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1

Genome Sequence of the Plant Endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7, Triggering Induced Systemic Resistance in Field Crops.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus INR7 is an endophytic bacterium that has been commercialized as a biological control product against soilborne pathogens as well as foliar pathogens by direct antagonism and induction of systemic resistance. In the current study, we provide the genome sequence and a possible explanation of the function of strain INR7. PMID:25359912

Jeong, Haeyoung; Choi, Soo-Keun; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

2014-01-01

2

Genome Sequence of the Plant Endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7, Triggering Induced Systemic Resistance in Field Crops  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus INR7 is an endophytic bacterium that has been commercialized as a biological control product against soilborne pathogens as well as foliar pathogens by direct antagonism and induction of systemic resistance. In the current study, we provide the genome sequence and a possible explanation of the function of strain INR7. PMID:25359912

Jeong, Haeyoung; Choi, Soo-Keun; Kloepper, Joseph W.

2014-01-01

3

Toxin production by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Bacillus pumilus (M11 and M38) and one strain each of Bacillus cereus (M27), Bacillus subtilis (M67), and Enterobacter agglomerans (M14) were identified from the air of Lancashire cotton mills. These strains were tested for cytopathic effects in Vero cells; B pumilus and B cereus strains were also examined for haemolytic activity, lecithinase production, and proteolytic action on

B Hoult; A F Tuxford

1991-01-01

4

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

5

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis ?-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a ?-endotoxin expression and delivery system for subterranean feeding insects such as the larvae of pale western cutworm (Agrotis orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki cultures were toxic to pale western cutworm larvae. Three different cry genes from

L. B. Selinger; G. G. Khachatourians; J. R. Byers; M. F. Hynes

1998-01-01

6

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus L.B. Selinger, G introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a -endotoxin expression into Bacillus pumilus RB8. When carried on high copy number vectors, cry genes appeared to inhibit sporulation

Selinger, Brent

7

Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk.  

PubMed

To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1-15 microg ml(-1) (B. pumilus) or 20-30 microg ml(-1) (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern. PMID:17611049

Nieminen, T; Rintaluoma, N; Andersson, M; Taimisto, A-M; Ali-Vehmas, T; Seppälä, A; Priha, O; Salkinoja-Salonen, M

2007-10-01

8

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella

2014-01-01

9

Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus MTCC B6033.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium isolated from the soil. B. pumilus strain B6033 was originally selected as a biocatalyst for the stereospecific oxidation of ?-lactams. Here, we present a 3.8-Mb assembly of its genome, which is the second fully assembled genome of a B. pumilus strain. PMID:24744340

Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jack; Ivancich, Anabella; Loewen, Peter C

2014-01-01

10

Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

2012-09-01

11

ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper.  

PubMed

Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in combination with BTH for increased induced resistance capacity under field conditions. PMID:23717313

Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

12

ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper  

PubMed Central

Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in combination with BTH for increased induced resistance capacity under field conditions. PMID:23717313

Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

13

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2010-07-01

14

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2013-07-01

15

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or...

2014-07-01

16

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or...

2012-07-01

18

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2011-07-01

19

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2014-07-01

20

40 CFR 180.1313 - Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1313 Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180; exemption...established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 in or...

2013-07-01

21

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2012-07-01

22

40 CFR 180.1322 - Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1322 Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in...

2014-07-01

23

40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when...

2011-07-01

24

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2010-07-01

25

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2014-07-01

26

40 CFR 180.1322 - Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...Tolerances § 180.1322 Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33; exemption...established for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when...

2012-07-01

28

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus  

E-print Network

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066012

Fox, George

29

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2013-07-01

30

78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0264; FRL-9389-2] Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption...a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or on all...permissible level for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 under the...

2013-06-12

31

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2011-07-01

33

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

E-print Network

Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Jason-radiation, H2O2, desiccation, chemical disinfection, or starvation. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 survives standard al (2007) Paradoxical DNA Repair and Peroxide Resistance Gene Conservation in Bacillus pumilus SAFR

Fox, George

34

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2014-07-01

35

40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the...residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a...

2010-07-01

36

Genomic Changes that May be Responsible for the Elevated UV Resistance of Bacillus Pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 whose spores are highly resistant to UV and the closely related B. pumilus ATCC-7061 that lacks this resistance are compared. Candidate genes are identified that may be responsible for the elevated resistance.

Tirumalai, M. R.; Rastogi, R.; Venkateswaran, K.; Fox, G. E.

2010-04-01

37

Regulatory mutations affecting the synthesis of cellulase in Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wild strain of Bacillus pumilus was investigated for cellulase production, and putative mutants of this strain were screened for catabolite repression insensitivity after chemical mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) as a mutagenic agent. Out of four classes of mutants studied and classified according to their cellulase induction rate and level of cellulase production in the presence of high concentrations

Simeon Oloni Kotchoni; Olusola Olusoji Shonukan

2002-01-01

38

High-Level Expression and Secretion of Bacillus pumilus Lipase B26 in Bacillus subtilis Chungkookjang  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level expression of the lipase B26 gene from Bacillus pumilus was achieved using Bacillus subtilis Chungkookjang isolated from the Korean traditional fermented bean paste, Chungkookjang. For the secretory production of recombinant lipase B26 in a Bacillus host system, pLipB26 was constructed by ligating the lipase B26 gene into the recently designed Escherichia coli-Bacillus shuttle vector, pLipSM, and that was then

MI-HWA LEE; YOON-HO CHOI; SEUNG-PYO HONG; EUGENE RHA; SEUNG-GOO LEE; MOON-HEE SUNG

2003-01-01

39

A thermostable ?-arabinofuranosidase from xylanolytic Bacillus pumilus: purification and characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus PS213 secretes an ?-l-arabinofuranosidase (AF) when grown in the presence of arabinogalactan or oat meal. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and characterised. Its molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration, is 220 kDa, while sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a single band of approximately 60 kDa. According to the result of the mass spectrometry

Giuliano Degrassi; Alessandro Vindigni; Vittorio Venturi

2003-01-01

40

Synthesis of the extracellular protease by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus synthesizes an oxtracellular protease during the stationary phase of growth when the intracellular protease level is rather\\u000a low. The formation of the enzyme is blocked by chloramphenicol. A shift from batch to continuous cultivation is accompanied\\u000a by a decreased enzyme level in the medium. The original concentration of the enzyme in the medium can be attained only after

J. Fabián

1970-01-01

41

Isolation of Thermophilic Mutants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus and Transformation of the Thermophilic Trait to Mesophilic Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ Thermophilic mutants were isolated from mesophilic Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus by plating large numbers of cells and incubating them for several days at a temperature about 10 \\

MARY L. DROFFNER; NOBUTO YAMAMOTO

1985-01-01

42

Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

2015-01-01

43

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain WP8, an Efficient Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus strain WP8 is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here, we present the complete genome of WP8 and its genes involved in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:25614565

Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2015-01-01

44

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain WP8, an Efficient Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus strain WP8 is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Here, we present the complete genome of WP8 and its genes involved in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. PMID:25614565

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2015-01-01

45

Fermentation of starch for enhanced alkaline protease production by constructing an alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new engineering strain, Bacillus pumilus c172-14 (pBX 96), was obtained by introducing the pBX 96 plasmid, which carries the !-amylase amy gene, into the host strain of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus c172 via transformation. The newly constructed strain was found to express the amy gene and could use starch instead of glucose or starch hydrolysate as carbon source for its

Y. Y. Feng; W. B. Yang; S. L. Ong; J. Y. Hu; W. J. Ng

2001-01-01

46

Antitrypanosomal alkaloids from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus isolated from the black coral Antipathes sp. led to the isolation of five compounds: cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro) (1), 3-hydroxyacetylindole (2), N-acetyl-?-oxotryptamine (3), cyclo-(L-Phe-L-Pro) (4), and 3-formylindole (5). The structures of compounds 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analyses, including HRESITOF-MS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). Compounds 2, 3 and 5 caused the inhibition on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), with IC50 values of 20.6, 19.4 and 26.9 ?M, respectively, with moderate cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Compounds 1-5 were found to be inactive when tested against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani, therefore showing selectivity against T. cruzi parasites. PMID:22990456

Martínez-Luis, Sergio; Gómez, José Félix; Spadafora, Carmenza; Guzmán, Héctor M; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

2012-01-01

47

Increased Radiation Resistance of Vegetative Bacillus pumilus1  

PubMed Central

A 4.5-fold increase in vegetative cell radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus E601, the internationally recognized biological standard for irradiation sterilization, was obtained by the repeated passage of resistant survivors through successive sublethal doses of 60Co irradiation. This increase in resistance was accompanied by a corresponding increase in spore resistance through the seventh irradiation passage. By the fifteenth passage, the ability for spore formation was lost. Other effects noted by the successive irradiation dosages included loss of motility and pellicle formation, and changes in the Gram reaction, cell morphology, and colonial morphology. Increased resistance was also accompanied by an increased nutritional requirement for specific amino acids. Radiation resistance was not transferred from vegetative cells to spores. PMID:4844266

Parisi, A.; Antoine, A. D.

1974-01-01

48

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Pyrolysis Gas-Liquid Chromatography, Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hybridization, Biochemical Tests, and API Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight strains each of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus lichenifor- mis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were analyzed by using pyrolysis gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis with canonical variates gave four well-sep- arated groups, which represented the four species. Further analysis of the same strains by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization and API identification systems confirmed the discrimination obtained with pyrolysis gas- liquid chromatography.

A. G. O'DONNELL; J. R. NORRIS; R. C. W. BERKELEY; D. CLAUS; T. KANEK; N. A. LOGAN

49

Microbiological bioassay using Bacillus pumilus to detect tetracycline in milk.  

PubMed

The tetracyclines (TCs) are widely used in the treatment of several diseases of cattle and their residues may be present in milk. To control these residues it is necessary to have available inexpensive screening methods, user-friendly and capable of analysing a high number of samples. The purpose of this study was to design a bioassay of microbiological inhibition in microtiter plates with spores of Bacillus pumilus to detect TCs at concentrations corresponding to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). Several complementary experiments were performed to design the bioassay. In the first study, we determined the concentration of spores that produce a change in the bioassay's relative absorbance in a short time period. Subsequently, we assessed the concentration of chloramphenicol required to decrease the detection limit (DL) of TCs at MRLs levels. Thereafter, specificity, DL and cross-specificity of the bioassay were estimated. The most appropriate microbiological inhibition assay had a B. pumilus concentration of 1·6 × 109 spores/ml, fortified with 2500 ?g chloramphenicol/l (CAP) in Mueller Hinton culture medium using brilliant black and toluidine blue as redox indicator. This bioassay detected 117 ?g chlortetracycline/l, 142 ?g oxytetracycline/l and 105 ?g tetracycline/l by means of a change in the indicator's colour in a period of 5 h. The method showed good specificity (97·9%) which decreased slightly (93·3%) in milk samples with high somatic cell counts (>250 000 cells/ml). Furthermore, other antimicrobials studied (except neomycin) must be present in milk at high concentrations (from >5 to >100 MRLs) to produce positive results in this assay, indicating a low cross specificity. PMID:25720802

Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando Guillermo; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro

2015-05-01

50

Pyrene Degradation by Bacillus pumilus Isolated from Crude Oil Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus (MTCC 1002) isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, was capable of growing in the presence of 50 ?g\\/ml of pyrene. During growth on pyrene B. pumilus was able to co-metabolize 64% of 50?g\\/ml pyrene in basal medium containing 0.5% glucose in 35 days while in pulse-chase studies, as assessed by HPLC

Purnima Khanna; Dinesh Goyal; Sunil Khanna

2011-01-01

51

Cloning, Molecular Characterization, and Application of Rice Epiphytic Bacillus pumilus Promoter Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a constitutive, high-efficiency expression system for Bacillus pumilus (B.P), we cloned random chromosomal DNA into promoter probe shuttle vector ECE7 and selected for strong promoter activity\\u000a by chloramphenicol resistance of transformed B. pumilus cells. The nucleotide sequences of nine chromosomal fragments were determined. These DNA fragments range from 300 to 2200\\u000a bp in size. The transcription strength of

Qingyu Cao; Zhicai Qu; Youzhong Wan; Hongwei Zhang; Daleng Shen

2001-01-01

52

Biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin by a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus strain: Identification of major metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain S-1 capable of transforming isoeugenol to vanillin was isolated. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid composition, riboprint pattern and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. In the biotransformation of isoeugenol, vanillin was the main product. With the growing culture of B. pumilus S-1, 10gl?1 isoeugenol was converted to 3.75gl?1 vanillin

Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Shan Lin; Lifu Song; Zixin Deng; Zarao Maomy; Zhaobin Zhang; Bo Yu; Ping Xu

2007-01-01

53

Extreme Spore UV Resistance of Bacillus pumilus Isolates Obtained from an Ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent environmental microbial sampling of the ultraclean Spacecraft Assembly Facility at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL-SAF) identified spores of Bacillus pumilus as major culturable bacterial contaminants found on and around spacecraft. As part of an effort to assess the efficacy of various spacecraft sterilants, purified spores of 10 JPL-SAF B. pumilus isolates were subjected to 254-nm UV and their UV

L. Link; J. Sawyer; K. Venkateswaran; W. Nicholson

2004-01-01

54

Improvement of the newly isolated Bacillus pumilus FH9 keratinolytic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different feather degrading bacteria were isolated from soil using an enrichment technique with feather as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. A strain with high keratinolytic activity was identified as Bacillus pumilus FH9 using sequencing of the 16SrDNA gene. Phylogenic analysis showed that the strain was most similar to B. pumilus AF526896 and AF526898. Complete feather degradation was achieved at

H. A. El-Refai; M. A. AbdelNaby; A. Gaballa; M. H. El-Araby; A. F. Abdel Fattah

2005-01-01

55

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a detergent-stable serine alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS with high catalytic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described previously the potential use of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS as an effective additive in laundry detergent formulations [B. Jaouadi, S. Ellouz-Chaabouni, M. Ben Ali, E. Ben Messaoud, B. Naili, A. Dhouib, S. Bejar, A novel alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus CBS having a high compatibility with laundry detergent and a high feather-degrading activity, Process

Bassem Jaouadi; Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni; Moez Rhimi; Samir Bejar

2008-01-01

56

Growth promotion of red pepper plug seedlings and the production of gibberellins by Bacillus cereus , Bacillus macroides and Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of red pepper plug seedlings was promoted by Bacillus cereus MJ-1, B. macroides CJ-29, and B. pumilus CJ-69 isolated from the rhizosphere. Gibberellins (GAs), a well-known plant growth-promoting hormone, were detected in the culture broth of their rhizobacteria. Among the GAs, the contents of GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7, physiologically active GAs, were comparatively higher than those of

Gil-Jae Joo; Young-Mog Kim; In-Jung Lee; Kyung-Sik Song; In-Koo Rhee

2004-01-01

57

Application of Thermostable Xylanase of Bacillus pumilus in Textile Processing.  

PubMed

Desizing of cotton and micropoly fabrics was done using thermostable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus ASH. Micropoly fabric showed better desizing than cotton under same conditions. Violet scale readings from the TEGEWA test after enzymatic desizing for 90 min at pH 7.0 and at 60°C showed the readings falling in the range of 4-5, indicating good desizing efficiency. During bioscouring the weight loss values and liberation of reducing sugars were highest when EDTA was used along with xylanase. The weight loss value of 1.5% was observed for dry cotton fabric after 1 h in case of agitated system at pH 7.0 and at an optimal enzyme dosage of 5 IU/g. The weight loss values and the liberation of reducing sugars were higher in case of cotton fabrics. Wetting time of fabrics was lowered significantly after 60 min of bioscouring using xylanase. Increase in temperature or concentration of surfactant led to further reduction in the wetting time. The whiteness values of fabrics after bioscouring were 0.9% higher than the chemically scoured fabrics indicating good efficacy of xylanase during the scouring process. PMID:23729886

Battan, Bindu; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Ahlawat, Sonia; Mahajan, Ritu; Sharma, Jitender

2012-06-01

58

Expression of a xylanase gene of Bacillus pumilus in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid plasmid, pOXN29 (10.4 Mdal), coding the xylanase (xynA) and ß-xylosidase (xynB) genes of Bacillus pumilus IPO was constructed by the ligation of pBR322 and a 7.7 Mdal PstI-fragment of chromosomal DNA as reported in our previous paper (Panbangred et al. 1983). A deletion plasmid of pOXN29, pOXN293 (9.2 Mdal), which contains xynA and xynB, was ligated with pUB110

Watanalai Panbangred; Eiichiro Fukusaki; Evangeline C. Epifanio; Atsuhiko Shinmyo; Hirosuke Okada

1985-01-01

59

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India  

PubMed Central

Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus. PMID:24031357

Parvathi, Ammini; Krishna, Kiran; Jose, Jiya; Joseph, Neetha; Nair, Santha

2009-01-01

60

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India.  

PubMed

Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus. PMID:24031357

Parvathi, Ammini; Krishna, Kiran; Jose, Jiya; Joseph, Neetha; Nair, Santha

2009-04-01

61

Transformation of Bacillus mojavensis with GFP and its endophytic localization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current studies on the use of bacterial endophytes for disease control and mycotoxin reduction in maize require the in planta localization and interaction of the intended biocontrol agent. Bacillus mojavensis, an endophytic species that has a phenotypic similarity to B. subtilis, has the potential...

62

Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis using MALDI-TOF-MS.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, João; Pintado, Manuela E; Peixe, Luísa V; Osório, Hugo

2014-01-01

63

Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis Using MALDI-TOF-MS  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, João; Pintado, Manuela E.; Peixe, Luísa V.; Osório, Hugo

2014-01-01

64

Recurrent Isolation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Resistant Spores of Bacillus pumilus from a Spacecraft Assembly Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware.

Kempf, Michael J.; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-06-01

65

Recurrent isolation of hydrogen peroxide-resistant spores of Bacillus pumilus from a spacecraft assembly facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses identified these strains as Bacillus pumilus. This Bacillus species was found in both unclassified (entrance floors, anteroom, and air-lock) and classified (floors, cabinet tops, and air) locations. Both vegetative cells and spores of several B. pumilus isolates were exposed to 5% liquid H2O2 for 60 min. Spores of each strain exhibited higher resistance than their respective vegetative cells to liquid H2O2. Results indicate that the H2O2 resistance observed in both vegetative cells and spores is strain-specific, as certain B. pumilus strains were two to three times more resistant than a standard Bacillus subtilis dosimetry strain. An example of this trend was observed when the type strain of B. pumilus, ATCC 7061, proved sensitive, whereas several environmental strains exhibited varying degrees of resistance, to H2O2. Repeated isolation of H2O2-resistant strains of B. pumilus in a clean-room is a concern because their persistence might potentially compromise life-detection missions, which have very strict cleanliness and sterility requirements for spacecraft hardware.

Kempf, Michael J.; Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-01-01

66

The abiotic and biotic plant stress tolerant and beneficial secondary metabolites produced by endophytic Bacillus species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of endophytic bacteria and their potential for protecting crops has targeted the endophytic species of Bacillus as a valued microorganism not only for disease protection but also for inducing plant defense mechanisms. Numerous strains of Bacillus, endophytic and non-endophytic, are widely...

67

Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus pumilus gene for ferulic acid decarboxylase.  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding a ferulic acid decarboxylase (fdc) was identified and isolated by its ability to promote ferulic acid decarboxylation in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The DNA sequence of the fdc gene was determined, and the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli was purified and characterized. PMID:8534115

Zago, A; Degrassi, G; Bruschi, C V

1995-01-01

68

Production and partial characterization of endoxylanase by Bacillus pumilus using agro industrial residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro industrial residues, cheap sources of energy have high potential in the area of fermentation for the production of lignocellulases. Different agro industrial waste products were evaluated as substrates in submerged and solid-state fermentation for xylanolytic enzyme production by Bacillus pumilus and the enzyme titers were compared. Higher titer of endoxylanase was obtained with solid state than with liquid fermentation

C. Asha Poorna; P. Prema

2006-01-01

69

Surfactin-like structures of five cyclic depsipeptides from the marine isolate of Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cyclic depsipeptides with molecular masses of 1007, 1021, 1021, 1035, and 1035 were obtained fromBacillus pumilus KMM 150 associated with Australian marine spongeIrcinia sp. Their structures were assigned by mass spectrometric techniques (high-resolution fast atom bombardment and electron impact mass spectrometry), chemical modification, and extensive spectroscopic analysis, including several types of two-dimensional NMR.

N. I. Kalinovskaya; T. A. Kuznetsova; Ya. V. Rashkes; Yu. M. Mil'grom; E. G. Mil'grom; R. H. Willis; A. I. Wood; H. A. Kurtz; C. Carabedian; P. Murphy; G. B. Elyakov

1995-01-01

70

Cell physiology of the biotechnological relevant bacterium Bacillus pumilus-an omics-based approach.  

PubMed

Members of the species Bacillus pumilus get more and more in focus of the biotechnological industry as potential new production strains. Based on exoproteome analysis, B. pumilus strain Jo2, possessing a high secretion capability, was chosen for an omics-based investigation. The proteome and metabolome of B. pumilus cells growing either in minimal or complex medium was analyzed. In total, 1542 proteins were identified in growing B. pumilus cells, among them 1182 cytosolic proteins, 297 membrane and lipoproteins and 63 secreted proteins. This accounts for about 43% of the 3616 proteins encoded in the B. pumilus Jo2 genome sequence. By using GC-MS, IP-LC/MS and H NMR methods numerous metabolites were analyzed and assigned to reconstructed metabolic pathways. In the genome sequence a functional secretion system including the components of the Sec- and Tat-secretion machinery was found. Analysis of the exoproteome revealed secretion of about 70 proteins with predicted secretion signals. In addition, selected production-relevant genome features such as restriction modification systems and NRPS clusters of B. pumilus Jo2 are discussed. PMID:25281541

Handtke, Stefan; Volland, Sonja; Methling, Karen; Albrecht, Dirk; Becher, Dörte; Nehls, Jenny; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Lalk, Michael; Liesegang, Heiko; Voigt, Birgit; Daniel, Rolf; Hecker, Michael

2014-12-20

71

The acetyl xylan esterase of Bacillus pumilus belongs to a family of esterases with broad substrate specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus pumilus gene encoding acetyl xylan esterase (axe) was identified and characterized. The axe gene was expressed and the recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli was purified and characterized. The recombinant enzyme displayed similar properties to the acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) purified from B. pumilus. The AXE primary structure was 76% identical to the cephalosporin C deacetylase of B.

Giuliano Degrassi; Milan Kojic; Goran Ljubijankic; Vittorio Venturi

2000-01-01

72

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus 7P, Isolated from the Soil of the Tatarstan Republic, Russia.  

PubMed

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 7P. This strain was isolated from soil as an extracellular RNase-producing microorganism. The RNase of B. pumilus 7P is considered to be a potential antiviral and therapeutic antitumor agent, and it might be appropriate for agriculture and academic synthesis of oligoribonucleotides. PMID:24926064

Shagimardanova, Elena I; Toymentseva, Anna A; Balaban, Nelly P; Mardanova, Ayslu M; Danilova, Yulia V; Gusev, Oleg A; Kostryukova, Elena; Karpova, Irina; Manolov, Aleksandr; Alexeev, Dmitriy; Sharipova, Margarita R

2014-01-01

73

Draft Whole Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain 3-19, a Chemical Mutant Overproducing Extracellular Ribonuclease  

PubMed Central

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. It was derived from soil-isolated B. pumilus 7P using chemical mutagenesis and is characterized by elevated production of extracellular ribonuclease which is known to possess different biological activities with potential of applications in experimental research, medicine, and biotechnology. PMID:25059870

Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

74

Draft Whole Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain 3-19, a Chemical Mutant Overproducing Extracellular Ribonuclease.  

PubMed

Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain 3-19. It was derived from soil-isolated B. pumilus 7P using chemical mutagenesis and is characterized by elevated production of extracellular ribonuclease which is known to possess different biological activities with potential of applications in experimental research, medicine, and biotechnology. PMID:25059870

Ulyanova, Vera; Shah Mahmud, Raihan; Dudkina, Elena; Vershinina, Valentina; Ilinskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

75

Cloning of high activity xylanase gene from Bacillus pumilus PJ19.  

PubMed

The xylanase gene from Bacillus pumilus PJ19 amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was cloned into pCRII vector and transformed into Escherichia coli strain INValphaF'. Starting from an ATG as an initiator codon, an open reading frame coding for 202 amino acids was obtained. The recombinant xylanase sequence showed a 96% homology with the xylanase sequence from B. pumilus IPO strain and had an estimated molecular weight of 22,474. Xylanase activity expressed by E. coli INValphaF' harboring the cloned gene was located primarily in the cytoplasmic fraction. PMID:12385974

Hamzah, Ainon; Abdulrashid, Nooraini

2002-10-01

76

Modification of a xylanase from bacillus pumilus with pentaammineruthenium(III)  

SciTech Connect

A xylanase, xynA of Bacillus pumilus, was purified, and then modified by the attachment of pentaammineruthenium, resulting in the generation of a xylanase with veratryl alcohol oxidase activity. Modification of B. pumilus xyn A was found to greatly reduce xylan hydrolysis unless the active site of the xylanase was protected with xylose during the modification. Addition of histidine, cysteine, or reduced glutathione during xylan hydrolysis greatly increased xylanase activity of the modified xylanase. Glycine, glutamic acid, methionine, or oxidized glutathione had no effect on xylanase activity. The site of attachment of pentaammineruthenium, was identified as His-160 by mass spectroscopy and sequence determination of tryptic peptides from modified and native xylanase.

