi, which easily escape microscopic detect...

  10. Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants? †

    PubMed Central

    Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

    2010-01-01

    The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

  11. Epichloë Endophytes Alter Inducible Indirect Defences in Host Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Gundel, Pedro E.; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are common symbionts living asymptomatically in pooid grasses and may provide chemical defences against herbivorous insects. While the mechanisms underlying these fungal defences have been well studied, it remains unknown whether endophyte presence affects the host's own defences. We addressed this issue by examining variation in the impact of Epichloë on constitutive and herbivore-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), a well-known indirect plant defence, between two grass species, Schedonorus phoenix (ex. Festuca arundinacea; tall fescue) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue). We found that feeding by a generalist aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi, induced VOC emissions by uninfected plants of both grass species but to varying extents, while mechanical wounding failed to do so in both species after one day of damage. Interestingly, regardless of damage treatment, Epichloë uncinata-infected F. pratensis emitted significantly lower quantities of VOCs than their uninfected counterparts. In contrast, Epichloë coenophiala-infected S. phoenix did not differ from their uninfected counterparts in constitutive VOC emissions but tended to increase VOC emissions under intense aphid feeding. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status imposed stronger differences in VOC profiles of F. pratensis than damage treatment, while the reverse was true for S. phoenix. Additionally, both endophytes inhibited R. padi population growth as measured by aphid dry biomass, with the inhibition appearing greater in E. uncinata-infected F. pratensis. Our results suggest, not only that Epichloë endophytes may play important roles in mediating host VOC responses to herbivory, but also that the magnitude and direction of such responses may vary with the identity of the Epichloë–grass symbiosis. Whether Epichloë-mediated host VOC responses will eventually translate into effects on higher trophic levels merits future investigation. PMID:24978701

  12. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    PubMed

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

  13. Age-specific response of the grass Puccinellia distans to the presence of a fungal endophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawe? Olejniczak; Marlena Lembicz

    2007-01-01

    Asexual fungal endophytes, which do not produce reproductive structures, spread in host populations only vertically via the\\u000a propagules of their hosts. With such a close relationship between the fitness of the asexual endophyte and that of the host,\\u000a the relationship is traditionally thought to be mutualistic. Here we present data showing that the positive effect of asexual\\u000a endophytes may concern

  14. Endophytic Mycoflora of Inner Bark of Prosopis cineraria - a Key Stone Tree Species of Indian Desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen Gehlot; N. K. Bohra; D. K. Purohit

    2 Abstract: Endophytic fungi of inner bark of Prosopis cineraria have been investigated. 32 species belonging to 21 genera were isolated. The colonization frequency of the endophytic fungi was reported as 62.55%. Fungus composition included 13.6% zygomycetes 5.6% ascomycetes, 72.8% hyphomycetes, 4% coelomycetes and 4% sterile fungi have been found. Colored colonies of endophytic fungi with pigmented single cell conidia

  15. Bacterial endophytes from seeds of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. Karst)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Cankar; Hojka Kraigher; Maja Ravnikar; Maja Rupnik

    2005-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria from wooden plants and especially seed-associated endophytes are not well studied. Fresh seeds collected from four Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) from different locations in the Slovene subalpine region were surface-sterilised and dissected into a seed coat, embryo and endosperm. The presence of endophytes was detected by culturing methods and by direct amplification of the eubacterial 16S rDNA

  16. Asexual Endophytes in a Native Grass: Tradeoffs in Mortality, Growth, Reproduction, and Alkaloid Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley H. Faeth; Cinnamon J. Hayes; Dale R. Gardner

    2010-01-01

    Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts.\\u000a Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance to herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits\\u000a are well established in infected introduced, agronomic grasses, little is known about the cost and benefits of endophyte infection\\u000a in native grass populations. These populations exist as mosaics

  17. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest. PMID:23140096

  18. Detection of indigenous endophytic bacteria in Eucalyptus urophylla in vitro conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmiao Shen; Zhengnan Li; Dangyue Han; Fenghuan Yang; Qiuxian Huang; Longxian Ran

    2010-01-01

    The presence of indigenous endophytic bacteria in aseptically grown seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla germinated from surface sterilized seeds was investigated using dilution plating, microscopy, and PCR detection. No culturable\\u000a endophytic bacteria could be detected in suspensions of ground plant tissue incubated on solid or in liquid cultivation media.\\u000a However, a large number of endophytic bacterial cells, mostly rod-shaped and measured

  19. Interactive effects of hypobaria, low temperature, and CO 2 atmospheres inhibit the growth of mesophilic Bacillus spp. under simulated martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic spacecraft are launched with finite levels of terrestrial microorganisms that are similar to the microbial communities within facilities in which spacecraft are assembled. In particular, spores of mesophilic aerobic Bacillus species are common spacecraft contaminants considered most likely to survive interplanetary transfer to Mars. During the cruise phase to Mars, and then again during surface operations, microbial bioloads are exposed to a diversity of biocidal factors that are likely to render the microbial species either dead or significantly inhibited from active metabolic activity and replication. We report here, for the first time, that interactive effects of low pressure, low temperature, and high CO 2 atmospheres approaching conditions likely to be encountered on the martian surface strongly inhibit the growth and replication of seven common Bacillus spp. isolated from spacecraft. Tests were conducted within a small glass bell-jar system maintained in a low-temperature microbial incubator. Atmospheric pressures were controlled at 1013 (Earth-normal), 100, 50, 35, 25, or 15 mb, and temperatures were maintained at 30, 20, 15, 10, or 5 °C. Experiments were carried out for 48 h or 7 days under either Earth-normal O 2/N 2 or pure CO 2 atmospheres. Results indicated that low pressure, low temperature, and high CO 2 atmospheres, applied separately or in combination, were capable of inhibiting the growth and replication of B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. subtilis HA-101, B. subtilis 42HS-1, B. megaterium KL-197, B. licheniformis KL-196, and B. nealsonii FO-092 under simulated martian conditions. Endospores of all seven Bacillus spp. strains failed to germinate and grow at 25 mb at 30 °C. Although, vegetative cells of these strains exhibited a slightly greater ability to replicate at lower pressures than did endospores, vegetative cells of these species failed to grow at pressures below 25 mb. Interactive effects of these environmental parameters acted to generally increase the inhibitory nature of the low-pressure conditions on growth and replication of the seven Bacillus spp. tested.

  20. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Active ingredient: Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 at 12.0%. Proposed classification...Active ingredient: Bacillus pumilus strain GHA180 at 0.43%. Proposed classification...Active ingredient: Bacillus pumilus strain GHA180 at 0.001%. Proposed...

  1. 13:00:09:11:10 Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against

    E-print Network

    Kramarz, Paulina

    , the weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans) seedlings are the hosts, and the grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis typhina endophyte stimulates the host, weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans), to produce seeds

  2. The effects of endophytes on seed production and seed predation of tall fescue and meadow fescue.

    PubMed

    Saari, Susanna; Helander, Marjo; Faeth, Stanley H; Saikkonen, Kari

    2010-11-01

    Fungal endophytes of grasses are often included in agricultural management and in ecological studies of natural grass populations. In European agriculture and ecological studies, however, grass endophytes are largely ignored. In this study, we determined endophyte infection frequencies of 13 European cultivars and 49 wild tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) populations in Northern Europe. We then examined seed production and seed predation of endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue (in wild grass populations and in a field experiment) and meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis; in a field experiment only). Endophytes were detected in only one of the 13 cultivars. In contrast, >90% of wild tall fescue plants harbored endophytes in 45 wild populations but were absent in three inland populations in Estonia. In three wild tall fescue study sites, 17%, 22%, and 56% of the seeds were preyed upon by the cocksfoot moth. Endophyte infection did not affect seed mass of tall fescue in the field experiment. However, seed predation was lower in E+ than E- grasses in the two tall fescue populations with higher predation rates. For meadow fescue, the mean number of seeds from E+ plants was higher than E- plants, but E- and E+ seeds had equal rates of predation by the moth. Our results suggest that the effects of grass endophytes on seed production and cocksfoot moth seed predation vary considerably among grass species, and the effects may depend on herbivore pressure and other environmental conditions. PMID:20871988

  3. Diversity and host range of foliar fungal endophytes: are tropical leaves biodiversity hotspots?

    PubMed

    Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, F

    2007-03-01

    Fungal endophytes are found in asymptomatic photosynthetic tissues of all major lineages of land plants. The ubiquity of these cryptic symbionts is clear, but the scale of their diversity, host range, and geographic distributions are unknown. To explore the putative hyperdiversity of tropical leaf endophytes, we compared endophyte communities along a broad latitudinal gradient from the Canadian arctic to the lowland tropical forest of central Panama. Here, we use molecular sequence data from 1403 endophyte strains to show that endophytes increase in incidence, diversity, and host breadth from arctic to tropical sites. Endophyte communities from higher latitudes are characterized by relatively few species from many different classes of Ascomycota, whereas tropical endophyte assemblages are dominated by a small number of classes with a very large number of endophytic species. The most easily cultivated endophytes from tropical plants have wide host ranges, but communities are dominated by a large number of rare species whose host range is unclear. Even when only the most easily cultured species are considered, leaves of tropical trees represent hotspots of fungal species diversity, containing numerous species not yet recovered from other biomes. The challenge remains to recover and identify those elusive and rarely cultured taxa with narrower host ranges, and to elucidate the ecological roles of these little-known symbionts in tropical forests. PMID:17503580

  4. Fungal endophytes directly increase the competitive effects of an invasive forb.

    PubMed

    Aschehoug, Erik T; Metlen, Kerry L; Callaway, Ragan M; Newcombe, George

    2012-01-01

    Competitive outcomes among plants can vary in different abiotic and biotic conditions. Here we tested the effects of two phylotypes of Alternaria endophytes on the growth, competitive effects, and competitive responses of the exotic invasive forb Centaurea stoebe. Centaurea stoebe was a better competitor against North American grass species than grasses from its European home range in the absence of endophytes. However, one endophyte both increased the biomass of C. stoebe and reduced the competitive effect of North American grasses on C. stoebe. The competitive effects of C. stoebe on grass species native to North America were enhanced by both fungal endophytes, but not for native European grasses. We do not know the mechanism by which endophytes increased C. stoebe's competitive ability, and particularly against biogeographically new neighbors, but one endophyte increased the competitive ability of C. stoebe without increasing its size, suggesting mechanisms unrelated to increased growth. We tested only a fraction of the different endophytic fungi that have been found in C. stoebe, only scratching the surface of understanding their indirect effects. However, our results are the first to demonstrate such effects of a fungal endophyte infecting an invasive forb, and one of the few to show that endophyte effects on competition do not have to be mediated through herbivory. PMID:22486080

  5. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Hardoim, Pablo R; van Overbeek, Leonard S; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-09-01

    All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions. PMID:26136581

  6. A novel intracellular nitrogen-fixing symbiosis made by Ustilago maydis and Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Herrera, José; León-Ramírez, Claudia; Vera-Nuñez, Antonio; Sánchez-Arreguín, Alejandro; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Salgado-Lugo, Holjes; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2015-08-01

    We observed that the maize pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis grew in nitrogen (N)-free media at a rate similar to that observed in media containing ammonium nitrate, suggesting that it was able to fix atmospheric N2 . Because only prokaryotic organisms have the capacity to reduce N2 , we entertained the possibility that U. maydis was associated with an intracellular bacterium. The presence of nitrogenase in the fungus was analyzed by acetylene reduction, and capacity to fix N2 by use of (15) N2 . Presence of an intracellular N2 -fixing bacterium was analyzed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, and by microscopic observations. Nitrogenase activity and (15) N incorporation into the cells proved that U. maydis fixed N2 . Light and electron microscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments revealed the presence of intracellular bacteria related to Bacillus pumilus, as evidenced by sequencing of the PCR-amplified fragments. These observations reveal for the first time the existence of an endosymbiotic N2 -fixing association involving a fungus and a bacterium. PMID:25754368

  7. Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes to invasion by the non-native

    E-print Network

    Whitney, Kenneth

    species' abilities to resist and compete with invaders. Recent work suggests that symbiotic microbes play naturally endophyte-symbiotic and experi- mentally endophyte-free P. alsodes plants with the invader

  8. Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Érica Soares; Praça, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Summary The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP?marked bacteria could be re?isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control. PMID:21255282

  9. Interactions of Bacillus spp. and plants--with special reference to induced systemic resistance (ISR).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Devendra K; Johri, Bhavdish N

    2009-01-01

    Biological control of soil-borne pathogens comprises the decrease of inoculum or of the disease producing activity of a pathogen through one or more mechanisms. Interest in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens has increased considerably in the last few decades, because it may provide control of diseases that cannot or only partly be managed by other control strategies. Recent advances in microbial and molecular techniques have significantly contributed to new insights in underlying mechanisms by which introduced bacteria function. Colonization of plant roots is an essential step for both soil-borne pathogenic and beneficial rhizobacteria. Colonization patterns showed that rhizobacteria act as biocontrol agents or as growth-promoting bacteria form microcolonies or biofilms at preferred sites of root exudation. Such microcolonies are sites for bacteria to communicate with each other (quorum sensing) and to act in a coordinated manner. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria. Several strains of the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, B. pasteurii, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. mycoides, and B. sphaericus elicit significant reductions in the incidence or severity of various diseases on a diversity of hosts. Elicitation of ISR by these strains has been demonstrated in greenhouse or field trials on tomato, bell pepper, muskmelon, watermelon, sugar beet, tobacco, Arabidopsis sp., cucumber, loblolly pine, and two tropical crops (long cayenne pepper and green kuang futsoi). Protection resulting from ISR elicited by Bacillus spp. has been reported against leaf-spotting fungal and bacterial pathogens, systemic viruses, a crown-rotting fungal pathogen, root-knot nematodes, and a stem-blight fungal pathogen as well as damping-off, blue mold, and late blight diseases. This progress will lead to a more efficient use of these strains which is worthwhile approach to explore in context of biocontrol strategies. PMID:18845426

  10. Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere shils to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a forage grass of world-wide importance. It has a natural association with an endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum). In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures have been shown to enhan...

  11. Detection and quantification of three distinct Neotyphodium lolii endophytes in Lolium perenne by real time PCR of secondary metabolite genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanfei; Bradshaw, Rosie E; Johnson, Richard D; Hume, David E; Simpson, Wayne R; Schmid, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a widely used pasture grass, which is frequently infected by Neotyphodium lolii endophytes that enhance grass performance but can produce alkaloids inducing toxicosis in livestock. Several selected endophyte strains with reduced livestock toxicity, but that confer insect resistance, are now in common use. Little is known regarding the survival and persistence of these endophytes when in competition with common toxic endophytes. This is mainly because there are currently no assays available to easily and reliably quantify different endophytes in pastures or in batches of seeds infected with multiple strains. We developed real time PCR assays, based on secondary metabolite genes known to differ between N. lolii endophyte strains, to quantify two selected endophytes, AR1 and AR37, and a common toxic ecotype used in New Zealand. A duplex PCR allowed assessment of endophyte:grass DNA ratios with high sensitivity, specificity and precision. Endophyte specific primers/probes could detect contamination of AR37 seeds with other endophytes down to a level of 3-25%. We demonstrated that it is possible to quantify different endophyte strains simultaneously using multiplex PCR. This method has potential applications in management of endophytes in pastures and in fundamental research into this important plant-microbe symbiosis. PMID:24607355

  12. Alkaloids of Stipa robusta (sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophyte.

    PubMed

    Petroski, R J; Powell, R G; Clay, K

    1992-01-01

    Stipa robusta (= Stipa vaseyi) is a perennial grass found in certain areas of the southwestern United States. It is commonly known as sleepygrass, as horses that ingest this grass may become profoundly somnolent or stuporous for periods of time lasting up to several days. In an attempt to determine the active principle(s), fractionation of a methanolic extract of sleepygrass infected with an Acremonium endophyte has yielded lysergic acid amide (20 micrograms/g dry wt), isolysergic amide (8), 8-hydroxylsergic acid amide (0.3), ergonovine (7), chanoclavine-I (15), and N-formylloline (18). Related alkaloids have been found in many endophyte-infected grasses. The dominant alkaloid constituent in sleepygrass, lysergic acid amide, has not previously been identified in a grass in such high concentration. Lysergic acid amide is likely to be the basis for the extreme sedative effects on animals, given past pharmacological work on the compound from the ergot fungus Claviceps paspali. PMID:1344912

  13. A new enniatin antibiotic from the endophyte Fusarium tricinctum Corda.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Ahmed M; Makboul, Makboul A; Moharram, Ahmad M; Tekwani, Babu L; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-03-01

    Enniatins (ENs), a group of antibiotics commonly produced by various strains of Fusarium, are six-membered cyclic depsipeptides formed by the union of three molecules of D-?-hydroxyisovaleric acid and three N-methyl-L-amino acids. The endophyte Fusarium tricinctum Corda was isolated from the fruits of Hordeum sativum Jess. and cultivated on a rice medium. The fungal metabolites were extracted with methanol and were identified, employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as ENs A, A1, B, B1, B2 and Q. EN Q is a new analog of EN A and the occurrence of EN B2 is reported for the first time from this endophyte, in addition to four well-known ENs (A, A1, B and B1). The methanol extract of F. tricinctum showed mild antibacterial and antileishmanial activities. Additionally the tested extract displayed inhibition of the activity of thioredoxin reductase enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:25315756

  14. Enterobacter cloacae is an endophytic symbiont of corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy M. Hinton; Charles W. Bacon

    1995-01-01

    The bacteriumEnterobacter cloacae is presently used for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables and as a preplant seed treatment for suppression\\u000a of damping-off. This bacterium has apparent affinities for several grass species, but it is not considered to be an endophyte.\\u000a While screening corn for fungi and bacteria with potential for biocontrol of various corn diseases, the surface-sterilized

  15. Masking of antibiotic-resistance upon recovery of endophytic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. McInroy; George Musson; Gang Wei; Joseph W. Kloepper

    1996-01-01

    During studies on internal plant colonization by rhizosphere bacteria and endophytic bacteria over several years, we frequently\\u000a observed lack of growth of rifampicin-resistant mutants (rif+) on tryptic soy agar amended with rifampicin (RTSA). Following\\u000a seed treatment of cucumber with 6 species of rif+ rhizosphere bacteria in one experiment, all strains were recoverable on\\u000a RTSA when external root colonization was monitored.