Evans, B.R.; Lane, L.; Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

77

Molecular cloning of enantioselective ester hydrolase from Bacillus pumilus DBRL-191  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene from Bacillus pumilus expressed under its native promoter was cloned in Escherichia coli. Recombinant B. pumilus esterase (BPE) affects the kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures such as unsubstituted and substituted 1-(phenyl)ethanols (E?33–103), ethyl 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate (E?45–71), trans-4-fluorophenyl-3-hydroxymethyl-N-methylpiperidine (E?10–13) and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyrate (E?7). The enzyme is composed of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 181-amino acid mature protein corresponding

Shafaq Rasool; Sarojini Johri; Syed Riyaz-ul-Hassan; Qurrat-ul-Ain Maqbool; Vijeshwar Verma; Surrinder Koul; Subhash C. Taneja; Ghulam N. Qazi

2005-01-01

78

Antibiotic production and biocontrol activity by Bacillus subtilis CL27 and Bacillus pumilus CL45.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis CL27 and B. pumilus CL45 showed similar activity against Botrytis cinerea in in vitro plate assays. In a seedling bioassay, however, B. subtilis CL27 had activity similar to a commercial fungicide while B. pumilus CL45 failed completely to prevent seedling damping-off caused by Bot. cinerea. Antibiotic production by the two Bacillus strains was found to depend on the growth substrate and highest antibiotic production was found on media based on homogenized cabbage tissue. Antibiotic activity was found to depend on the pH and nutrient concentration in the assay medium. Antifungal antibiotics produced by B. subtilis CL27 and B. pumilus CL45 in different fermentation media were separated by thin layer chromatography. As suspected from the activity spectrum, three antibiotics (one with activity against Alternaria brassicicola, one with activity against Botrytis cinerea and one with activity against both fungi) could be detected in the fermentation broth of CL27, but only one in the fermentation broth of CL45. The two antibiotics produced by strain CL27 with activity against A. brassicicola were identified as peptides since their bands on the TLC plates developed a green to blue/green colour after treatment with 4,4'-tetramethyldiamino-diphenylmethane (TDM) reagent. The third antibiotics produced by strain CL27 and antibiotic produced by CL45 had a similar Rf-value and appeared not to be peptides based on the reaction with TDM. However, they showed a slightly different activity spectrum when tested against a range of different fungi. Antibiotic production was clearly indicated as the mode of action of in vivo biocontrol by strain CL27 against damping off caused by Bot. cinerea of Astilbe micro-plants, because a u.v.-induced antibiotic negative mutant strain CL27b showed no activity in seedling bioassays in vivo. Also the mutant strain CL27a which produced the two peptide antibiotics but had lost the ability to produce the non-peptide antibiotic, showed greatly reduced in vivo activity. PMID:7698955

Leifert, C; Li, H; Chidburee, S; Hampson, S; Workman, S; Sigee, D; Epton, H A; Harbour, A

1995-02-01

79

Isolation and biochemical characterization of Bacillus pumilus lipases from the Antarctic.  

PubMed

Lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from Antarctic soil samples using the tricaprylin agar plate method. Seven strains with relatively strong lipase activities were selected. All of them turned out to be Bacillus pumilus strains by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their corresponding lipase genes were cloned, sequenced, and compared. Finally, three different Bacillus pumilus lipases (BPL1, BPL2, and BPL3) were chosen. Their amino acid sequence identities were in the range of 92-98% with the previous Bacillus pumilus lipases. Their optimum temperatures and pHs were measured to be 40 degrees C and pH 9. Lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL2 were stable up to 30 degrees C, whereas lipase BPL3 was stable up to 20 degrees C. Lipase BPL2 was stable within a pH range of 6-10, whereas lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL3 were stable within a pH range of 5-11, showing strong alkaline tolerance. All these lipases exhibited high hydrolytic activity toward pnitrophenyl caprylate (C8). In addition, lipase BPL1 showed high hydrolytic activity toward tributyrin, whereas lipase BPL2 and lipase BPL3 hydrolyzed tricaprylin and castor oil preferentially. These results demonstrated that the three Antarctic Bacillus lipases were alkaliphilic and had a substrate preference toward short- and mediumchain triglycerides. These Antarctic Bacillus lipases might be used in detergent and food industries. PMID:23648856

Arifin, Arild Ranlym; Kim, Soon-Ja; Yim, Joung Han; Suwanto, Antonius; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2013-05-01

80

Resistance and recovery studies on ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus  

SciTech Connect

A spore suspension model and a procedure for recovering ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus were investigated. A most-probable-number tube dilution method using double-strength Trypticase soy broth was found to be superior to the agar plate method for recovering optimal numbers of spores irradiated with sublethal doses of uv energy. Aqueous suspensions of B. pumilus survived uv doses up to 108,000 ergs/mm/sup 2/ as determined by a most-probable-number recovery and estimation procedure. Resistance and stability data were consistent and reproducible, indicating the dependability of this method for recovering uv-damaged spores. The procedures used to collect information concerning resistance characteristics for two strains of B. pumilus are discussed.

Abshire, R.L.; Bain, B.; Williams, T.

1980-04-01

81

2,5-Diketopiperazines produced by Bacillus pumilus during bacteriolysis of Arthrobacter citreus.  

PubMed

We report the detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the secreted 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) cyclo(-Ala-Pro), cyclo(-Gly-Pro), cyclo(-Val-Pro), cyclo(-Ile-Pro), cyclo(-Leu-Pro), cyclo(-Pro-Pro), cyclo(-HyP-Pro), cyclo(-Met-Pro), and cyclo(-Phe-Pro) produced by Bacillus pumilus. The study focuses on a marine isolate and a laboratory test strain of B. pumilus with capabilities to lyse pregrown living cell lawns of different bacterial species, among them Arthrobacter citreus. Chromatographic methods were used to analyze induced bioactive compounds. At least 13 different DKPs are produced by B. pumilus. Both strains respond with an increased production of the DKPs cyclo(-Gly-Pro), cyclo(-Ala-Pro), and cyclo(-Val-Pro) to the presence of pasteurized A. citreus cells after 4 h in a nutrient-poor liquid medium. In agar diffusion assays, these DKPs did not cause lysis zones in living cell lawns, but they did inhibit further growth of several pregrown test bacteria in microplates even at concentrations as low as 1 ?g ml(-1). Antibiotic substances produced by B. pumilus after 20 h of cultivation in a special lysis medium showed lytic activity in cell-free extracts of B. pumilus culture supernatants. PMID:24449388

Brack, Christiane; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

2014-08-01

82

Sterilizing Bacillus pumilus spores using supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) has been evaluated as a new sterilization technology. Results are presented on killing of B. pumilus spores using SC CO2 containing trace levels of additives. Complete killing was achieved with 200 part per million (ppm) hydrogen peroxide in SC CO2 at 60°C, 27.5MPa. Addition of water to SC CO2 resulted in greater than three-log killing,

Jian Zhang; Sarah Burrows; Courtney Gleason; Michael A. Matthews; Michael J. Drews; Martine LaBerge; Yuehuei H. An

2006-01-01

83

Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease. PMID:25242920

Sangeetha, R; Arulpandi, I; Geetha, A

2014-01-01

84

Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2  

PubMed Central

Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease. PMID:25242920

Sangeetha, R.; Arulpandi, I.; Geetha, A.

2014-01-01

85

[Molecular docking of Bacillus pumilus xylanase and xylan substrate using computer modeling].  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus xylanase was cloned and sequenced. Based on the tertiary structure that originated from homology modeling, the potential active pocket was searched and ligand-protein docking was performed using relative softwares. The information extracted from the molecular docking is analyzed; several amino acid residues might play a vital role in the xylanase catalytic reaction are obtained to instruct the further modification of xylanase directed-evolution. PMID:17822050

Lin, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Liao-Yuan; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Fang, Bai-Shan

2007-07-01

86

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of Bacillus pumilus IPO xylanase.  

PubMed

The xylan-degrading enzyme xylanase, from Bacillus pumilus IPO, has been crystallized. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21 with a = 40.8 A, b = 66.8 A, c = 34.7 A and beta = 103.0 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of Mr 22,500. The crystals diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution, and they are suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis at high resolution. PMID:3586024

Moriyama, H; Hata, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Sato, M; Shinmyo, A; Tanaka, N; Okada, H; Katsube, Y

1987-01-01

87

CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three- dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of

Dakshina Jandhyala; Mark Berman; Paul R. Meyers; B. Trevor Sewell; Richard C. Willson; Michael J. Benedik

2003-01-01

88

A new organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus pumilus 115b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five out of the nine benzene–toulene–ethylbenzene-xylene (BTEX) tolerant bacteria that demonstrated high protease activity\\u000a on skim milk agar were isolated. Among them, isolate 115b identified as Bacillus pumilus exhibited the highest protease production. The protease produced was stable in 25% (v\\/v) benzene and toluene and it was activated\\u000a 1.7 and 2.5- fold by n-dodecane and n-tetradecane, respectively. The gene encoding

Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman; Shalihah Mahamad; Abu Bakar Salleh; Mahiran Basri

2007-01-01

89

Inhibition of aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six isolates of Bacillus pumilus were tested for their ability to inhibit aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus\\u000a NRRL 2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth. Aflatoxin production was inhibited in both simultaneous and deferred antagonism\\u000a assays, suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolite(s) produced in cell-free supernatant fluids\\u000a of cultured broth. The inhibition was not due to

Célestin Munimbazi; Lloyd B. Bullerman

1997-01-01

90

Gene Cloning and Expression of an Alkaline Serine Protease with Dehairing Function from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new gene (named AP gene) encoding an alkaline serine protease with dehairing function was cloned from Bacillus pumilus UN-31-C-42 and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The expression of AP gene was induced with IPTG in Escherichia coli after the mature protease region was cloned into pET15b and SDS-PAGE showed expressed product clearly, but no alkaline protease activity was detected.

Jiao Pan; Qing Huang; YiZheng Zhang

2004-01-01

91

Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Alkaline Serine Protease with Dehairing Function from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular alkaline serine protease (called DHAP), produced by a Bacillus pumilus strain, demonstrates significant dehairing function. This protease is purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography,\\u000a ion exchange, and gel filtration. DHAP had a pI of 9.0 and a molecular weight of approximately 32,000 Dalton. It shows maximal\\u000a activity at pH 10 and with a temperature of 55°C; the enzyme activity

Qing Huang; Yong Peng; Xin Li; Haifeng Wang; Yizheng Zhang

2003-01-01

92

Purification and some properties of the extracellular protease of Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernatant of a culture ofBacillus pumilus D 78 was precipitated with ethanol and chromatographed on DEAE- and CM-cellulose to isolate and purify a neutral protease\\u000a with fibrinolytic and caseinolytic activity. Analysis by ultracentrifugation and immunoelectrophoresis indicate the homogeneity\\u000a of the purified enzyme with the sedimentation constant s20,w equal to 2.3. The fibrinolytic activity had a lower heat stability and was

J. Fabián

1970-01-01

93

Characterization of Surfactin-like Cyclic Depsipeptides Synthesized by Bacillus pumilus from Ascidian Halocynthia aurantium  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A marine bacterium (KMM 1364), identified as Bacillus pumilus, was isolated from the surface of ascidian Halocynthia aurantium. Structural analysis revealed that the strain KMM 1364 produced a mixture of lipopeptide surfactin analogs with major components\\u000a with molecular masses of 1035, 1049, 1063, and 1077. The variation in molecular weight represents changes in the number of\\u000a methylene groups in

Natalie I. Kalinovskaya; Tatyana A. Kuznetsova; Elena P. Ivanova; Ludmila A. Romanenko; Valery G. Voinov; Felix Huth; Hartmut Laatsch

2002-01-01

94

High-level xylanase production by alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus ASH produced a high level of an extracellular and thermostable xylanase enzyme when grown using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Among a few easily available lignocellulosics tested, wheat bran was found to be the best substrate (5,300 U\\/g of dry bacterial bran). Maximum xylanase production was achieved in 72 h (5,824 U\\/g). Higher xylanase activity was obtained when wheat bran was moistened with

Bindu Battan; Jitender Sharma; R. C. Kuhad

2006-01-01

95

Soybean-milk-coagulating activity of Bacillus pumilus derives from a serine proteinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus pumilus strain TYO-67, which was able to coagulate the protein in soybean milk, was characterized enzymologically. The optimum pH\\u000a and temperature for its activities were 9.0 and 50?°C, respectively. The enzyme was strongly believed to be a serine proteinase\\u000a because it was completely inhibited by the addition of diisopropyl fluorophosphate or phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. Hammerstein\\u000a milk

M. Aoyama; M. Yasuda; K. Nakachi; N. Kobamoto; H. Oku; F. Kato

2000-01-01

96

Purification and characterization of a soybean-milk-coagulating enzyme from Bacillus pumilus TYO-67  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus TYO-67 was isolated from tofu (soybean curd) as the best producer of a soybean-milk-coagulating enzyme, induced by the addition\\u000a of soybean protein to the growth medium. The enzyme was purified approximately 30-fold with an 11% yield. The homogeneous\\u000a preparation of the enzyme showed that it is a monomer with a molecular mass of about 30?kDa and has an

M. Yasuda; M. Aoyama; M. Sakaguchi; K. Nakachi; N. Kobamoto

1999-01-01

97

Surfactant activity of a naphthalene degrading Bacillus pumilus strain isolated from oil sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the growth, biosurfactant activities and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds utilisation of strain 28-11 isolated from a solid waste oil. The isolate was identified as Bacillus pumilus. It grew well in the presence of 0.1% (w\\/v) of crude oil and naphthalene under aerobic conditions and utilised these substances as carbon and energy source. The capacity of strain 28-11 to emulsify

C Calvo; F. L Toledo; J González-López

2004-01-01

98

Expression and characterization of Ca 2+-independent lipase from Bacillus pumilus B26  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipase-producing Bacillus pumilus strain (B26) was isolated from a soil sample collected in Korea. The cloned gene showed that the lipase B26 composed of a 34-amino-acid signal sequence and a 181-amino-acid mature part corresponding to a molecular mass (Mr) of 19,225. Based on the Mr and the protein sequence, the lipase B26 belongs to the lipase family I.4. The

Hyung Kwoun Kim; Hwa Jung Choi; Myung Hee Kim; Cheon Bae Sohn; Tae Kwang Oh

2002-01-01

99

Sterilization of Bacillus pumilus spores using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide containing various modifier solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) with small amounts of chemical modifier(s) provides a very effective sterilization technique that should be useful for destroying microorganism on heat-sensitive devices such as instruments flown on planetary-bound spacecraft. Under a moderate temperature (50 °C) and pressure (100 atm), spores of Bacillus pumilus strains ATCC 7061 and SAFR 032 can be effectively inactivated\\/eliminated from metal surfaces and

Edison Shieh; Andrzej Paszczynski; Chien M. Wai; Qingyong Lang; Ronald L. Crawford

2009-01-01

100

First report of a bifunctional chitinase\\/lysozyme produced by Bacillus pumilus SG2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus SG2 isolated from high salinity ecosystem in Iran produces two chitinases (ChiS and ChiL) and secretes them into the medium. In this study, chiS and chiL genes were cloned in pQE-30 expression vector and were expressed in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli strain M15. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA column. The optimum pH and optimum temperature

Seyedhadi Ghasemi; Gholamreza Ahmadian; Mehdi Sadeghi; Daniel R. Zeigler; Heshmatollah Rahimian; Soheila Ghandili; Neda Naghibzadeh; Ali Dehestani

2011-01-01

101

Developing a new production host from a blueprint: Bacillus pumilus as an industrial enzyme producer  

PubMed Central

Background Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch. To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. Results To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel’s industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an ?-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. Conclusions In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the basis for a next generation production host, since the strain has still a large potential for further genetic engineering. The final amylase titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer suggests that the developed B. pumilus expression platform is also suitable for an efficient production of non-proteolytic enzymes reaching a final titer of several grams per liter without complex process modifications. PMID:24661794

2014-01-01

102

Antibacterial Metabolites and Bacteriolytic Enzymes Produced by Bacillus pumilus During Bacteriolysis of Arthrobacter citreus.  

PubMed

The marine isolate Bacillus pumilus SBUG 1800 is able to lyse living cells of Arthrobacter citreus on solid media as well as pasteurized A. citreus cells in liquid mineral salt medium. The cultivation of B. pumilus in the presence of pasteurized A. citreus is accompanied by an enhanced production of 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs). DKPs inhibit bacterial growth, but do not seem to cause bacteriolysis. This study shows that B. pumilus also lyses living cells of A. citreus in co-culture experiments as an intraguild predator, even if the inoculum of B. pumilus is low. In order to characterize the bacteriolytic process, more precisely changes in the extracellular metabolome and proteome have been analyzed under different culture conditions. Besides the known DKPs, a number of different pumilacidins and bacteriolytic enzymes are produced. Two lipopeptides with [M?+?H](+)?=?1008 and [M?+?H](+)?=?1022 were detected and are proposed to be pumilacidin H and I. While the lipopeptides lyse living bacterial cells in lysis test assays, a set of extracellular enzymes degrades the dead cell material. Two of the cell wall hydrolases involved have been identified as N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. These findings together with electron microscopic and cell growth monitoring during co-culture experiments give a detailed view on the bacteriolytic process. PMID:25678259

Brack, Christiane; Mikolasch, Annett; Schlueter, Rabea; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; Wegner, Uwe; Albrecht, Dirk; Riedel, Katharina; Schauer, Frieder

2015-06-01

103

Probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 shapes the intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in grouper Epinephelus coioides.  

PubMed

The health benefits of probiotics are thought to occur, at least in part, through an improved intestinal microbial balance in fish, although the molecular mechanisms whereby probiotics modulate the intestinal microbiota by means of activation of mucosal immunity are rarely explored. In this study, the effects of viable and heat-inactivated probiotic Bacillus pumilus SE5 on the intestinal dominant microbial community and mucosal immune gene expression were evaluated. The fish were fed for 60 d with 3 different diets: control (without probiotic), and diets T1 and T2 supplemented with 1.0 × 10? cells g?¹ viable and heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5, respectively. Upregulated expression of TLR1, TLR2 and IL-8, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the viable probiotic, while elevated expression of TLR2, IL-8 and TGF-?1, but not MyD88 was observed in fish fed the heat-inactivated B. pumilus SE5. The induced activation of intestinal mucosal immunity, especially the enhanced expression of antibacterial epinecidin-1, was consistent with the microbial data showing that several potentially pathogenic bacterial species such as Psychroserpens burtonensis and Pantoea agglomerans were suppressed by both the viable and heat-inactivated probiotic B. pumilus SE5. These results lay the foundation for future studies on the molecular interactions between probiotics, intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity in fish. PMID:25266899

Yang, Hong-Ling; Xia, Han-Qin; Ye, Yi-Dan; Zou, Wen-Chao; Sun, Yun-Zhang

2014-09-30

104

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

PubMed Central

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess whether new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat products. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens species. Both RAPD-PCR and fAFLP analyses demonstrated that a high genetic heterogeneity is present in the B. subtilis group even in strains harvested from the same source, making it possible to isolate 56 different biotypes. Moreover, fAFLP analysis made it possible to distinguish B. subtilis from B. pumilus strains. The strains were characterized for their toxigenic potential by molecular, physiological, and immunological techniques. Specific PCR analyses revealed the absence of DNA sequences related to HBL, BcET, NHE, and entFM Bacillus cereus enterotoxins and the enzymes sphingomyelinase Sph and phospholipase PI-PLC in all strains; also, the immunological analyses showed that Bacillus strains did not react with NHE- and HBL-specific antibodies. However, some isolates were found to be positive for hemolytic and lecithinase activity. The absence of toxigenic potential in Bacillus strains from the sausages analyzed indicates that these products can be considered safe under the processing conditions they were produced; however, great care should be taken when the ripening time is shortened, particularly in the case of traditional sausages, which could contain high amounts of Bacillus strains and possibly some B. cereus cells. PMID:15345396

Matarante, Alessandra; Baruzzi, Federico; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Morea, Maria

2004-01-01

105

MALDI-TOFMS compared with other polyphasic taxonomy approaches for the identification and classification of Bacillus pumilus spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) protein profiling for identifying and differentiating bacterial species, several strains of Bacillus pumilus were examined in a thorough taxonomic study incorporating a polyphasic approach. Sixteen isolates of putative B. pumilus isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities, the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and the International Space Station, were characterized for their

Danielle N Dickinson; Myron T La Duc; Masataka Satomi; James D Winefordner; David H Powell; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

2004-01-01

106

Selection of a Bacillus pumilus strain highly active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) larvae.  

PubMed

Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:20038689

Molina, C Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

2010-03-01

107

Selection of a Bacillus pumilus Strain Highly Active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Larvae?  

PubMed Central

Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata. PMID:20038689

Molina, C. Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F.; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

2010-01-01

108

Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay  

SciTech Connect

The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. (Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Johnston, IA (USA))

1991-03-01

109

Molecular characterization of cellulose-degrading Bacillus pumilus from the soil of tea garden, Darjeeling hills, India.  

PubMed

Bio-fuel produced from ethanol is economically and environmentally advantageous in context of changing global climate. A large number of microorganisms are capable of cellulase production but most of them cannot be utilized commercially due to their low activity. In the present study, an effiecient cellulose degrading strain of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after thorough screening for the production of extracellular cellulases. Out of a total of 144 microbes isolated from soils of Darjeeling hills of India, nineteen were found to be cellulose degrader under in vitro conditions as observed by clearing zone on CMC - agar plates. Isolate #35 had high cellulolytic activity as observed by a clearing zone of 26.83 mm diameter formed on CMC - agar plate. The isolate was characterized and identified as Bacillus pumilus. The isolate was submitted to National Agriculturally Important Microbial Culture Collection (NAIMCC), NBAIM, Mau with Accession number NAIMCC-B-01415. Transposon (Tn5) mutants of wild type isolate Bacillus pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 were generated and screened for the absence of cellulose degradation. Of 365 B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 mutants obtained, only two were unable to degrade cellulose under in vitro conditions. Inverse PCR studies with B. pumilus NAIMCC-B-01415 :: TL5, a cellulose degradation mutant of B. pumilus NAIMCC -B-01415 revealed presence of Cys B (Cystein protein regulatory) gene involved in cellulose degradation. The participation of Cys B gene in cellulase degradation is reported here. PMID:24813013

Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Sarkar, Kanishendranath; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Srivastava, Sunita

2014-05-01

110

Sugarcane bagasse pulps: biobleaching with commercial cartazyme HS and with Bacillus pumilus xylanase.  

PubMed

Organosolv (ethanol/water and acetosolv) pulps were treated with Bacillus pumilus xylanase for 4, 8, and 12 h and compared with commercial Cartazyme HS xylanase-treated pulps. Treatment of ethanol/water pulps with B. pumilus xylanase increased viscosity by 40% in 8 h of treatment compared with pulps treated without enzyme. However, acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus xylanase lost viscosity. Ethanol/water pulps treated with Cartazyme had a viscosity of 18.5 cP in 4 h of treatment. In the acetosolv pulps treated with commercial enzyme, the loss of viscosity was 20% compared with pulps treated without enzyme. Ethanol/water pulps treated with B. pumilus and Cartazyme had similar effects: a 44% reduction in kappa number for pulps treated with enzyme followed by alkaline extraction compared with pulps treated with alkaline extraction. In acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus, the kappa number was from 12 to 18, compared with pulps treated without enzyme, which had a 40% reduction in 4 and 12 h and a 60% reduction in 8 h. Cartazyme-treated acetosolv pulps had a kappa number of 14 in 4 and 8 h of treatment. For 12 h of treatment, the kappa number was 8. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the pulps showed that enzyme-treated pulps had changes in the 1000 cm-1 absorption owing to a C-O bond present in esters. Using principal component analysis, it is possible to differentiate the unbleached pulps and enzyme-treated pulps. PMID:15917597

Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

2005-01-01

111

Isolation, purification and characterisation of low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight endo-xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 was purified to homogeneity using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatographies. Xylanases were isolated by novel purification protocol which includes the use of anion exchange matrix such as DEAE Sepharose CL 6B with less affinity towards enzyme protein. The purified B. pumilus SSP-34 have a molecular weight of 20 kDa, with optimum pH and temperature at 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 50 °C for 30 min. It showed remarkable stability at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9 when the reaction was carried out at 50 °C. K (m) and V (max) values, determined with oats spelts xylan were 6.5 mg ml?¹ and 1,233 ?mol min?¹ mg?¹ protein, respectively, and the specific activity was 1,723 U mg?¹. PMID:22350873

Subramaniyan, S

2012-04-01

112

Molecular cloning of enantioselective ester hydrolase from Bacillus pumilus DBRL-191.  