  16. Detection and eradication of endophytic bacteria from micropropagated mint plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara M. Reed; Patricia M. Buckley; Traci N. DeWilde

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Liquid medium and an enriched agar were used to detect endophytic bacteria in micropropagated mints (Mentha spp.) within 2 to 6 d of inoculation. Bacteria isolated from the cultures were screened on several antibiotic concentrations\\u000a to determine bactericidal doses. Antibiotics were also tested for phytotoxic effects. Shoot tips from infected plants were\\u000a treated by immersion in liquid MS medium containing

  17. Natural Endophytic Occurrence of Acetobacter diazotrophicus in Pineapple Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tapia-Hernández; M. R. Bustillos-Cristales; T. Jiménez-Salgado; J. Caballero-Mellado; L. E. Fuentes-Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    The presence of endophytic Acetobacter diazotrophicus was tested for pineapple plants (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) grown in the field. Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the inner tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems,\\u000a and leaves of pineapple plants. Phenotypic tests permitted the selection of presumptive nitrogen-fixing A. diazotrophicus isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of small subunit (SSU) rDNA using total

  18. Two Species of Endophytic Cladosporium in Pine Trees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra

    2008-01-01

    During our studies on the diverse endophytic fungi resident on conifer needles, many species of Cladosporium previously unreported in Korea were encountered. In this paper, we report on two species of Cladosporium from the needles of pine trees (Pinus spp.). Based on analyses of internal transcribed spacer gene sequence, and cultural and micromorphological characteristics, they were identified as C. oxysporum and C. sphaerospermum. Both species have not been hitherto reported in Korea. PMID:23997628

  19. Two species of endophytic cladosporium in pine trees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Yu, Seung Hun

    2008-12-01

    During our studies on the diverse endophytic fungi resident on conifer needles, many species of Cladosporium previously unreported in Korea were encountered. In this paper, we report on two species of Cladosporium from the needles of pine trees (Pinus spp.). Based on analyses of internal transcribed spacer gene sequence, and cultural and micromorphological characteristics, they were identified as C. oxysporum and C. sphaerospermum. Both species have not been hitherto reported in Korea. PMID:23997628

  20. Red algae as hosts for endophytic kelp gametophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Garbary; K. Y. Kim; T. Klinger; D. Duggins

    1999-01-01

    We observed kelp gametophytes endophytic in the cell walls of 17 species of red algae from the San Juan Islands, Washington,\\u000a USA. Host algae were collected primarily from three sites dominated by different kelp assemblages, including (1) a subtidal\\u000a site dominated by Agarum fimbriatum Harvey, (2) a second subtidal site dominated by Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht, and (3)

  1. An Integrated Database for Grass and Endophyte Genomics at www.grassendophyte.org

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic microbes are able to promote plant growth and health under various stresses via their symbiotic association with host plants. Genome-wide comparative analysis has been extensively employed to decipher complex mechanisms of interactions between endophytic microbes and host plants, resu...

  2. Update regarding endophyte related research in Agricultural Research Service/USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent results from various ARS locations regarding solutions to the endophyte problem of the use of cool season forage as a feed stock for ruminants were presented. The endophyte problem refers to decreases in animal health and productivity when livestock consume cool-season forages like tall fescu...

  3. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle. Novel endophytes can sustain fescue persistence an...

  4. Endophyte-infected fescue alters components of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Angus and 8 Hereford X Angus (334.7 +/- 10.7 kilograms body weight) heifers were stratified by sire breed, temperament (using weaning exit velocity), and body weight and randomly assigned within strata to either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine ...

  5. The communities of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L .)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janpen Prakamhang; Kiwamu Minamisawa; Kamonluck Teamtaisong; Nantakorn Boonkerd; Neung Teaumroong

    2009-01-01

    Even though attempts have been made to use endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as biofertilizers for rice cultivation, their community structure and complexity in rice tissues is not well understood. In this study, the diversity and the community structure of endophytic diazotrophs as well as the nifH gene expression within each plant part and growth stage of rice under different soil conditions

  6. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

  7. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and activity of endophytic bacteria associated with prairie plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Phillips; James J. Germida; Richard E. Farrell; Charles W. Greer

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation systems for organic compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons rely on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. To determine the probable role of endophytic bacterial communities in these systems, this study examined both rhizosphere and endophytic communities of five different plant species at a long-term phytoremediation field site. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and activity were assessed using

  8. Bacterial Endophytes: Potential Role in Developing Sustainable Systems of Crop Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Sturz; B. R. Christie; J. Nowak

    2000-01-01

    Most healthy naturally propagated plants grown in field or potting soils are colonized by communities of endophytic bacteria, embracing a wide variety of species and genera. These bacteria form nonpathogenic relationships with their hosts: some beneficial, some neutral, and some detrimental. Such associations can increase plant growth and hasten development or improve resistance to environmental stress. Endophytic bacteria have been

  9. Endophytic bacteria of red clover as agents of allelopathic clover-maize syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Sturz; B. R. Christie

    1996-01-01

    The early growth effects of red clover endophytic bacteria on maize seedlings were examined in greenhouse trials. We found that endophytic bacteria from preceding clover (Trifolium pratense L.) crops can be causal agents of the inhibitory allelopathic ‘clover-maize syndrome’. The effect was shown to be both direct (as in imbibition studies with bacterial suspensions of individual isolates) and indirect (as

  10. Age-dependent Distribution of Fungal Endophytes in Panax ginseng Roots Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chang; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Kim, Joon Bum; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations. A total of 81 fungal endophytes were isolated from 24 ginseng roots. Fungal endophytes were classified into 9 different fungal species and 2 unknown species. Ginseng roots that were 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-years old were colonized by 2, 6, 8, and 5 species of fungal endophytes, respectively. While Phoma radicina was the most frequent fungal endophyte in 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, Fusarium solani was the dominant endophyte in 1-year-old ginseng roots. The colonization frequencies (CF) varied with the host age. The CF were 12%, 40%, 31%, and 40% for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old ginseng roots, respectively. We found a variety of fungal endophytes that were distributed depending on the age of ginseng plants. PMID:23717135

  11. Fungal endophytes associated with the mistletoe Phoradendron perrottettii and its host tree Tapirira guianensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. de Abreu; A. R. Almeida; M. Salgado; L. H. Pfenning

    2010-01-01

    The endophytic mycobiota of leaves and stems of the mistletoe Phoradendron perrottettii and its host tree Tapirira guianensis, two physiologically connected plant species of the Brazilian savannah in southeastern Brazil, were investigated to evaluate\\u000a host and organ recurrence among endophytes. Leaves and stems of P. perrottettii and leaves of T. guianensis were sampled in the dry and wet season. Stems

  12. The potential role of water in spread of conidia of the Neotyphodium endophyte of Poa ampla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are mutualistic fungi that colonize many cool season grasses. Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual but related to the ascomycete genus Epichloe. They do not produce obvious structures external to the host and for most of the life cycle are asymptomatic and system...

  13. Associations between microfungal endophytes and roots: do structural features indicate function?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Larry Peterson; Cameron Wagg; Michael Pautler

    2008-01-01

    Roots encounter a plethora of microorganisms in the soil environment that are either deleterious, neutral, or ben- eficial to plant growth. Root endophytic fungi are ubiquitous. These include dark septate endophytes whose role in plant growth and the maintenance of plant communities is largely unknown. The objectives of this review were to assess the structural features of the interactions between

  14. Antibiosis, mycoparasitism, and colonization sucess for endophytic Trichoderma isolates with biological control potential in Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao (cacao) suffers severe yield losses in many major production areas due to fungus-induced diseases. Cacao supports a complex endophytic microbial community that offers candidates for biocontrol of cacao diseases. Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from the live s...

  15. Molecular characterization of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri in Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy stems and pods of Theobroma gileri, an alternative host of the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Identification of sporulating isolates was undertaken; however, many of the endophytes isolated could not be identified morphologically as they were non-sporu...

  16. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71. PMID:21887636

  17. Fungal endophyte diversity in coffee plants from Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Coffee plant sections were sterilized and fungal endophytes were isolated using standard techniques, followed by DNA extraction and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of...

  18. Arthropod abundance in tall fescue, Lolium arundinaceum, pastures containing novel ‘safe’ endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor livestock performance on tall fescue is linked to infection by a fungal endophyte that enhances grass resistance to stress, including erbivory, while producing ergot alkaloids toxic to vertebrate grazers. Novel ‘safe’ endophyte/grass associations produce no ergot alkaloids yet etain stand persi...

  19. Effects of fungal endophytes on the seed and seedling biology of Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Many grasses are infected by endophytic fungi that grow intercellularly in leaves, stems, and flowers and are transmitted maternally by hyphal growth into ovules and seeds. The seed biology and seedling growth of endophyte-infected and uninfected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The percentage of filled seeds produced by infected tall

  20. Endophytic bacteria enhancing growth and disease resistance of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ardanov Pavlo; Ovcharenko Leonid; Zaets Iryna; Kozyrovska Natalia; Pirttilä Anna Maria

    Priming plants by non-pathogenic bacteria allows the host to save energy and to reduce time needed for development of defense reaction during a pathogen attack. However, information on the role of endophytes in plant defense is limited. Here, the ability of endophytic bacteria to promote growth and resistance of potato plants towards infection by the necrotroph Pectobacterium atrosepticum was studied.

  1. Endophyte-mediated disease suppression induced by application of metalaxyl-m to potato foliage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Sturz; R. D. Peters

    2007-01-01

    A 2-year field study was undertaken to examine the effect of the systemic fungicide metalaxyl-m (the R enantiomer of metalaxyl) on endophytic populations of bacteria in tubers of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) 'Russet Burbank'. The frequency (population density) of bacterial endophytes with antibiosis activity against Phytophthora erythroseptica and Fusarium avenaceum was not independent of fungicide regime, according to Fisher's exact test

  2. Response of Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Potato Plants to Infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Reiter; Ulrike Pfeifer; Helmut Schwab; Angela Sessitsch

    2002-01-01

    The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization

  3. Ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana to produce Cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Shoji; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Maetani, Yoshihide; Kitamura, Chinami; Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) to produce Cinchona alkaloids on potato dextrose agar medium and in a synthetic liquid medium. It was found that all twenty-one endophytic fungi produce Cinchona alkaloids, despite their genetic differences. PMID:22886817

  4. Benefits of a fungal endophyte in Elymus virginicus decline under drought stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Rudgers; Angela L. Swafford

    2009-01-01

    In most natural systems, it remains unclear whether microbial symbionts can help plants adapt to rapidly changing environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fungal endophyte symbiosis in a widespread, native grass species, Elymus virginicus, would promote host tolerance of drought. In a growth chamber experiment, we manipulated water availability to plants naturally infected with the endophyte Epichloë elymi and

  5. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  6. The Insect Pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt is a widespread toxic bacterium of many groups of insects. Some are more specific than others. This page discusses the varieties and target insects, use, and mode of action.

  7. Endophytic nifH gene diversity in African sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Birgit; Bürgmann, Helmut; Burg, Kornel; Sessitsch, Angela

    2003-09-01

    A cultivation-independent approach was used to identify potentially nitrogen-fixing endophytes in seven sweet potato varieties collected in Uganda and Kenya. Nitrogenase reductase genes (nifH) were amplified by PCR, and amplicons were cloned in Escherichia coli. Clones were grouped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and representative nifH genes were sequenced. The resulting sequences had high homologies to nitrogenase reductases from alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria and low G+C Gram positives, however, about 50% of the sequences derived from rhizobia. Several highly similar or even identical nitrogenase reductase sequences clustering with different bacterial genera and species, including Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium sp. NGR234, Rhizobium etli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Paenibacillus odorifer, could be detected in different plants grown in distinct geographic locations. This suggests that these bacterial species preferentially colonize African sweet potato as endophytes and that the diazotrophic, endophytic microflora is determined only to a low degree by the plant genotype or the soil microflora. PMID:14608421

  8. [Regulation of peroxidase activity under the influence of signaling molecules and Bacillus subtilis 26D in potato plants infected with Phytophthora infestans].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Sorokan', A V; Burkhanova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sequential exposure of 5 x 10(-5) M salicylic acid (SA) or 1 x 10(-7) M jasmonic acid (JA) and endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain 26D on peroxidase activity, transcription of the M21334 isoperoxidase gene from potato (Solarium tuberosum L.), and the formation of resistance to the infective agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary was studied. It was found that individual application of JA or Bacillus subtilis 26D and sequential application of SA and B. subtilis 26D were the most effective in protecting plants against pathogens, while sequential application of JA and B. subtilis 26D drastically suppressed plant resistance. The results suggest the need for strict compliance with regulations when using SA and JA, as well as biological products based on living bacteria as modern plant protection products with immunomodulatory properties that trigger specific signaling pathways, which often interfere with each other. PMID:25272739

  9. Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa M. Koehler

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the “group 1 bacilli”), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the B. cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related

  10. Serious infections from Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, C U; Murray, H W; Levy, C; Solny, M N; Curtin, J A; Sheagren, J N

    1979-03-16

    Serious infections caused by organisms of the genus Bacillus developed in seven patients. Five drug abusers had either endocarditis or osteomyelitis, one leukemic patient had necrotizing fasciitis, and one patient had a ventriculoatrial shunt infection with recurrent bacteremia. All patients recovered. Experience with these cases reemphasizes the importance of not dismissing Bacillus organisms as culture contaminants, especially when isolated from blood, body fluids, or closed-space infections. PMID:105158

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  12. The newly isolated endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium sp. LK1 produces ascotoxin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-01-01

    We have isolated five endophytic fungi from the roots of Capsicum annuum, Cucumis sativus and Glycine max. The culture filtrates (CF) of these endophytes were screened on dwarf mutant rice (Waito-C) and normal rice (Dongjin-byeo). Endophyte CAC-1A significantly inhibited the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. by sequencing the ITS rDNA region and phylogenetic analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction of Paraconiothyrium sp. suppressed the germination of Lactuca sativa and Echinochloa crus-galli seeds. The ethyl acetate fraction of the endophyte was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained the phytotoxic compound ascotoxin (1) which was characterized through NMR and GC/MS techniques. Ascotoxin revealed 100% inhibitory effects on seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli. Compound (1) was isolated for the first time from Paraconiothyrium sp. PMID:22267195

  13. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  14. Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host. PMID:23056459

  15. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  16. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1. PMID:25128427

  17. Silver nanoparticles synthesis mediated by new isolates of Bacillus spp., nanoparticle characterization and their activity against Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus and human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Essam K F; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggelis, George

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular agents produced by newly isolated bacterial strains were able to catalyze the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The most effective isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus, B. persicus, and Bacillus licheniformis using molecular identification. DLS analysis revealed that the AgNPs synthesized by the above strains were in the size range of 77-92 nm. TEM observations showed that the nanoparticles were coated with a capping agent, which was probably involved in nanoparticle stabilization allowing their perfect dispersion in aqueous solutions. FTIR analyses indicated the presence of proteins in the capping agent of the nanoparticles and suggested that the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of peptide hydrolysates (originated from the growth medium) is coupled to the reduction of silver ions. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy confirmed the above results. The nanoparticles, especially those synthesized by B. licheniformis, were stable (zeta potential ranged from -16.6 to -21.3 mV) and showed an excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity against important human pathogens and a considerable antiviral activity against the Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus. The significance of the particular antiviral activity is highlighted, given the significant yield reduction in fava bean crops resulting from Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus infections, in many African countries. PMID:26029190

  18. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Other Bacillus cereus Group Bacteria with the PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. HENDERSON; C. J. DUGGLEBY; P. C. B. TURNBULLl