PubMed

A gene from Bacillus pumilus expressed under its native promoter was cloned in Escherichia coli. Recombinant B. pumilus esterase (BPE) affects the kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures such as unsubstituted and substituted 1-(phenyl)ethanols (E approximately 33-103), ethyl 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate (E approximately 45-71), trans-4-fluorophenyl-3-hydroxymethyl-N-methylpiperidine (E approximately 10-13) and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyrate (E approximately 7). The enzyme is composed of a 34-amino acid signal peptide and a 181-amino acid mature protein corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 19.2kD and pI approximately 9.4. 3-D the structural model of the enzyme built by homology modelling using the atomic coordinates from the crystal structure of B. subtilis lipase (LipA) showed a compact minimal alpha/beta hydrolase fold. PMID:16006072

Rasool, Shafaq; Johri, Sarojini; Riyaz-ul-Hassan, Syed; Maqbool, Qurrat-ul-Ain; Verma, Vijeshwar; Koul, Surrinder; Taneja, Subhash C; Qazi, Ghulam N

2005-08-01

113

Characterization of cis-acting elements residing in the chitinase promoter of Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus SG2 is a chitinolytic bacterium that produces two chitinases, namely ChiS and ChiL. The chiS and chiL genes are consecutively expressed under a common promoter. Regulation of the chiS and chiL genes is under the control of carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in B. pumilus. This study aimed to investigate the cis-acting elements of the chitinase promoter. For this purpose, we transferred the chiS gene along with its specific promoter to Bacillus subtilis as a host. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription start sites located 287 and 65 bp upstream of the chiS start codon. The distal promoter was highly compatible with the consensus sequence of the ?(A)-type promoters in B. subtilis, whereas the proximal promoter sequence showed less similarity to the ?(A)-type consensus sequence. A catabolite responsive element (cre), which is required for CCR in Bacillus species, was found to be 136 to 123 bp upstream of the chiS start codon. Interestingly, this cre site was located upstream of the -35 of the proximal promoter and downstream of the distal promoter. Deletion of this cre site sequence rendered the chiS expression constitutive. PMID:24293243

Heravi, K Morabbi; Shali, A; Naghibzadeh, N; Ahmadian, G

2014-05-01

114

Cloning of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase gene ( xynB ?) and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic DNA library of the bacterium Bacillus pumilus PLS was constructed and the ?-xylosidase gene (xynB) was amplified from a 3-kb genomic DNA fragment with the aid of the polymerase chain reaction technique. The amplified xynB gene was inserted between the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences on a multicopy

D. C. La Grange; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. van Zyl

1997-01-01

115

Purification and characterization of a new bioscouring pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus BK2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkalophilic bacterium was isolated based on the potential of extra-cellular enzymes for bioscouring. The bacterium was identified as a new strain of Bacillus pumilus BK2 producing an extra-cellular endo-pectate lyase PL (EC 4.2.2.2). PL was purified to homogeneity in three steps and has a molecular mass of 37.3±4.8kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and an isoelectric point of pH 8.5.

Barbara G. Klug-Santner; Wolfgang Schnitzhofer; Maria Vršanská; Jörg Weber; Pramod B. Agrawal; Vincent A. Nierstrasz; Georg M. Guebitz

2006-01-01

116

Endophytic bacteria in rice seeds inhibit early colonization of roots by Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the rhizoplane of Oryza sativa, vars. Morelos A-88 and Apatzingan, rice plantlets, we isolated two bacterial strains: Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus. By scanning electron microscopy, endophytic bacteria were frequently identified at the base of secondary roots, between the epidermis and the mucilaginous layer. Endophytes were also identified in the intercellular spaces when the mucilaginous layer was disrupted. These

M Bacilio-Jiménez; S Aguilar-Flores; M. V del Valle; A Pérez; A Zepeda; E Zenteno

2001-01-01

117

Bacillus pumilus in the induction of clindamycin-associated enterocolitis in guinea pigs.  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic-associated enterocolitis was induced in guinea pigs by the intraperitoneal injection of clindamycin. The colonic and cecal mucosa and feces of acutely ill animals were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on 5% sheep blood agar plates and on a selective and differential medium for Clostridium difficile. All morphologically distinct colony types were isolated in pure culture and identified. A sterile cell-free filtrate of each isolate was tested for ability to induce morphological changes in cultured monolayers of mouse adrenal cells. The filtrate of a predominant isolate, Bacillus pumilus, induced an alteration of cellular morphology; the sterile filtrate of other isolates were unreactive. Toxin contained in cell-free filtrates of B. pumilus caused a syndrome identical to clindamycin-associated enterocolitis when injected intracecally into guinea pigs. The toxin had a molecular weight of 6,500 daltons as determined by molecular sieve chromatography and was inactivated with pronase, lipase, and trypsin. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and vancomycin for B. pumilus were 50 micrograms/ml and less than or equal to 0.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. Images PMID:7033138

Brophy, P F; Knoop, F C

1982-01-01

118

Improved activity and thermostability of Bacillus pumilus lipase by directed evolution.  

PubMed

To improve enzymatic activity of Bacillus pumilus lipases, DNA shuffling was applied to two lipase genes from local B. pumilus isolates. Using a high-throughput activity assay, the mutant with highest activity was selected. This chimeric mutant (L3-3), carrying two crossover positions and three point mutations, has a specific activity 6.4 and 8.2 times higher than the two parent enzymes. The mutant also is more tolerant to various detergents and organic solvents, and has a 9 times longer half-life at 50 °C. Homology modeling of mutant L3-3, based on the highly homologous B. subtilis lipase A, shows that the increased thermostability is likely due to structural rigidification and reduced surface hydrophobicity. Increased specific activity may result from the location of mutations close to the active site. Together, our results show that it is possible to evolve, by DNA shuffling, B. pumilus lipase variants with improved applicability as biocatalysts, even if the two parent enzymes are highly similar. PMID:23313890

Akbulut, Nagihan; Tuzlako?lu Öztürk, Merve; Pijning, Tjaard; ??sever Öztürk, Saliha; Gümü?el, Füsun

2013-03-10

119

Bacillus pumilus in the induction of clindamycin-associated enterocolitis in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-associated enterocolitis was induced in guinea pigs by the intraperitoneal injection of clindamycin. The colonic and cecal mucosa and feces of acutely ill animals were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions on 5% sheep blood agar plates and on a selective and differential medium for Clostridium difficile. All morphologically distinct colony types were isolated in pure culture and identified. A sterile cell-free filtrate of each isolate was tested for ability to induce morphological changes in cultured monolayers of mouse adrenal cells. The filtrate of a predominant isolate, Bacillus pumilus, induced an alteration of cellular morphology; the sterile filtrate of other isolates were unreactive. Toxin contained in cell-free filtrates of B. pumilus caused a syndrome identical to clindamycin-associated enterocolitis when injected intracecally into guinea pigs. The toxin had a molecular weight of 6,500 daltons as determined by molecular sieve chromatography and was inactivated with pronase, lipase, and trypsin. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and vancomycin for B. pumilus were 50 micrograms/ml and less than or equal to 0.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:7033138

Brophy, P F; Knoop, F C

1982-01-01

120

Chitinolytic and antifungal activity of a Bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The Bacillus pumilus SG2 chitinase gene (ChiS) and its truncated form lacking chitin binding (ChBD) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains were transformed to Arabidopsis plants and the expression, functionality and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were investigated. Results showed that while the two enzyme forms showed almost equal hydrolytic activity toward colloidal chitin, they exhibited a significant difference in antifungal activity. Recombinant ChiS in plant protein extracts displayed a high inhibitory effect on spore germination and radial growth of hyphae in Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea, while the activity of the truncated enzyme was strongly abolished. These findings demonstrate that ChBD and FnIII domains are not necessary for hydrolysis of colloidal chitin but play an important role in hydrolysis of chitin-glucan complex of fungal cell walls. Twenty microgram aliquots of protein extracts from ChiS transgenic lines displayed strong antifungal activity causing up to 80% decrease in fungal spore germination. This is the first report of a Bacillus pumilus chitinase expressed in plant system. PMID:20035370

Dehestani, Ali; Kazemitabar, Kamal; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Jelodar, Nadali Babaeian; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Seyedi, Mehdi; Rahimian, Heshmat; Ghasemi, Seyedhadi

2010-04-01

121

Bacillus pumilus BpCRI 6, a promising candidate for cellulase production under conditions of catabolite repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose degrading organisms have been used for the conversion of cellulolytic materials into soluble sugars or solvents in several biotechnological and industrial applications. In this report, a mutant of Bacillus pumilus was obtained after chemical mutagenesis and screened for cellulase production. This mutant named BpCRI 6 was selected for its ability to produce cellulase under catabolite repression. Cellulase yield by

122

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Fairview, an Isolate Recovered from a Microbial Methanogenic Enrichment of Coal Seam Gas Formation Water from Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

Despite its global abundance, Bacillus pumilus is poorly studied. The Fairview strain was obtained from a methanogenic anaerobic coal digester. The draft genome sequence was 3.8 Mbp long and contained 3,890 protein-coding genes. Like the SAFR-032 strain, it includes B. pumilus-specific proteins that likely confer enhanced resistance to environmental stresses. PMID:24744330

Vockler, Cassandra J; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David J

2014-01-01

123

Xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and its effects on Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp for pulp bleaching improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular productions of ?-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-glucosidase, ?-mannanase, arabinosidase, ?-glucuronidase, ?-galactosidase and Fpase from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 were investigated with three different xylan sources as substrate. The enzymatic profiles on birchwood, Eucalyptus grandis and oat were studied at alkaline and acidic pH conditions. B. pumilus CBMAI 0008 grown on the three carbon sources produced mainly ?-xylanase. At pH 10,

Marta C Teixeira Duarte; Elizete Cristina da Silva; lsabel Menezes de Bulhões Gomes; Alexandre Nunes Ponezi; Edilberto Princi Portugal; João Roberto Vicente; Ednilson Davanzo

2003-01-01

124

Bacillus pumilus S124A carboxymethyl cellulase; a thermo stable enzyme with a wide substrate spectrum utility.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus S124A was identified as carboxymethyl cellulase producing bacteria from Azorean Bacillus collection (Lab collection), which was isolated in local soils. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA sequence and designated as Bacillus pumilus S124A. NCBI-blast analysis showed B. pumilus S124A; 16S rRNA sequence has high identity to other B. pumilus strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed B. pumilus S124A close to B. pumilus LZBP14 strain. CMcellulase was purified from cells-free supernatants and post mano-Q purification; 5.39% protein folds, and 0.88% recoveries were obtained. SDS-PAGE analysis showed molecular weight of the purified CMcellulase was estimated ?40kDa and composed of a single subunit. NonoLC ESI-MS/MS analysis was yielded four peptides, and protein has identity to other cellulases. Purified CMcellulase showed high activity to cellobiose followed by CMcellulose. Kinetic analysis showed Km, and Vmax were determined as 2.12mg/ml, 239?mol/min/mg, respectively. Optimum temperature and pH for the purified CMcellulase activity were found at 50°C and pH 6.0, respectively. Purified CMcellulase was maintained about 75% activity in a pH range of 4-8 and 70% activity in a temperature range of 40-70°C. CMcellulase activity was highly reduced by HgCl2, followed by EDTA, PMSF whereas CoCl2 was activated CMcellulase activity. PMID:24657377

Balasubramanian, Natesan; Simões, Nelson

2014-06-01

125

Use of Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and Paenibacillus sp. CBMAI 868 for colour removal from paper mill effluent  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour. PMID:24031372

de Oliveira, Patrícia Lopes; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Durrant, Lúcia Regina

2009-01-01

126

Isolation of two beta-xylosidase genes of Bacillus pumilus and comparison of their gene products.  

PubMed

The chromosomal DNA fragments of Bacillus pumilus IPO, a potent xylan-hydrolyzing bacterium, were ligated to a vector plasmid, pBR322, and used to transform Escherichia coli C600 cells. Two hybrid plasmids, pOXD28 and pOXN29, were found to enable the transformants to produce beta-xylosidase. The former was found to contain a 2.6-MDa Bg/II fragment and the latter, a 7.7-MDa PstI fragment, both coding beta-xylosidase, but xylanase is coded only on the latter hybrid plasmid. The DNAs inserted in both plasmids originated from the B. pumilus chromosome, but from different regions, as shown by Southern hybridization and the analysis of restriction fragments. beta-Xylosidases I and II, coded on pOXN29 and pOXD28 respectively, were purified to homogeneous preparations and compared. Both were dimer enzymes consisting of 65000-70000-Da subunits. Specific activity and the Km value of beta-xylosidase I to p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside as substrate were respectively 100 and 1/40 times those of beta-xylosidase II. The mobilities of beta-xylosidases I and II on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were also different. beta-Xylosidase I, the gene of which is located near the xylanase gene on pOXN29, can convert xylooligosaccharides to xylose, but beta-xylosidase II had little activity on xylobiose. These results suggest that beta-xylosidase I is the main enzyme for xylan hydrolysis in B. pumilus. PMID:6421572

Panbangred, W; Kawaguchi, O; Tomita, T; Shinmyo, A; Okada, H

1984-01-16

127

Phylogenetic Diversity of the Bacillus pumilus Group and the Marine Ecotype Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria closely related to Bacillus pumilus cannot be distinguished from such other species as B. safensis, B. stratosphericus, B. altitudinis and B. aerophilus simply by 16S rRNA gene sequence. In this report, 76 marine strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 7 housekeeping genes to understand the phylogeny and biogeography in comparison with other origins. A phylogenetic tree based on the 7 housekeeping genes concatenated in the order of gyrB-rpoB-pycA-pyrE-mutL-aroE-trpB was constructed and compared with trees based on the single genes. All these trees exhibited a similar topology structure with small variations. Our 79 strains were divided into 6 groups from A to F; Group A was the largest and contained 49 strains close to B. altitudinis. Additional two large groups were presented by B. safensis and B. pumilus respectively. Among the housekeeping genes, gyrB and pyrE showed comparatively better resolution power and may serve as molecular markers to distinguish these closely related strains. Furthermore, a recombinant phylogenetic tree based on the gyrB gene and containing 73 terrestrial and our isolates was constructed to detect the relationship between marine and other sources. The tree clearly showed that the bacteria of marine origin were clustered together in all the large groups. In contrast, the cluster belonging to B. safensis was mainly composed of bacteria of terrestrial origin. Interestingly, nearly all the marine isolates were at the top of the tree, indicating the possibility of the recent divergence of this bacterial group in marine environments. We conclude that B. altitudinis bacteria are the most widely spread of the B. pumilus group in marine environments. In summary, this report provides the first evidence regarding the systematic evolution of this bacterial group, and knowledge of their phylogenetic diversity will help in the understanding of their ecological role and distribution in marine environments. PMID:24244618

Dong, Chunming; Sun, Fengqin; Wang, Liping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

2013-01-01

128

CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies  

PubMed Central

The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of the 37-kDa subunit. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was readily expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was facilitated by the addition of a C-terminal six-histidine affinity purification tag. The tagged recombinant enzyme has Km and Vmax values similar to those published for the native enzyme. This is the first cyanide dihydratase from a gram-positive bacterium to be sequenced, and it is the first description of the structure of any member of this enzyme class. The putative amino acid sequence shares over 80% identity to the only other sequenced cyanide dihydratase, that of the gram-negative Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AK61, and is similar to a number of other bacterial and fungal nitrilases. This sequence similarity suggests that the novel short spiral structure may be typical of these enzymes. In addition, an active cyanide dihydratase from a non-cyanide-degrading isolate of B. pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site. PMID:12902273

Jandhyala, Dakshina; Berman, Mark; Meyers, Paul R.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Willson, Richard C.; Benedik, Michael J.

2003-01-01

129

Biological and genomic analysis of a PBSX-like defective phage induced from Bacillus pumilus AB94180.  

PubMed

Defective prophages, which are found in the genomes of many bacteria, are unable to complete a viral replication cycle and propagate in their hosts as healthy prophages. They package random DNA fragments derived from various sites of the host chromosome instead of their own genomes. In this study, we characterized a defective phage, PBP180, which was induced from Bacillus pumilus AB94180 by treatment with mitomycin C. Electron microscopy showed that the PBP180 particle has a head with a hexagonal outline of ~40 nm in diameter and a long tail. The DNA packaged in the PBP180 head consists of 8-kb DNA fragments from random portions of the host chromosome. The head and tail proteins of the PBP180 particle consist of four major proteins of approximately 49, 33, 16 and 14 kDa. The protein profile of PBP180 is different from that of PBSX, a well-known defective phage induced from Bacillus subtilis 168. A killing activity test against two susceptible strains each of B. subtilis and B. pumilus showed that the defective particles of PBP180 killed three strains other than its own host, B. pumilus AB94180, differing from the host-killing ranges of the defective phages PBSX, PBSZ (induced from B. subtilis W23), and PBSX4 (induced from B. pumilus AB94044). The genome of the PBP180 prophage, which is integrated in the B. pumilus AB94180 chromosome, is 28,205 bp in length, with 40 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Further genomic comparison of prophages PBP180, PBSX, PBSZ and other PBSX-like prophage elements in B. pumilus strains revealed that their overall architectures are similar, but significant low homology exists in ORF29-ORF38, which presumably encode tail fiber proteins involved in recognition and killing of susceptible strains. PMID:24154951

Jin, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Zhongsheng; Fu, Zhengwei; Fan, Junpeng; Wu, Ming; Wang, Yi; Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

2014-04-01

130

Purification and Characterization of an Acetyl Xylan Esterase from Bacillus pumilus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus PS213 was found to be able to release acetate from acetylated xylan. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was secreted, and its production was induced by corncob powder and xylan. Its molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration, is 190 kDa, while sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band of 40 kDa. The isoelectric point was found to be 4.8, and the enzyme activity was optimal at 55°C and pH 8.0. The activity was inhibited by most of the metal ions, while no enhancement was observed. The Michaelis constant (Km) and Vmax for ?-naphthyl acetate were 1.54 mM and 360 ?mol min?1 mg of protein?1, respectively. PMID:10215579

Degrassi, Giuliano; Okeke, Benedict C.; Bruschi, Carlo V.; Venturi, Vittorio

1998-01-01

131

[Secreted expression of Bacillus pumilus xylanase gene in Pichia pastoris and study on enzymatic properties].  

PubMed

The endo-1,4-xylanase gene from Bacillus pumilus HB030 was cloned into the Pichia pastoris expression vector, pPIC9k, the recombinant plasmid was named pHBM220. The digested recombinant plasmid pHBM220 was transformed into Pichia pastoris KM71, GS115, SMD1168, respectively. The recombinant Pichia pastoris KM71 (pHBM220), GS115 (pHBM220), SMD1168 (pHBM220) secreted functional endo-1,4-xylanase, and the enzymatic activities reached 10.80IU/mL, 11.63IU/mL, 9.68IU/mL, respectively. The temperature and pH optimum for the recombinant xylanase were 60 degrees C and pH5.5, respectively. PMID:15969036

Jiang, Zheng-Bing; Song, Hui-Ting; Ma, Li-Xin

2003-01-01

132

Production of alkali tolerant cellulase free xylanase in high levels by Bacillus pumilus SV-205.  

PubMed

The fermentation conditions were optimized for hyper production of xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SV-205. The bacterium secretes high levels (7382.7±1200 IU/mL) of cellulase-free xylanase using wheat bran led to 21.63 fold increase in activity. A combination of yeast extract and peptone stimulated highest xylanase production (2448.0 IU/mL) as compared to other combinations. The most important characteristic of the enzyme is its high pH stability (100%) over a broad pH range of 6-11 for 24h. Thermostability studies revealed that enzyme retained 65% activity after an incubation of 2h at 60°C. The level of production is remarkable as compared to earlier reports. PMID:22227307

Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2012-03-01

133

Characterization and a point mutational approach of a psychrophilic lipase from an arctic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

A bacterium with lipolytic activity was isolated from the Chukchi Sea within the Arctic Ocean. The lipase BpL5 from the isolate, Bacillus pumilus ArcL5, belongs to subfamily 4 of lipase family I. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme BpL5, as expressed in Escherichia coli, were 9.0 and 20 °C, respectively. The enzyme retained 85 % of its activity at 5 °C. There was a significant difference between temperatures for maximal activity (20 °C) and for protein denaturation (approx. 45 °C). The enzyme preferred middle-chain (C8) p-nitrophenyl substrates. Two mutants, S139A and S139Y, were rationally designed based on the 3D-structure model, and their activities were compared with that of the wild type. The both mutants showed significantly improved activity against tricaprylin. PMID:24563306

Wi, Ah Ram; Jeon, Sung-Jong; Kim, Sunghui; Park, Ha Ju; Kim, Dockyu; Han, Se Jong; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Han-Woo

2014-06-01

134

New derivatives of nonactic and homononactic acids from Bacillus pumilus derived from Breynia fruticosa.  

PubMed

Six new nonactic and homononactic acid derivatives, ethyl homononactate (1), ethyl nonactate (2), homononactyl homononactate (6), ethyl homononactyl nonactate (7), ethyl homononactyl homononactate (8), and ethyl nonactyl nonactate (9), as well as four known compounds, homononactic acid (3), nonactic acid (4), homononactyl nonactate (5), and bishomononactic acid (10), were isolated from culture broth of Bacillus pumilus derived from Breynia fruticosa. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The optical purities of 1-6 were determined by HPLC/MS after treatment with L-phenylalanine methyl ester. The dimeric compounds 5-9 showed weak cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (IC50 19-100??g/ml). PMID:25044594

Han, Li; Huo, Peiyuan; Chen, Huahong; Li, Songtao; Jiang, Yi; Li, Liya; Xu, Lihua; Jiang, Chenglin; Huang, Xueshi

2014-07-01

135

Comparative effects of gamma rays and electron beams on spores of Bacillus pumilus  

SciTech Connect

The effects of [gamma] rays and electron beams on the germination, outgrowth and the synthesis of protein and RNA of Bacillus pumilus spores were investigated to clarify the difference in the effects of the two types of radiations on bacterial spores. Gamma irradiation facilitated the germination to a slightly larger degree than electron irradiation. The outgrowth, growth and the synthesis of protein and RNA were inhibited by [gamma] irradiation to a greater extent than electron irradiation, when the spores were irradiated at the same dose. However, the effects of the two types of radiations were the same when the spores were irradiated with electron beams at a dose 30% higher than [gamma] rays. The results indicate that the effects of electron beams on bacterial spores and those of [gamma] rays are qualitatively the same but quantitatively different. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko (National Food Research Institute, Kannondai (Japan)); Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo (Hokkaido Univ. (Japan))

1994-02-01

136

Survival of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 in simulated Mars atmosphere in real space conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated habitats, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UVradiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions using the European Technology Exposure Platform and Experiment Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months exposure in the EuTEF facility under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10 to 40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85 to 100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated-Mars atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110nm) was exerted on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and conditions using the EuTEF, a ~7-log reduction in viability was noticed. However, the UV exposure still did not inactivate all the spores as 19 CFUs were later isolated via cultivation. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples but under simulated conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (~3-log reduction in viability for Mars UV, and ~4-log reduction in viability for Space UV). The data generated is important to assess the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival, microbial contaminants of risk for forward contamination, in situ life detection, and to safeguard the integrity of sample return missions.

Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Fox, George E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2010-09-01

137

[Directed evolution of lipase of Bacillus pumilus YZ02 by error-prone PCR].  

PubMed

Random mutagenesis on Bacillus pumilus lipase YZ02 gene was conducted by using error-prone PCR strategy. Through two cycles of directed evolution, two optimum mutants BpL1-7 and BpL2-1369 with lipase activity improved 2 folds and 6 folds respectively were screened. The sequence of BpL2-1369 lipase gene showed that four nucleotides substitution, T61C, C147T, A334G and T371A have occurred, and three of them caused amino acid changes. Thus, amine acid Ser21 was changed into Pro21, Arg112 to Gly112, and Leu124 to His124. According to the 3D structure of Bacillus pumilus lipase mimicked by SWISS-MODEL Repository, three mutated amino acids were located at the third amino acid of the first alpha-helix, the turn between the fourth and fifth beta fold, and the first amino acid of the fifth beta fold, respectively. The BpL and BpL2-1369 genes were ligated into pET28a vector, and transferred into E. coli BL21 (DE3). After induced by IPTG the lipases were purified and characterized. The results showed that the specific activity of the evolved lipase was 1.31-fold than that of the wild lipase, and the Km decreased from 8.24 mmol/L to 7.17 mmol/L. The pH stability of the evolved lipase was better than wild lipase when pH>8.0. PMID:18589821

Huang, Ying; Cai, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Yan, Yunjun

2008-03-01

138

Expression and biochemical characterization of cold-adapted lipases from Antarctic Bacillus pumilus strains.  

PubMed

Two lipase genes (bpl1 and bpl3) from Antarctic Bacillus pumilus strains were expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Both recombinant lipases BPL1 and BPL2 were secreted to the culture medium and their activities reached 3.5 U/ml and 5.0 U/ml, respectively. Their molecular masses apparent using SDS-PAGE were 23 kDa for BPL1 and 19 kDa for BPL3. Both lipases were purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation and HiTrap SP FF column and Superose 12 column chromatographies. The final specific activities were estimated to be 328 U/mg for BPL1 and 310 U/mg for BPL3. Both lipases displayed an optimum temperature of 35°C, similar to other mesophilic enzymes. However, they maintained as much as 70% and 80% of the maximum activities at 10°C. Accordingly, their calculated activation energy at a temperature range of 10-35°C was 5.32 kcal/mol for BPL1 and 4.26 kcal/mol for BPL3, typical of cold-adapted enzymes. The optimum pH of BPL1 and BPL3 was 8.5 and 8.0, respectively, and they were quite stable at pH 7.0-11.0, showing their strong alkaline tolerance. Both lipases had a preference toward medium chain length (C6-C10) fatty acid substrates. These results indicate the potential for the two Antarctic B. pumilus lipases as catalysts in bioorganic synthesis, food, and detergent industries. PMID:23770563

Litantra, Ribka; Lobionda, Stefani; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2013-09-28

139

Fermentation of starch for enhanced alkaline protease production by constructing an alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus strain.  