    1994-01-01

    DNA homology studies (11, 24) have shown that Bacillus anthracis is closely related to Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides. These species have almost identical G+C contents (31 to 34 mol%) (15), and ribosomal DNA sequence data have revealed only minor differences among them (1, 2). In the laboratory, confirma- tion of suspect isolates as B. anthracis is generally

  19. Bacillus weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is a new psychrotolerant species of the Bacillus cereus group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Lechner; R. MAYR; Kevin P. Francis; B. M. PRUss; Thomas Kaplan; E. WIEssNER-GUNKEL; G. S. A. B. STEWART; S. SCHERER

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group comprises the four valid species Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus fhuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Some isolates of B. cereus are known to be psychrotolerant (growth at 7 OC or below). Here, specific sequence differences are described between the 165 rDNA, the 235 rDNA, the 165-235 rDNA spacer region and the genes of the major cold-shock protein

  20. Molecular evidence for Neotyphodium fungal endophyte variation and specificity within host grass species.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Somaye; Mirlohi, Aghafakhr; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sayed Tabatabaei, Badraldin E; Sharifnabi, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Host specificity of Neotyphodium species symbiotic with three grass species, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne, was studied based on comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between hosts and their corresponding endophytes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from 24 accessions of host plants. Neotyphodium identity was determined based on morphological characteristics observed in cultures and polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific primers. The results of AFLP data analysis revealed high genetic variation in plant and fungal endophyte species. Plant AFLP genotypes from different species clustered in three distinctive groups, congruent with species. A cluster analysis of AFLP data grouped endophytic isolates according to their host species and secondarily according to their host geographic distribution. The result of the AMOVA on AFLP data accounted for a large and significant proportion of genetic variation due to differences among plant and endophyte species. Phylogenetic groups of isolates corresponded to their respective host genotypes based on maximum parsimony phylograms. Comparisons of the two phylograms illustrated a significant congruence between nodes and branches of host and endophyte clades. These results strongly suggest host specificity of Neotyphodium fungal endophytes with their geographically distant host grasses within each species. PMID:22675051

  1. Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth. PMID:23842755

  2. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  3. A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B; Madsen, Lene H; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  4. Endophytic fungal diversity of 2 sand dune wild legumes from the southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Seena, S; Sridhar, K R

    2004-12-01

    Endophytic fungi of 3 age classes (seeds, seedlings, and mature plants) and 5 tissue classes (cotyledons, seed coats, roots, stems, and leaves) of coastal sand dune legumes Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima were assessed by plating surface-sterilized segments on malt extract agar. Forty-six fungal taxa comprising 6 ascomycetes, 33 mitosporic fungi, 2 zygomycetes, and 5 sterile morphospecies were recovered. There was no significant difference in the colonization frequency of endophytes between plant species (p = 0.4098, Student's t test). Among the age classes, endophytic fungi colonized over 90% of seedlings and mature plants. Similarly, among tissue classes, endophytic fungi colonized over 90% of root, stem, and leaf segments. Diversity and richness of endophytic fungi were higher in C. cathartica than in C. maritima. Rarefaction curves revealed a "higher expected number of species" in mature plants of C. cathartica and seedlings of C. maritima, whereas it was highest in leaves of both plant species. The most dominant endophyte, Chaetomium globosum, colonized over 50% of the root, stem, and leaf segments of C. maritima and over 50% of the root segments of C. cathartica. The colonization frequency of C. globosum was found to be 5%-12.5% in seeds and increased up to 40%-64.4% in seedlings or mature plants. Halosarpheia sp. was the only marine fungus recovered among the endophytes. PMID:15714232

  5. A cultured endophyte community is associated with the plant Clerodendrum inerme and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, B; Yao, X H; Zhang, Y Q; Fang, H Y; Pang, T C; Dong, Q L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes live in the inner tissues of Clerodendrum inerme and may be significant resources for new chemicals in drug discovery. A total of 242 endophytic fungi were recovered from 602 sample segments of C. inerme; 66 were purified. The 66 fungi belonging to 16 taxa and 11 genera (Alternaria, Nigrospora, Bartalinia, Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Mycoleptodiscus, Trichoderma, Phomopsis, Diaporthe, Lasiodiplodia, and Curvularia) were identified by morphological characteristics and fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences. The most abundant genera were Alternaria and Lasiodiplodia. Some of the endophytes exhibited tissue specificity. The colonization frequencies of endophytes in the stems were evidently higher than those in the roots and leaves. The crude ethyl acetate extracts were tested against 6 endophytes isolated from C. inerme. Three of 10 (33.3%) endophytes, which were identified as Phomopsis sp, Curvularia sp, and Mycoleptodiscus sp, displayed distinct antifungal activity against ?3 tested fungi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endophytic community associated with C. inerme in China and its antifungal activity in vitro. PMID:26125809

  6. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress. PMID:26024809

  7. Fungal endophytes of aquatic macrophytes: diverse host-generalists characterized by tissue preferences and geographic structure

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Dustin C.; Battista, Lorna J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of endophytic symbionts have focused on terrestrial plants, neglecting the ecologically and economically important plants present in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the diversity, composition, host- and tissue affiliations, and geographic structure of fungal endophytes associated with common aquatic plants in northern Arizona, USA. Endophytes were isolated in culture from roots and photosynthetic tissues during two growing seasons. A total of 226 isolates representing 60 putative species was recovered from 9,600 plant tissue segments. Although isolation frequency was low, endophytes were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich. Comparisons among the most thoroughly sampled species and reservoirs revealed that isolation frequency and diversity did not differ significantly between collection periods, among species, among reservoirs, or as a function of depth. However, community structure differed significantly among reservoirs and tissue types. Phylogenetic analyses of a focal genus (Penicillium) corroborated estimates of species boundaries and informed community analyses, highlighting clade- and genotype-level affiliations of aquatic endophytes with both sediment- and waterborne fungi, and endophytes of proximate terrestrial plants. Together these analyses provide a first quantitative examination of endophytic associations in roots and foliage of aquatic plants and can be used to optimize survey strategies for efficiently capturing fungal biodiversity at local and regional scales. PMID:24402358

  8. Unexpected diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes in sapwood and leaves of Hevea.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rachael; Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Research on fungal endophytes has expanded dramatically in recent years, but little is known about the diversity and ecological roles of endophytic basidiomycetes. Here we report the analysis of 310 basidiomycetous endophytes isolated from wild and planted populations of the rubber tree genus, Hevea. Species accumulation curves were nonasymptotic, as in the majority of endophyte surveys, indicating that more sampling is needed to recover the true diversity of the community. One hundred eighteen OTUs were delimited, representing nine orders of Basidiomycota (Agaricales, Atheliales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, Septobasidiales, Tremellales). The diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes found inhabiting wild populations of Hevea was comparable to that present in plantations. However, when samples were segregated by tissue type, sapwood of wild populations was found to contain a higher number of species than sapwood of planted trees. Seventy-five percent of isolates were members of the Polyporales, the majority in the phlebioid clade. Most of the species belong to clades known to cause a white-rot type of wood decay. Two species in the insect-associated genus Septobasidium were isolated. The most frequently isolated genera included Bjerkandera, Ceriporia, Phanerochaete, Phlebia, Rigidoporus, Tinctoporellus, Trametes (Polyporales), Peniophora, Stereum (Russulales) and Coprinellus (Agaricales), all of which have been reported as endophytes from a variety of hosts, across wide geographic locations. Literature records on the geographic distribution and host association of these genera revealed that their distribution and substrate affinity could be extended if the endophytic niche was investigated as part of fungal biodiversity surveys. PMID:25572095

  9. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    PubMed

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.-a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties-since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  10. Neotyphodium Endophyte Changes Phytoextraction of Zinc in Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Narges; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amirhossein; Afyuni, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Neotyphodium endophytes on growth parameters and zinc (Zn) tolerance and uptake was studied in two grass species of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Plants were grown under different Zn concentrations (control, 200, 400, 800, and 1800 mg kg(-1)) in potted soil for 5 months. The results showed that the number of plant tillers was 85 and 51% greater in endophyte infected Festuca (FaEI) and Lolium (LpEI), respectively, compared to their endophyte free (EF) plants. Roots and shoots dry weights in infected Festuca were 87 and 9% greater than non-infected counterparts but in opposite, EF Lolium had 47 and 8% greater root and shoot dry weights than LpEI. Endophyte infected Festuca and Lolium improved chlorophyll fluorescence as Fv/Fm at high concentrations of Zn, showing their better chlorophyll functions and significant reduction of Zn stress in endophyte infected plants. Shoots of endophyte infectedFestuca had 82% greater concentration of Zn than EF Festuca when grown in soil containing 1800 mg kg(-1) Zn. Festuca and Lolium may tolerate high Zn concentration in soil without reduction in shoot and root growth. Endophyte infection in Festuca may help the grass accumulate and transport more Zn in aboveground parts under Zn-stress, thereby aiding phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25495936

  11. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Ehrlich, S D; Albertini, A; Amati, G; Andersen, K K; Arnaud, M; Asai, K; Ashikaga, S; Aymerich, S; Bessieres, P; Boland, F; Brignell, S C; Bron, S; Bunai, K; Chapuis, J; Christiansen, L C; Danchin, A; Débarbouille, M; Dervyn, E; Deuerling, E; Devine, K; Devine, S K; Dreesen, O; Errington, J; Fillinger, S; Foster, S J; Fujita, Y; Galizzi, A; Gardan, R; Eschevins, C; Fukushima, T; Haga, K; Harwood, C R; Hecker, M; Hosoya, D; Hullo, M F; Kakeshita, H; Karamata, D; Kasahara, Y; Kawamura, F; Koga, K; Koski, P; Kuwana, R; Imamura, D; Ishimaru, M; Ishikawa, S; Ishio, I; Le Coq, D; Masson, A; Mauël, C; Meima, R; Mellado, R P; Moir, A; Moriya, S; Nagakawa, E; Nanamiya, H; Nakai, S; Nygaard, P; Ogura, M; Ohanan, T; O'Reilly, M; O'Rourke, M; Pragai, Z; Pooley, H M; Rapoport, G; Rawlins, J P; Rivas, L A; Rivolta, C; Sadaie, A; Sadaie, Y; Sarvas, M; Sato, T; Saxild, H H; Scanlan, E; Schumann, W; Seegers, J F M L; Sekiguchi, J; Sekowska, A; Séror, S J; Simon, M; Stragier, P; Studer, R; Takamatsu, H; Tanaka, T; Takeuchi, M; Thomaides, H B; Vagner, V; van Dijl, J M; Watabe, K; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yamane, K; Yata, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, H; Zuber, U; Ogasawara, N

    2003-04-15

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  12. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K. K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S.; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.; Christiansen, L. C.; Danchin, A.; Débarbouillé, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S. K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S. J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C. R.; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M. F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauël, C.; Meima, R.; Mellado, R. P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H. M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J. P.; Rivas, L. A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M.; Sato, T.; Saxild, H. H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W.; Seegers, J. F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Séror, S. J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H. B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J. M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among ?4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway are essential. Identification of unknown and unexpected essential genes opens research avenues to better understanding of processes that sustain bacterial life. PMID:12682299

  13. Evaluation of the bioactivities of extracts of endophytes isolated from Taiwanese herbal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Wen Hsieh; Li-Chi Hsu; Chern-Hsiung Lai; Chin-Chung Wu; Tsong-Long Hwang; Yin-Ku Lin; Yang-Chang Wu

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic extracts from 19 endophytes, isolated from 13 species of Taiwanese plants, were evaluated for biological activity,\\u000a including cytotoxicity, anti-platelet aggregation, and anti-inflammatory activity. The extracts of 12 endophytes exhibited\\u000a inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 19.85–87.64 ?g\\/ml. Four strains, Rahnella aquatilis, Pantoea agglomerans, Rhodotorula sp., and Penicillium paxilli, also showed inhibitory effects on thrombin-induced platelet

  14. Complete genome of the switchgrass endophyte Enterobacter clocace P101.

    PubMed

    Humann, Jodi L; Wildung, Mark; Pouchnik, Derek; Bates, Austin A; Drew, Jennifer C; Zipperer, Ursula N; Triplett, Eric W; Main, Dorrie; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2014-06-15

    The Enterobacter cloacae complex is genetically very diverse. The increasing number of complete genomic sequences of E. cloacae is helping to determine the exact relationship among members of the complex. E. cloacae P101 is an endophyte of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and is closely related to other E. cloacae strains isolated from plants. The P101 genome consists of a 5,369,929 bp chromosome. The chromosome has 5,164 protein-coding regions, 100 tRNA sequences, and 8 rRNA operons. PMID:25197457

  15. Complete genome of the switchgrass endophyte Enterobacter clocace P101

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Jodi L.; Wildung, Mark; Pouchnik, Derek; Bates, Austin A.; Drew, Jennifer C.; Zipperer, Ursula N.; Triplett, Eric W.; Main, Dorrie; Schroeder, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae complex is genetically very diverse. The increasing number of complete genomic sequences of E. cloacae is helping to determine the exact relationship among members of the complex. E. cloacae P101 is an endophyte of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and is closely related to other E. cloacae strains isolated from plants. The P101 genome consists of a 5,369,929 bp chromosome. The chromosome has 5,164 protein-coding regions, 100 tRNA sequences, and 8 rRNA operons. PMID:25197457

  16. A new compound from an endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Bin; Yue, Gao-Chao; Huang, Qi-Lin; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A new secondary metabolite, named altertoxin IV (1), together with altertoxin II (2), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima, an endophytic fungal strain residing in the stem of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of new compound 1 was established by HR-ESI-MS, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. In their in vitro bioassay, compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against PC-3 cell lines with an IC50 value of 14.28 ?M. PMID:24660902

  17. Isolation, characterization, and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of Tylophora indica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susheel Kumar; Nutan Kaushik; Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel; Rainer Ebel; Peter Proksch

    2011-01-01

    Dothediomycetes sp., Alternaria\\u000a tenuissima, Thielavia\\u000a subthermophila, Alternaria sp., Nigrospora\\u000a oryzae, Colletotrichum truncatum, and Chaetomium sp. were isolated as endophytic fungi from leaves and stems of the medicinal plant, Tylophora indica, based on rDNA sequencing of ITS region and microscopic examination. Alternaria\\u000a tenuissima, Colletotrichum truncatum, and Alternaria sp. were found to be active against both Sclerotinia\\u000a sclerotiorum and Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum. Chaetomium

  18. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation. PMID:22918867

  19. A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloë Endophytes of Grasses? †

    PubMed Central

    Fleetwood, Damien J.; Scott, Barry; Lane, Geoffrey A.; Tanaka, Aiko; Johnson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed a putative gene cluster for ergovaline biosynthesis containing a single-module NRPS gene, lpsB, and other genes orthologous to genes in the ergopeptine gene cluster of Claviceps purpurea and the clavine cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite conservation of gene sequence, gene order is substantially different between the N. lolii, C. purpurea, and A. fumigatus ergot alkaloid gene clusters. Southern analysis indicated that the N. lolii cluster was linked with previously identified ergovaline biosynthetic genes dmaW and lpsA. The ergovaline genes are closely associated with transposon relics, including retrotransposons and autonomous and nonautonomous DNA transposons. All genes in the cluster were highly expressed in planta, but expression was very low or undetectable in mycelia from axenic culture. This work provides a genetic foundation for elucidating biochemical steps in the ergovaline pathway, the ecological role of individual ergot alkaloid compounds, and the regulation of their synthesis in planta. PMID:17308187

  20. An endophytic fungus from Hypericum perforatum that produces hypericin.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2008-02-01

    For the first time, an endophytic fungus has been isolated from the stems of the medicinal herb Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort). The fungus produced the napthodianthrone derivative hypericin ( 1) in rich mycological medium (potato dextrose broth) under shake flask and bench scale fermentation conditions. Emodin ( 2) was also produced simultaneously by the fungus under the same culture conditions. We propose 2 as the main precursor in the microbial metabolic pathway to 1. The fungus was identified by morphology and authenticated by 28S (LSU) rDNA sequencing. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified by LC-HRMS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-HRMS/MS and confirmed by comparison with authentic standards. In bioassays with a panel of laboratory standard pathogenic control strains, including fungi and bacteria, both fungal 1 and 2 possessed antimicrobial activity comparable to authentic standards. This endophytic fungus has significant scientific and industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for 1 in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way. PMID:18220354

  1. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    their symbiont fungus. The ants' fungal symbiont then partially degrades the leaf material, converting leaf; in the latter endophyte composition changed * Correspondence: svanbael@tulane.edu 1 Department of Ecology

  2. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  3. Antimicrobial drimane sesquiterpenes and their effect on endophyte communities in the medical tree Warburgia ugandensis

    PubMed Central

    Drage, Sigrid; Mitter, Birgit; Tröls, Christina; Muchugi, Alice; Jamnadass, Ramni H.; Sessitsch, Angela; Hadacek, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Metabolite profiles (GC–?MS), drimane sesquiterpenes, sugars and sugar alcohols, were compared with bacterial and fungal endophyte communities (T-RFLP, DNA clones, qPCR) in leaves and roots of the pepper bark tree, Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae). Ten individuals each were assessed from two locations east and west of the Great Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa, which differed in humidity and vegetation, closed forest versus open savannah. Despite organ- and partially site-specific variation of drimane sesquiterpenes, no clear effects on bacterial and fungal endophyte communities could be detected. The former were dominated by gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as well as gram-positive Firmicutes; the fungal endophyte communities were more diverse but no specific groups dominated. Despite initial expectations, the endophyte community of the pepper bark tree did not differ from other trees that much. PMID:21686123

  4. Diversity and distribution of fungal foliar endophytes in New Zealand Podocarpaceae.

    PubMed

    Joshee, Sucheta; Paulus, Barbara C; Park, Duckchul; Johnston, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    The diversity and distribution of fungal endophytes in the leaves of four podocarps (Dacrydium cupressinum, Prumnopitys ferruginea, Dacrycarpus dacrydioides, and Podocarpus totara, all Podocarpaceae) and an angiosperm (Kunzea ericoides, Myrtaceae) occurring in close stands were studied. The effects of host species, locality, and season on endophyte assemblages were investigated. Host species was the major factor shaping endophyte assemblages. The spatial separation of sites and seasonal differences played significant but lesser roles. The mycobiota of each host species included both generalist and largely host-specialised fungi. The host-specialists were often observed at low frequencies on some of the other hosts. There was no clear evidence for family-level specialisation across the Podocarpaceae. Of the 17 species found at similar frequencies on several of the podocarp species, 15 were found also on Kunzea. Many of the endophytes isolated appear to represent species of fungi not previously recognised from New Zealand. PMID:19539758

  5. Grazing Evaluation of a Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue Developed for the Upper Transition Zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum (Schreb.) Dumort.] imparts tolerances to moisture, heat, and grazing stresses, but also produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physio...