PubMed

A new engineering strain, Bacillus pumilus c172-14 (pBX 96), was obtained by introducing the pBX 96 plasmid, which carries the alpha-amylase amy gene, into the host strain of alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus c172 via transformation. The newly constructed strain was found to express the amy gene and could use starch instead of glucose or starch hydrolysate as carbon source for its fermentation of alkaline protease. The pBX 96 plasmid in the new host was found to be segregationally and structurally stable. The expression of amy gene did not affect the host strain's resistance to bacteriophages. Moreover, the level of alkaline protease was improved significantly compared with the parent strain. The constructed strain gave a maximum alkaline protease activity of 14,014 U/ml in shaking flask after 48 h cultivation when growing in a medium containing 6% corn meal, 4% soybean flour, 0.4% Na2HPO4, 0.03% KH2PO4, 0.02% MgCl2, 0.3% CaCl2, 0.25% Na2CO3, 0.1% glucose, and 20 microg/ml kanamycin (pH 7.0). The optimal pH value and temperature of the alkaline protease were 11.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. This enzyme was stable over a pH range of 8-11. Its residual activity remained at 100% when treated under a temperature of less than 45 degrees C for 30 min. The corresponding residual activity reduced to 65% of its optimal value at 60 degrees C for 30 min. The alkaline protease was a kind of serine protease, which was demonstrated by the complete inactivation by PMSF (1 mM). This newly constructed strain will be useful in the alkaline protease industry. PMID:11693913

Feng, Y Y; Yang, W B; Ong, S L; Hu, J Y; Ng, W J

2001-10-01

140

Thermodynamic characterization of a highly thermoactive extracellular pectate lyase from a new isolate Bacillus pumilus DKS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2) was purified from the culture filtrate of a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus DKS1 grown in pectin containing medium. Using ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, this enzyme was purified and found to have a molecular weight of around 35kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited maximal activity at a temperature of 75°C and pH 8.5. The presence

Snehasish Basu; Abhrajyoti Ghosh; Amit Bera; Manabendra N. Saha; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Krishanu Chakrabarti

2008-01-01

141

Molecular cloning of the genes for xylan degradation of Bacillus pumilus and their expression in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 7.7 Mdal PstI fragment of Bacillus pumilus IPO containing genes for xylan degradation, xylanase, and ß-xylosidase was inserted at the PstI site of pBR322 and cloned in E. coli C600. The hybrid plasmid thus formed was named pOXN29. The amount of xylanase and ß-xylosidase expressed in E. coli harboring pOXN29 was about 6% and 20% of the activity produced

Watanalai Panbangred; Tetsuya Kondo; Seiji Negoro; Atsuhiko Shinmyo; Hirosuke Okada

1983-01-01

142

Enhanced production of cellulase-free thermostable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus ASH and its potential application in paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high level of cellulase-free, thermostable xylanase has been produced from newly isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus under submerged fermentation in a basal medium supplemented with wheat bran (2%, w\\/v) pH 8.0 and at 37°C. After optimization of various production parameters, an increase of nearly 13-fold in xylanase production (5407IU\\/ml) was achieved. The produced xylanase is stable in neutral

Bindu Battan; Jitender Sharma; Saurabh Sudha Dhiman; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

143

Large-scale degumming of ramie fibre using a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus DKS1 with high pectate lyase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined (enzymatic and chemical) process using a Bacillus pumilus strain (DKS1), isolated from the soil, was used to degum ramie bast fibres. After 24 h of incubation with the isolated pectinolytic\\u000a strain using a low-cost medium, the weight loss of the ramie fibre was found to be 25% under small scale. High activity of\\u000a pectate lyase was detected in the

Snehasish Basu; Manabendra N. Saha; Dhrubajyoti Chattopadhyay; Krishanu Chakrabarti

2009-01-01

144

Enhancement of Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae growth and survival without water exchange using marine Bacillus pumilus and periphytic microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the possibility of using a consortium of marine bacterium and periphytic microalgae to improve the water\\u000a quality and increase the growth and survival of the shrimp Penaeus monodon in a hatchery system. Three treatments were evaluated for their effect on P. monodon postlarvae (PL) when the culture water was not changed: Bacillus\\u000a pumilus alone (B); periphytic microalgae

Sanjoy Banerjee; Helena Khatoon; Mohamed Shariff

2010-01-01

145

Kinetic studies of Gly28:Ser mutant form of Bacillus pumilus lipase: Changes in k cat and thermal dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipases are useful catalysts for a wide variety of industrial purposes. Herein we report the stability and thermal dependence of the activity of wild-type Bacillus pumilus lipase (BplA) and four site-directed mutants designed to improve its thermal stability. The Gly28:Ser mutation produces a dramatic four-fold increase in its kcat and a remarkable increase in its stability. While the increase in

Ismael Bustos-Jaimes; Rodrigo Mora-Lugo; Mario L. Calcagno; Amelia Farrés

2010-01-01

146

Cloning, expression and characterization of glycoside hydrolase family 11 endoxylanase from Bacillus pumilus ARA.  

PubMed

An endoxylanase gene, xynA, was cloned from Bacillus pumilus ARA and expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the xynA gene was 687 bp encoding a signal peptide and a mature xylanase with a molecular mass of 23 kDa. The enzyme was categorized as a glycosyl hydrolase family 11 member based on the sequence analysis of the putative catalytic domain. The recombinant XynA (Bpu XynA) was purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose FF. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at pH 6.6 and 50°C. The purified Bpu XynA was stable for at least 2 h at 45°C, and retained over 50% residual activity after being incubated at 60°C for 1 h. The activity of the xylanase was not significantly affected by metal ions and EDTA. The K ( m ) and K ( cat ) /K ( m ) of Bpu XynA for oat-spelt xylan were 5.53 mg/ml and 10.14 ml/mg s at 50°C and pH 6.6. The main product of hydrolysis by Bpu XynA was xylooligosaccharide. The results revealed that the consumption of grass xylan by B. pumilus ARA depended on the synergistic reactions of Bpu XynA and Bpu arabinosidase, and that a typical GH11 xylanase e.g. Tla XynA had capability to remove the side chain of xylan. The properties Bpu XynA make it promising for application in the production of Bifidobacterium growth-promoting factors and in feed industry. PMID:21369910

Qu, Wei; Shao, Weilan

2011-07-01

147

Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.  

PubMed

To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110?nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ?7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (?3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ?4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants as risks for forward contamination and in situ life detection. PMID:22680694

Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

2012-05-01

148

Molecular cloning of the genes for xylan degradation of Bacillus pumilus and their expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The 7.7 Mdal PstI fragment of Bacillus pumilus IPO containing genes for xylan degradation, xylanase, and beta-xylosidase was inserted at the PstI site of pBR322 and cloned in E. coli C600. The hybrid plasmid thus formed was named pOXN29. The amount of xylanase and beta-xylosidase expressed in E. coli harboring pOXN29 was about 6% and 20% of the activity produced by the donor, B. pumilus. The reverse orientation of the inserted fragment resulted respectively in 5 times and 50 times increases in xylanase and beta-xylosidase productivities. Both enzymes expressed in E. coli transformants were shown to be indistinguishable from those of B. pumilus by immunological and chemical criteria. Digestion of pOXN29 with BglII produced two fragments; one was 6.7 Mdal in size and contained the whole pBR322 and the beta-xylosidase gene, and the other was 3.7 Mdal and coded for xylanase. Analysis of enzymes expressed in the transformant cells indicated that neither enzyme was secreted into the culture medium, periplasm nor membrane bound, although xylanase but not beta-xylosidase, was secreted into the medium in a B. pumilus culture. PMID:6419022

Panbangred, W; Kondo, T; Negoro, S; Shinmyo, A; Okada, H

1983-01-01

149

Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings  

PubMed Central

Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

2014-01-01

150

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food  

PubMed Central

Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the ? and ? chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the ? chain. PMID:25320719

Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-01-01

151

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the ? and ? chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the ? chain. PMID:25320719

Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

2014-09-01

152

Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K. (Biotech Res.)

2012-04-30

153

Structure and expression of genes coding for xylan-degrading enzymes of Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of the beta-xylosidase gene (xynB) of Bacillus pumilus IPO and its flanking regions was established. A 1617-bp open reading frame for beta-xylosidase, a homodimer enzyme, was observed. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region and the molecular mass 62607 Da) of the beta-xylosidase subunit, deduced from the DNA sequence, agreed with the result obtained with the purified enzyme. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence was found 8 bp upstream of the initiation codon, ATG. The xylanase gene (xynA) of the same strain was 4.6 kbp downstream of the 3' end of xynB, and its DNA sequence was reported in our previous paper [Fukusaki, E., Panbangred, W., Shinmyo, A. & Okada, H. (1984) FEBS Lett. 171, 197-201]. The results of the Northern hybridization suggested that the mRNA of xynA and xynB were produced separately. The 5' and 3' ends of the xynA and xynB gene were mapped with nuclease S1. The '-10' regions for promoter sequences of both genes were similar to the consensus sequence for B. subtilis RNA polymerases, the '-35' regions were different from all the known promoters for B. subtilis RNA polymerases. PMID:2440680

Moriyama, H; Fukusaki, E; Cabrera Crespo, J; Shinmyo, A; Okada, H

1987-08-01

154

Ethanol/water pulps from sugar cane straw and their biobleaching with xylanase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 2(2) design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215 degrees C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200 degrees C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1:10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50 degrees C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp. PMID:18478412

Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

2007-04-01

155

Site-directed mutagenesis at aspartate and glutamate residues of xylanase from Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

To elucidate the reaction mechanism of xylanase, the identification of amino acids essential for its catalysis is of importance. Studies have indicated the possibility that the reaction mechanism of xylanase is similar to that of hen's egg lysozyme, which involves acidic amino acid residues. On the basis of this assumption, together with the three-dimensional structure of Bacillus pumilus xylanase and its amino acid sequence similarity to other xylanases of different origins, three acidic amino acids, namely Asp-21, Glu-93 and Glu-182, were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. The Asp residue was altered to either Ser or Glu, and the Glu residues to Ser or Asp. The purified mutant xylanases D21E, D21S, E93D, E93S, E182D and E182S showed single protein bands of about 26 kDa on SDS/PAGE. C.d. spectra of these mutant enzymes show no effect on the secondary structure of xylanase, except that of D21E, which shows a little variation. Furthermore, mutations of Glu-93 and Glu-182 resulted in a drastic decrease in the specific activity of xylanase as compared with mutation of Asp-21. On the basis of these results we propose that Glu-93 and Glu-182 are the best candidates for the essential catalytic residues of xylanase. PMID:1359880

Ko, E P; Akatsuka, H; Moriyama, H; Shinmyo, A; Hata, Y; Katsube, Y; Urabe, I; Okada, H

1992-11-15

156

Antibiofilm activity of Bacillus pumilus SW9 against initial biofouling on microfiltration membranes.  

PubMed

Membrane biofouling, resulting from biofilm formation on the membrane, has become the main obstacle hindering wider application of membrane technology. Initial biofouling proves to be crucial which involves early stages of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. Biological control of microbial attachment seems to be a promising strategy due to its high efficiency and eco-friendliness. The present study investigated the effects of a bacterium Bacillus pumilus SW9 on controlling the initial fouling formed by four target bacterial strains which were pioneer species responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors, using microfiltration membranes as the abiotic surfaces. The results suggested that strain SW9 exhibited excellent antibiofilm activity by decreasing the attached biomass of target strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by four target strains was also reduced. A distinct improvement of permeate flux in dead-end filtration systems was achieved when introducing strain SW9 to microfiltration experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed to further ascertain significant changes of the biofouling layers. A link between biofilm inhibition and initial biofouling mitigation was thus provided, suggesting an alternatively potential way to control membrane biofouling through bacterial interactions. PMID:23715854

Zhang, Ying; Yu, Xin; Gong, Song; Ye, Chengsong; Fan, Zihong; Lin, Huirong

2014-02-01

157

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

158

Improving the thermoactivity and thermostability of pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus for ramie degumming.  

PubMed

Thermostable alkaline pectate lyases can be potentially used for enzymatically degumming ramie in an environmentally sustainable manner and as an alternative to the currently used chemical-based ramie degumming processes. To assess its potential applications, pectate lyase from Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 7061) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Evolutionary strategies were applied to generate efficient ramie degumming enzymes. Obtained from site-saturation mutagenesis and random mutagenesis, the best performing mutant enzyme M3 exhibited a 3.4-fold higher specific activity on substrate polygalacturonic acid, compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the half-life of inactivation at 50 °C for M3 mutant extended to over 13 h. In contrast, the wild-type enzyme was completely inactivated in less than 10 min under the same conditions. An upward shift in the optimal reaction temperature of M3 mutant, to 75 °C, was observed, which was 10 °C higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Kinetic parameter data revealed that the catalysis efficiency of M3 mutant was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Ramie degumming with M3 mutant was also demonstrated to be more efficient than that with the wild-type enzyme. Collectively, our results suggest that the M3 mutant, with remarkable improvements in thermoactivity and thermostability, has potential applications for ramie degumming in the textile industry. PMID:25287558

Liang, Chaoning; Gui, Xiwu; Zhou, Cheng; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Tang, Shuang-Yan

2015-03-01

159

Expression and characterization of Ca(2+)-independent lipase from Bacillus pumilus B26.  

PubMed

A lipase-producing Bacillus pumilus strain (B26) was isolated from a soil sample collected in Korea. The cloned gene showed that the lipase B26 composed of a 34-amino-acid signal sequence and a 181-amino-acid mature part corresponding to a molecular mass (M(r)) of 19,225. Based on the M(r) and the protein sequence, the lipase B26 belongs to the lipase family I.4. The optimum temperature and pH of the purified enzyme were 35 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. The lipase B26 showed a 'Ca(2+)-independent thermostability and catalytic activity'. These are novel properties observed for the first time in lipase B26 among all bacterial lipases and correspond with the suggestion that this enzyme had no Ca(2+)-binding motif around the catalytic His156 residue. This enzyme seems to be a true lipase based on the experimental results that it could hydrolyze various long-chain triglycerides (C(14)-C(18)) and triolein (C(18:1)) and that it showed a typical interfacial activation mechanism toward both tripropionin and p-nitrophenyl butyrate. PMID:12117564

Kim, Hyung Kwoun; Choi, Hwa Jung; Kim, Myung Hee; Sohn, Cheon Bae; Oh, Tae Kwang

2002-07-11

160

Swapping of pro-sequences between keratinases of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus: altered substrate specificity and thermostability.  

PubMed

Pro-sequences were swapped in cis between keratinases from Bacillus licheniformis (Ker BL) and Bacillus pumilus (Ker BP) to construct Ker ProBP-BL and Ker ProBL-BP, respectively. Expression of these keratinases was carried out constitutively by E. coli HB101-pEZZ18 system. They were characterized with respect to their parent enzymes, Ker BL and Ker BP, respectively. Ker ProBP-BL became more thermostable with a t(1/2) of 45 min at 80°C contrary to Ker BL which was not stable beyond 60°C. Similarly, the activity of Ker ProBP-BL on keratin and casein substrate, i.e. K:C ratio increased to 1.2 in comparison to 0.1 for Ker BL. Hydrolysis of insulin B-chain revealed that the cleavage sites increased to six from four in case of Ker ProBP-BL in comparison to Ker BL. However, cleavage sites decreased from seven to four in case of Ker ProBL-BP in comparison to the parent keratinase, Ker BP. Likewise, Ker ProBL-BP revealed altered pH and temperature kinetics with optima at pH 10 and 60°C in comparison to Ker BP which had optima at pH 9 and 70°C. It also cleaved soluble substrates with better efficiency in comparison to Ker BP with K:C ratio of 1.6. Pro-sequence mediated conformational changes were also observed in trans and were almost similar to the features acquired by the chimeras constructed in cis by swapping the pro-sequence region. PMID:22759531

Rajput, Rinky; Tiwary, Ekta; Sharma, Richa; Gupta, Rani

2012-08-10

161

Spore UV and Acceleration Resistance of Endolithic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis Isolates Obtained from Sonoran Desert Basalt: Implications for Lithopanspermia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial spores have been used as model systems for studying the theory of interplanetary transport of life by natural processes such as asteroidal or cometary impacts (i.e., lithopanspermia). Because current spallation theory predicts that near-surface rocks are ideal candidates for planetary ejection and surface basalts are widely distributed throughout the rocky planets, we isolated spore-forming bacteria from the interior of near-subsurface basalt rocks collected in the Sonoran desert near Tucson, Arizona. Spores were found to inhabit basalt at very low concentrations (<=28 colony-forming units/g) in these samples. Six isolates identified as being most closely related to Bacillus pumilus and one Bacillus subtilis isolate were recovered from near-subsurface basalt samples. Populations of purified spores prepared from the isolated strains were subjected to 254-nm UV and ballistics tests in order to assess their resistance to UV radiation and to extreme acceleration shock, two proposed lethal factors for spores during interplanetary transfer. Specific natural isolates of B. pumilus were found to be substantially more resistant to UV and extreme acceleration than were reference laboratory strains of B. subtilis, the benchmark organism, suggesting that spores of environmental B. pumilus isolates may be more likely to survive the rigors of interplanetary transfer.

Benardini, James N.; Sawyer, John; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Nicholson, Wayne L.

2003-12-01

162

Production and optimization of cellulase-free, alkali-stable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus SV85S in submerged fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the production of a cellulase-free and alkali-stable xylanase in high titre from a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using cheap and easily available agro-residue wheat bran. Optimization of fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme\\u000a production to 2995.20 ± 200.00 IU\\/ml, which was 9.91-fold higher than the activity under unoptimized basal medium (302.2 IU\\/ml).\\u000a Statistical optimization using response-surface methodology was employed to obtain

Sushil Nagar; Vijay Kumar Gupta; Davender Kumar; Lalit Kumar; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2010-01-01

163

Immobilization of Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus Strain MK001 and its Application in Production of Xylo-oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 was immobilized on different matrices following varied immobilization methods. Entrapment using gelatin (GE)\\u000a (40.0%), physical adsorption on chitin (CH) (35.0%), ionic binding with Q-sepharose (Q-S) (45.0%), and covalent binding with\\u000a HP-20 beads (42.0%) showed the maximum xylanase immobilization efficiency. The optimum pH of immobilized xylanase shifted\\u000a up to 1.0 unit (pH 7.0) as compared to

Mukesh Kapoor; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

164

Molecular characterization of a lipase-producing Bacillus pumilus strain (NMSN-1d) utilizing colloidal water-dispersible polyurethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus strain NMSN-1d isolated from polyurethane-contaminated water was found to grow in high salt concentration (NaCl 10%, w\\/v)\\u000a and degrade Impranil-DLN, water-dispersible polyurethane. The genetic relatedness of the isolate has been established by standard\\u000a molecular biological techniques and the enzyme(s) involved in polyurethane degradation were also studied. A total of nine\\u000a bacterial strains were isolated from polyurethane-polluted sites and

Sajitha Nair; Pradeep Kumar

2007-01-01

165

Diglucosyl-glycerolipids from the marine sponge-associated Bacillus pumilus strain AAS3: their production, enzymatic modification and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine strain Bacillus pumilus strain AAS3, isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Acanthella acuta, produced a diglucosyl-glycerolipid, 1,2- O-diacyl-3-[ß-glucopyranosyl-(1–6)-ß-glucopyranosyl)]glycerol, with 14-methylhexadecanoic acid and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid as the main fatty acid moieties (GGL11). On a 30 l scale, using artificial seawater supplemented with glucose (20 g\\/l), yeast extract (10 g\\/l), and suitable nitrogen\\/phosphate sources, growth-associated glycoglycerolipid production reached its maximum yield of 90 mg\\/l after

W. Ramm; W. Schatton; I. Wagner-Döbler; V. Wray; M. Nimtz; H. Tokuda; F. Enjyo; H. Nishino; W. Beil; R. Heckmann; V. Lurtz; S. Lang

2004-01-01

166

77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pumilus strain GHA180 in or on all food commodities when used in accordance...et al., Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press...and T.J. Montville. 1997. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and...

2012-03-30

167

Candidate Genes That May Be Responsible for the Unusual Resistances Exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 Spores  

PubMed Central

The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental work. PMID:23799069

Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Rastogi, Rajat; Zamani, Nader; O’Bryant Williams, Elisha; Allen, Shamail; Diouf, Fatma; Kwende, Sharon; Weinstock, George M.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Fox, George E.

2013-01-01

168

Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases  

E-print Network

This study generated two cyanide dihydratase (CynD) mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 with improved activity at higher pH by random mutagenesis. The purpose of this study was to create enzyme variants better suited to degrade cyanide under the harsh...

Wang, Lan

2009-05-15

169

One-Step Purification of a Lipolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus by Mild Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography on Polyoxyalkylene Glycol-Bound Sepharose 6B  

PubMed Central

An esterase from Bacillus pumilus was obtained in a highly purified form, starting from a crude extract, by a new chromatographic technique requiring no detergent during the elution step. The stationary phase involved was mildly hydrophobic and was prepared by covalent immobilization of a polyoxyalkylene glycol onto Sepharose 6B. PMID:16347641

Mathis, Roland; Mourey, André; Hubert, Patrick

1988-01-01

170

Chemical characterization of root exudates from rice ( Oryza sativa) and their effects on the chemotactic response of endophytic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates represent an important source of nutrients for microorganisms in the rhizosphere and seem to participate in early colonization inducing chemotactic responses of rhizospheric bacteria. We characterized the root exudates collected from rice plantlets cultured under hydroponic conditions and assessed their effects on the chemotaxis of two strains of endophytic bacteria, Corynebacterium flavescens and Bacillus pumilus, collected from the

Macario Bacilio-Jiménez; Sara Aguilar-Flores; Elsa Ventura-Zapata; Eduardo Pérez-Campos; Stephane Bouquelet; Edgar Zenteno

2003-01-01

171

Production of an alkaline protease using Bacillus pumilus D3 without inactivation by SDS, its characterization and purification.  

PubMed

Abstract In this study, protease-producing capacity of Bacillus pumilus D3, isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated and optimized. Optimum growing conditions for B. pumilus D3 in terms of protease production were determined as 1% optimum inoculum size, 35?°C temperature, 11 pH and 48?h incubation time, respectively. Stability studies indicated that the mentioned protease was stable within the pH range of 7-10.5 and between 30?°C and 40?°C temperatures. Surprisingly, the activity of the enzyme increased in the presence of SDS with concentration up to 5?mM. The protease was concentrated 1.6-fold with ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. At least six protein bands were obtained from dialysate by electrophoresis. Four clear protein bands with caseinolytic activity were detected by zymography. Dialysate was further purified by anion-exchange chromatography and the caseinolytic active fraction showed a single band between 29 and 36?kDa of reducing conditions. PMID:23638694

Özçelik, Burçin; Aytar, P?nar; Gedikli, Serap; Yard?mc?, Ezgi; Çal??kan, Figen; Çabuk, Ahmet

2014-06-01

172

Phylogenetic and clonality analysis of Bacillus pumilus isolates uncovered a highly heterogeneous population of different closely related species and clones.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus is a Gram-positive bacterium with a wide range of attributed applications, namely as a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), animal, and human probiotic. However, a rare putative role in human diseases has been reported, namely in food poisoning or as anthrax-like cutaneous infectious agent. This species is difficult to distinguish from its closely related species on the basis of phenotypic or biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study, the phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and rpoB gene sequences of a collection of isolates previously identified as B. pumilus, assigned most of them (93%, 38 of 41 isolates) to B. safensis or to the new recently described B. invictae. Moreover, we extended the previously reported recognized habitats of these species and unveiled a human health or biotechnological relevance (e.g. as implicated in food poisoning or PGPR) for them. Additionally, we demonstrated that both B. safensis and B. invictae species encompass a clonally diverse population, which can justify their great adaptation ability to different niches, with evidence of clonal-host specificity. PMID:25230950

Branquinho, Raquel; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Carriço, João A; Pintado, Manuela; Peixe, Luísa V

2014-12-01

173

Production and accumulation of xylooligosaccharides with long chains by growing culture and xylanase of a mutant strain of Bacillus pumilus X-6-19.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus X-6-9 isolated from soil and subsequently identified, produced xylooligosaccharides with long chains from xylan and accumulated them in the culture. By improving the culture conditions and mutating the bacterium, a 3.2-fold increase in the production of the xylooligosaccharides was established, when compared to the original culture conditions of B. pumilus X-6-19. The addition of D-glucose to the culture of the mutant strain U-3 of B. pumilus X-6-9 repressed the synthesis of beta-xylosidase, but not xylanase. Thus, it was revealed that strain U-3 was a good organism for the production and accumulation of xylooligosaccharides with long chains from xylan by a microbial culture. Xylanase produced by strain U-3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The hydrolyzates generated by the purified xylanase contained xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, and xylopentaose, but not xylose. PMID:18837399

Yuan, Qingzhu; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Takenaka, Shinji; Murakami, Shuichiro; Tanaka, Machiko; Aoki, Kenji

2008-07-01

174

Enhanced phytotransformation of Navy Blue RX dye by Petunia grandiflora Juss. with augmentation of rhizospheric Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ and subsequent toxicity analysis.  

PubMed

This study reveals the beneficial synergistic phytoremediation potential of Petunia grandiflora Juss. with its rhizospheric bacterial isolate Bacillus pumilus strain PgJ to decolorize reactive Navy Blue RX (NBRX) dye by their active enzymatic machinery. In vitro cultures of P. grandiflora and B. pumilus gave 80.01% and 76.80% while their consortium decolorized NBRX up to 96.86% within 36 h. Significant induction in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (207%), tyrosinase (133%), laccase (161%), riboflavin reductase (78%) were seen in the roots of tissue cultured plants while enzymes tyrosinase (660%), laccase (689%), riboflavin reductase (528%) were induced significantly in the B. pumilus cells. Metabolites of treated NBRX were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, gas chromatography and biotransformation was visualized using high performance thin layer chromatography profile. Metabolites of the dye exhibited reduced phytotoxicity Sorghum vulgare and Phaeseolus mungo and significant reduction in cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots when compared to NBRX. PMID:23743429

Watharkar, Anuprita D; Rane, Niraj R; Patil, Swapnil M; Khandare, Rahul V; Jadhav, Jyoti P

2013-08-01

175

Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees.  

PubMed

Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in "Eastern" and "Western" areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

176

Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees  

PubMed Central

Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

177

Characterization of industrially-valuable xylano-pectinolytic enzymes produced concurrently by a novel isolate of Bacillus pumilus.  