  6. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens.

    PubMed

    Grum, Daniel S; Cook, Daniel; Baucom, Deana; Mott, Ivan W; Gardner, Dale R; Creamer, Rebecca; Allen, Jeremy G

    2013-10-25

    Legumes belonging to the Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Swainsona genera have been noted by ranchers in the Americas, Asia, and Australia to cause a neurologic disease often referred to as locoism or peastruck. The toxin in these legumes is swainsonine, an ?-mannosidase and mannosidase II inhibitor. Recent research has shown that in Astragalus and Oxytropis species swainsonine is produced by a fungal endophyte belonging to the Undifilum genus. Here Swainsona canescens is shown to harbor an endophyte that is closely related to Undifilum species previously cultured from locoweeds of North America and Asia. The endophyte produces swainsonine in vitro and was detected by PCR and culturing in S. canescens. The endophyte isolated from S. canescens was characterized as an Undifilum species using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24053110

  7. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen A. Spotts Whitney; Mark E. Beatty; Thomas H. Taylor; Robbin Weyant; Jeremy Sobel; Matthew J. Arduino; David A. Ashford

    After the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal Service in the fall of 2001, many environments were contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and frequent inquiries were made regarding the science of destroying these spores. We conducted a survey of the lit- erature that had potential application to the inactivation of B. anthracis spores. This article provides a

  8. Benefits of a symbiotic association with endophytic fungi are subject to water and nutrient availability in Achnatherum sibiricum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Zhi Ren; Xia Li; Rong Han; Li Jia Yin; Mao Ying Wei; Yu Bao Gao

    Symbiotic relationships with microbes may influence how plants respond to environmental change. Here, we investigated how\\u000a fungal endophyte infection affected the growth of a native grass under altered water and nutrient availability. In a two-month\\u000a field experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Achnatherum sibiricum subjected to four treatments comprised of a factorial combination of two

  9. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  10. Endophytic fungi associated with the Antarctic grass Deschampsia antarctica Desv. ( Poaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz H. Rosa; Aline B. M. Vaz; Rachel B. Caligiorne; Sabrina Campolina; Carlos A. Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) represents one of the two vascular plants that have colonized the Antarctic continent, which is usually exposed to extreme\\u000a environmental conditions. In this work, we have characterized the endophytic fungi associated with the leaves of D. antarctica. Endophytic fungi were recovered from 91 individual plants from different points of Admiralty Bay at King George Island,\\u000a Antarctica. A total

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum bertolonii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Barzanti; Francesca Ozino; Marco Bazzicalupo; Roberto Gabbrielli; Francesca Galardi; Cristina Gonnelli; Alessio Mengoni

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria, endemic to serpentine outcrops of Central Italy, from\\u000a a nickel hyperaccumulator plant, Alyssum bertolonii Desv. (Brassicaceae). Eighty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of A. bertolonii and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA (ARDRA) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing in 23 different taxonomic groups.\\u000a All isolates were

  12. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from selected plants and their antifungal activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thongchai Taechowisan; John F. Peberdy; Saisamorn Lumyong

    2003-01-01

    The isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from surface-sterilized tissues of 36 plant species was made using humic acid–vitamin (HV) agar as a selection medium. Of the 330 isolates recovered, 212 were from roots, 97 from leaves and 21 isolates from stems with a prevalence of 3.9, 1.7 and 0.3%, respectively. Identification of endophytic actinomycetes was based on their morphology and the

  13. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia pekinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-chao Dai; Bo-yang Yu; Xia Li

    2008-01-01

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E. pekinensis (B3, B6 and S12). The results showed that

  14. [Utilization of different carbon sources by soil and endophytic strains of Penicillium funiculosum Thom].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I N; Vasilevskaia, A I; Artyshkova, L V; Nakonechnaia, L T; Iur'eva, E M

    2013-01-01

    The ability of soil and endophytic strains of P. funiculosum to accumulate biomass under cultivation conditions in media containing carbon sources from mono- to polysaccharides has been studied. It has been shown that the most favorable carbon sources for the studied strains were maltose, sucrose, xylose, fructose, pectin, less assimilated lactose, arabinose, and especially microcrystalline cellulose. Significant differences in the level of biomass accumulation between soil and endophytic strains of this species in most cases were not established. PMID:23866582

  15. Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Hong Li; Qun Fang Liu; Yin Liu; Jing Nan Zhu; Qiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga\\/Flexibacter\\/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria

  16. Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amal H. Aly; Abdessamad Debbab; Julia Kjer; Peter Proksch

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from higher plants, are attracting considerable attention from\\u000a natural product chemists and biologists alike as indicated by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during\\u000a recent years (113 research articles on secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi in the period of 2008–2009, 69 in 2006–2007,\\u000a 36 in 2004–2005, 14 in 2002–2003, and

  17. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Endophytic Heterobasidion araucariae from Roots of Capsicum annuum L. in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Shin, Kyu Seop

    2012-01-01

    A species of Heterobasidion was encountered during a diversity study of endophytic fungi from healthy root tissues of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Korea. The fungal species (CNU081069) was identified as Heterobasidion araucariae based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor gene sequences. Morphological descriptions of the endophytic isolate matched well with the previous references and supported the molecular identification. The fungus Heterobasidion araucariae CNU081069 is new to Korea. PMID:22870048

  18. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  19. Soil microbial community function, structure, and glomalin in response to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Buyer; David A. Zuberer; Kristine A. Nichols; Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire] is naturally infected with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces toxic ergot alkaloids that negatively affect herbivores and may alter soil microbial communities. A 60-week\\u000a mesocosm study with a factorial arrangement of soil type (clay loam and loamy sand) and endophyte infection (with and without)\\u000a was conducted to determine changes in soil

  20. Soil microbial community responses to the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium in Italian ryegrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Casas; Marina Omacini; Marcela Susana Montecchia; Olga Susana Correa

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grasses commonly harbor fungal endophytes in their aerial tissues. However the effects of these symbionts on soil\\u000a microbial communities have rarely been investigated. Our objective was to explore microbial community responses in soils conditioned\\u000a by plants of the annual grass Lolium multiflorum with contrasting levels of infection with the endophyte Neotyphodium occultans. At the end of the host growing

  1. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte with the host plant, and also to a better use of microbial endophytes in agriculture. PMID:22675473

  2. Degradation of phenanthrene by the endophytic fungus Ceratobasidum stevensii found in Bischofia polycarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-chao Dai; Lin-shuang Tian; Yu-ting Zhao; Yan Chen; Hui Xie

    2010-01-01

    Some strains of white rot fungi, non-lignolytic fungi and litter-decomposing basidiomycetes have been recognized as PAH degraders.\\u000a The purpose of our research was to enlarge the scope of PAH-degrading fungi and explore the huge endophytic microorganism\\u000a resource for bioremediation of PAHs. In this study, phenanthrene was used as a model PAHs compound. Nine strains of endophytic\\u000a fungi isolated from four

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Morgan, Gaylon D.; Kerns, David L.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides candidates for further evaluation as potential management tools against a variety of pests and diseases when present as endophytes in cotton and other plants. PMID:23776604

  4. Foliar endophytic fungi from Hevea brasiliensis and their antagonism on Microcyclus ulei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson C. S. Rocha; Dominique Garcia; Ana P. T. Uetanabaro; Rita T. O. Carneiro; Isabela S. Araújo; Carlos R. R. Mattos; Aristóteles Góes-Neto

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants as symbionts for at least one period of their life cycle. They play an important role\\u000a in plant defence and could be promising sources of valuable natural bioactive products. The present study aimed to select\\u000a endophytic fungi antagonistic to Microcyclus ulei, the agent of South American Leaf Blight (SALB) responsible for the weak development of

  5. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with ?-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate, Enterobacter asburiae, was able to exit the root and colonize the rhizosphere. Conservation and diversity in Zea-microbe relationships are discussed in the context of ecology, crop domestication, selection and migration. PMID:21673982

  6. Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

  7. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with ?-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate, Enterobacter asburiae, was able to exit the root and colonize the rhizosphere. Conservation and diversity in Zea-microbe relationships are discussed in the context of ecology, crop domestication, selection and migration. PMID:21673982

  8. Endophytic Bacterial Communities in Ginseng and their Antifungal Activity Against Pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kye Man Cho; Su Young Hong; Sun Mi Lee; Yong Hee Kim; Goon Gjung Kahng; Yong Pyo Lim; Hoon Kim; Han Dae Yun

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots are associated with diverse communities of endophytic bacteria which do not exert adverse effects. The diversity\\u000a of bacterial endophytes associated with ginseng roots cultivated in three different areas in Korea was investigated. Sixty-three\\u000a colonies were isolated from the interior of ginseng roots. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that\\u000a the isolates belonged to three major

  9. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIELE DAFFONCHIO; SARA BORIN; GIUSEPPE FROVA; ROMINA GALLO; ELENA MORI; RENATO FANI; CLAUDIA SORLINI

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B.

  10. Shifts in Symbiotic Endophyte Communities of a Foundational Salt Marsh Grass following Oil Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Kandalepas, Demetra; Blum, Michael J; Van Bael, Sunshine A

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic associations can be disrupted by disturbance or by changing environmental conditions. Endophytes are fungal and bacterial symbionts of plants that can affect performance. As in more widely known symbioses, acute or chronic stressor exposure might trigger disassociation of endophytes from host plants. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of oil exposure following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on endophyte diversity and abundance in Spartina alterniflora - the foundational plant in northern Gulf coast salt marshes affected by the spill. We compared bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from plants in reference areas to isolates from plants collected in areas with residual oil that has persisted for more than three years after the DWH spill. DNA sequence-based estimates showed that oil exposure shifted endophyte diversity and community structure. Plants from oiled areas exhibited near total loss of leaf fungal endophytes. Root fungal endophytes exhibited a more modest decline and little change was observed in endophytic bacterial diversity or abundance, though a shift towards hydrocarbon metabolizers was found in plants from oiled sites. These results show that plant-endophyte symbioses can be disrupted by stressor exposure, and indicate that symbiont community disassembly in marsh plants is an enduring outcome of the DWH spill. PMID:25923203

  11. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica. PMID:23350605

  12. Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the ‘assembly rules’ concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant–fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe–microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host–fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal–fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies. PMID:25567944

  13. Aboveground endophyte affects root volatile emission and host plant selection of a belowground insect.

    PubMed

    Rostás, Michael; Cripps, Michael G; Silcock, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Plants emit specific blends of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that serve as multitrophic, multifunctional signals. Fungi colonizing aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) plant structures can modify VOC patterns, thereby altering the information content for AG insects. Whether AG microbes affect the emission of root volatiles and thus influence soil insect behaviour is unknown. The endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum colonizes the aerial parts of the grass hybrid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne and is responsible for the presence of insect-toxic loline alkaloids in shoots and roots. We investigated whether endophyte symbiosis had an effect on the volatile emission of grass roots and if the root herbivore Costelytra zealandica was able to recognize endophyte-infected plants by olfaction. In BG olfactometer assays, larvae of C. zealandica were more strongly attracted to roots of uninfected than endophyte-harbouring grasses. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry revealed that endophyte-infected roots emitted less VOCs and more CO2. Our results demonstrate that symbiotic fungi in plants may influence soil insect distribution by changing their behaviour towards root volatiles. The well-known defensive mutualism between grasses and Neotyphodium endophytes could thus go beyond bioactive alkaloids and also confer protection by being chemically less apparent for soil herbivores. PMID:25284612

  14. Effect of endophytic fungi on cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation by Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Hajabbasi, Mohammad A; Afyuni, Majid; Mirlohi, Aghafakhr; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E

    2010-08-01

    Endophytic fungi are a group of fungi that live asymptomatically inside plant tissue. These fungi may increase host plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The effect of Neotyphodium endophytes in two grass species (Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis) on cadmium (Cd) tolerance, accumulation and translocation has been our main objective. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system under different Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) for 6 weeks. They were also grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg(-1)) for 2 months. The results from all Cd treatments showed higher biomass production (12-24%) and higher potential to accumulate Cd in roots (6-16%) and shoots (6-20%) of endophyte-infected plants than endophyte-free plants. Cadmium accumulation by plants indicated that the grasses were capable of Cd hyperaccumulation, a property that was augmented after endophyte infection. Maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) revealed that Cd stress was significantly reduced in endophyte-infected plants compared to non-infected ones. PMID:21166279

  15. Anti-insect secondary metabolites from fungal endophytes of conifer trees.

    PubMed

    Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2009-11-01

    Choristoneura fumiferana is the most economically-important insect pest in eastern North America. Historically, strategies to control epidemics have relied on chemical pesticides that are no longer approved for use. The presence of fungal endophytes in cool area grass species and their role in reducing the impact of herbivorous insects is well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that foliar endophytes of conifers also produce anti-insect toxins. Field and nursery studies testing trees infected with the rugulosin producing endophyte Phialocephala scopiformis reduced the growth and development of C. fumiferana. The study of foliar endophytes from a variety of conifers including: Picea mariana, P. rubens and P. glauca as well as Abies balsamea and Larix laricina for the discovery of other anti-insect toxins are discussed. These endophytes are horizontally transmitted thus they are not present in nursery seedlings. Inoculating seedlings with toxigenic endophyte strains has been demonstrated to be effective in providing the tree with tolerance to herbivorous insects. PMID:19967982

  16. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and ?-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  17. Diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in poplar grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Kristina; Ulrich, Andreas; Ewald, Dietrich

    2008-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes may be important for plant health and other ecologically relevant functions of poplar trees. The composition of endophytic bacteria colonizing the aerial parts of poplar was studied using a multiphasic approach. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated the impact of different hybrid poplar clones on the endophytic community structure. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria using cultivation methods in combination with cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from plant tissue revealed a high phylogenetic diversity of endophytic bacteria with a total of 53 taxa at the genus level that included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The community structure displayed clear differences in terms of the presence and relative proportions of bacterial taxa between the four poplar clones studied. The results showed that the genetic background of the hybrid poplar clones corresponded well with the endophytic community structure. Out of the 513 isolates and 209 clones identified, Actinobacteria, in particular the family Microbacteriaceae, made up the largest fraction of the isolates, whereas the clone library was dominated by Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. The most abundant genera among the isolates were Pseudomonas and Curtobacterium, while Sphingomonas prevailed among the clones. PMID:18199082

  18. The Diversity of Anti-Microbial Secondary Metabolites Produced by Fungal Endophytes: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Raizada, Manish N.