PubMed

Xylanase and polygalacturonase were concurrently produced by a novel alkalo-thermotolerant Bacillus pumilus AJK. They were purified and characterized to evaluate their potential for various industrial applications. Xylanase was purified to 19-fold with 67 % recovery and polygalacturonase up to 23-fold with 75 % recovery. Existence of multiple forms of xylanase was indicated by its elution-profile through Sephadex G-100 as two peaks, xylanase-I and xylanase-II, with molecular weights of ~24.5 and ~13 kDa, respectively, and by the presence of two pH optima, one at pH 6.0 and other at pH 8.5. The molecular weight of polygalacturonase was ~40 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography. Zymographic studies confirmed the presence of seven isozymic forms of xylanase. Xylanase and polygalacturonase are stable over a broad range of pH and temperature. PMID:25048224

Kaur, Amanjot; Singh, Avtar; Mahajan, Ritu

2014-11-01

178

[Identification and mode of action of a xylanase A purified from the culture filtrate of Bacillus pumilus WL-11].  

PubMed

Microbial xylanases have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in food, paper making and animal feed industries. Bacillus pumilus WL-11 was identified as a producer of alkane xylanase free of cellulase after screening soil samples of paper-making factories. The xylanase A (XylA) was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Bacillus pumilus WL-11 by (NH4) 2SO4 precipitation, CM-Sephadex and Sephadex G-75 chromatographies. The molecular mass of XylA is estimated to be 26.0 kD by SDS-PAGE and its isoelectric point is 9.5. The apparent Km is 16.6 mg/mL and V(max) is 1263 micromol/(min x mg) towards oat spelt xylan. XylA is optimally active between pH 7.2 and 8.0, and stable at pH 6.0 to 10.4. The enzyme is optimally active at 45 degrees C - 55 degrees C and stable at temperature below 45 degrees C, with its half time of activity of 35 min and 15 min at 55 degrees C and 60 degrees C respectively. HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolysis patterns of xylans from oat spelt, birch wood and beech wood by purified XylA were different. The XylA is determined to be an endo-beta-1,4-xylanase, as it generated mainly xylotriose and no xylose was detected among the three hydrolysates. XylA has strong hydrolytic activity towards the pentose in the hydrolysates of beech wood and birch wood xylans, but was not active to the pentose in the hydrolysate of oat spelt xylan. The crude WL-11 enzyme can efficiently hydrolyze oat spelt xylan to a series of xylo-oligosaccharides, suggesting its potential application in nutraceutical industry. PMID:16108365

Xu, Zheng-Hong; Tao, Wen-Yi

2005-05-01

179

Characterization and emulsifying property of a carbohydrate polymer produced by Bacillus pumilus UW02 isolated from waste water irrigated agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus UW-02, an isolate from agricultural soil irrigated with waste water was found to produce a carbohydrate polymer in the form of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). The recovery rates of EPS by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were around 63% and 90%, respectively. As evident from HPLC and FT-IR analyses, the EPS was found

Sougata Roy Chowdhury; Ratan Kumar Basak; Ramkrishna Sen; Basudam Adhikari

2011-01-01

180

Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain C2A1 isolated from soil was found highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its first hydrolysis metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). On the basis of morphology, physiological characteristics, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain C2A1 was identified as Bacillus pumilus. Role of strain C2A1 in the degradation of chlorpyrifos was examined under different culture conditions like pH, inoculum

Samina Anwar; Fauzia Liaquat; Qaiser M. Khan; Zafar M. Khalid; Samina Iqbal

2009-01-01

181

Cost-effective xylanase production from free and immobilized Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 and its application in saccharification of Prosopis juliflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural conditions for xylanase production by an alkalophilic Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 were optimized under submerged fermentation. An initial medium pH 9.0, agitation 200rpm, inoculum size 1.25% (v\\/v) and inoculum age 2h were found to be optimal for maximum enzyme production. The bacterium secretes high levels of xylanase on agricultural residues (wheat bran 1220.0IUml?1; wheat straw 900.0IUml?1) as well as

Mukesh Kapoor; Lavanya M. Nair; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2008-01-01

182

Production of cellulase-free endoxylanase from novel alkalophilic thermotolerent Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation and its application in wastepaper recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed at optimization of culture condition for the enhanced production of extra cellular thermostable cellulase-free xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation. Batch studies were carried out to evaluate various agro-industrial residues such as rice bran, rice husk, rice straw, sawdust, coconut pith, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The endoxylanase

C. Asha Poorna; P. Prema

2007-01-01

183

Pumilicin 4, A Novel Bacteriocin with Anti-MRSA and Anti-VRE Activity Produced by Newly Isolated Bacteria Bacillus pumilus Strain WAPB4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 34 bacterial strains with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity were isolated from 69 soil and water samples collected from four areas of Thailand. One strain, WAPB4 identified\\u000a as Bacillus pumilus, showed remarkable antibacterial activity against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and several Gram-positive test bacteria. Bacteriocin produced by WAPB4 was designated as pumilicin 4. It was heat

Ratchaneewan Aunpad; Keasara Na-Bangchang

2007-01-01

184

Extraction in aqueous two-phase systems of alkaline xylanase produced by Bacillus pumilus and its application in kraft pulp bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to extract and to purify xylanase, produced by Bacillus pumilus from the crude fermentation broth, using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The xylanase was extracted by partitioning in ATPS composed of phosphate and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The effect of tie-line length, PEG molecular mass and NaCl concentrations upon the purification factors and yields of xylanase

Mônica Andréa Bim; Telma Teixeira Franco

2000-01-01

185

A marked enhancement in the production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 in submerged fermentation by using statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a highly alkaline and thermostable pectinase of Bacillus pumilus was optimized in submerged fermentation using Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology. Three fermentation variables (C:N ratio, K2HPO4, and pH), which were identified to significantly affect pectinase production by Plackett–Burman design were further optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design (CCD). An over all 34- and

D. C. Sharma; T. Satyanarayana

2006-01-01

186

Gene analysis, optimized production and property of marine lipase from Bacillus pumilus B106 associated with South China Sea sponge Halichondria rugosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene cloning, optimized production and property of marine lipase from Bacillus pumilus B106 associated with South China Sea sponge Halichondria rugosa were investigated in this paper. A lipase gene with whole ORF encoding 215 amino acids was obtained by PCR, protein domain\\u000a prediction suggested that the deduced lipase belongs to ?\\/? hydrolases family. Based on single factor Seriatim-Factorial test\\u000a and

Hongzhen Zhang; Fengli Zhang; Zhiyong Li

2009-01-01

187

Endophytic Bacillus spp. produce antifungal lipopeptides and induce host defence gene expression in maize.  

PubMed

Endophytes are mutualistic symbionts within healthy plant tissues. In this study we isolated Bacillus spp. from seeds of several varieties of maize. Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or Bacillus subtilis were found to be present in all maize varieties examined in this study. To determine whether bacteria may produce antifungal compounds, generally lipopeptides in Bacillus spp., bacterial cultures were screened for production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides were extracted by acid precipitation from liquid cultures of Bacillus spp. Lipopeptide extracts from Bacillus spp. isolated from Indian popcorn and yellow dent corn showed inhibitory activity against Fusarium moniliforme at 500?g per disk. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we detected the presence of antifungal iturin A, fengycin and bacillomycin in these isolates. PCR amplification also showed the presence of genes for iturin A and fengycin. B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) isolated from Indian popcorn showed strong inhibition of Arabidopsis seed mycoflora and enhanced seedling growth. We tested for the induction of defence gene expression in the host plant after treatment of plants with B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) and its lipopeptide extract using RT-qPCR. Roots of Indian popcorn seedlings treated with a suspension of B. subtilis (SG_JW.03) showed the induction of pathogenesis-related genes, including PR-1 and PR-4, which relate to plant defence against fungal pathogens. The lipopeptide extract alone did not increase the expression of these pathogenesis-related genes. Based on our study of maize endophytes, we hypothesize that, bacterial endophytes that naturally occur in many maize varieties may function to protect hosts by secreting antifungal lipopeptides that inhibit pathogens as well as inducing the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes of host plants (systemic acquired resistance). PMID:25497916

Gond, Surendra K; Bergen, Marshall S; Torres, Mónica S; White, James F

2015-03-01

188

An alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus functionally expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis and evaluation of its deinking efficiency.  

PubMed

This work aimed at studying the recombinant expression of an alkali- and thermo-stable xylanase from Bacillus pumilus in Kluyveromyces lactis and its use in deinking of civic paper waste. Efficient expression with a 3-fold increase in the activity than the native organism was achieved. An inducer concentration of 2.5% and medium pH of 9.0 was the best for enzyme expression. Purified enzyme showed an optimum activity at temperatures 50 and 60°C and pH 9.0 and 10.0, respectively. At pH 12.0, enzyme retained 74% and 26% activity after 2 and 3h of incubation, respectively. After incubation at 50 and 60°C for 1h, the enzyme showed 100% retention of activity, and remained active for 4h at 60°C retaining 23% residual activity. Partially purified recombinant enzyme showed higher deinking efficiency (273%) of laser print waste paper than crude xylanase from Bacillus and commercial acidic enzyme. This xylanase with superior stability characteristics could be a suitable candidate in paper and pulp industries. PMID:24709528

Thomas, Leya; Ushasree, Mrudula V; Pandey, Ashok

2014-08-01

189

Production and optimization of cellulase-free, alkali-stable xylanase by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S in submerged fermentation.  

PubMed

This paper reports the production of a cellulase-free and alkali-stable xylanase in high titre from a newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using cheap and easily available agro-residue wheat bran. Optimization of fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 2995.20 +/- 200.00 IU/ml, which was 9.91-fold higher than the activity under unoptimized basal medium (302.2 IU/ml). Statistical optimization using response-surface methodology was employed to obtain a cumulative effect of peptone, yeast extract, and potassium nitrate (KNO(3)) on enzyme production. A 2(3) central composite design best optimized the nitrogen source at the 0 level for peptone and yeast extract and at the -alpha level for KNO(3), along with 5.38-fold increase in xylanase activity. Addition of 0.1% tween 80 to the medium increased production by 1.5-fold. Optimum pH for xylanase was 6.0. The enzyme was 100% stable over the pH range from 5 to 11 for 1 h at 37 degrees C and it lost no activity, even after 3 h of incubation at pH 7, 8, and 9. Optimum temperature for the enzyme was 50 degrees C, but the enzyme displayed 78% residual activity even at 65 degrees C. The enzyme retained 50% activity after an incubation of 1 h at 60 degrees C. Characteristics of B. pumilus SV-85S xylanase, including its cellulase-free nature, stability in alkali over a long duration, along with high-level production, are particularly suited to the paper and pulp industry. PMID:19859753

Nagar, Sushil; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2010-01-01

190

Immobilization of xylanase purified from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 and its application in enrichment of orange and grape juices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of purified free and immobilized xylanase in enrichment of fruit juices. Extracellular xylanase produced from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 was purified to apparent homogeneity by 15.4-fold with 88.3 % recovery in a single step using CM-Sephadex C-50. Purified xylanase showed a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular mass of 22.0 kDa. The purified enzyme was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated aluminum oxide pellets and the immobilization process parameters were optimized statistically through response surface methodology. The bound enzyme displayed an increase in optimum temperature from 60 to 65?ºC and pH from 8.0 to 9.0. The pH and temperature stability of the enzyme was also enhanced after immobilization. It could be reused for 10 consecutive cycles with 58 % residual enzyme activity. The potential of purified xylanase (free and immobilized) in juice enrichment from grape (Vitis amurensis) and orange (Citrus sinensis) pulps has been investigated. The optimization of this process using free xylanase revealed maximum juice yield, clarity and reducing sugar on treatment with 20 IU/g fruit pulp for 30 min at 50?ºC. Treatment of both the fruit pulps with xylanase under optimized conditions resulted in an increase in juice yield, clarity, reducing sugars, titratable acidity, and filterability but a decline in turbidity and viscosity. Immobilized enzyme was more effective in improving juice quality as compared to its soluble counterpart. The results showed B. pumilus VLK-1 xylanase, in both free and immobilized form, as a potential candidate for use in fruit juice enrichment. PMID:25190829

Kumar, Lalit; Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Garg, Neelam; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2014-09-01

191

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

2014-01-01

192

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusrium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we report the whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent....

193

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Gold, S E; Blacutt, A A; Meinersmann, R J; Bacon, C W

2014-01-01

194

Antitumor activity of bacterial exopolysaccharides from the endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 ?g/?l. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 ?g/?l, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents. PMID:23833642

CHEN, YI-TAO; YUAN, QIANG; SHAN, LE-TIAN; LIN, MEI-AI; CHENG, DONG-QING; LI, CHANG-YU

2013-01-01

195

Heterologous expression of the Bacillus pumilus endo-beta-xylanase (xynA) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The endo-beta-xylanase-encoding gene (xynA) of Bacillus pumilus PLS was isolated from a genomic DNA library and the open reading frame (ORF) was inserted in expression vectors for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasmid pFN3 harboured the xynA ORF fused to the yeast mating pheromone alpha-factor signal sequence (MFalpha1s) under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene promotor (ADH2P) and terminator (ADH2T) sequences. In plasmid pFN4, the MFalpha1S-xynA ORF was brought under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase I gene promotor (PGK1p) and terminator (PGK1T) sequences. Autoselective, recombinant S. cerevisiae [fur1::LEU2] strains bearing pFN3 or pFN4 secreted functional endo-beta-xylanase when grown in complex medium. Enzymatic activities in the culture supernatants reached maximum levels of 8.5 nkat/ml and 4.5 nkat/ml, respectively. The temperature and pH optimum for both the bacterial and the recombinant xylanase were 58 degrees C and pH 6.2. PMID:11549015

Nuyens, F; van Zyl, W H; Iserentant, D; Verachtert, H; Michiels, C

2001-08-01

196

An alkali-tolerant xylanase produced by the newly isolated alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

An alkaline active xylanase, XynBYG, was purified from an alkaliphilic Bacillus pumilus BYG, which was newly isolated from paper mill effluent. It had an optimum pH of 8.0-9.0, and showed good stability after incubated at pH 9.0 for 120 min. The optimum temperature for the activity was 50°C, and the enzyme retained below 55% of its original activity for 30 min at 55°C. The gene coding for XynBYG consists of 687 bp and encodes 229 amino acids. Similarity analysis indicated that XynBYG belong to family 11 glycosyl hydrolases. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to replace five sites (Tyr/Ser) to Arg/Glu and the results demonstrated that the optimum temperature of the mutant Y7 (S39R-T146E) increased 5°C and the half-life of inactivation (T1/2) at 60 and 65°C was 1 h and 25 min, respectively. Thus, it provides a potential xylanase that can meet the harsh conditions in the industrial applications. PMID:19949874

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Jin-ni; Cao, Yao-ling; Bai, Xiao-ting; Gong, Yue-sheng; Cen, Pei-lin; Yang, Ming-ming

2010-10-01

197

Exo-pectinase production by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes and optimizing of medium components using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this research, the production of exo-pectinase by Bacillus pumilus using different agricultural wastes was studied. Agricultural wastes containing pectin such as wheat bran, sugar beet pulp, sunflower plate, orange peel, banana peel, apple pomace and grape pomace were tested as substrates, and activity of exo-pectinase was determined only in the mediums containing sugar beet pulp and wheat bran. Then, effects of parameters such as concentrations of solid substrate (wheat bran and sugar beet pulp) (A), ammonium sulphate (B) and yeast extract (C) on the production of exo-pectinase were investigated by response surface methodology. First, wheat bran was used as solid substrate, and it was determined that exo-pectinase activity increased when relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulphate (0.12-0.21%?w/v) and yeast extract (0.12-0.3%?w/v) and relatively high wheat bran (~5-6%?w/v) were used. Then, exo-pectinase production was optimized by response surface methodology using sugar beet pulp as a solid substrate. In comparison to P values of the coefficients, values of not greater than 0.05 of A and B (2) showed that the effect of these process variables in exo-pectinase production was important and that changes done in these variables will alter the enzyme activity. PMID:24819433

Tepe, Ozlem; Dursun, Arzu Y

2014-08-01

198

Identification of variables and value optimization for optimum lipase production by Bacillus pumilus RK31 using statistical methodology.  

PubMed

In an effort to optimize the medium components, the statistical methodology was applied to achieve the optimum lipase production under shake flask conditions. The study was conducted in three steps on newly isolated Bacillus pumilus RK 31. In the first step, 12 different variables viz., Glucose, Olive oil, Yeast extract, Peptone, Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4), MgSO(4), NaNO(3), CaCl(2), Temperature, pH and Inoculum size were used to identify the most significant variables affecting lipase production using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Variance analysis showed that Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) played significant role in lipase production. In the second step, the values of the above-identified three variables were optimized by central composite design using three-level-three-factor approach. The optimum values of Olive oil, Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4) were found to be 10.0ml/l, 5.0ml/l and 8.0g/l, respectively. KH(2)PO(4) was found to be responsible for maximum lipase production of 5.59IU/ml, experimental and 5.03IU/ml, predicted. In the third step, the optimum predicted values of the three factors and lipase production were verified by experimental approach. The amount of lipase produced in the designated medium was in agreement with that of predicted values by statistical method. PMID:20601261

Kumar, Rakesh; Mahajan, Shivani; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Deepak

2011-01-31

199

Kinetic studies of Gly28:Ser mutant form of Bacillus pumilus lipase: changes in k(cat) and thermal dependence.  

PubMed

Lipases are useful catalysts for a wide variety of industrial purposes. Herein we report the stability and thermal dependence of the activity of wild-type Bacillus pumilus lipase (BplA) and four site-directed mutants designed to improve its thermal stability. The Gly28:Ser mutation produces a dramatic four-fold increase in its k(cat) and a remarkable increase in its stability. While the increase in k(cat) is temperature-independent, the increase in stability shows that the resultant interactions of this mutation have a strong enthalpic component. Thermal dependence of stability, k(cat), K(M) and k(cat)/K(M) were analysed to gain insight on the structural effects of mutations on BplA. Our results are consistent with a gain in enzyme mobility for those mutants displaying enhanced catalytic properties; the analysis of thermal dependence of kinetic parameters indicates that the mutations did not change either the catalytic mechanism or the rate-limiting step of catalysis. PMID:20831908

Bustos-Jaimes, Ismael; Mora-Lugo, Rodrigo; Calcagno, Mario L; Farrés, Amelia

2010-12-01

200

Food poisoning associated with pumilacidin-producing Bacillus pumilus in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food poisoning caused by other Bacillus species than B. cereus has been described, but the toxins involved have rarely been isolated. Endospores will survive heat treatment and will germinate and multiply in cooked foods producing toxins under appropriate conditions. We describe a small food poisoning outbreak where three people became ill after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. Acute symptoms

Victor Hormazabal; Per Einar Granum

2007-01-01

201

Coexpression of the Bacillus pumilus ?-xylosidase ( xynB ) gene with the Trichoderma reesei ?-xylanase 2 ( xyn2 ) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xynB gene encoding the Bacillus pumilus?-xylosidase was expressed separately and jointly with the Trichoderma reesei?-xylanase (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the glucose-derepressible alcohol dehydrogenase?2 promoter (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a P\\u000a ) and terminator (ADH2\\u000a \\u000a T\\u000a ) sequences. The xynB gene was fused in frame to the yeast mating factor ?1 secretion

D. C. La Grange; M. Claeyssens; I. S. Pretorius; W. H. Van Zyl

2000-01-01

202

lnduction of Defense-Related Ultrastructural Modifications in Pea Root Tissues lnoculated with Endophytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus pumilus strain SE34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural leve1 using an in vitro system in which root- inducing T-DNA pea (Pisum sativum 1.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. In nonbac- terized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the

Nicole Benhamou; Joseph W. Kloepper; Andrea Quadt-Hallman; Sadik Tuzun

203

Genotyping and Toxigenic Potential of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus Strains Occurring in Industrial and Artisanal Cured Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artisanal and industrial sausages were analyzed for their aerobic, heat-resistant microflora to assess wheth- er new emerging pathogens could be present among Bacillus strains naturally contaminating cured meat prod- ucts. Sixty-four isolates were characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluo- rescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). The biotypes, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to

Alessandra Matarante; Federico Baruzzi; Pier Sandro Cocconcelli; Maria Morea

2004-01-01

204

Immobilization of xylanase from Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 and its application in production of xylo-oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus strain MK001 was immobilized on different matrices following varied immobilization methods. Entrapment using gelatin (GE) (40.0%), physical adsorption on chitin (CH) (35.0%), ionic binding with Q-sepharose (Q-S) (45.0%), and covalent binding with HP-20 beads (42.0%) showed the maximum xylanase immobilization efficiency. The optimum pH of immobilized xylanase shifted up to 1.0 unit (pH 7.0) as compared to free enzyme (pH 6.0). The immobilized xylanase exhibited higher pH stability (up to 28.0%) in the alkaline pH range (7.0-10.0) as compared to free enzyme. Optimum temperature of immobilized xylanase was observed to be 8 degrees C higher (68.0 degrees C) than free enzyme (60.0 degrees C). The free xylanase retained 50.0% activity, whereas xylanase immobilized on HP-20, Q-S, CH, and GE retained 68.0, 64.0, 58.0, and 57.0% residual activity, respectively, after 3 h of incubation at 80.0 degrees C. The immobilized xylanase registered marginal increase and decrease in Km and Vmax values, respectively, as compared to free enzyme. The immobilized xylanase retained up to 70.0% of its initial hydrolysis activity after seven enzyme reaction cycles. The immobilized xylanase was found to produce higher levels of high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides from birchwood xylan, indicating its potential in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:18025574

Kapoor, Mukesh; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

2007-08-01

205

Effects of actin-like proteins encoded by two Bacillus pumilus phages on unstable lysogeny, revealed by genomic analysis.  

PubMed

We characterized two newly isolated myoviruses, Bp8p-C and Bp8p-T, infecting the ginger rhizome rot disease pathogen Bacillus pumilus GR8. The plaque of Bp8p-T exhibited a clear center with a turbid rim, suggesting that Bp8p-T could transform into latent phage. Lysogeny assays showed that both the two phages could form latent states, while Bp8p-T could form latent phage at a higher frequency and stability than Bp8p-C. The genomes of Bp8p-C and Bp8p-T were 151,417 and 151,419 bp, respectively; both encoded 212 putative proteins, and only differed by three nucleotides. Moreover, owing to this difference, Bp8p-C encoded a truncated, putative actin-like plasmid segregation protein Gp27-C. Functional analysis of protein Gp27 showed that Gp27-T encoded by Bp8p-T exhibited higher ATPase activity and assembly ability than Gp27-C. The results indicate that the difference in Gp27 affected the phage lysogenic ability. Structural proteome analysis of Bp8p-C virion resulted in the identification of 14 structural proteins, among which a pectin lyase-like protein, a putative poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolase, and three proteins with unknown function, were firstly identified as components of the phage virion. Both phages exhibited specific lytic ability to the host strain GR8. Bp8p-C showed better control effect on the pathogen in ginger rhizome slices than Bp8p-T, suggesting that Bp8p-C has a potential application in bio-control of ginger rhizome rot disease. PMID:25344242

Yuan, Yihui; Peng, Qin; Wu, Dandan; Kou, Zheng; Wu, Yan; Liu, Pengming; Gao, Meiying

2015-01-01

206

Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence.  

PubMed

Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (?Ga°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ?Ga° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases. PMID:25534779

Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong

2015-02-01

207

Diglucosyl-glycerolipids from the marine sponge-associated Bacillus pumilus strain AAS3: their production, enzymatic modification and properties.  

PubMed

The marine strain Bacillus pumilus strain AAS3, isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Acanthella acuta, produced a diglucosyl-glycerolipid, 1,2-O-diacyl-3-[beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-glucopyranosyl)]glycerol, with 14-methylhexadecanoic acid and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid as the main fatty acid moieties (GGL11). On a 30 l scale, using artificial seawater supplemented with glucose (20 g/l), yeast extract (10 g/l), and suitable nitrogen/phosphate sources, growth-associated glycoglycerolipid production reached its maximum yield of 90 mg/l after 11 h. Lipase-catalyzed modification of the native substance led to the deacylated parent compound (GG11), which could be reacylated using the same enzyme system to afford a new dipentenoyl-diglucosylglycerol (GGL12) as the major product upon addition of 4-pentenoic acid to the medium. GGL11 decreased the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 29 mN/m and the interfacial tension of the water/ n-hexadecane system from 44 to 5 mN/m. Anti-tumor-promoting studies on this class of diglucosyl glycerol products showed that the carbohydrate/glycerol backbone (GG11) has a more potent inhibitory activity than the acylated compounds. The diglucosyl-glycerol GG11 strongly inhibited growth of the tumor cell lines HM02 and Hep G2 (50% inhibition at approximately 1 microg/ml), while the glycerolipids GGL11 and GGL12 were less active or had no effect. PMID:14593508

Ramm, W; Schatton, W; Wagner-Döbler, I; Wray, V; Nimtz, M; Tokuda, H; Enjyo, F; Nishino, H; Beil, W; Heckmann, R; Lurtz, V; Lang, S

2004-05-01

208

Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate produced by marine Bacillus pumilus MB 40.  