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit host plants without causing disease and are reported to be reservoirs of metabolites that combat microbes and other pathogens. Here we review diverse classes of secondary metabolites, focusing on anti-microbial compounds, synthesized by fungal endophytes including terpenoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, aliphatic compounds, polyketides, and peptides from the interdisciplinary perspectives of biochemistry, genetics, fungal biology, host plant biology, human and plant pathology. Several trends were apparent. First, host plants are often investigated for endophytes when there is prior indigenous knowledge concerning human medicinal uses (e.g., Chinese herbs). However, within their native ecosystems, and where investigated, endophytes were shown to produce compounds that target pathogens of the host plant. In a few examples, both fungal endophytes and their hosts were reported to produce the same compounds. Terpenoids and polyketides are the most purified anti-microbial secondary metabolites from endophytes, while flavonoids and lignans are rare. Examples are provided where fungal genes encoding anti-microbial compounds are clustered on chromosomes. As different genera of fungi can produce the same metabolite, genetic clustering may facilitate sharing of anti-microbial secondary metabolites between fungi. We discuss gaps in the literature and how more interdisciplinary research may lead to new opportunities to develop bio-based commercial products to combat global crop and human pathogens. PMID:23543048

  19. Genome differences that distinguish bacillus anthracis from bacillus cereus and bacillus thuringiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyndsay Radnedge; Peter G. Agron; Karen K. Hill; Paul J. Jackson; Lawrence O. Tickner; Paul Neim; Gary L. Andersen

    2003-01-01

    The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic

  20. Genome differences that distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Radnedge, Lyndsay; Agron, Peter G; Hill, Karen K; Jackson, Paul J; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Keim, Paul; Andersen, Gary L

    2003-05-01

    The three species of the group 1 bacilli, Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, are genetically very closely related. All inhabit soil habitats but exhibit different phenotypes. B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is phylogenetically monomorphic, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis are genetically more diverse. An amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis described here demonstrates genetic diversity among a collection of non-anthrax-causing Bacillus species, some of which show significant similarity to B. anthracis. Suppression subtractive hybridization was then used to characterize the genomic differences that distinguish three of the non-anthrax-causing bacilli from B. anthracis Ames. Ninety-three DNA sequences that were present in B. anthracis but absent from the non-anthrax-causing Bacillus genomes were isolated. Furthermore, 28 of these sequences were not found in a collection of 10 non-anthrax-causing Bacillus species but were present in all members of a representative collection of B. anthracis strains. These sequences map to distinct loci on the B. anthracis genome and can be assayed simultaneously in multiplex PCR assays for rapid and highly specific DNA-based detection of B. anthracis. PMID:12732546

  1. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  2. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danil Dobrynin; Gregory Fridman; Yurii V. Mukhin; Meghan A. Wynosky-Dolfi; Judy Rieger; Richard F. Rest; Alexander F. Gutsol; Alexander Fridman

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus spores represent one of the most resistant organisms to conventional sterilization methods. This paper is focused on the inactivation of the spores of two Bacillus species, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, using atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma. Spores treated in liquid or air-dried on a solid surface were effectively inactivated within 1 min of DBD plasma treatment at a discharge

  3. Molecular identification of alkaliphilic and halotolerant strain Bacillus sp. FTU as Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Muntyan; Tatiana P. Tourova; Anatolij M. Lysenko; Tatiana V. Kolganova; Dagmar Fritze; Vladimir P. Skulachev

    2002-01-01

    The systematic position of the alkaliphilic and halotolerant strain Bacillus sp. FTU was refined in view of the comprehensive taxonomic revision of the group of alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant Bacillus strains. Sequence analysis of almost the entire 16S rRNA gene of Bacillus sp. FTU revealed 99.8% homology with two Bacillus pseudofirmus strains. Subsequent DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed the close relationship of

  4. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  5. Bacillus salexigens sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Garabito, M J; Arahal, D R; Mellado, E; Márquez, M C; Ventosa, A

    1997-07-01

    Bacillus salexigens sp. nov. is proposed based on the characteristics of six moderately halophilic, grampositive, rod-shaped strains isolated from salterns and hypersaline soils located in different geographical areas of Spain. These strains were motile, formed endospores, were strictly aerobic, were catalase and oxidase positive, and contained peptidoglycan of the meso-diamlnopimelic acid type in their vegetative cell walls. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 36.3 to 39.5 mol%, and these organisms constitute a homology group with levels of DNA-DNA homology ranging from 73 to 100%. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain C-20MoT, which was used as the representative strain of these isolates, groups with the 16S rRNA sequences of members of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of similarity is 95.4%. The type strain is strain C-20Mo (= ATCC 700290 = DSM 11483 = CCM 4646). PMID:9226905

  6. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis Encoding Proteins of the Exosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Todd; Arthur J. G. Moir; Matt J. Johnson; Anne Moir

    2003-01-01

    Received 4 December 2002\\/Accepted 12 March 2003 The exosporium is the outermost layer of spores of Bacillus cereus and its close relatives Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. For these pathogens, it represents the surface layer that makes initial contact with the host. To date, only the BclA glycoprotein has been described as a component of the exosporium; this paper defines

  7. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Ivanova; Alexei Sorokin; Iain Anderson; Nathalie Galleron; Benjamin Candelon; Vinayak Kapatral; Anamitra Bhattacharyya; Gary Reznik; Natalia Mikhailova; Alla Lapidus; Lien Chu; Michael Mazur; Eugene Goltsman; Niels Larsen; Mark D'Souza; Theresa Walunas; Yuri Grechkin; Gordon Pusch; Robert Haselkorn; Michael Fonstein; S. Dusko Ehrlich; Ross Overbeek; Nikos Kyrpides

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the

  8. Haemodynamics of lambs grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) either infected with AR6 novel wild-type endophyte or not infected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coopworth ewe lambs were randomly assigned to 3, 0.10-ha pastures of ‘Extreme’ perennial ryegrass that were infected with the AR6 novel endophyte (AR6; n=5), infected with the wild-type endophyte (WT; n=6), or was endophyte-free (Nil; n=5). Lambs were conditioned to the pastures from 25 Feb. to 16 ...

  9. Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus from different pines and areas; and B. xylophilus strains with different virulence possessed various endophytic bacteria and diverse carbon metabolism which suggested that the endophytic bacteria species and carbon metabolism might be related with the B. xylophilus virulence. PMID:23289015

  10. Diversity and Communities of Foliar Endophytic Fungi from Different Agroecosystems of Coffea arabica L. in Two Regions of Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo-García, Aurora; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.; González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biodiversity associated with shaded coffee plantations and the role of diverse agroforestry types in biodiversity conservation and environmental services have been topics of debate. Endophytic fungi, which are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues in an asymptomatic manner, form a part of the biodiversity associated with coffee plants. Studies on the endophytic fungi communities of cultivable host plants have shown variability among farming regions; however, the variability in fungal endophytic communities of coffee plants among different coffee agroforestry systems is still poorly understood. As such, we analyzed the diversity and communities of foliar endophytic fungi inhabiting Coffea arabica plants growing in the rustic plantations and simple polycultures of two regions in the center of Veracruz, Mexico. The endophytic fungi isolates were identified by their morphological traits, and the majority of identified species correspond to species of fungi previously reported as endophytes of coffee leaves. We analyzed and compared the colonization rates, diversity, and communities of endophytes found in the different agroforestry systems and in the different regions. Although the endophytic diversity was not fully recovered, we found differences in the abundance and diversity of endophytes among the coffee regions and differences in richness between the two different agroforestry systems of each region. No consistent pattern of community similarity was found between the coffee agroforestry systems, but we found that rustic plantations shared the highest number of morphospecies. The results suggest that endophyte abundance, richness, diversity, and communities may be influenced predominantly by coffee region, and to a lesser extent, by the agroforestry system. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the relationships between agroforestry systems and biodiversity conservation and provide information regarding some endophytic fungi and their communities as potential management tools against coffee plant pests and pathogens. PMID:24887512

  11. Endophytic and epiphytic microbes as “sources” of bioactive agents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R) production by an endophytic fungus (Stierle et al., 1993), it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified. They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate “dance” between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants, and marine invertebrates.

  12. Current perspectives on the volatile-producing fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Zhi-Lin, Yuan; Yi-Cun, Chen; Bai-Ge, Xu; Chu-Long, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Microbial-derived volatiles are ubiquitous in the environment and actively engaged in bio-communication with other organisms. Recently, some volatile-producing endophytes (VPEs), cryptic fungal symbionts persisting in healthy plant tissues, have attracted great attention due to their strong antibiotic activity or production of carbon chains that are identical to many of those found in petroleum, while other fragrant volatiles can be used in the flavoring industries. From an application-oriented and biotechnological point of view, these findings show significant promise for sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, and industry, especially in the control of fruit postharvest diseases, soil-borne pathogen management, and bio-fuel production. In comparison, the ecological importance of VPEs has only rarely been addressed and warrants further exploration. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and future directions in this fascinating research field, and also highlight the constraints and progresses towards commercialization of VPEs products. PMID:22458418

  13. Bacterial endophyte-mediated naphthalene phytoprotection and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Germaine, Kieran J; Keogh, Elaine; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2009-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major and recalcitrant pollutants of the environment and their removal presents a significant problem. Phytoremediation has shown much promise in PAH removal from contaminated soil, but may be inhibited because the plant experiences phytotoxic effects from low-molecular-weight PAHs such as naphthalene. This paper describes the construction of a naphthalene-degrading endophytic strain designated Pseudomonas putida VM1441(pNAH7). This strain was found to be an efficient colonizer of plants, colonizing both the rhizosphere and interior root tissues. The inoculation of plants with P. putida VM1441(pNAH7) resulted in the protection of the host plant from the phytotoxic effects of naphthalene. When inoculated plants were exposed to naphthalene, both seed germination and plant transpiration rates were higher than those of the uninoculated controls. The inoculation of plants with this strain also facilitated higher (40%) naphthalene degradation rates compared with uninoculated plants in artificially contaminated soil. PMID:19459954

  14. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells. PMID:25973482

  15. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Ellen A. Spotts; Beatty, Mark E.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Weyant, Robbin; Sobel, Jeremy; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    After the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal Service in the fall of 2001, many environments were contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and frequent inquiries were made regarding the science of destroying these spores. We conducted a survey of the literature that had potential application to the inactivation of B. anthracis spores. This article provides a tabular summary of the results. PMID:12780999

  16. Chloramine Mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Lu Shih; Joshua Lederberg

    1976-01-01

    Chloramine (which occurs widely as a by-product of sanitary chlorination of water supplies) is shown to be a weak mutagen, when reversion of trpC to trp+ in Bacillus subtilis is used as an assay. Some DNA-repair mutants appear to be more sensitive to chloramine, suggesting the involvement of DNA targets in bactericide. The influence of plating media on survival of

  17. Energy conservation in Bacillus megaterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Downs; Colin W. Jones

    1975-01-01

    1.The respiratory chain energy conservation systems of Bacillus megaterium strains D440 and M have been investigated following growth in batch and continuous culture. Respiratory membranes from these strains contained cytochromes b, aa3, o and b, c, a, o, respectively; both readily oxidised NADH but neither showed any pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity.2.Whole cells of both strains exhibited endogenous ?H-\\/O ratios of

  18. An extracellular glucoamylase produced by endophytic fungus EF6.

    PubMed

    Tangngamsakul, P; Karnchanatat, A; Sihanonth, P; Sangvanich, P

    2011-01-01

    A strain of endophytic fungus EF6 isolated from Thai medicinal plants was found to produce higher levels of extracellular glucoamylase. This strain produced glucoamylase of culture filtrate when grown on 1% soluble starch. The enzyme was purified and characterized. Purification steps involved (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Final purification fold was 14.49 and the yield obtained was 9.15%. The enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 62.2 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and with a molecular mass of 62.031 kDa estimated by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The temperature for maximum activity was 60 degrees C. After 30 min for incubation, glucoamylase was found to be stable lower than 50 degrees C. The activity decrease rapidly when residual activity was retained about 45% at 55 degrees C. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was 6.0, and it was stable over a pH range of 4.0-7.0 at 50 degrees C. The activity of glucoamylase was stimulated by Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, glycerol, DMSO, DTT and EDTA, and strongly inhibited by Hg2+. Various types of starch were test, soluble starch proved to be the best substrate for digestion process. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of soluble starch and maltose as the substrate, the enzyme had Km values of 2.63, and 1.88 mg/ml and Vmax, values of 1.25, and 2.54 U/min/mg protein, and Vmax/Km values of 0.48 and 1.35, respectively. The internal amino acid sequences of endophytic fungus EF6 glucoamylase; RALAN HKQVV DSFRS have similarity to the sequence of the glucoamylase purified form Thermomyces lanuginosus. From all results indicated that this enzyme is a glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase). PMID:21950121

  19. Endophytic fungi: novel sources of anticancer lead molecules.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is a major killer disease all over the world and more than six million new cases are reported every year. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic compounds, as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. These include vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, and taxol. Production of a plant-based natural drug is always not up to the desired level. It is produced at a specific developmental stage or under specific environmental condition, stress, or nutrient availability; the plants may be very slow growing taking several years to attain a suitable growth phase for product accumulation and extraction. Considering the limitations associated with the productivity and vulnerability of plant species as sources of novel metabolites, microorganisms serve as the ultimate, readily renewable, and inexhaustible source of novel structures bearing pharmaceutical potential. Endophytes, the microorganisms that reside in the tissues of living plants, are relatively unstudied and offer potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry. They develop special mechanisms to penetrate inside the host tissue, residing in mutualistic association and their biotransformation abilities opens a new platform for synthesis of novel secondary metabolites. They produce metabolites to compete with the epiphytes and also with the plant pathogens to maintain a critical balance between fungal virulence and plant defense. It is therefore necessary that the relationship between the plants and endophytes during the accumulation of these secondary metabolites is studied. Insights from such research would provide alternative methods of natural product drug discovery which could be reliable, economical, and environmentally safe. PMID:22622838

  20. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    PubMed

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors. PMID:21510220

  1. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  2. Isolation and characterization of endophytic colonizing bacteria from agronomic crops and prairie plants.

    PubMed

    Zinniel, Denise K; Lambrecht, Pat; Harris, N Beth; Feng, Zhengyu; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Higley, Phyllis; Ishimaru, Carol A; Arunakumari, Alahari; Barletta, Raúl G; Vidaver, Anne K

    2002-05-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize their original hosts at 42 days postinoculation at levels of 3.5 to 7.7 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight). More comprehensive colonization studies were conducted with 373 corn and sorghum endophytes. In growth room studies, none of the isolates displayed pathogenicity, and 69 of the strains were recovered from corn or sorghum seedlings at levels of 8.3 log(10) CFU/plant or higher. Host range greenhouse studies demonstrated that 26 of 29 endophytes were recoverable from at least one host other than corn and sorghum at levels of up to 5.8 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight). Long-range dent corn greenhouse studies and field trials with 17 wild-type strains and 14 antibiotic-resistant mutants demonstrated bacterial persistence at significant average colonization levels ranging between 3.4 and 6.1 log(10) CFU/g (fresh weight) up to 78 days postinoculation. Three prairie and three agronomic endophytes exhibiting the most promising levels of colonization and an ability to persist were identified as Cellulomonas, Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, and Microbacterium isolates by 16S rRNA gene sequence, fatty acid, and carbon source utilization analyses. This study defines for the first time the endophytic nature of Microbacterium testaceum. These microorganisms may be useful for biocontrol and other applications. PMID:11976089

  3. Colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of Thrips tabaci.

    PubMed

    Muvea, Alexander M; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals a highly diverse and cultivar-specific bacterial endophyte community in potato roots.

    PubMed

    Manter, Daniel K; Delgado, Jorge A; Holm, David G; Stong, Rachel A

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we examined the bacterial endophyte community of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar/clones using two different molecular-based techniques (bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (B-ARISA) and pyrosequencing). B-ARISA profiles revealed a significant difference in the endophytic community between cultivars (perMANOVA, p < 0.001), and canonical correspondence analysis showed a significant correlation between the community structure and plant biomass (p = 0.001). Pyrosequencing detected, on average, 477 +/- 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity) residing within the roots of each cultivar, with a Chao estimated total OTU richness of 1,265 +/- 313. Across all cultivars, a total of 238 known genera from 15 phyla were identified. Interestingly, five of the ten most common genera (Rheinheimera, Dyadobacter, Devosia, Pedobacter, and Pseudoxanthomonas) have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes of potato. Like the B-ARISA analysis, the endophytic communities differed between cultivar/clones (integral-libshuff, p < 0.001) and exhibited low similarities on both a presence/absence (0.145 +/- 0.019) and abundance (0.420 +/- 0.081) basis. Seventeen OTUs showed a strong positive (r > 0.600) or negative (r < -0.600) correlation with plant biomass, suggesting a possible link between plant production and endophyte abundance. This study represents one of the most comprehensive assessments of the bacterial endophytic communities to date, and similar analyses in other plant species, cultivars, or tissues could be utilized to further elucidate the potential contribution(s) of endophytic communities to plant physiology and production. PMID:20414647

  5. Plant functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness explain variation in associations with root fungal endophytes in an extreme arid environment.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Mónica A; Reinhart, Kurt O; Menoyo, Eugenia; Crespo, Esteban M; Urcelay, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Since root endophytes may ameliorate drought stress, understanding which plants associate with endophytes is important, especially in arid ecosystems. Here, the root endophytes were characterized of 42 plants from an arid region of Argentina. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEs) was related to plant functional type (PFT), family, and phylogenetic relatedness. Overall, three main findings were observed. Firstly, only moderate levels of endophyte associations were found across all taxa (e.g., most Poaceae were not colonized by endophytes despite numerous accounts of colonization by AMF and DSEs). We determined 69% of plant taxa associated with some form of root endophyte but levels were lower than other regional studies. Secondly, comparisons by PFT and phylogeny were often qualitatively similar (e.g., succulents and Portulacineae consistently lacked AMF; variation occurred among terrestrial vs. epiphytic bromeliads) and often differed from comparisons based on plant family. Thirdly, comparisons by plant family often failed to account for important variation either within families (e.g., Bromeliaceae and Poaceae) or trait conservatism among related families (i.e., Rosidae consistently lacked DSEs and Portulacineae lacked AMF). This study indicates the value of comparing numerous taxa based on PFTs and phylogenetic similarity. Overall, the results suggest an uncertain benefit of endophytes in extremely arid environments where plant traits like succulence may obviate the need to establish associations. PMID:24997550

  6. Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophyte in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, however, we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships, host affinity, and geographic structure of boreal and arctic endophytes from three major plant lineages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Lindsay Higgins; A. Elizabeth Arnold; Jolanta Miadlikowska; Snehal D. Sarvate; François Lutzoni

    2007-01-01

    Although associated with all plants, fungal endophytes (microfungi that live within healthy plant tissues) represent an unknown proportion of fungal diversity. While there is a growing appreciation of their ecological importance and human uses, little is known about their host specificity, geographic structure, or phylogenetic relationships. We surveyed endophytic Ascomycota from healthy photosynthetic tissues of three plant species (Huperzia selago,

  8. Does An Asexual Endophyte Symbiont Alter Life Stage and Long-Term Survival in a Perennial Host Grass?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley H. Faeth; Cyd E. Hamilton

    2006-01-01

    Asexual, seedborne endophytic fungi in perennial grasses are often viewed as strong mutualists because fitness of the symbiont and host grass are closely coupled. However, at least for some native grasses, the asexual endophyte, Neotyphodium, acts parasitically, yet remains at high frequencies in natural populations. Most previous studies of Neotyphodium effects on host survival have been short term relative to

  9. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from soybean ( Glycine max ) grown in soil treated with glyphosate herbicide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Júlia Kuklinsky-Sobral; Welington Luiz Araújo; Rodrigo Mendes; Aline Aparecida Pizzirani-Kleiner; João Lúcio Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are ubiquitous in most plant species influencing the host fitness by disease suppression, contaminant degradation, and plant growth promotion. This endophytic bacterial community may be affected by crop management such as the use of chemical compounds. For instance, application of glyphosate herbicide is common mainly due to the use of glyphosate-resistant transgenic plants. In this case, the bacterial

  10. Identification of IAA-producing endophytic bacteria from micropropagated Echinacea plants using 16S rRNA sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lata; X. C. Li; B. Silva; R. M. Moraes; L. Halda-Alija

    2006-01-01

    The presence of latent bacteria is a serious problem in plant tissue cultures. While endophytes are generally beneficial to plants in situ, they may affect culture growth under the modified conditions in vitro. The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize endophytic bacteria associated with the medicinal plant Echinacea in tissue culture. Based on classical microbiological tests and 16S

  11. Genome Survey and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Exhibiting a Beneficial Effect on Growth and Development of Poplar Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Safiyh Taghavi; Craig Garafola; Sebastien Monchy; Lee Newman; Adam Hoffman; Nele Weyens; Tanja Barac; Jaco Vangronsveld; Daniel van der Lelie

    2009-01-01

    The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the

  12. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can influence the outcome of grass–insect interactions. For example, the expression of endophyte-mediated resistance to insects depends on the insect species involved. The behavior...

  13. A mutualistic interaction between a fungivorous nematode and a fungus within the endophytic community of Bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its invaded range in western North America, Bromus tectorum can host more than 100 sequence-based phylotypes of endophytic fungi of which an individual cheatgrass plant hosts a subset. In general, research suggests that recruitment of a particular subset of endophytes by an individual plant will...

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain SST3, an Endophyte Isolated from Jamaican Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) Stalk Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E.; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J.; Savka, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter. PMID:23045495

  15. Assessing short-term responses of prokaryotic communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils to tall fescue endophyte infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In contrast to endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue, endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue pastures appear to enhance soil carbon sequestration. A hypothetical mechanism that may account for the enhanced carbon sequestration is that the E+ tall fescue affects the soil microbial community or components of ...

  16. Is the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium lolii in perennial ryegrass the only possible way to the spread of endophytes?

    PubMed

    Wiewióra, Barbara; ?urek, Grzegorz; Pa?ka, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live their whole life within host tissues usually without any visible symptoms. Their vertical transmission (seed-plant-seed) has been well described and documented. However, horizontal transmission (plant-plant) needs more clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which endophytes move vertically in ecotypes of perennial ryegrass and whether there is evidence for the horizontal transmission of endophytes. Ecotypes from grasslands in Poland were collected in the form of living plants and used for vertical transmission analysis. Plants, the seed collected from these plants and plants grown from this collected seed were tested for endophytic infection. Provided that all produced seeds were viable and able to germinate and produce seedlings, the vertical transmission of Neotyphodium endophytes in perennial ryegrass ecotypes was nearly complete. For the horizontal transmission experiment, endophyte-hosting plants (E+) and endophyte-free plants (E-) of four cultivars were planted in the field in close proximity on small plots that were frequently mown. These studies revealed that after 7 months of growth next to E+ plants, the characteristic Neotyphodium spp. mycelia were found in E- plants, which was especially true for plants growing in close proximity to the infected plants. The occurrence of horizontal transmission of endophytes has not been previously demonstrated. PMID:25680199

  17. Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 35191 from coffee, a non-toxigenic endophyte with the ability to synthesize kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus oryzae was isolated as an endophyte from coffee leaves and found to produce kojic acid in culture. When inoculated in cacao seedlings (Theobroma cacao L.), A. oryzae grew endophytically and synthesize kojic acid in planta. Cacao seedlings inoculated with A. oryzae produced higher levels...

  18. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karen K; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Okinaka, Richard T; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E; Richardson, Amber P; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J; Kemp, John D; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C Lee; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J

    2004-02-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together. PMID:14766590

  19. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications. PMID:16924932

  20. Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Han, Cliff S; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F; Altherr, Michael R; Bhotika, Smriti S; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S; Campbell, Mary L; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A; Fawcett, John J; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A; Green, Lance D; Hill, Karen K; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A Christine; Okinaka, Richard T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, Lee Philip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Wills, Patti L; Brettin, Thomas S; Gilna, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:16621833

  1. Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthetic Genes and Products, and Inhibitory Activity of Plant-Associated Bacillus against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mora, Isabel; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP) biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin), bmyB (bacillomycin), fenD (fengycin) and srfAA (surfactin), and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates). Most isolates (98.4%) produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the production of antimicrobial cLPs. PMID:26024374

  2. Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthetic Genes and Products, and Inhibitory Activity of Plant-Associated Bacillus against Phytopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Isabel; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP) biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin), bmyB (bacillomycin), fenD (fengycin) and srfAA (surfactin), and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates). Most isolates (98.4%) produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the production of antimicrobial cLPs. PMID:26024374

  3. Cow and calf performance while grazing tall fescue pastures with either wild-type toxic endophyte or a non-toxic novel endophyte.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant (E+). Our objectives were to compare performance by spring-calving cows grazing E+ t...

  4. Cow and Calf Performance While Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant. Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred cows (n = 52; 1,023 lb initial BW) were allocated random...

  5. Endophytic Penicillium funiculosum LHL06 secretes gibberellin that reprograms Glycine max L. growth during copper stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollution in crop fields is one of the major issues in sustainable agriculture production. To improve crop growth and reduce the toxic effects of metals is an ideal strategy. Understanding the resilience of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi associated with crop plants in metal contaminated agriculture fields could be an important step towards reducing agrochemical pollutions. In present study, it was aimed to screen and identify metal resistant endophyte and elucidate its role in rescuing crop plant growth and metabolism during metal stress. Results Fungal endophyte, Penicillium funiculosum LHL06, was identified to possess higher growth rate in copper (Cu) and cadmium contaminated mediums as compared to other endophytes (Metarhizium anisopliae, Promicromonospora sp. and Exophiala sp.). P. funiculosum had high biosorption potential toward copper as compared to cadmium. An endophyte-metal-plant interaction was assessed by inoculating the host Glycine max L. plants with P. funiculosum during Cu (100??M) stress. The Cu application adversely affected the biomass, chlorophyll and total protein content of non-inoculated control plants. The control plants unable to synthesis high carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen because the roots had lower access to phosphorous, potassium, sulphur and calcium during Cu treatment. Conversely, P. funiculosum-association significantly increased the plant biomass, root physiology and nutrients uptake to support higher carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen assimilation in shoot. The metal-removal potential of endophyte-inoculated plants was significantly higher than control as the endophyte-association mediated the Cu uptake via roots into shoots. The symbiosis rescued the host-plant growth by minimizing Cu-induced electrolytic leakage and lipid peroxidation while increasing reduces glutathione activities to avoid oxidative stress. P. funiculosum-association synthesized higher quantities of proline and glutamate as compared to control. Stress-responsive abscisic acid was significantly down-regulated in the plant-metal-microbe association. Conclusion The endophyte P. funiculosum symbiosis counteracted the Cu stress and reprogrammed soybean plant growth. Such growth promoting and stress mediating endophytes can be applied at field levels to help in bioremediation of the polluted agricultural fields. PMID:23721090

  6. Production, purification and characterization of Bacillus lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanaa A. El-Shafei; Layla A. Rezkallah

    1997-01-01

    The lipolytic activities in the supernatant fractions of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus coagulans cultures were investigated. Aeration, agitation, different media, emulsified oils, inoculum size and phase of growth affected lipase production. Aeration was essential for lipase production (air : medium ratio 4:1) and produced the highest activity.The lipolytic activity reached a maximum level after incubation for two days with continuous

  7. Age-specific response of the grass Puccinellia distans to the presence of a fungal endophyte.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, Pawe?; Lembicz, Marlena

    2007-06-01

    Asexual fungal endophytes, which do not produce reproductive structures, spread in host populations only vertically via the propagules of their hosts. With such a close relationship between the fitness of the asexual endophyte and that of the host, the relationship is traditionally thought to be mutualistic. Here we present data showing that the positive effect of asexual endophytes may concern only a short period of the host's life and that its lifetime reproductive success may be reduced. We followed 180 individuals of a perennial grass, Puccinellia distans, for the first 3 years of their growth both in the field and in a common garden experiment. In the first 2 years, infected individuals produced more generative shoots with longer inflorescences. Three-year-old individuals produced significantly fewer generative shoots with shorter inflorescences when infected with the fungus Epichloë typhina. Moreover, the dry mass of above- and belowground parts after three seasons was significantly lower in infected individuals. We suggest that if the endophyte retains control over plant reproduction and if shorter generation time is more crucial for the fungus than for the perennial host, then the fungus should stimulate plant reproduction early in life even though infection incurs a future cost. This reasoning suggests that discovering an endophyte's beneficial effect on its perennial host in one season provides insufficient grounds for concluding that a mutualistic relationship exists. PMID:17295020

  8. Indole-3-acetic acid production by endophytic Streptomyces sp. En-1 isolated from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Xu, Xudong

    2013-08-01

    Plant-associated actinobacteria are rich sources of bioactive compounds including indole-derived molecules such as phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In view of few investigations concerning the biosynthesis of IAA by endophytic actinobacteria, this study evaluated the potential of IAA production in endophytic streptomycete isolates sourced from medicinal plant species Taxus chinensis and Artemisia annua. By HPLC analysis of IAA combined with molecular screening approach of iaaM, a genetic determinant of streptomycete IAA synthesis via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), our data showed the putative operation of IAM-mediated IAA biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. En-1 endophytic to Taxus chinensis. Furthermore, using the co-cultivation system of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and streptomycete, En-1 was found to be colonized intercellularly in the tissues of Arabidopsis, an alternative host, and the effects of endophytic En-1 inoculation on the model plant were also assayed. The phytostimulatory effects of En-1 inoculation suggest that IAA-producing Streptomyces sp. En-1 of endophytic origin could be a promising candidate for utilization in growth improvement of plants of economic and agricultural value. PMID:23512121

  9. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

  10. Plant-Influenced Gene Expression in the Rice Endophyte Burkholderia kururiensis M130.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Bruna G; Licastro, Danilo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Cámara, Miguel; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia kururiensis M130 is one of the few rice endophytic diazotrophic bacteria identified thus far which is able to enhance growth of rice. To date, very little is known of how strain M130 and other endophytes enter and colonize plants. Here, we identified genes of strain M130 that are differentially regulated in the presence of rice plant extract. A genetic screening of a promoter probe transposon mutant genome bank and RNAseq analysis were performed. The screening of 10,100 insertions of the genomic transposon reporter library resulted in the isolation of 61 insertions displaying differential expression in response to rice macerate. The RNAseq results validated this screen and indicated that this endophytic bacterium undergoes major changes in the presence of plant extract regulating 27.7% of its open reading frames. A large number of differentially expressed genes encode membrane transporters and secretion systems, indicating that the exchange of molecules is an important aspect of bacterial endophytic growth. Genes related to motility, chemotaxis, and adhesion were also overrepresented, further suggesting plant-bacteria interaction. This work highlights the potential close signaling taking place between plants and bacteria and helps us to begin to understand the adaptation of an endophyte in planta. PMID:25494355

  11. Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Jing Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured bacteria. In Proteobacteria, the beta and gamma subgroups were the most abundant, accounting for approximately 46% and 36.6% of all Proteobacteria, respectively. The dominant genera included Rhodoferax, Pelomonas, Uliginosibacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Rhizobium, Sulfurospirillum, Ilyobacter and Bacteroides. While some of these endophytic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and can therefore improve plant growth, other endophytes may play important biological roles by removing nitrogen, phosphorus and/or organic matter from the water body and thus have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation of eutrophic water bodies. These bacteria have the potential to degrade xenobiota such as methane, methanol, methylated amines, catechol, oxochlorate, urea, cyanide, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Hence, the use of certain endophytic bacteria in the process of phytoremediation could be a powerful approach for the restoration of eutrophic systems. PMID:21111814

  12. Investigation of the Biosynthetic Potential of Endophytes in Traditional Chinese Anticancer Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristin I.; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man Yuen; Neilan, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies. PMID:22629306

  13. Characterization of secondary metabolites of an endophytic fungus from Curcuma wenyujin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jvfen; Qi, Ningbo; Wang, Suping; Gadhave, Kiran; Yang, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and they produce a variety of secondary metabolites to protect plant communities and to show some potential for human use. However, secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi in the medicinal plant Curcuma wenyujin are sparsely explored and characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the secondary metabolites of an active endophytic fungus. M7226, the mutant counterpart of endophytic fungus EZG0807 previously isolated from the root of C. wenyujin, was as a target strain. After fermentation, the secondary metabolites were purified using a series of purification methods including thin layer chromatography, column chromatography with silica, ODS-C18, Sephadex LH-20, and macroporous resin, and were analyzed using multiple pieces of data (UV, IR, MS, and NMR). Five compounds were isolated and identified as curcumin, cinnamic acid, 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, gibberellic acid, and kaempferol. Interestingly, curcumin, one of the main active ingredients of C. wenyujin, was isolated as a secondary metabolite from a fungal endophyte for the first time. PMID:25002358

  14. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated. Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method. Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 ?g/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 ?g/ml and 0.02 ?g/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts. Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora. PMID:19930582

  15. Is L-arabinose important for the endophytic lifestyle of Pseudomonas spp.?

    PubMed

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Chebotar, Vladimir; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized stems and roots of cucumber plants. After removal of potential siblings and human pathogens, the remaining seven strains were identified based on their 16S rDNA as Pseudomonas fluorescens (2 strains) and P. putida (5 strains). Three strains, namely P. fluorescens CS1, P. fluorescens CR2 and P. putida CR3, were able to suppress tomato foot and root rot (TFRR). Special attention was paid to the characterization of the BIOLOG carbon oxidation profiles of the isolated pseudomonads in order to identify nutrients which might be important for their endophytic lifestyle. Comparative analysis of the profiles of these seven strains with those of seven rhizospheric Pseudomonas spp. revealed that endophytes were able to oxidize L-arabinose and 2,3-butanediol significantly more often than the rhizospheric group. An independent growth experiment performed in tubes using L-arabinose and 2,3-butanediol as sole carbon sources showed the same results as seen using BIOLOG for L-arabinose, but not for 2,3-butanediol. Since L-arabinose is one of the most abundant sugars in xylem of cucumber plants and was not detected in their rhizosphere, our data suggest that utilization of L-arabinose might be a trait contributing to the endophytic lifestyle of the isolated Pseudomonas endophytes. PMID:22955346

  16. DNA-based stable isotope probing enables the identification of active bacterial endophytes in potatoes.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Frank; Lueders, Tillmann; Schloter, Michael; Schaefer, Sabine; Buegger, Franz; Gattinger, Andreas; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca C; Sessitsch, Angela