PubMed

Marine microorganisms represent a potential source for the production of biomedically useful compounds active against inflammation, cancer, diabetes, etc. Marine Bacillus pumilus MB 40 (GenBank accession no. HQ705771) isolated from deep sea water column (1000m depth) near Andaman and Nicobar islands produced a bioactive lead, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) with a molecular formula of C(6)H(4)(CO(2)C(8)H(17))(2) and a molecular ion at m/z 391 (M(+)). Anti proliferative effect of the isolated compound was examined by MTT assay in human erythroleukemic K562 cells and the IC(50) of BEHP was found to be 21?M. BEHP was able to induce apoptosis involving caspases pathway, besides regulating mitochondrial enzymes. Further, western blot analysis revealed the activation of caspases family proteins viz., caspase 8, caspase-9 and caspase-3. An increase in the expression of Bax mRNA concomitant with a decrease in mRNA of Bcl-2 in BEHP treated K562 cells was also observed. AO/EB staining of BEHP treated K562 cells further confirmed the progression of apoptosis as evidenced by morphological changes including nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Treatment of K562 cells with BEHP induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time dependent manner. This pattern appeared as a typical laddering distribution of DNA fragmentation due to intranucleosomal cleavage associated with apoptosis. Based on flow cytometric analysis it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at a sub G0/G1 phase. PMID:22155658

Moushumi Priya, A; Jayachandran, S

2012-01-25

209

Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant?beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed  

PubMed Central

Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint?Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant?beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant?beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant?beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

2011-01-01

210

The Discovery of phiAGATE, A Novel Phage Infecting Bacillus pumilus, Leads to New Insights into the Phylogeny of the Subfamily Spounavirinae  

PubMed Central

The Bacillus phage phiAGATE is a novel myovirus isolated from the waters of Lake Góreckie (a eutrophic lake in western Poland). The bacteriophage infects Bacillus pumilus, a bacterium commonly observed in the mentioned reservoir. Analysis of the phiAGATE genome (149844 base pairs) resulted in 204 predicted protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 53 could be functionally annotated. Further investigation revealed that the bacteriophage is a member of a previously undescribed cluster of phages (for the purposes of this study we refer to it as “Bastille group”) within the Spounavirinae subfamily. Here we demonstrate that these viruses constitute a distinct branch of the Spounavirinae phylogenetic tree, with limited similarity to phages from the Twortlikevirus and Spounalikevirus genera. The classification of phages from the Bastille group into any currently accepted genus proved extremely difficult, prompting concerns about the validity of the present taxonomic arrangement of the subfamily. PMID:24466180

Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

2014-01-01

211

[Effect of Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease on the paramagnetic centers of microbial cells].  

PubMed

Potential clinical application of Bacillus pumulus cytotoxic ribonuclease (binase) selectively inducing the death of tumor cells makes it imperative to investigate its effect on the normal human microflora. Flow cytometry was used to determine that binase concentration causing the apoptosis of cancer cells had no effect of the viability of Escherichia coli K12. The changes in the paramagnetic centers of E. coli K12 cells in the presence of nontoxic binase concentrations revealed by EPR spectroscopy included higher EPR signals from iron-containing proteins (including those from the Fe-S clusters) and of the Mn(II) hyperfine structure. The TMTH spin probe (N-(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-il)-2-methylpropanamide hydrochloride) was used to reveal a twofold increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induced oxidative stress in the enzyme-treated bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed elevated contents of alkaline (Li, Na, K), alkali earth (Mg, Ca), transition (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and post-transition metals (Bi, Pb) in the cells. Elevated levels of Cu and Zn (which impair the activity of the respiratory chain enzymes) and of Mn, which is known as a superoxide dismutase cofactor, confirmed development of the oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:25423735

Zelenikhin, P V; Makeeva, A V; Lozhkin, A P; Rodionov, A A; Nguen, N; Il'inskaia, O N

2014-01-01

212

[Effect of Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease on the paramagnetic centers of microbial cells].  

PubMed

Potential clinical application of Bacillus pumulus cytotoxic ribonuclease (binase) selectively inducing the death of tumor cells makes it imperative to investigate its effect on the normal human microflora. Flow cytometry was used to determine that binase concentration causing the apoptosis of cancer cells had no effect of the viability of Escherichia coli K12. The changes in the paramagnetic centers of E. coli K12 cells in the presence of nontoxic binase concentrations revealed by EPR spectroscopy included higher EPR signals from iron-containing proteins (including those from the Fe-S clusters) and of the Mn(II) hyperfine structure. The TMTH spin probe (N-(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-il)-2-methylpropanamide hydrochloride) was used to reveal a twofold increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induced oxidative stress in the enzyme-treated bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed elevated contents of alkaline (Li, Na, K), alkali earth (Mg, Ca), transition (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and post-transition metals (Bi, Pb) in the cells. Elevated levels of Cu and Zn (which impair the activity of the respiratory chain enzymes) and of Mn, which is known as a superoxide dismutase cofactor, confirmed development of the oxidative stress in bacteria. PMID:25507458

2014-01-01

213

Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of an Endophytic Quinclorac Degrading Bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3  

PubMed Central

In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity. PMID:25244184

Wang, Yunsheng; Zeng, Aiping; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Feng; Bai, Lianyang

2014-01-01

214

Bacillus graminis sp. nov., an endophyte isolated from a coastal dune plant.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive endophytic bacterium, designated strain YC6957(T), was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of a halophyte (Elymus mollis Trin.) inhabiting coastal tidal flats of Namhae Island, located on the southern coast of Korea, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming rods to coccoid rods, motile by a single flagellum. Strain YC6957(T) was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and able to grow in the presence of 0-8?% (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at 4-5?% (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 15-45 °C (optimal growth at 30-35 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major cellular fatty acids were C(16?:?0) (11.3?%), iso-C(15?:?0) (19.2?%) and anteiso-C(15?:?0) (36.4?%). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus. Strain YC6957(T) exhibited high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to its closest neighbours, Bacillus ruris LMG 22866(T) (96.14?%), Bacillus lentus NCIMB 8773(T) (95.97?%) and Bacillus galactosidilyticus LMG 17892(T) (95.91?%), and less than 95.84?% similarity to all other type strains in the genus Bacillus. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, it is suggested that strain YC6957(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus graminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6957(T) (?=?KACC 13779(T) ?=?DSM 22162(T)). PMID:20656804

Bibi, Fehmida; Chung, Eu Jin; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

2011-07-01

215

A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.  

PubMed

According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism. PMID:24005176

Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

2013-01-01

216

Xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 and its effects on Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp for pulp bleaching improvement.  

PubMed

The extracellular productions of beta-xylanase, beta-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-mannanase, arabinosidase, alpha-glucuronidase, alpha-galactosidase and Fpase from Bacillus pumilus CBMAI 0008 were investigated with three different xylan sources as substrate. The enzymatic profiles on birchwood, Eucalyptus grandis and oat were studied at alkaline and acidic pH conditions. B. pumilus CBMAI 0008 grown on the three carbon sources produced mainly beta-xylanase. At pH 10, the levels of xylanase were 328, 160 and 136 U/ml, for birch, oat and E. grandis, respectively. beta-Mannanase production was induced on E. grandis (5 U/ml) and arabinofuranosidase on oat (5 U/ml). Although small quantities of alpha-glucuronidase had been produced at pH 10, activity at pH 4.8 was 1.5 U/ml, higher than observed for Aspergillus sp. in literature reports. Preliminary assays carried out on E. grandis kraft pulp from an industrial paper mill (RIPASA S.A. Celulose e Papel, Limeira, SP, Brazil) showed a reduction of 0.3% of chlorine use in the pulp treated with the enzymes, resulting in increased brightness, compared to conventional bleaching. The enzymes were more efficient if applied before the initial bleaching sequence, in a non-pre-oxygenated pulp. PMID:12573558

Duarte, Marta C Teixeira; da Silva, Elizete Cristina; de Bulhões Gomes, Isabel Menezes; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Portugal, Edilberto Princi; Vicente, João Roberto; Davanzo, Ednilson

2003-05-01

217

Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. PMID:21232646

Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2011-10-01

218

Production of cellulase-free endoxylanase from novel alkalophilic thermotolerent Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation and its application in wastepaper recycling.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at optimization of culture condition for the enhanced production of extra cellular thermostable cellulase-free xylanase from Bacillus pumilus by solid-state fermentation. Batch studies were carried out to evaluate various agro-industrial residues such as rice bran, rice husk, rice straw, sawdust, coconut pith, sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran for enzyme production by the bacterial culture. The endoxylanase production was highest on wheat bran media (5582 U/gds), which was enhanced 3.8-fold (21,431 U/gds) by optimization of cultivation conditions. The enzymatic extracts was used in mixed wastepaper recycling, which resulted in a considerable improvement of the paper strength with high drainage and easy drying up. The results of enzyme application with recycled paper clearly indicated that the effective use of enzymes in fiber separation could reduce the cost of carton paper production. PMID:16844369

Asha Poorna, C; Prema, P

2007-02-01

219

Extraction in aqueous two-phase systems of alkaline xylanase produced by Bacillus pumilus and its application in kraft pulp bleaching.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to extract and to purify xylanase, produced by Bacillus pumilus from the crude fermentation broth, using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The xylanase was extracted by partitioning in ATPS composed of phosphate and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The effect of tie-line length, PEG molecular mass and NaCl concentrations upon the purification factors and yields of xylanase were investigated by statistical design. The best system studied was that containing 22% PEG6000, 10% K2HPO4 and 12% NaCl with a purification factor of 33 and a 98% yield of enzyme activity. This system was also used for continuous extraction in a pulsed caps column. Subsequently, the xylanase from the crude fermentation broth was tested in hardwood kraft pulp bleaching. PMID:10942305

Bim, M A; Franco, T T

2000-06-23

220

Characterization and emulsifying property of a carbohydrate polymer produced by Bacillus pumilus UW-02 isolated from waste water irrigated agricultural soil.  

PubMed

Bacillus pumilus UW-02, an isolate from agricultural soil irrigated with waste water was found to produce a carbohydrate polymer in the form of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). The recovery rates of EPS by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were around 63% and 90%, respectively. As evident from HPLC and FT-IR analyses, the EPS was found to be a heteropolymer consisting glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and N-acetyl glucosamine as monomer units. Different oligosaccharide combinations namely hexose(4), hexose(6) pentose(1) and hexose(10) pentose(1) are obtained after partial hydrolysis of EPS using MALDI-ToF-MS. Electron micrographs portrayed the intense affinity of the EPS molecules for each other, thereby justifying its viscosifying and thickening properties. The EPS with an average molecular weight of 218 kDa and thermal stability up to 180 °C showed pseudoplastic rheology and significant emulsifying activities. PMID:21382404

Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

2011-05-01

221

Concomitant production, partial purification and characterization of a serine protease and a proteolysis-resistant metallolipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate the concomitant production of protease and lipase by a bacterial strain. A promising bacterial strain was isolated from a food-processing industrial effluent, which can produce both protease and lipase. The isolate was characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR amplified gene was subjected to analysis by BLAST to ascertain the genetic relatedness of the isolate, Bacillus pumilus SG2. The enzymes were produced and subjected to purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography; twelve-fold purity was obtained. The lipase produced was found to be proteolysis-resistant. The partially purified enzymes were characterized for their optimum pH value, temperature, response to inhibitors, surfactants and oxidants. The relative molecular weights of protease and lipase were determined as 28 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively, by zymogram studies. PMID:20355323

Sangeetha, Ragupathy; Geetha, Arumugam; Arulpandi, Irulandi

2010-01-01

222

Identification and characterization of the endophytic plant growth prompter Bacillus Cereus strain mq23 isolated from Sophora Alopecuroides root nodules  

PubMed Central

Endophytes MQ23 and MQ23R isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules were characterized by observing their ability to promote plant growth and employing molecular analysis techniques. Results showed that MQ23 and MQ23R are potential N2-fixing endophytes and belong to the same species as Bacillus cereus. MQ23 was shown to be able to produce siderophores, IAA, and demonstrate certain antifungal activity to plant pathogenic fungi. Co-inoculation with MQ23+MQ23II showed a more significant effect than inoculation alone in vitro for most of positive actions suggesting they have a cooperative interaction. Results of plant inoculation with endophytes indicated that the growth indexes of co-inoculated MQ23+MQ23II were higher than those of inoculated alone (p<0.05) (the exception being for root fresh weight) when compared to negative control. There have been little of any studies of nonrhizobial putative endophytes with growth-promotion attributes in S. alopecuroides root nodules. This could be exploited as potential bio-inoculants and biocontrol agents in agriculture. PMID:24031669

Zhao, Longfei; Xu, Yajun; Sun, Ran; Deng, Zhenshan; Yang, Wenquan; Wei, Gehong

2011-01-01

223

Biological control against bacterial wilt and colonization of mulberry by an endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain.  

PubMed

Forty-five bacterial isolates were collected from surface-sterilized leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.). By screening their antagonistic activities against Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro, four isolates showed a remarkable inhibitory effect. The evaluation of the antagonistic strains against bacterial wilt of mulberry indicated that the strain Lu144 effectively reduced disease incidence. In the greenhouse, Lu144 displayed effective biological control against bacterial wilt of mulberry when it was applied to sterile or nonsterile soil before the infection by the pathogen. Based on bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Lu144 was identified as a strain of Bacillus subtilis. The endophytic population and infection process of Lu144 in mulberry seedlings was explored following recovery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Lu144 and examination of the labeled strain by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Interestingly, the infection of GFP-labeled Lu144 cells into the mulberry seedlings occurred through the cracks formed at the lateral root junctions and the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to develop and transfer in mulberry and mainly in the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The population of the GFP-labeled Lu144 inoculant was larger and more stable in leaves than that in roots and stems. PMID:18631174

Ji, Xianling; Lu, Guobing; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2008-09-01

224

Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative forward contaminants such as B. subtilis and B. pumilus under Earth laboratory conditions.

Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

2012-08-01

225

Isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species  

PubMed Central

Background: Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species. Objective: This study was undertaken to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria associated with agarwood-producing seven (7) Aquilaria species from Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Botanical samples of seven Aquilaria species were collected, and endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized-tissue samples. The 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using PCR method, and endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity based method. Results: Culturable, 77 EBIs were analyzed, and results of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis suggest that 18 different types of endophytic bacteria are associated with (seven) Aquilaria species. From 77 EBIs, majority (36.4%) of the isolates were of Bacillus pumilus. Conclusion: These findings indicate that agarwood-producing Aquilaria species are harboring 18 different types of culturable endophytic bacteria. PMID:23798890

Bhore, Subhash J.; Preveena, Jagadesan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

2013-01-01

226

Coexpression of the Bacillus pumilus beta-xylosidase (xynB) gene with the Trichoderma reesei beta xylanase 2 (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The xynB gene encoding the Bacillus pumilus beta-xylosidase was expressed separately and jointly with the Trichoderma reesei beta-xylanase (xyn2) gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the glucose-derepressible alcohol dehydrogenase 2 promoter (ADH2p) and terminator (ADH2T) sequences. The xynB gene was fused in frame to the yeast mating factor alpha1 secretion sequence (MFalpha1s) to effect secretion in S. cerevisiae. The fusion protein was designated Xlo1. Xlo1 produced in S. cerevisiae exhibited low affinity for xylobiose, but eventually hydrolyzed xylobiose and xylotriose to the monomeric constituent, D-xylose. Coproduction of Xyn2 and Xlo1 by S. cerevisiae led to a 25% increase in the amount of reducing sugars released from birchwood xylan compared to S. cerevisiae producing only the Xyn2 beta-xylanase. However, no D-xylose was produced from birchwood xylan, presumably due to very low Xlo1 beta-xylosidase activity and its low affinity for xylobiose. PMID:10968632

La Grange, D C; Claeyssens, M; Pretorius, I S; Van Zyl, W H

2000-08-01

227

Xylanase production using agro-residue in solid-state fermentation from Bacillus pumilus ASH for biodelignification of wheat straw pulp.  

PubMed

Two stage statistical design was used to optimize xylanase production from Bacillus pumilus ASH under solid-state fermentation. Initially, Plackett-Burman designing (PB) was used for the selection of crucial production parameters. Peptone, yeast extract, incubation time, moisture level and pH were found to be the crucial factors for the xylanase production. Crucial variables were further processed through central composite designing (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) to maximize the xylanase yield. Each significant factor was investigated at five different levels to study their influence on enzyme production. Statistical approach resulted in 2.19-fold increase in xylanase yield over conventional strategy. The determination coefficient (R (2)) as shown by analysis of variance (ANOVA) was 0.9992, which shows the adequate credibility of the model. Potential of cellulase-free xylanase was further investigated for biobleaching of wheat straw pulp. Xylanase aided bleaching through XCDED(1)D(2) sequence resulted in 20 and 17% reduction in chlorine and chlorine dioxide consumption as compared to control. Significant increase in pulp brightness (%ISO), whiteness and improvement in various pulp properties was also observed. PMID:21437760

Garg, Gaurav; Mahajan, Ritu; Kaur, Amanjot; Sharma, Jitender

2011-11-01

228

Lipase production from a novel thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophile Bacillus pumilus using palm oil as the substrate and treatment of palm oil-containing wastewater.  

PubMed

The thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophilic microorganism Bacillus pumilus was isolated from the soil collected from a commercial edible-oil extraction industry. Optimisation of conditions for the lipase production was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of extremely acidic thermostable lipase were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; and concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the thermo-tolerant acidophilic lipase (TAL) was 55 kDa. The predominant amino acid in the TAL was glycine. The functional groups of lipase were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TAL exhibited enhanced activity (114 %) with dimethyl sulphoxide (20 %, v/v), and it showed a moderate activity with methanol, hexane and benzene. The optimum conditions for the treatment of palm oil in wastewater using the TAL were found to be time, 3 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C with pseudo second-order kinetic constant of 1.88?×?10(-3) L mol(-1) min(-1). The Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model and the nonlinear kinetic model were evaluated for the TAL. TAL established hydrolysis efficiency of 96 % for palm oil in wastewater at 50 °C. PMID:24293300

Saranya, P; Sukanya Kumari, H; Prasad Rao, B; Sekaran, G

2014-03-01

229

Pongamia pinnata seed cake: a promising and inexpensive substrate for production of protease and lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 on solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

The production of a protease and a lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 on solid-state fermentation using Pongamia pinnata seed cake as substrate was studied. The seed cake was proved to be a promising substrate for the bacterial growth and the enzyme production. The initial pH, incubation time and moisture content were optimized to achieve maximal enzyme production. Maximum protease production was observed at 72 h and that of the lipase at 96 h of incubation. The production of protease (9840 U/g DM) and lipase (1974 U/g DM) were maximum at pH 7.0 and at 60% moisture content. Triton X-100 (1%) was proved to be an effective extractant for the enzymes and their optimal activity was observed at alkaline pH and at 60 C. The molecular mass of the protease and lipase was 24 and 40 kDa, respectively. Both the enzymes were found to be stable detergent additives. The study demonstrated that inexpensive and easily available Pongamia seed cake could be used for production of industrially important enzymes, such as protease and lipase. PMID:22329247

Sangeetha, R; Geetha, A; Arulpandi, I

2011-12-01

230

Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

231

Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

232

Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

233

Photocatalytically?mediated disinfection of water using tio2 as a catalyst and spore?forming Bacillus pumilus as a model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic oxidation process has been evaluated as a basis for disinfecting large volumes of water. A 95 percent reduction in viability of B. pumilus spores, suspended with TiO2 in water, was observed after exposing the model organism to ultraviolet (UV) light (? 365 nm). Kinetic plots showed that the viability of B. pumilus spores decreased exponentially. No reduction in

Hien N. Pham; Thomas McDowell; Ebtisam Wilkins

1995-01-01

234

The combined effect of pasteurization intensity, water activity, pH and incubation temperature on the survival and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus in artificial media and food products.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the combined effects of pasteurization intensity (no heat treatment and 10 min at 70, 80 and 90 °C), water activity (aw) (0.960-0.990), pH (5.5-7.0) and storage temperature (7 and 10 °C) on the survival and outgrowth of psychrotolerant spores of Bacillus cereus FF119b and Bacillus pumilus FF128a. The experiments were performed in both artificial media and a validation was performed on real food products (cream, béchamel sauce and mixed vegetable soup). It was determined that in general, heat treatments of 10 min at 70 °C or 80 °C activated the spores of both B. cereus FF119b and B. pumilus FF128a, resulting in faster outgrowth compared to native (non-heat treated) spores. A pasteurization treatment of 10 min at 90 °C generally resulted in the longest lag periods before outgrowth of both isolates. Some of the spores were inactivated by this heat treatment, with more inactivation being observed the lower the pH value of the heating medium. Despite this, it was also observed that under some conditions the remaining (surviving) spores were actually activated as their outgrowth took place after a shorter period of time compared to native non-heated spores. While the response of B. cereus FF119b to the pasteurization intensity in cream and béchamel sauce was similar to the trends observed in the artificial media at 10 °C, in difference, outgrowth was only observed at 7 °C in both products when the spores had been heated for 10 min at 80 °C. Moreover, no inactivation was observed in cream or béchamel sauce when the spores were heated for 10 min at 90 °C in these two products. This was attributed to the protective effect of fat in the cream and the ingredients in the béchamel sauce. The study provides some insight into the potential microbial (stability and safety) consequences of the current trend towards milder heat treatments which is being pursued in the food industry. PMID:24801270

Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; de Baenst, I; Devlieghere, F

2014-07-01

235

Catalytic versatility of Bacillus pumilus. beta. -xylosidase: glycosyl transfer and hydrolysis promoted with. cap alpha. - and. beta. -D-xylosyl fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Bacillus pumilus ..beta..-xylosidase, an enzyme considered restricted to hydrolyzing a narrow range of ..beta..-D-xylosidic substrates with inversion of configuration, was found to catalyze different stereochemical, essentially irreversible, glycosylation reactions with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride. The enzyme promoted the hydrolysis of ..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride at a high rate, V = 6.25 ..mu..mol min/sup -1/ mg/sup -1/ at 0/sup 0/C, in a reaction that obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In contrast, its action upon ..cap alpha..-D-xylopyranosyl fluoride was slow and characterized by an unusual relation between the rate of fluoride release and the substrate concentration, suggesting the possible need for two substrate molecules to be bound at the active center in order for reaction to occur. Moreover, /sup 1/H NMR spectra of a digest of ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride showed the substrate to be specifically converted to ..cap alpha..-D-xylose by the enzyme. The observed retention of configuration is not consistent with direct hydrolysis by this inverting enzyme but is strongly indicative of the occurrence of two successive inverting reactions: xylosyl transfer from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride to form a ..beta..-D-xylosidic product, followed by hydrolysis of the latter to produce ..cap alpha..-D-xylose. The transient intermediate product formed enzymically from ..cap alpha..-D-xylosyl fluoride in the presence of (/sup 14/C)xylose was isolated and shown by its specific radioactivity and /sup 1/H NMR spectrum as well as by methylatino and enzymic analyses to be 4-O-..beta..-D-xylopyranosyl-D-xylopyranose containing one (/sup 14/C)xylose residue.

Kasumi, T.; Tsumuraya, Y.; Brewer, C.F.; Kersters-Hilderson, H.; Claeyssens, M.; Hehre, E.J.

1987-06-02

236

Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.  

PubMed

The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Ben Aicha, Houda Slimene; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

2014-01-01

237

Probing the Crucial Role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS Alkaline Protease in Substrate Recognition and Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide  

PubMed Central

The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Aicha, Houda Slimene Ben; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

2014-01-01

238

Bacillus subtilis subspecies virginiana, a new subspecies of antitermitic compound-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from Juniperus virginiana.  

PubMed

Termites are worldwide pests causing considerable damage to agriculture, forestry and buildings. Although physical and chemical methods have been tried to eliminate termite populations, they have the limitations such as low effectiveness, high-toxicity residue, environmentally harmful and high cost. Therefore, it has attracted much attention to develop highly effective, low-toxic, long residual period, environmentally friendly and low-cost termiticidals. Here, we report the characterization and antitermitic activities of a new antitermitic compound-producing endophytic bacterium HUB-I-47 isolated from eastern red-cedar, Juniperus virginiana L. The morphological, physiochemical characteristics of strain HUB-I-47 and its 16S rDNA sequences, and the antitermitic compound were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were studied. We found that the morphology of HUB-I-47 was very similar to that of Bacillus subtilis but presented some differences in shape and cell size. Growth evaluation showed that the lowest, highest, and optimum growth temperatures of HUB-I-47 were 12, 47, and 31 degrees C, respectively, which were different from those of reference strains. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a high similarity of 99% to those of B. subtilis. Based on these analyses, we named strain HUB-I-47 as B. subtilis subsp. virginiana D. P. Zhou, K. Zhao, J. Liu et W. X. Ping, subsp. nov. This is the first report on the analysis of antitermitic compounds from endophytic bacteria. Our study identified a new resource of antitermitic compounds through endophytic bacteria fermentation. PMID:22066178

Zhao, Kai; Liu, Jun; Li, Zhugang; Chang, Zhiwei; Shi, Pengfei; Ping, Wenxiang; Zhou, Dongpo

2011-10-01

239

Production of 15-, 16- and 17-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acids by bioconversion of oleic acid with Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeveralBacillus strains were tested for their ability to hydroxylate oleic acid. Two strains—BD-174 and BD-226—converted oleic acid into\\u000a a trio of hydroxy-octadecenoic acids. Bioconversion in 72–120 hr produced 5–11% of hydroxy acids relative to oleic acid as\\u000a measured by gas chromatography. These acids were identified as the 15-, 16- and 17-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acids by gas chromatography-mass\\u000a spectrometry of trimethyl silyl derivatives

A. C. Lanser; R. D. Plattner; M. O. Bagby

1992-01-01

240

Purification and Mode of Action of an Alkali-Resistant Endo-1,4-?-glucanase from Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline endo-1,4-?-d-glucanase was secreted byBacillus pumilusgrown in submerged culture on a combination of oat spelt xylan and corn starch as carbon sources. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl S-200 and Q-Sepharose column chromatography. The protein corresponded to molecular mass and pIvalues of 67 kDa and 3.7, respectively. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0–8.0 and 60°C and

Paul Christakopoulos; Dimitris G. Hatzinikolaou; George Fountoukidis; Dimitris Kekos; Marc Claeyssens; Basil J. Macris

1999-01-01

241

Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

242

Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2?mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15?mL (108 cfu?mL?1) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

243

Genotyping of starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus spp. are the predominant microorganisms in fermented African locust bean called Soumbala in Burkina Faso. Ten strains selected as potential starter cultures were characterised by PCR amplification of the16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ITS-PCR (ITS-PCR RFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the 968–1401 region of the 16S rDNA. In

Labia Irène Ivette Ouoba; Bréhima Diawara; Wisdom kofi Amoa-Awua; Alfred Sababénedyo Traoré; Peter Lange Møller

2004-01-01

244

A novel Bacillus pumilus -related strain from tropical landfarm soil is capable of rapid dibenzothiophene degradation and biodesulfurization.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe presence of organic sulfur-containing compounds in the environment is harmful to animals and human health. The combustion of these compounds in fossil fuels tends to release sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to acid rain, corrosion, damage to crops, and an array of other problems. The process of biodesulfurization rationally exploits the ability of certain microorganisms in the removal of sulfur prior to fuel burning, without loss of calorific value. In this sense, we hypothesized that bacterial isolates from tropical landfarm soils can demonstrate the ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT), the major sulfur-containing compound present in fuels.ResultsNine bacterial isolates previously obtained from a tropical landfarm soil were tested for their ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT). An isolate labeled as RR-3 has shown the best performance and was further characterized in the present study. Based on physiological aspects and 16 s rDNA sequencing, this isolate was found to be very closely related to the Bacillus pumillus species. During its growth, high levels of DBT were removed in the first 24 hours, and a rapid DBT degradation within the first hour of incubation was observed when resting cells were used. Detection of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), a marker for the 4S pathway, suggests this strain has metabolical capability for DBT desulfurization. The presence of MgSO4 in growth medium as an additional sulfur source has interfered with DBT degradation.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a Bacillus strain can metabolize DBT via the 4S pathway. However, further evidences suggest RR-3 can also use DBT (and/or its derivative metabolites) as carbon/sulfur source through another type of metabolism. Compared to other reported DBT-degrading strains, the RR-3 isolate showed the highest capacity for DBT degradation ever described in quantitative terms.The potential application of this isolate for the biodesulfurization of this sulfur-containing compound in fuels prior to combustion was discussed. PMID:25293673

Buzanello, Elizandra; Rezende, Rachel; Sousa, Fernanda; de Lima Silva Marques, Eric; Loguercio, Leandro

2014-10-01

245

Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.  

PubMed

The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. PMID:21792590

Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

2012-02-01

246

Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain E1R-J Is a Promising Biocontrol Agent for Wheat Powdery Mildew  

PubMed Central

In this study, the biocontrol efficacies of 14 endophytic bacterial strains were tested against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) in pot experiments under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus subtilis strain E1R-j significantly reduced disease index and exhibited the best control (90.97%). When different formulations of E1R-j were sprayed 24?h before Bgt inoculation, fermentation liquid without bacterial cell and crude protein suspension displayed the similar effects; and they reduced disease index more than bacterial cell suspension (109?cfu?mL?1) and fermentation liquid without protein. The control effects were not significantly different between 1011 and 109?cfu?mL?1 of bacterial cell suspension but were higher than 107?cfu?mL?1. Further observations showed that conidial germination and appressorial formation of Bgt were retarded by spraying E1R-j 24?h before Bgt inoculation. Compared with the water check, conidial germination and appressorial formation were decreased by 43.3% and 42.7%, respectively. In the treatment with E1R-j, the number of houstoria significantly reduced and the speed of mycelial extension was slowed down in the wheat leaves. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that E1R-j significantly suppressed the conidial germination and caused rupture and deformation of germ tubes. On the surface of wheat leaves, mycelia and conidiophores became shrinking.

Gong, Yufei; Huo, Yunxia; Han, Qingmei; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

2015-01-01

247

Lipopeptides from the Banyan Endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Library of Fengycins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometric analysis of a banyan endophyte, Bacillus subtilis K1, extract showing broad spectrum antifungal activity revealed a complex mixture of lipopeptides, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins. Fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) facilitated a detailed analysis of fengycin microheterogeneity. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric studies permitted the identification of several new fengycin variants. Four major sites of heterogeneity are identified: (1) N-terminus ?-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, where chain length variation and the presence of unsaturation occur, (2) position 6 (Ala/Val/Ile/Leu), (3) position 10 (Val/Ile) within the macrocyclic ring, and (4) Gln to Glu replacement at position 8, resulting in fengycin variants that differ in mass by 1 Da. Diagnostic fragment ions provide a quick method for localizing the sites of variation in the macrocycle or the linear segment. Subsequent establishment of the sequences is achieved by MS/MS analysis of linear fengycin species produced by hydrolysis of the macrocyclic lactone. Unsaturation in the fatty acid chain and the presence of linear precursors in the B. subtilis K1 extract are also established by mass spectrometry. The anomalous distribution of intensities within isotopic multiplets is a diagnostic for Gln/Glu replacements. High resolution mass spectrometry facilitates the identification of fengycin species differing by 1 Da by localizing the variable position (Gln8/Glu8) in the fengycin variants.

Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Haresh; Gupta, Kallol; Thakur, Suman S.; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2012-10-01

248

Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres  

PubMed Central

The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination) on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0 ± 11.8?Ug?1 DBB) in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1?:?1?:?0.01) was moistened with mineral salt solution (aw 0.92, pH 9.0) at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1?:?2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24?h old inoculum, in 144?h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF). The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young's modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres. PMID:22928091

Sharma, Deepak Chand; Satyanarayana, T.

2012-01-01

249

Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants. PMID:22133352

Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

2012-01-15

250

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 ?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80–90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

251

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

252

Diversity of endophytic bacterial populations and their interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants.  

PubMed

Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus sinensis cultivars. The endophytic bacterial communities of healthy, resistant, and CVC-affected citrus plants were studied by using cultivation as well as cultivation-independent techniques. The endophytic communities were assessed in surface-disinfected citrus branches by plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Dominant isolates were characterized by fatty-acid methyl ester analysis as Bacillus pumilus, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter cloacae, Methylobacterium spp. (including Methylobacterium extorquens, M. fujisawaense, M. mesophilicum, M. radiotolerans, and M. zatmanii), Nocardia sp., Pantoea agglomerans, and Xanthomonas campestris. We observed a relationship between CVC symptoms and the frequency of isolation of species of Methylobacterium, the genus that we most frequently isolated from symptomatic plants. In contrast, we isolated C. flaccumfaciens significantly more frequently from asymptomatic plants than from those with symptoms of CVC while P. agglomerans was frequently isolated from tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and sweet-orange (C. sinensis) plants, irrespective of whether the plants were symptomatic or asymptomatic or showed symptoms of CVC. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total plant DNA resulted in several bands that matched those from the bacterial isolates, indicating that DGGE profiles can be used to detect some endophytic bacteria of citrus plants. However, some bands had no match with any isolate, suggesting the occurrence of other, nonculturable or as yet uncultured, endophytic bacteria. A specific band with a high G+C ratio was observed only in asymptomatic plants. The higher frequency of C. flaccumfaciens in asymptomatic plants suggests a role for this organism in the resistance of plants to CVC. PMID:12324338

Araújo, Welington L; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Van Vuurde, Jim W L; Azevedo, João Lúcio

2002-10-01

253

Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immuno- stimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms

L. H. Duc; Huynh A. Hong; Teresa M. Barbosa; Adriano O. Henriques

2004-01-01

254

Induction of defense-related proteins by mixtures of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria against Banana bunchy top virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial isolates from the roots and corms of banana were tested for their biocontrol efficiency against Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Molecular characterization using RAPD and microsatellite markers revealed genomic variability in the endophytic Pseudomonas and Bacillus isolates. Bio-formulations of mixtures of the rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) and endophytic Bacillus spp. (EPB22) were effective in reducing

S. Harish; M. Kavino; N. Kumar; P. Balasubramanian; R. Samiyappan

2009-01-01

255

Endophytic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Endophytic fungi as well as plant-parasitic nematodes probably coevolved with all plant life on earth including cultivated\\u000a crop plants. While endophytic fungi often form mutualisitc associations to the benefit of the plant, plant-parasitic nematodes\\u000a can cause detrimental yield losses. Although both groups of organisms interact very closely within the plant tissue, the potential\\u000a role of endophytic fungi in nematode control

Johannes Hallmann; Richard A. Sikora

256

MICROBIOLOGY OF POLLEN AND BEE BREAD : THE GENUS BACILLUS  

E-print Network

. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and B. circulans were also isolated. Since the greatest number of Bacillus isolatesMICROBIOLOGY OF POLLEN AND BEE BREAD : THE GENUS BACILLUS Martha GILLIAM U.S. Department, Arizona 857199 SUMMARY Forty-one bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated from almond

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

COFFEE ENDOPHYTES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey for fungal endophytes in various coffee (Coffea arabica L.) tissues was conducted in Colombia, Hawaii, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. More than 700 fungal endophyte isolates have been sequenced: 281 from Colombia, 240 from Hawaii, 119 from Mexico, and 68 from Puerto Rico; these comprise over 17...

258

Endophytic bacteria mediate plant resistance against cotton bollworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of endophytic bacterial strains was evaluated in cotton against American bollworm infestation under greenhouse conditions. Among the 103 endophytic bacterial strains, the Bacillus strains (EPCO 102 and EPCO 16) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf1 significantly reduced the bollworm incidence. Talc-based bioformulation of EPCO 102, EPCO 16 and P. fluorescens Pf1 with and without chitin in inducing systemic resistance

L. Rajendran; R. Samiyappan; T. Raguchander; D. Saravanakumar

2007-01-01

259

Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.  

PubMed

Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

2005-01-01

260

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis BSn5, an endophytic bacterium of Amorphophallus konjac with antimicrobial activity for the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.  

PubMed

Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain BSn5, isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli tissue and showing strong inhibitory activity to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, which causes Amorphophallus soft rot disease and affects the industry development of this organism. PMID:21317323

Deng, Yun; Zhu, Yiguang; Wang, Pengxia; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Jinshui; Li, Rong; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

2011-04-01

261

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis BSn5, an Endophytic Bacterium of Amorphophallus konjac with Antimicrobial Activity for the Plant Pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ?  

PubMed Central

Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain BSn5, isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli tissue and showing strong inhibitory activity to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, which causes Amorphophallus soft rot disease and affects the industry development of this organism. PMID:21317323

Deng, Yun; Zhu, Yiguang; Wang, Pengxia; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Jinshui; Li, Rong; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

2011-01-01

262

Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

263

Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

2014-01-01

264

Distinct differentiation of closely related species of Bacillus subtilis group with industrial importance.  

PubMed

PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene by universal primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using RsaI, CfoI and HinfI endonucleases, distinctly differentiated closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus from Bacillus subtilis sensu stricto. This simple, economical, rapid and reliable protocol could be an alternative to misleading phenotype-based grouping of these closely related species. PMID:21889958

Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Romi, Wahengbam; Singh, Thangjam Anand; Adewumi, Gbenga Adedeji; Basanti, Khundrakpam; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony

2011-11-01

265

Endophytic bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.  

PubMed

Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Of these, strain OS-9 was found to be antagonistic to R. solani, A. solani, F. solani, and C. lindemuthianum while OS-11 was found antagonistic against A. solani only. The growth-promoting benefits of the endophytes were initially evaluated in the glasshouse by inoculated seeds of O. sanctum. Treatment with endophytes OS-10 and OS-11 resulted in significant enhancement of growth as revealed by increase in fresh as well as dry weight. Further, field trials involving two genotypes OS Purple and CIM-Angana were conducted with strains OS-10 and OS-11. The growth-promoting effect was visible on both the genotypes tested as the endophytes significantly enhanced fresh herbage yield (t/ha). Interestingly, these endophytes increased the content of essential oil particularly in cultivar OS Purple and thereby increasing the total oil yields. Molecular characterization of strain OS-11 indicated the strain to be highly related to the type strain of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:19826860

Tiwari, Rashmi; Kalra, Alok; Darokar, M P; Chandra, Mahesh; Aggarwal, Nitin; Singh, A K; Khanuja, S P S

2010-03-01

266

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

2014-01-01

267

Electrotransformation of Bacillus mojavensis with fluorescent protein markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gram-positive endophytic bacteria are difficult to transform. To study endophytic interactions between Bacillus mojavensis and maize, a method was developed to transform this species by electroporation with three fluorescent protein expressing integrative plasmids: pSG1154, pSG1192, and pSG1193. The...

268

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens.Our research program is aimed at using fungal endophytes-mediated plant defense as a novel biological control mechanism against the coffee berry borer, the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. A survey of fungal endophytes in

Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Posada; M. Catherine Aime; Monica Pava-Ripoll; Francisco Infante; Stephen A. Rehner

2008-01-01

269

Diversity and potential application of endophytic bacteria in ginger.  

PubMed

Here, 248 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated to assess the distribution and population diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginger plants. A total of 10.4 x 10(4) to 20.2 x 10(4) CFU/g fresh weight endophytic bacteria of different growth stages were isolated. Maximum bacterium numbers were obtained at the seedling stage. A total of 107 functional strains were screened, including 17 antibacterial strains and 90 indole acetic acid-producing strains. Based on 16S rDNA sequence restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rDNA sequences, these 107 strains were mapped and grouped into 16 genera. Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the dominant genera; however, the bacteria belonged to a tremendous range of genera, with the highest species richness being observed at the seedling stage. Sixteen strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Pythium myriotylum Drechsler, while 7 strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against Phyllosticta zingiberi Hori. Bacillus was the dominant antibacterial strain. Pseudomonas fluorescens, B. megaterium, and Enterobacter ludwigii produced remarkably high levels of IAA. Only a few endophytic bacterial strains were inhibited in fresh ginger juice. Most of these strains were present during seedling stage, including Roseateles depolymerans, Chryseobacterium taiwanense, E. ludwigii, Agrobacterium larrymoorei, P. fluorescens, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This study indicates that the community of endophytic bacteria in ginger changes with the synthesis of antibacterial substances. PMID:25062479

Chen, T; Chen, Z; Ma, G H; Du, B H; Shen, B; Ding, Y Q; Xu, K

2014-01-01

270

Expression analysis of rice pathogenesis-related proteins involved in stress response and endophytic colonization properties of gfp-tagged Bacillus subtilis CB-R05.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis CB-R05, possessing antagonistic effects against several fungal pathogens, is a diazotrophic plant growth-promoting bacteria marked with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. To confirm the expression level of the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in rice inoculated with CB-R05, the expressions of four pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (PR2, PR6, PR15, and PR16) were examined in the rice leaves treated with wounding stress over a time period. The PR proteins were generally more strongly expressed in the rice leaves inoculated with CB-R05 compared with the untreated control. The marked gfp-tagged B. subtilis CB-R05 strain was inoculated onto the rice seedlings under axenic conditions. Under the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), the gfp-tagged CB-R05 bacterial cells were observed to penetrate the rhizoplane, especially in the elongation and differentiation zones of the rice roots, and colonize the root intracellularly. The bacteria, 24 h after the gfp-tagged CB-R05 inoculation, were seen to penetrate into the cell wall, cortex, xylem, and concentrate mainly in the vascular bundle. Numerous bacteria were observed within the intercellular spaces, root cortical cells, and xylem vessels. Over time, these bacteria dispersed to the lateral root junctions and propagated slowly from the roots to the stems and leaves. The B. subtilis CB-R05 population in the rice root rhizosphere was also monitored. These results show a very widespread colonization of the B. subtilis CB-R05 in the rice rhizosphere. Further attempts are under way to investigate the competition between the CB-R05 bacteria and the fungal pathogen in vivo. PMID:25055794

Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

2014-09-01

271

Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

2014-09-01

272

Antibiotic oxylipins from Alternanthera brasiliana and its endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alternanthera brasiliana stem extracts resulted in the isolation of an antibiotically active fraction. Five human pathogenic bacteria were used to guide the fractionation process for the isolation of antimicrobial compounds. Finally, 17 linoleate oxylipins were identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Five of the isolated compounds present in A. brasiliana tissues were also detected to be synthesized by endophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that were isolated from A. brasiliana. It is speculated that the antibiotic oxylipins from A. brasiliana might derive from bacteria and be involved in an ecological relationship between this plant and its endophytes. PMID:25433629

Trapp, Marília Almeida; Kai, Marco; Mithöfer, Axel; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

2015-02-01

273

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

274

The status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus. Request for an Opinion.  

PubMed

During a study assessing the diversity of the Bacillus pumilus group it became apparent that the type strains of both Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus were not available from any established culture collection, nor from the authors who originally described them. Therefore, type strains of these species cannot be included in any further scientific studies. It is therefore proposed that the Judicial Commission of the International Committee of Systematics of Prokaryotes place the names Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus on the list of rejected names, if suitable replacements for the type strains are not found or if neotype strains are not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request for an Opinion. PMID:25479956

Branquinho, Raquel; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Peixe, Luísa V

2015-03-01

275

Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity  

PubMed Central

The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

2002-01-01

276

In vitro assessment of marine Bacillus for use as livestock probiotics.  

PubMed

Six antimicrobial-producing seaweed-derived Bacillus strains were evaluated in vitro as animal probiotics, in comparison to two Bacillus from an EU-authorized animal probiotic product. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated on solid media against porcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates were most active against the latter, had better activity than the commercial probiotics and Bacillus pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli counts in broth. All of the marine Bacillus tolerated physiological concentrations of bile, with some as tolerant as one of the probiotics. Spore counts for all isolates remained almost constant during incubation in simulated gastric and ileum juices. All of the marine Bacillus grew anaerobically and the spores of all except one isolate germinated under anaerobic conditions. All were sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and none harbored Bacillus enterotoxin genes but all, except B. pumilus WIT 588, showed some degree of ?-hemolysis. However, trypan blue dye exclusion and xCELLigence assays demonstrated a lack of toxicity in comparison to two pathogens; in fact, the commercial probiotics appeared more cytotoxic than the majority of the marine Bacillus. Overall, some of the marine-derived Bacillus, in particular B. pumilus WIT 588, demonstrate potential for use as livestock probiotics. PMID:24796302

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Lane, Jonathan A; Hickey, Rita M; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E

2014-05-01

277

In Vitro Assessment of Marine Bacillus for Use as Livestock Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Six antimicrobial-producing seaweed-derived Bacillus strains were evaluated in vitro as animal probiotics, in comparison to two Bacillus from an EU-authorized animal probiotic product. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated on solid media against porcine Salmonella and E. coli. The marine isolates were most active against the latter, had better activity than the commercial probiotics and Bacillus pumilus WIT 588 also reduced E. coli counts in broth. All of the marine Bacillus tolerated physiological concentrations of bile, with some as tolerant as one of the probiotics. Spore counts for all isolates remained almost constant during incubation in simulated gastric and ileum juices. All of the marine Bacillus grew anaerobically and the spores of all except one isolate germinated under anaerobic conditions. All were sensitive to a panel of antibiotics and none harbored Bacillus enterotoxin genes but all, except B. pumilus WIT 588, showed some degree of ?-hemolysis. However, trypan blue dye exclusion and xCELLigence assays demonstrated a lack of toxicity in comparison to two pathogens; in fact, the commercial probiotics appeared more cytotoxic than the majority of the marine Bacillus. Overall, some of the marine-derived Bacillus, in particular B. pumilus WIT 588, demonstrate potential for use as livestock probiotics. PMID:24796302

Prieto, Maria Luz; O’Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Lane, Jonathan A.; Hickey, Rita M.; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.

2014-01-01

278

TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS ANTIFUNGAL INHIBITOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nature of an inhibitory substance produced from an endophytic species of bacteria, Bacillus mojavensis, that readily forms positive associations with several plants, was examined. Several isolates have been reported to be plant-growth promoters, plant-health enhancers and successful in preventi...

279

Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.  

PubMed

Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis. PMID:25574846

Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

2015-03-16

280

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in medicinally important Nepenthes species  

PubMed Central

Background: Nepenthes species are used in traditional medicines to treat various health ailments. However, we do not know which types of endophytic bacteria (EB) are associated with Nepenthes spp. Objective: The objective of this study was to isolate and to identify EB associated with Nepenthes spp. Materials and Methods: Surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissues from nine Nepenthes spp. collected from Peninsular Malaysia were used to isolate EB. Isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence similarity based method. Results: Cultivable, 96 isolates were analyzed; and the 16S rDNA sequences analysis suggest that diverse bacterial species are associated with Nepenthes spp. Majority (55.2%) of the isolates were from Bacillus genus, and Bacillus cereus was the most dominant (14.6%) among isolates. Conclusion: Nepenthes spp. do harbor a wide array of cultivable endophytic bacteria. PMID:24082746

Bhore, Subhash J.; Komathi, Vijayan; Kandasamy, Kodi I.

2013-01-01

281

Microbial Endophytes of Corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing recognition is being given to the impact of microbial population dynamics on the general health of biological systems. Building on previous mycological and bacteriological research on agricultural commodities, more advanced technology is expanding our understanding of the “endophytic habi...

282

ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces were isolated as endophytes from various coffee tissues in Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the cof...

283

Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beauveria basssiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common be...

284

Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 106cfug after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25–30 °C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to

Hanne Rosenkvist; Åse Hansen

1995-01-01

285

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of bacterial root and nodule endophytes from chickpea cultivated in Northern India.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria from roots (12 isolates) and nodules (76 isolates) of chickpea legume grown under CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were isolated. Among the endophytic bacteria, 50% from roots and 93.4% from nodules were Gram positive spore formers. Large number of endophytes from roots and nodules solubilized phosphate and produced ammonia. Isolate CRE3, and CNE215, were most efficient P solubilizers and. CRE12 and CNE76 being most efficient ammonia producer. Interestingly, few endophytic bacteria produced organic acid. Further selected 62 isolates were used to determine molecular diversity by RFLP of PCR amplified 16S rDNA. Endophytes from roots formed five separate clusters and nodule endophytes formed 13 clusters. Isolate CNE215 from nodules and CRE1 from roots possessed multiple beneficial traits and belonged two different clusters. These two isolates were identified after amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Isolate CNE215 showed more than 98% similarity with partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene of Bacillus subtilis, whereas CRE1 showed more than 98% similarity with Bacillus licheniformis. Efficacy of these two strains was evaluated under field conditions and an increase up to 22.5% in grain yield over uninoculated control was observed with B. subtilis strain CNE215, whereas all the recommended biofertilizers were able to record an increase upto 14.4%. PMID:25590871

Saini, Ranjana; Dudeja, Surjit Singh; Giri, Rupa; Kumar, Vishal

2015-01-01

286

Overexpression, Purification and Characterization of Organic Solvent Stable Lipase from Bacillus licheniformis RSP09  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipase gene (543 bp) from Bacillus licheniformis RSP-09, a thermophilic isolate, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). It encodes a polypeptide of 181 residues and has 96% identity with Bacillus pumilus B26 lipase gene. The recombinant lipase was purified 19-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by His-tag chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified recombinant B. licheniformis RSP-09 lipase was

Bhawna Madan; Prashant Mishra

2009-01-01

287

The role of endophytic bacteria during seed piece decay and potato tuberization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kennebec were found to be internally colonized by non-pathogenic bacterial populations originating from root zone soil. These endophytic bacteria were categorized, on the basis of bioassays, as plant growth promoting (PGP), plant growth retarding (PGR) and plant growth neutral (PGN). Genera isolated from tubers included Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Actinomyces and Acinetobacter. The

A. V. Sturz

1995-01-01

288

Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters  

PubMed Central

Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

289

Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.  

PubMed

Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia Del C; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

290

Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice  

PubMed Central

Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID:25097431

Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

2014-01-01

291

Seasonal occurrence of psychrotrophic Bacillus species in raw milk, and studies on the interactions with mesophilic Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Mesophilic and psychrotrophic isolates of Bacillus species displayed seasonal incidences in raw and pasteurised milk. The incidence of mesophilic isolates was highest in the winter and lowest in the summer/autumn while pschrotroph incidence was conversely lowest in the winter and highest in the late summer/autumn. Spores of Bacillus sp. were isolated from raw milk taken from farm milk machines and bulk tanks, milk tankers, diary silos and pasteurised milk. A consistent seasonal fluctuation in incidence throughout these samples suggested that spores of Bacillus sp. derived from the farm environment survived as important contaminants right through the milk chain to the pasteurised product. Up to seven mesophilic Bacillus sp. were isolated from a single sample with three species commonly occurring in most samples. The predominant mesophilic species isolated were B. pumilus, B. licheniformis and B. subtilis. The dominant psychrotrophic isolate was B. cereus. Selected mesophilic isolates were examined for possible antagonistic effects on the growth of psychrotropic B. cereus and B. pumilus isolates. Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were found to produce antagonistic factors. It was considered that these factors may influence the incidence and growth of psychrotrophic isolates in the farm environment or in milk but the factors are not yet fully characterised or identified. PMID:8043347

Sutherland, A D; Murdoch, R

1994-03-01

292

Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

2014-09-01

293

BACTERIAL ENDOPHYTES: THE ENDOPHYTIC NICHE, ITS OCCUPANTS, AND ITS UTILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endophytic niche offers a unique habitat for the control of pathogens since the endophyte is contained and is not subject to the direct influence of the environment and will multiply within the intercellular spaces as the plant grows, thereby potentially colonizing the entire plant axis. The ba...

294

Combinatorial effect of endophytic and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against wilt disease of Capsicum annum L. caused by Fusarium solani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of biocontrol agents that are compatible with each other is a strategic approach to control the plant disease and pest. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of compatible endophytic bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis; EPCO16 and EPC5) and rhizobacterial strain (Pseudomonas fluorescens; Pf1) against chilli wilt disease caused by Fusarium solani. Our results showed that B.