    2009-03-01

    A (13)CO2 (99 atom-%, 350 ppm) incubation experiment was performed to identify active bacterial endophytes in two cultivars of Solanum tuberosum, cultivars Desirée and Merkur. We showed that after the assimilation and photosynthetic transformation of (13)CO2 into (13)C-labeled metabolites by the plant, the most directly active, cultivar specific heterotrophic endophytic bacteria that consume these labeled metabolite scan be identified by DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP).Density-resolved DNA fractions obtained from SIP were subjected to 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of generated gene libraries.Community profiling revealed community compositions that were dominated by plant chloroplast and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes for the 'light' fractions of (13)CO2-incubated potato cultivars and of potato cultivars not incubated with (13)CO2. In the 'heavy' fractions of the (13)CO2-incubated endophyte DNA, a bacterial 492-bp terminal restriction fragment became abundant, which could be clearly identified as Acinetobacter and Acidovorax spp. in cultivars Merkur and Desirée,respectively, indicating cultivar-dependent distinctions in (13)C-label flow. These two species represent two common potato endophytes with known plant-beneficial activities.The approach demonstrated the successful detection of active bacterial endophytes in potato. DNA-SIP therefore offers new opportunities for exploring the complex nature of plant-microbe interactions and plant-dependent microbial metabolisms within the endosphere. PMID:19140937

  17. Isolation of an endophytic fungus producing baccatin III from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Li, Meng; Guifang, Xu; Xiuren, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi producing baccatin III from yew for the purpose of baccatin III and paclitaxel manufacture. Surface sterilized bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was used as source material with potato dextrose agar culture medium for isolation of endophytic fungi. Fungal cultures were extracted with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v) and the baccatin III in the extracts was determined and authenticated with LC-MS. An endophytic fungus that produced baccatin III was identified by ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. A total of 192 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from T. wallichiana var. mairei. Only one of the 192 strains produced baccatin III and it was identified as Diaporthe phaseolorum. The productivity of this strain cultured in PDA culture medium was 0.219 mg/l. The isolated endophytic fungus produced baccatin III at a relatively high level and shows promise as a producing strain for baccatin III and paclitaxel manufacture after strain improvement. PMID:23958913

  18. Response of endophytic bacterial communities in potato plants to infection with Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Birgit; Pfeifer, Ulrike; Schwab, Helmut; Sessitsch, Angela

    2002-05-01

    The term endophyte refers to interior colonization of plants by microorganisms that do not have pathogenic effects on their hosts, and various endophytes have been found to play important roles in plant vitality. In this study, cultivation-independent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA was used in combination with molecular characterization of isolates to examine the influence of plant stress, achieved by infection with the blackleg pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, on the endophytic population in two different potato varieties. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in infected plants compared to that in control plants. The results also indicated that the pathogen stress had a greater impact on the bacteria population than the plant genotype had. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of isolated endophytes revealed a broad phylogenetic spectrum of bacteria, including members of the alpha, beta, and gamma subgroups of the Proteobacteria, high- and low-G+C-content gram-positive organisms, and microbes belonging to the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides group. Screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed that 38% of the endophytes protected tissue culture plants from blackleg disease. PMID:11976096

  19. Isolation and characterization of endophytic huperzine A-producing fungi from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Zeng, Qing Gui; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Wang, Ling Yun; Zhu, Du

    2011-09-01

    Huperzia serrata is a producer of huperzine A (HupA), a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI). Over 120 endophytic fungi were recovered from this plant and screened for Hup-A and nine were found. These nine represented seven different fungal genera with the most significant producer being Shiraia sp. A total of 127 endophytic fungi isolates obtained from the root, stem, and leaf segments of H. serrata were grouped into 19 genera based on their morphological traits and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), indicating endophytic fungi in H. serrata are diverse and abundant. Aspergillus, Podospora, Penicillium, Colletotrichum, and Acremonium were the frequent genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Overall, 39 endophytic fungi isolates showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in vitro. Nine endophytic fungi isolates from seven distinct genera were capable of producing HupA verified by thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the HupA-producing fungi, the yield of HupA produced by the Shiraia sp. Slf14 was 327.8 ?g/l in potato dextrose broth, and the fungal HupA was further validated by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The present study demonstrated that H. serrata was a fascinating fungal reservoir for producing HupA and other ChEIs. PMID:21107640

  20. Whole-genome comparative analysis of virulence genes unveils similarities and differences between endophytes and other symbiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lòpez-Fernàndez, Sebastiàn; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Pancher, Michael; Engelen, Kristof; Pertot, Ilaria; Campisano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens and endophytes co-exist and often interact with the host plant and within its microbial community. The outcome of these interactions may lead to healthy plants through beneficial interactions, or to disease through the inducible production of molecules known as virulence factors. Unravelling the role of virulence in endophytes may crucially improve our understanding of host-associated microbial communities and their correlation with host health. Virulence is the outcome of a complex network of interactions, and drawing the line between pathogens and endophytes has proven to be conflictive, as strain-level differences in niche overlapping, ecological interactions, state of the host's immune system and environmental factors are seldom taken into account. Defining genomic differences between endophytes and plant pathogens is decisive for understanding the boundaries between these two groups. Here we describe the major differences at the genomic level between seven grapevine endophytic test bacteria, and 12 reference strains. We describe the virulence factors detected in the genomes of the test group, as compared to endophytic and non-endophytic references, to better understand the distribution of these traits in endophytic genomes. To do this, we adopted a comparative whole-genome approach, encompassing BLAST-based searches through the GUI-based tools Mauve and BRIG as well as calculating the core and accessory genomes of three genera of enterobacteria. We outline divergences in metabolic pathways of these endophytes and reference strains, with the aid of the online platform RAST. We present a summary of the major differences that help in the drawing of the boundaries between harmless and harmful bacteria, in the spirit of contributing to a microbiological definition of endophyte. PMID:26074885

  1. Whole-genome comparative analysis of virulence genes unveils similarities and differences between endophytes and other symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lòpez-Fernàndez, Sebastiàn; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Pancher, Michael; Engelen, Kristof; Pertot, Ilaria; Campisano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens and endophytes co-exist and often interact with the host plant and within its microbial community. The outcome of these interactions may lead to healthy plants through beneficial interactions, or to disease through the inducible production of molecules known as virulence factors. Unravelling the role of virulence in endophytes may crucially improve our understanding of host-associated microbial communities and their correlation with host health. Virulence is the outcome of a complex network of interactions, and drawing the line between pathogens and endophytes has proven to be conflictive, as strain-level differences in niche overlapping, ecological interactions, state of the host's immune system and environmental factors are seldom taken into account. Defining genomic differences between endophytes and plant pathogens is decisive for understanding the boundaries between these two groups. Here we describe the major differences at the genomic level between seven grapevine endophytic test bacteria, and 12 reference strains. We describe the virulence factors detected in the genomes of the test group, as compared to endophytic and non-endophytic references, to better understand the distribution of these traits in endophytic genomes. To do this, we adopted a comparative whole-genome approach, encompassing BLAST-based searches through the GUI-based tools Mauve and BRIG as well as calculating the core and accessory genomes of three genera of enterobacteria. We outline divergences in metabolic pathways of these endophytes and reference strains, with the aid of the online platform RAST. We present a summary of the major differences that help in the drawing of the boundaries between harmless and harmful bacteria, in the spirit of contributing to a microbiological definition of endophyte. PMID:26074885

  2. Characterisation of two quorum sensing systems in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica strain G3: differential control of motility and biofilm formation according to life-style

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) systems have been described in many plant-associated Gram-negative bacteria to control certain beneficial phenotypic traits, such as production of biocontrol factors and plant growth promotion. However, the role of AHL-mediated signalling in the endophytic strains of plant-associated Serratia is still poorly understood. An endophytic Serratia sp. G3 with biocontrol potential and high levels of AHL signal production was isolated from the stems of wheat and the role of QS in this isolate was determined. Results Strain G3 classified as Serratia plymuthica based on 16S rRNA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Using primers to conserved sequences of luxIR homologues from the Serratia genus, splIR and spsIR from the chromosome of strain G3 were cloned and sequenced. AHL profiles from strain G3 and Escherichia coli DH5? expressing splI or spsI from recombinant plasmids were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This revealed that the most abundant AHL signals produced by SplI in E. coli were N-3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), N-3-oxo-heptanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C7-HSL), N-3-hydroxy-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL), N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), and N-heptanoyl homoserine lactone (C7-HSL); whereas SpsI was primarily responsible for the synthesis of N-butyrylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-pentanoylhomoserine lactone (C5-HSL). Furthermore, a quorum quenching analysis by heterologous expression of the Bacillus A24 AiiA lactonase in strain G3 enabled the identification of the AHL-regulated biocontrol-related traits. Depletion of AHLs with this lactonase resulted in altered adhesion and biofilm formation using a microtiter plate assay and flow cells coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy respectively. This was different from the closely related S. plymuthica strains HRO-C48 and RVH1, where biofilm formation for both strains is AHL-independent. In addition, QS in G3 positively regulated antifungal activity, production of exoenzymes, but negatively regulated production of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is in agreement with previous reports in strain HRO-C48. However, in contrast to HRO-C48, swimming motility was not controlled by AHL-mediated QS. Conclusions This is the first report of the characterisation of two AHL-based quorum sensing systems in the same isolate of the genus Serratia. Our results show that the QS network is involved in the global regulation of biocontrol-related traits in the endophytic strain G3. However, although free-living and endophytic S. plymuthica share some conservation on QS phenotypic regulation, the control of motility and biofilm formation seems to be strain-specific and possible linked to the life-style of this organism. PMID:21284858

  3. Genomics of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Rasko; Michael R. Altherr; Cliff S. Han; Jacques Ravel

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group of organisms include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Collectively, these organisms represent microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Given this significance, this group contains the highest number of closely related fully sequenced genomes, giving the unique opportunity for thorough comparative genomic analyses. Much of the disease and host specificity of

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND PATHOGENESIS OF BACILLUS X (STERNBERG), BACILLUS ICTEROIDES (SANARELLI), AND THE HOG-CHOLERA BACILLUS (SALMON AND SMITH)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Walter; Carroll, James

    1900-01-01

    1. Bacillus X (Sternberg) belongs to the colon group. 2. Bacillus icteroides (Sanarelli) is a member of the hog-cholera group. 3. The various channels of infection, the duration of the disease and the gross and microscopical lesions in mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits are the same for Bacillus icteroides and the hog-cholera bacillus. 4. The clinical symptoms and the lesions observed in dogs inoculated intravenously with Bacillus icteroides, are reproduced in these animals by infection with the hog-cholera bacillus. 5. Bacillus icteroides when fed to the domestic pig causes fatal infection, accompanied by diphtheritic, necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the digestive tract, such as are seen in hogs when infected with the hog-cholera bacillus. 6. This disease may be acquired by exposing swine in pens already infected with Bacillus icteroides, or by feeding them with the viscera of infected pigs. 7. Guinea-pigs may be immunized with sterilized cultures ofBacillus icteroides from a fatal dose of the hog-cholera bacillus and vice versa. 8. Rabbits may be rendered immune by gradually increasing doses of a living culture of Bacillus icteroides of weak virulence from a fatal dose of a virulent culture of the hog-cholera bacillus 9. The sera of animals immunized with Bacillus icteroides and with the hog-cholera bacillus, respectively, show a marked reciprocal agglutinative reaction. 10. While the blood of yellow fever practically does not exercise an agglutinative reaction upon Bacillus icteroides, the blood of hog-cholera agglutinates this bacillus in a much more marked degree, thus pointing, we think, to the closer etiological relationship of this bacillus to hog-cholera than to yellow fever. PMID:19866945

  5. Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Irene S.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although prokaryotes ordinarily undergo binary fission to produce two identical daughter cells, some are able to undergo alternative developmental pathways that produce daughter cells of distinct cell morphology and fate. One such example is a developmental program called sporulation in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which occurs under conditions of environmental stress. Sporulation has long been used as a model system to help elucidate basic processes of developmental biology including transcription regulation, intercellular signaling, membrane remodeling, protein localization, and cell fate determination. This review highlights some of the recent work that has been done to further understand prokaryotic cell differentiation during sporulation and its potential applications. PMID:24983526

  6. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only their spores are found in soil. We

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Abstract Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis are micro organisms found in soil. Normally, only anthracis spore preparation was done. C. elegans growth inhibition by Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus their spores are found in soil. We recently showed that, B. anthracis and B. cereus do not germinate in soil

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of endophytic fungi from traditional medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Jyoti; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Madhunika; Saxena, A K; Chadha, B S

    2012-03-01

    This study reports the isolation of 63 endophytic fungal isolates from two traditional medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum and Sapindus detergens from different locations of Amritsar, India. The functional characterization of the fungi for their ability to produce anti bacterial and anti cancer agent was carried out. Sixteen strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified ITSI-5.8-ITSII region of rDNA. The phylogenetic tree resolved the endophytic fungi into different clades. The fungal endophytes belonging to order Pleosporales (Alternaria sp., Phoma sojicola and Exserohilum sp.) were functionally versatile as they produced diverse biomolecules including antibacterial agent active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, as well as cytotoxic activity against different human cancer cell lines of lung, ovary, breast, prostrate, neuroblastoma and colon. PMID:22805817

  8. The Use of Endophytes to Obtain Bioactive Compounds and Their Application in Biotransformation Process

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Mariana Recco; Molina, Gustavo; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that reside asymptomatically in the tissues of higher plants and are a promising source of novel organic natural metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activities. The laboratory of Bioaromas (Unicamp, Brazil) develops research in biotransformation processes and functional evaluation of natural products. With the intent to provide subsidies for studies on endophytic microbes related to areas cited before, this paper focuses particularly on the role of endophytes on the production of anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant compounds and includes examples that illustrate their potential for human use. It also describes biotransformation as an auspicious method to obtain novel bioactive compounds from microbes. Biotransformation allows the production of regio- and stereoselective compounds under mild conditions that can be labeled as “natural,” as discussed in this paper. PMID:21350663

  9. A New Fungal Endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, Promotes Tomato Growth under Organic Nitrogen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Rola S.; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources. PMID:24223848

  10. Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2009-11-01

    From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi. PMID:19967976

  11. Endophytic fungi diversity of aquatic/riparian plants and their antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Chun-An; Liu, Chen-Jian; Xu, Xiao-Fei

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fourteen endophytic fungi were isolated from 500 segments of aquatic/riparian plants Ottelia acuminata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Equisetum arvense, Cardamine multijuga, and Impatiens chinensis. They were identified to 31 taxa in which Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Geotrichum were the dominant genera. Among all isolates, 169 (79%) were anamorphic fungi, 1 (0.5%) was an teleomorphic ascomycete and 44 (21%) were sterile mycelia. There were significant differences in the colonization frequency of endophytes between the five plant species (X~2=51.128, P<0.001, Chi-square test). The riparian plants harboured more endophytes than the submerged plants. The antifungal activity of these isolates against Fusarium solani and Phytophthora nicotianae in vitro were tested and 28 (13.1%) isolates showed antifungal activities with more than 30% growth inhibition rate against the two pathogens. PMID:20221722

  12. Conspicuous epiphytic growth of an interspecific hybrid Neotyphodium sp. endophyte on distorted host inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael John; Saulsbury, Keith; Simpson, Wayne R

    2012-01-01

    Selected Neotyphodium sp. endophytes are now commonly used to enhance pasture persistence and livestock productivity, with seed of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue cultivars with these selected endophytes being commercially available. In a large population of perennial ryegrass plants infected with a Neotyphodium sp. endophyte that was being grown for seed production a small percentage of inflorescences were distorted and covered with a conspicuous white mycelial growth. Within individual plants only a small number of inflorescences were affected and the amount of distortion differed between affected inflorescences. This Neotyphodium sp. is an interspecific hybrid of Epichloë typhina and Neotyphodium. lolii and like nearly all other Neotyphodium spp is symptomless in host grasses. The fungus isolated from distorted inflorescences had colonies that were identical to those isolated from symptomless inflorescences and these were characteristic of this Neotyphodium sp. This is the first report of distorted inflorescences covered with epiphytic hyphal growth on host grasses infected with an interspecific hybrid Neotyphodium sp. PMID:22208600

  13. Antifungal Metabolites Produced by Chaetomium globosum No.04, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guizhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Qin, Jianchun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jinliang; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hongyu

    2013-06-01

    The fungal endophyte Chaetomium globosum No.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba. The crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Coniothyrium diplodiella. Further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 L fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as chaetoglobosin A, C, D, E, G, R (1-6), ergosterol, allantoin and uracil, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 showed significant growth inhibitory activity against R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella at a concentration of 20 ?g/disc. We present here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of chaetoglobosins from endophytic fungi against two important phytopathogenic fungi R. stolonifer and C. diplodiella. PMID:24426105

  14. Population Structure and Evolution of the Bacillus cereus Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fergus G. Priest; Margaret Barker; Les W. J. Baillie; Edward C. Holmes; Martin C. J. Maiden

    2004-01-01

    Representative strains of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, including Bacillus anthracis (11 isolates), B. cereus (38 isolates), Bacillus mycoides (1 isolate), Bacillus thuringiensis (53 isolates from 17 serovars), and Bacillus weihenstephanensis (2 isolates) were assigned to 59 sequence types (STs) derived from the nucleotide sequences of seven alleles, glpF, gmk, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA, and tpi. Comparisons of the

  15. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  16. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    PubMed

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P < 0.05). Similarly, comparisons using LIBSHUFF and heatmap analysis for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed differences between endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum. PMID:26090305

  17. Endophytic Bacteria in Toxic South African Plants: Identification, Phylogeny and Possible Involvement in Gousiekte

    PubMed Central

    Verstraete, Brecht; Van Elst, Daan; Steyn, Hester; Van Wyk, Braam; Lemaire, Benny; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background South African plant species of the genera Fadogia, Pavetta and Vangueria (all belonging to Rubiaceae) are known to cause gousiekte (literally ‘quick disease’), a fatal cardiotoxicosis of ruminants characterised by acute heart failure four to eight weeks after ingestion. Noteworthy is that all these plants harbour endophytes in their leaves: nodulating bacteria in specialized nodules in Pavetta and non-nodulating bacteria in the intercellular spaces between mesophyll cells in Fadogia and Vangueria. Principal Findings Isolation and analyses of these endophytes reveal the presence of Burkholderia bacteria in all the plant species implicated in gousiekte. Although the nodulating and non-nodulating bacteria belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically not closely related and even fall in different bacterial clades. Pavetta harborii and Pavetta schumanniana have their own specific endophyte – Candidatus Burkholderia harborii and Candidatus Burkholderia schumanniana – while the non-nodulating bacteria found in the other gousiekte-inducing plants show high similarity to Burkholderia caledonica. In this group, the bacteria are host specific at population level. Investigation of gousiekte-inducing plants from other African countries resulted in the discovery of the same endophytes. Several other plants of the genera Afrocanthium, Canthium, Keetia, Psydrax, Pygmaeothamnus and Pyrostria were tested and were found to lack bacterial endophytes. Conclusions The discovery and identification of Burkholderia bacteria in gousiekte-inducing plants open new perspectives and opportunities for research not only into the cause of this economically important disease, but also into the evolution and functional significance of bacterial endosymbiosis in Rubiaceae. Other South African Rubiaceae that grow in the same area as the gousiekte-inducing plants were found to lack bacterial endophytes which suggests a link between bacteria and gousiekte. The same bacteria are consistently found in gousiekte-inducing plants from different regions indicating that these plants will also be toxic to ruminants in other African countries. PMID:21541284

  18. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines.