S. Sundaramoorthy; T. Raguchander; N. Ragupathi; R. Samiyappan

295

Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.  

PubMed

The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

2014-01-01

296

Genetic discrimination of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage Bacillus spp. based on three housekeeping genes.  

PubMed

Bacillus genus includes foodborne pathogenic and spoilage-associated species, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus is also a heterogeneous genus that includes closely related species that are difficult to discriminate among, especially when well-conserved genes such as 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA are considered. The main goal of the present work was to study the usefulness of three housekeeping genes, the TU elongation factor (tuf), the DNA gyrase ? subunit (gyrB) and the RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) genes, for use in differentiating among the most important foodborne Bacillus spp. sequences from 20 foodborne isolated Bacillus strains, and sequences belonging to different Bacillus spp. retrieved from the GenBank were analysed. In general terms, gyrB, rpoB and tuf gene regions for the strains considered in this study exhibited interspecific similarities of 57.8%, 67.23% and 77.66% respectively. Novel tufGPF and tufGPR universal primers targeted to the tuf gene were designed and proved to be useful for the amplification of all Bacillus spp considered. In conclusion, the tuf gene can be considered to be a good target for the differential characterisation of foodborne Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from other closely related species. PMID:25475298

Caamaño-Antelo, S; Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Ezzat-Alnakip, M; Quintela-Baluja, M; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

2015-04-01

297

Establishing Fungal Entomopathogens as Endophytes: Towards Endophytic Biological Control  

PubMed Central

Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 108 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.

2013-01-01

298

Isolation of micropropagated strawberry endophytic bacteria and assessment of their potential for plant growth promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristematic tissues of three varieties of strawberry cultivated in vitro,\\u000a and further identified, by FAME profile, into the genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis. The strains were also characterized according to indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and potential for\\u000a plant growth promotion. Results showed that 15 strains produced high levels of IAA and all

Armando C. F. Dias; Francisco E. C. Costa; Fernando D. Andreote; Paulo T. Lacava; Manoel A. Teixeira; Laura C. Assumpção; Welington L. Araújo; João L. Azevedo; Itamar S. Melo

2009-01-01

299

Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

2008-04-01

300

Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of a Marine-Derived Bacillus Strain for Use as an In-Feed Probiotic for Newly Weaned Pigs  

PubMed Central

Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n?=?16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 1010 spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (P<0.05) for the medicated treatment compared to the B. pumilus treatment. Ileal E. coli counts were lower for the B. pumilus and medicated treatments compared to the non-medicated treatment (P<0.05), perhaps as a result of increased ileal propionic acid concentrations (P<0.001). However, the medicated treatment reduced fecal (P<0.001) and cecal (P<0.05) Lactobacillus counts and tended to reduce the total cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P?=?0.10). Liver weights were lighter and concentrations of liver enzymes higher (P<0.05) in pigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (P<0.001) and higher numbers of jejunal goblet cells (P<0.01) than pigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C.; Kent, Robert M.; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

2014-01-01

301

Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana ‘Prata Anã’ (Musa spp.) roots  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana ‘Prata Anã’ roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX). Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus) and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas. PMID:23885208

Souza, Suzane A.; Xavier, Adelica A.; Costa, Márcia R.; Cardoso, Acleide M.S.; Pereira, Marlon C.T.; Nietsche, Silvia

2013-01-01

302

Rapid inactivation of seven Bacillus spp. under simulated Mars UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven Bacillus spp. were exposed to simulations of Mars-normal UV fluence rates in order to study the effects of UV irradiation on microbial survival. A UV illumination system was calibrated to deliver 9.78 W m -2 (35.2 kJ m -2 h -1) of UVC + UVB irradiation (200-320 nm) to microbial samples, thus creating a clear-sky simulation (0.5 optical depth) of equatorial Mars. The Bacillus spp. studied were: B. licheniformis KL-196, B. megaterium KL-197, B. nealsonii FO-092, B. pumilus FO-36B, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. subtilis 42HS1, and B. subtilis HA101. The bacteria were prepared as thin monolayers of endospores on aluminum coupons in order to simulate contaminated spacecraft surfaces. Bacterial monolayers were exposed to Mars UV irradiation for time-steps of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, or 180 min. The surviving endospores were then assayed with a Most Probable Numbers (MPN) procedure and with a culture-based assay that utilized a bacillus spore germination medium. Results indicated that B. pumilus SAFR-032 was the most resistant, and B. subtilis 42HS-1 and B. megaterium were the most sensitive of the seven strains exposed to martian UV fluence rates. Bacillus subtilis 42HS1 and B. megaterium were inactivated after 30 min exposure to Mars UV, while B. pumilus SAFR-032 required 180 min for full inactivation in both assays. Spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited significantly different inactivation kinetics suggesting that this wild type isolate also was more resistant than the standard dosimetric strain, B. subtilis HA101. Although the various Bacillus spp. exhibited diverse levels of UV resistance, none were immune to UV irradiation, and, thus, all species would be expected to be inactivated on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces within a few tens-of-minutes to a few hours on sol 1 under clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars. The inactivation kinetics of all seven Bacillus spp. support the conclusion that significant levels of bioload reductions are possible on Sun-exposed spacecraft surfaces in very short time periods under clear-sky conditions on Mars. However, the presence of UV resistant microbes on spacecraft surfaces rapidly covered in dust during landing operations, and non-Sun-exposed surfaces of spacecraft remain concerns that must continue to be addressed through adequate spacecraft sanitizing procedures prior to launch.

Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeff T.; Newcombe, David A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2006-03-01

303

Bacillus invictae sp. nov., isolated from a health product.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming Bacillus isolate, Bi.(FFUP1) (T), recovered in Portugal from a health product was subjected to a polyphasic study and compared with the type strains of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus xiamenensis, the phenotypically and genotypically most closely related species. Acid production from cellobiose, D-glucose and D-mannose and absence of acid production from D-arabinose, erythritol, inositol, maltose, mannitol, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol, starch and L-tryptophan discriminated this new isolate from the type strains of the most closely related species. Additionally, a significant different protein and carbohydrate signature was evidenced by spectroscopic techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Using a chemometric approach, the score plot generated by principal component analysis clearly delineated the isolate as a separate cluster. The quinone system for strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) comprised predominantly menaquinone MK-7 and major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. Strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) showed ? 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. pumilus (7061(T) and SAFR-032), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T). Differences in strain Bi.FFUP1 (T) gyrB and rpoB sequences in comparison with the most closely related species and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with Bi.FFUP1 (T) and B. pumilus ATCC 7061(T), B. safensis FO-036b(T), B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) and B. xiamenensis HYC-10(T) gave relatedness values of 39.6% (reciprocal 38.0%), 49.9% (reciprocal 42.9%), 61.9% (reciprocal 52.2%) and 61.7% (reciprocal 49.2%), respectively, supported the delineation of strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus invictae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Bi.(FFUP1) (T) (?=DSM 26896(T)?=CCUG 64113(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25171924

Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Osório, Hugo; Meirinhos-Soares, Luís; Lopes, João; Carriço, João A; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Klein, Günter; Kämpfer, Peter; Pintado, Manuela E; Peixe, Luísa V

2014-11-01

304

Characterization of an antimicrobial material from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from mangrove for biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanisms of the antagonistic endophytic bacteria is helpful in controlling plant diseases. An endophytic bacterium, Bg-C31, from mangrove was found to be antagonistic to some fungal and bacterial pathogens of plants and to be effective in the biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt in pot and field trials. Bg-C31 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by biochemical and physiological tests

Han Qiao Hu; Xin Shen Li; Hong He

2010-01-01

305

Bacillus coagulans  

MedlinePLUS

... vaccines to improve their effectiveness. Bacillus coagulans produces lactic acid and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial ...

306

Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1), were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1), and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species resource for the isolation of PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:24358247

Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

2013-01-01

307

Distribution of Endophytic Bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from Soils Contaminated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg?1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg?1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg?1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species resource for the isolation of PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:24358247

Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

2013-01-01

308

Characterization of strains of Bacillus mojavensis for biocontrol of a maize pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to a pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. Extracts prepared from cultures of B. mojavensis contained an...

309

Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

2014-01-01

310

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

311

Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria.  

PubMed

The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

2014-06-01

312

Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana, an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

The small cactus Mammillaria fraileana is a pioneer rock-colonizing plant harboring endophytic bacteria with the potential for nitrogen fixation and rock weathering (phosphate solubilization and rock degradation). In seeds, only a combination of culture-independent methods, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence vital staining, detected significant amounts of non-culturable, but living, endophytic bacteria distributed underneath the membrane covering the embryo, in the undifferentiated tissue of the embryo, and in the vascular tissue. Large populations of culturable endophytic bacteria were detected in stems and roots of wild plants colonizing rocks in the southern Sonoran Desert, but not in seeds. Among 14 endophytic bacterial isolates found in roots, four isolates were identified by full sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. In vitro tests indicated that Azotobacter vinelandii M2Per is a potent nitrogen fixer. Solubilization of inorganic phosphate was exhibited by Pseudomonas putida M5TSA, Enterobacter sakazakii M2PFe, and Bacillus megaterium M1PCa, while A. vinelandii M2Per, P. putida M5TSA, and B. megaterium M1PCa weathered rock by reducing the size of rock particles, probably by changing the pH of the liquid media. Cultivated seedlings of M. fraileana, derived from disinfected seeds and inoculated with endophytic bacteria, showed re-colonization 105 days after inoculation. Their densities decreased from the root toward the stem and apical zones. Functional traits in planta of culturable and non-culturable endophytic bacteria in seeds remain unknown. PMID:21445557

Lopez, Blanca R; Bashan, Yoav; Bacilio, Macario

2011-07-01

313

Plant-endophyte-herbivore interactions  

PubMed Central

A recent paper by Rasmussen et al., (New Phytol 2007; 173:787–97) describes the interactions between Lolium perenne cultivars with contrasting carbohydrate content and the symbiotic fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii at different levels of nitrogen supply. In a subsequent study undertaken by Rasmussen et al., (Plant Physiol 2008; 146:1440–53) 66 metabolic variables were analysed in the same material, revealing widespread effects of endophyte infection, N supply and cultivar carbohydrate content on both primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we link insect numerical responses to these metabolic responses using multiple regression analysis. PMID:19704424

Parsons, Anthony J; Popay, Alison; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

2008-01-01

314

MICROARRAY COMPARISON OF TALL FESCUE GENE EXPRESSION IN ENDOPHYTE INFECTED AND ENDOPHYTE FREE PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. The endophyte receives shelter and nutrients from the host ...

315

Investigation of the molecular mechanism of thermal tolerance in bacillus subtilis. Final report, August 15, 1980-August 14, 1981  

SciTech Connect

We have studied Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus caldolyticus to ascertain the molecular mechanism of the ability to growth at high temperatures. B. subtilus wild type strains grow in minimal salts medium at a mesophilic temperature (37/sup 0/C) but not at a thermophilic temperature (56/sup 0/C). However, they do grow at 56/sup 0/C in complex rich media. Analysis of their nutritional requirements revealed that these bacteria require pyridoxine or aspartic acid and threonine to grow at 56/sup 0/C indicating that they are temperature sensitive mutants. Furthermore, mutants of B. subtilis which are able to grow on minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C can be readily isolated. Therefore, it appears that the lack of growth of the wild type strain in minimal salts media at 56/sup 0/C is due to the instability of an anabolic enzyme. In contrast to B. subtilis, B. pumilus has never been observed to growth above 50/sup 0/C. However, our studies show that mutants of B. pumilus and B. subtilis which grow at 68/sup 0/C can be easily isolated. The isolation of such mutants strongly supports the idea that one gene can determine the ability to grow at extreme temperatures.

Yamamoto, N.; Alexander, J.; Ch'ih, J.

1981-08-14

316

[Isolation of endophytic antagonistic bacterium from Amorphophallus konjac and research on its antibacterial metabolite].  

PubMed

An endophytic antagonistic bacterium was isolated from Amorphophallus konjac calli. In order to identify this bacterium, 16S rDNA was amplified and partially sequenced. Sequence comparison showed that this sequence has the highest similarity to that in Bacillus subtilis, with 99.0% identities. That demonstrated this bacterium belongs to Bacillus subtili , named BSn5. The extracted extracellular protein from strain BSn5 had antibacterial activity against Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora, which was unstable after heated, sensitive to proteinase K and resistant to trypsin. There was only a 31.6kDa protein component as by SDS-PAGE detection. Nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel was used to purify this protein. The purified 31.6kDa protein exhibited inhibitory activity against Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora. This protein is different from all known metabolites from Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that it may be a novel antibacterial protein. PMID:18271267

Zhou, Ying; Chen, Lin; Chai, Xin-Li; Yu, Zi-Niu; Sun, Ming

2007-12-01

317

Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma rays, converted X rays (bremsstrahlung) and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1 % glycerin on glass fiber filters. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased.

Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-10-01

318

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and  

E-print Network

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal

Coley, Phyllis

319

WHAT DOES AN ENDOPHYTE LOOK LIKE? ENDOPHYTE PROFILES OF NATIVE GRASSES AND SHRUBS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes often defy detection and isolation by conventional microbiology techniques. Staining methods, including the use of trypan blue and sudan IV have effectively detected endophytes in plant tissues. However, stains fail to distinguish one fungal endophyte from another, thus ...

320

Interactions among fungal endophytes, grasses and herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between two species often depends on the presence or absence of a third species. One widespread three-species\\u000a interaction involves fungal endophytes infecting grasses and the herbivores that feed upon them. The endophytes are allied\\u000a with the fungal family Clavicipitaceae and grow systemically in intercellular spaces in above-ground plant tissues including\\u000a seeds. Like relatedClaviceps species, the endophytes produce a

Keith Clay

1996-01-01

321

Plant-endophyte symbiosis, an ecological perspective.  

PubMed

Endophytism is the phenomenon of mutualistic association of a plant with a microorganism wherein the microbe lives within the tissues of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to being a treasured biological resource, endophytes play diverse indispensable functions in nature for plant growth, development, stress tolerance, and adaptation. Our understanding of endophytism and its ecological aspects are overtly limited, and we have only recently started to appreciate its essence. Endophytes may impact plant biology through the production of diverse chemical entities including, but not limited to, plant growth hormones and by modulating the gene expression of defense and other secondary metabolic pathways of the host. Studies have shown differential recruitment of endophytes in endophytic populations of plants growing in the same locations, indicating host specificity and that endophytes evolve in a coordinated fashion with the host plants. Endophytic technology can be employed for the efficient production of agricultural and economically important plants and plant products. The rational application of endophytes to manipulate the microbiota, intimately associated with plants, can help in enhancement of production of agricultural produce, increased production of key metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants, as well as adaption to new bio-geographic regions through tolerance to various biotic and abiotic conditions. However, the potential of endophytic biology can be judiciously harnessed only when we obtain insight into the molecular mechanism of this unique mutualistic relationship. In this paper, we present a discussion on endophytes, endophytism, their significance, and diverse functions in nature as unraveled by the latest research to understand this universal natural phenomenon. PMID:25750045

Wani, Zahoor Ahmed; Ashraf, Nasheeman; Mohiuddin, Tabasum; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

2015-04-01

322

Endophytes in Forest Management: Four Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In spite of exciting, new research, endophytes remain more of a potentiality than an actuality in forestry. Of many upcoming\\u000a challenges to endophyte applications in forestry, four are discussed in this chapter: (1) the assay-based, selection problem,\\u000a (2) the question of replacement dynamics within complex, endophytic communities, (3) the need to complement the objectives\\u000a of tree improvement programs, and (4)

George Newcombe

323

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial endophytes of Panax notoginseng with antagonistic characteristics towards pathogens of root-rot disease complex.  

PubMed

Endophytes play an important role in protection of host plants from infection by phytopathogens. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from five different parts (root, stem, petiole, leaf and seed) of Panax notoginseng and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Ralstonia sp. and Meloidogyne hapla, three major pathogens associated with root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. From 1000 endophytic bacterial strains evaluated in vitro, 104 strains exhibited antagonistic properties against at least one of these three pathogens. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these 104 antagonistic bacteria belong to four clusters: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. Members of the Firmicutes, in particular the Bacillus spp., were predominant in all analyzed tissues. The root was the main reservoir for antagonistic bacteria. Of the 104 antagonists, 51 strains showed antagonistic activities to one pathogen only, while 43 and 10 displayed the activities towards two and all three pathogens, respectively. The most dominant species in all tissues were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus, which were represented by eight strains with broad antagonistic spectrum to the all three test pathogens of root-rot disease complex of P. notoginseng. PMID:22987248

Ma, Li; Cao, Yong Hong; Cheng, Ming Hui; Huang, Ying; Mo, Ming He; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jian Zhong; Yang, Fa Xiang

2013-02-01

324

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

2011-01-01

325

Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

Coêlho, Mariza M; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Santos, André L W

2011-10-01

326

Endophytes influence protection and growth of an invasive plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the symbiotic activities of fungal endophytes isolated from spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe. Previously, an analysis of community similarity had demonstrated differences in the endophyte communities of C. stoebe in its native and invaded ranges. Here, we found that specific endophytes can exert posi- tive effects on their host, whereas others exert negative effects. Endophytes produced metabolites that inhibited

George Newcombe; Alexey Shipunov; S. D. Eigenbrode; Anil K. H. Raghavendra; H. Ding; Cort L. Anderson; R. Menjivar; M. Crawford; M. Schwarzländer

2009-01-01

327

[Studies on submerged fermentation of alkaline beta-1,4-glycanases by Bacillus pumilus A-30].  

PubMed

The effects of stirring rate, pH control and feed time of (NH4)2SO4 on beta-1,4-glycanases were investigated. The operating conditions of batch fermentation and fed-batch culture were optimized. The results showed there were a large amount of bacterial cells adsorbing on the surface of wheat bran, and stirring rate had a pronounced influence on the adsorption and the production of beta-1,4-glycanases. The uncontrolled pH could promote the induction of beta-1,4-glycanases. When (NH4)2SO4 was fed at a constant rate in the earlier age, and regulated later by determining the content of (NH4)2SO4, xylanase and CMCase activity could reach 616 IU/mL and 1.33 IU/mL respectively. PMID:11051825

Chen, S C; Qu, Y B; Zhang, Y; Gao, P J

2000-07-01

328

Recurrent Isolation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Resistant Spores of Bacillus pumilus from a Spacecraft Assembly Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) was being monitored, H2O2-resistant bacterial strains were repeatedly isolated from various surface locations. H2O2 is a possible sterilant for spacecraft hardware because it is a low-temperature process and compatible with various modern-day spacecraft materials, electronics, and components. Both conventional biochemical testing and molecular analyses

Michael J. Kempf; Fei Chen; Roger Kern; Kasthuri Venkateswaran

2005-01-01

329

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp. that may be useful for typing purposes. These species include, among others, Bacillus cereus, an important pathogenic species involved in food poisoning, and Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, which are causative agents of food spoilage described as responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks. With this purpose in mind, 52 Bacillus strains isolated from culture collections and fresh and processed food were considered. SNP type "Y" at sites 212 and 476 appeared in the majority of B. licheniformis studied strains. SNP type "R" at site 278 was detected in many strains of the B. subtilis/Bacillus amyloliquefaciens group, while polymorphism "Y" at site 173 was characteristic of the majority of strains of B. cereus/Bacillus thuringiensis group. The analysis of SNPs provided more intra-specific information than phylogenetic analysis in the cases of B. cereus and B. subtilis. Moreover, this study describes novel SNPs that should be considered when designing 16S rRNA-based primers and probes for multiplex-PCR, Real-Time PCR and microarray systems for foodborne Bacillus spp. PMID:25475292

Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Caamaño-Antelo, S; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

2015-04-01

330

The Genomes of Endophytic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Genome sequencing and comparative genomics has had major impact on our understanding of the genetic potential, ecology, and\\u000a evolution of microorganisms. Analysis of a dozen bacterial endophyte genomes have recently contributed insights into the molecular\\u000a mechanisms that enable bacterial exploration of the plant interior, including genes for motility, colonization and synergistic\\u000a interactions with the host. Known host-interaction systems include type

A. Carolin Frank

331

The secret world of endophytes in perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work in Fungal Ecology is focused on the group of plant symbionts that have been termed collectively ‘microbial endophytes’. Broadly, microbial endophytes are commonly considered to be any of a diverse group of bacteria, cyanobacteria, or fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants. After ...

332

Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

333

Over-expression and properties of a purified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis lipase: a comparative report on Bacillus lipases.  

PubMed

The gene coding for an extracellular lipase of Bacillus licheniformis was cloned using PCR techniques. The sequence corresponding to the mature lipase was subcloned into the pET 20b(+) expression vector to construct a recombinant lipase protein containing 6 histidine residues at the C-terminal. High-level expression of the lipase by Escherichia coli cells harbouring the lipase gene-containing expression vector was observed upon induction with IPTG at 30 degrees C. A one step purification of the recombinant lipase was achieved with Ni-NTA resin. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 130 units/mg with p-nitrophenyl-palmitate as substrate. The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 10-11.5 and was remarkably stable at alkaline pH values up to 12. The enzyme was active toward p-nitrophenyl esters of short to long chains fatty acids but with a marked preference for esters with C(6) and C(8) acyl groups. The amino acid sequence of the lipase shows striking similarities to lipases from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Based on the amino acid identity and biochemical characteristics, we propose that Bacillus lipases be classified into two distinct subfamilies of their own. PMID:11339956

Nthangeni, M B.; Patterton, H -G.; van Tonder, A; Vergeer, W P.; Litthauer, D

2001-05-01

334

Endophyte-grass-herbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotyphodium endophytes in introduced agronomic grasses are well known to increase resistance to herbivores, but little is known of interactions\\u000a between Neotyphodium endophytes and herbivores in native grass populations. We investigated whether endophytes mediate plant-herbivore interactions\\u000a in a native grass species, Festuca arizonica in the southwestern United States, in two ways. First, to test the prediction that the presence and

K. Saikkonen; M. Helander; S. H. Faeth; F. Schulthess; D. Wilson

1999-01-01

335

A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine  

PubMed Central

The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional fungal diversity distinct from parasite diversity nor a symbiont community likely to be novel ecologically. To be synonymous with parasites of the host, endophytes should at least be most closely related to those same parasites. Here we report that seven distinct parasites of Pinus monticola do not occur as endophytes. The majority of endophytes of P. monticola (90% of 2,019 cultures) belonged to one fungal family, the Rhytismataceae. However, not a single rhytismataceous endophyte was found to be most closely related by sequence homology to the three known rhytismataceous parasites of P. monticola. Similarly, neither endophytic Mycosphaerella nor endophytic Rhizosphaera isolates were most closely related to known parasites of P. monticola. Morphologically, the endophytes of P. monticola can be confounded with the parasites of the same host. However, they are actually most closely related to, but distinct from, parasites of other species of Pinus. If endophytes are generally unknown species, then estimates of 1 million endophytes (i.e., approximately 1 in 14 of all species of life) seem reasonable. PMID:15220484

Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

2004-01-01

336

Comparative studies of lipoteichoic acids from several Bacillus strains.  

PubMed Central

Structural studies were carried out on lipoteichoic acids obtained from defatted cells of 10 Bacillus strains by phenol-water partition followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and Octyl-Sepharose columns. A group of the tested bacteria (group A), Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus pumilus, was shown to have a diacyl form of lipoteichoic acids which contained D-alanine, D-glucose, D-glucosamine, fatty acids, and glycerol in molar ratios to phosphorus of 0.35 to 0.69, 0.07 to 0.15 to 0.43, 0.06 to 0.11, and 0.95 to 1.18, respectively, whereas the other group (group B), Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus megaterium, had diacyl lipoteichoic acids which contained D-galactose, fatty acids, and glycerol in molar ratios to phosphorus of 0.05 to 0.42, 0.06 to 0.12, and 0.96 to 1.07, respectively. After treatment with 47% hydrogen fluoride, the lipoteichoic acids obtained from group A strains commonly gave a hydrophobic fragment, gentiobiosyl-beta (1----1 or 3)diacylglycerol, in addition to dephosphorylated repeating units, glycerol, 2-D-alanylglycerol, N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-alpha (1----2)glycerol, and D-alanyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-alpha (1----2)glycerol, whereas the lipoteichoic acids from group B strains yielded diacylglycerol in addition to glycerol and D-galactosyl-alpha (1----2)glycerol. The results together with data from Smith degradations indicate that in the lipoteichoic acids of group A strains the polymer chains, made up of partially alanylated glycerol phosphate and glycosylglycerol phosphate units, are joined to the acylglycerol anchors through gentiobiose. However, in the lipoteichoic acids of group B strains, the partially galactosylated poly(glycerolphosphate) chains are believed to be directly linked to the acylglycerol anchors. PMID:3733670

Iwasaki, H; Shimada, A; Ito, E

1986-01-01

337

Chilling and cultivar type affect the diversity of bacterial endophytes colonizing sweet pepper (Capsicum anuum L.).  

PubMed

A climate chamber experiment was conducted to assay the effect of low temperatures (chilling) on the diversity of bacteria colonizing the endospheres of two thermophilic sweet pepper (Capsicum anuum L.) cultivars, Milder Spiral and Ziegenhorn Bello. Structural diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and by the generation of 16S rRNA gene libraries to determine dominant community members in T-RFLP profiles. Cultivable community members colonizing lines Milder Spiral and Ziegenhorn Bello were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. T-RFLP profiles and 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition due to chilling and suggested further the existence of cultivar-specific communities. The majority of isolates obtained from the cultivar Milder Spiral were assigned as high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Microbacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., Rhodococcus sp.) and Firmicutes (Staphylococcus sp.). Of the isolated endophytes obtained from cultivar Zeigenhorn Bello, 93% were affiliated with Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. (Firmicutes). The experimental set-up was suited to demonstrate that chilling and cultivar type