    PubMed

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta; Grisan, Simone; Assante, Gemma; Musetti, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions. Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a pooled cluster analysis. Following morphological analyses, all strains were grouped according to their three-dimensional sporulation pattern on PCA and to the colony characteristics on different substrates. After DNA extraction, all strains were analyzed by RAPD-PCR and the resulting profiles were subjected to cluster analysis. The metabolites extracted from the 20 Alternaria endophytes were analyzed by a HPLC and the resulting metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistic analyses. In comparison with reference 'small-spored' Alternaria species, the 20 strains were segregated into two morphological groups: one belonging to the A. arborescens species-group and a second to the A. tenuissima species-group. RAPD analysis also showed that grapevine endophytes belonged to either the A. arborescens or the A. tenuissima species-group and that they were molecularly distinct from strains belonging to A. alternata. Chemotaxonomy gave the same grouping: the grapevine endophytic strains belong to A. arborescens or A. tenuissima species-groups producing known metabolites typical of these species-groups. Interestingly, the 20 grapevine endophytes were able to produce also a number of unknown metabolites, whose characterization could be useful for a more precise segregation of the two species-groups. The results show how complementary morphological, molecular and chemical data can clarify relationships among endophyte species-groups of low morphological divergence. PMID:22123507

  19. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

  20. Environmental factors determining the epidemiology and population genetic structure of the Bacillus cereus group in the field.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Ben; Wyres, Kelly L; Sheppard, Samuel K; Ellis, Richard J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8) in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have been stronger than for other toxin classes. PMID:20502683

  1. Environmental Factors Determining the Epidemiology and Population Genetic Structure of the Bacillus cereus Group in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Ben; Wyres, Kelly L.; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Ellis, Richard J.; Bonsall, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and its insecticidal toxins are widely exploited in microbial biopesticides and genetically modified crops. Its population biology is, however, poorly understood. Important issues for the safe, sustainable exploitation of Bt include understanding how selection maintains expression of insecticidal toxins in nature, whether entomopathogenic Bt is ecologically distinct from related human pathogens in the Bacillus cereus group, and how the use of microbial pesticides alters natural bacterial populations. We addressed these questions with a MLST scheme applied to a field experiment in which we excluded/added insect hosts and microbial pesticides in a factorial design. The presence of insects increased the density of Bt/B. cereus in the soil and the proportion of strains expressing insecticidal toxins. We found a near-epidemic population structure dominated by a single entomopathogenic genotype (ST8) in sprayed and unsprayed enclosures. Biopesticidal ST8 proliferated in hosts after spraying but was also found naturally associated with leaves more than any other genotype. In an independent experiment several ST8 isolates proved better than a range of non-pathogenic STs at endophytic and epiphytic colonization of seedlings from soil. This is the first experimental demonstration of Bt behaving as a specialized insect pathogen in the field. These data provide a basis for understanding both Bt ecology and the influence of anthropogenic factors on Bt populations. This natural population of Bt showed habitat associations and a population structure that differed markedly from previous MLST studies of less ecologically coherent B. cereus sample collections. The host-specific adaptations of ST8, its close association with its toxin plasmid and its high prevalence within its clade are analogous to the biology of Bacillus anthracis. This prevalence also suggests that selection for resistance to the insecticidal toxins of ST8 will have been stronger than for other toxin classes. PMID:20502683

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Raoultella terrigena R1Gly, a Diazotrophic Endophyte.

    PubMed

    Schicklberger, M; Shapiro, N; Loqué, D; Woyke, T; Chakraborty, R

    2015-01-01

    Raoultella terrigena R1Gly is a diazotrophic endophyte isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Nicotiana tabacum. The whole-genome sequence was obtained to investigate the endophytic characteristics of this organism at the genetic level, as well as to compare this strain with its close relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first genome obtained from the Raoultella terrigena species and only the third genome from the Raoultella genus, after Raoultella ornitholytic and Raoultella planticola. This genome will provide a foundation for further comparative genomic, metagenomic, and functional studies of this genus. PMID:26067957

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Raoultella terrigena R1Gly, a Diazotrophic Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Schicklberger, M.; Shapiro, N.; Loqué, D.; Woyke, T.

    2015-01-01

    Raoultella terrigena R1Gly is a diazotrophic endophyte isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Nicotiana tabacum. The whole-genome sequence was obtained to investigate the endophytic characteristics of this organism at the genetic level, as well as to compare this strain with its close relatives. To our knowledge, this is the first genome obtained from the Raoultella terrigena species and only the third genome from the Raoultella genus, after Raoultella ornitholytic and Raoultella planticola. This genome will provide a foundation for further comparative genomic, metagenomic, and functional studies of this genus. PMID:26067957

  4. Structures and biomimetic synthesis of novel ?-pyrone polyketides of an endophytic Penicillium sp. in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Asai, Teigo; Luo, Dan; Yamashita, Kouwa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2013-03-01

    Novel polyketides, citreoviripyrone A (1) and B (2), known citreomontanin (3), and (-)-citreoviridin (4) were isolated from the mycelium of the endophytic fungus. The endophytic fungus, which belongs to the genus Penicillium, was separated from surface-sterilized healthy leaves of Catharanthus roseus. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of NMR data, and 1 was characterized as an ?-pyrone polyketide featuring bicyclo[4.2.0]octadiene. The biomimetic synthesis of 1 and 2 from 3 elucidated a plausible biosynthetic pathway. Both Zn(II)-type and NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase inhibitors significantly enhanced the production of 1 and 3. PMID:23405967

  5. Pyrosequencing Reveals a Highly Diverse and Cultivar-Specific Bacterial Endophyte Community in Potato Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel K. Manter; Jorge A. Delgado; David G. Holm; Rachel A. Stong

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the bacterial endophyte community of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar\\/clones using two different molecular-based techniques (bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis\\u000a (B-ARISA) and pyrosequencing). B-ARISA profiles revealed a significant difference in the endophytic community between cultivars\\u000a (perMANOVA, p?

  6. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  7. Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Theresa M

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the "group 1 bacilli"), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the B. cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related to pathogenicity. B. anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax. Vegetative cells of B. anthracis produce anthrax toxin proteins and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule during infection of mammalian hosts and when cultured in conditions considered to mimic the host environment. The genes associated with toxin and capsule synthesis are located on the B. anthracis plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. Although plasmid content is considered a defining feature of the species, pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids have been identified in strains that more closely resemble other members of the B. cereus group. The developmental nature of B. anthracis and its pathogenic (mammalian host) and environmental (soil) lifestyles of make it an interesting model for study of niche-specific bacterial gene expression and physiology. PMID:19654018

  8. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  9. [Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain and preliminary study on its antagonistic substances].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chen-Yun; Li, Yong; Liu, Min; Ding, Wan-Long; Qin, Min-Jian

    2014-07-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbal medicine, soil borne diseases influenced the yield and quality severely. In our previous work, endophytic Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain was isolated from ginseng root, and which showed significant antagonistic activity against several most destructive ginseng phytopathogens. In the present work, crude protein and lipopeptid extracts were prepared from LB and Landy supernate by salting out, acid precipitation methods respectively. The antagonistic activity of crude extracts and stability to temperature and protease digestion were examined by ginseng phytopathogen Alternaria panax. Results showed that, the antagonistic activity of crude protein extracts from LB culture was complete and partially lost when treated by high temperature and proteinase K. However, crude lipopeptid from Landy culture showed significant stabile antagonistic activity to them. Acid-hydrolyzation and TLC-bioautography analysis showed, that the crude lipopeptide contained at least one cyclic lipopeptide. In consideration of the stability and perfect antagonistic activity of ge25, further researches will promote the biocontrol of ginseng diseases in the field. PMID:25272485

  10. Cultivation and detection of endophytic aerobic methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum species as a perspective for environmental biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enriched cultures of microorganisms are an essential step in the production of inoculum of these organisms for biotechnology and bioengineering. The potential application of methanotrophic microorganisms for removal of methane produced from landfills and coal mines as well as biodegradation of toxic compounds has been widely studied. Therefore, searching for new sources of methanotrophs can contribute to increasing the possibilities of biotechnology and bioengineering. Enrichment cultures of endophytic methanotrophs from Sphagnum sp. were initiated in NMS medium, a most widely used medium for cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria from various environments proposed in 1970 by Whittenbury. Incubation was carried out at 10, 20, 30, and 37°C with vigorous shaking on a shaker (180 rpm). The source of carbon and energy for endophytes were methane at the concentration range between 1-20%. It appeared that the consortium of endophytic bacteria grew only at the temperature of 20 and 30°C. During the culture of endophytes, the measurements of gas concentration showed a steady loss of methane and oxygen, as well as accumulation of carbon dioxide as a CH4 oxidation product. The use of FISH has made characterization of endophytic consortia possible. It turned out that the population of endophytes consists of type I and II methanotrophs as well as associated non-methanotrophic bacteria. Furthermore, we determined the potential of the examined bacteria for methane oxidation, which ranged up to 4,7 ?MCH4 per ml of the population of endophytes per day. PMID:25401064

  11. Salinity stress resistance offered by endophytic fungal interaction between Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 and glycine max. L.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nadeem; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Adnan, Muhammad; Tang, Dong-Sheng; Waqas, Muhammad; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Hwang, Young-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2011-09-01

    Endophytic fungi are little known for their role in gibberellins (GAs) synthesis and abiotic stress resistance in crop plants. We isolated 10 endophytes from the roots of field-grown soybean and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on the GAs biosynthesis mutant rice line - Waito-C. CF bioassay showed that endophyte GMH-1B significantly promoted the growth of Waito-C compared with controls. GMH-1B was identified as Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 on the basis of ITS regions rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analyses. GC/MS-SIM analysis of CF of P. minioluteum revealed the presence of bioactive GA(4) and GA(7). In endophyte-soybean plant interaction, P. minioluteum association significantly promoted growth characteristics (shoot length, shoot fresh and dry biomasses, chlorophyll content, and leaf area) and nitrogen assimilation, with and without sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced salinity (70 and 140 mM) stress, as compared with control. Field-emission scanning electron microcopy showed active colonization of endophyte with host plants before and after stress treatments. In response to salinity stress, low endogenous abscisic acid and high salicylic acid accumulation in endophyte-associated plants elucidated the stress mitigation by P. minioluteum. The endophytic fungal symbiosis of P. minioluteum also increased the daidzein and genistein contents in the soybean as compared with control plants, under salt stress. Thus, P. minioluteum ameliorated the adverse effects of abiotic salinity stress and rescued soybean plant growth by influencing biosynthesis of the plant's hormones and flavonoids. PMID:21952365

  12. Potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of an endophytic Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mahiti; Saxena, Sanjai; Goyal, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic lipase (PL) is considered as one of the safest target for diet-induced anti-obesity drug development. Orlistat is the only PL inhibitor approved for anti-obesity treatment till date. In the process of exploration of new PL inhibitors, we have screened culture filtrates of 70 endophytic fungi of medicinal plants using qualitative as well as quantitative in-vitro PL assays. The qualitative assays indicated potential PL inhibition in only three isolates, namely #57 TBBALM, #33 TBBALM and #1 CSSTOT. Only ethyl acetate extracts of the culture filtrates of these isolates exhibited the PL inhibition. #57 TBBLAM ethyl acetate extract of culture filtrate exhibited potential PL inhibition with an IC50 of 3.69 µg/ml which was comparable to the positive control, i.e. Orlistat exhibiting IC50 value of 2.73 µg/ml. Further molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify the isolate #57 TBBALM as Penicillium species. PMID:24417211

  13. Effects of Water Stress on the Endophytic Fungal Communities of Pinus koraiensis Needles Infected by Cenangium ferruginosum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Keun; Lee, Seung Kyu; Bae, Hanhong; Seo, Sang-Tae; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2014-12-01

    To examine the effects of water stress and Cenangium ferruginosum (CF) on the fungal endophytic community of needles of Pinus koraiensis (PK), fungal endophytes isolated from the needles of 5-year-old PK seedlings were compared before and after exposure to water stress conditions and artificial inoculation with CF ascospores. Artificial CF inoculation was successfully confirmed using PCR with CF-specific primers (CfF and CfR). For comparison of the degree of water deficit in water-stressed and control groups of PK seedlings infected with CF, the water saturation deficit and water potential were measured. Lower water potential estimates were found in the water-stressed seedlings than in the control group. The fungal endophytes isolated from the second-year needles of non-water-stressed seedlings before and after CF inoculation revealed that primary saprobes were approximately 30% and 71.7%, respectively, and the remaining endophytes were rot fungi or pathogens. Sixty days after CF inoculation, diverse fungal endophytes in the first-year needles were isolated from the water-stressed seedlings. However, some fungal endophytes isolated from the non-water-stressed seedlings were also identified. Fungal endophytes in the second-year needles of the water-stressed and non-water-stressed seedlings were approximately 8% and 71.7% of saprobes, respectively, and the remaining endophytes were rot fungi or pathogens. On the basis of the results, we conclude that water deficit and CF can have an effect on fungal endophytic communities in the needles of PK seedlings. PMID:25606004

  14. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin). PMID:16345844

  15. Uric acid degradation by Bacillus fastidiosus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Bongaerts, G P; Vogels, G D

    1976-01-01

    Seven Bacillus strains including one of the original Bacillus fastidiosus strains of Den Dooren de Jong could grow on urate, allantoin, and, except one, on allantoate. No growth could be detected on adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and on degradation products of allantoate. Some strains grew very slowly in complex media. The metabolic pathway from urate to glyoxylate involved uricase, S(+)-allantoinase, allantoate amidohydrolase, S(-)-ureidoglycolase, and, in some strains, urease. Images PMID:1245468

  16. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis. PMID:9484689

  17. Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi and Mycoparasitic Antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. Feldman; Heath E. O’Brien; A. Elizabeth Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors by producing sugary exudates in the grass florets it infects. These exudates also support\\u000a mycoparasitic Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths on which C. paspali depends to also transmit mycoparasitic Fusarium and fungal endophytes, which inhabit asymptomatic plant tissue

  18. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  19. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Fungal endophytes of native grasses decrease insect herbivore

    E-print Network

    Rudgers, Jennifer

    , with up to three times lower herbivory for endophyte-symbiotic plants; however, the degree of response Alkaloids Introduction Plants associate with a variety of microbes, including pathogens, mycorrhizal fungi the impacts of plant­microbe symbioses on herbivores can range from detrimental to beneficial (Hartley

  20. Endophyte Effect on Seedling Vigor in 19 Half-sib Familes of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling mass and emergence force were studied in two greenhouse experiments using 19 half-sib families of ‘Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] each of which was produced from genotypes with or without the common toxic endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones ...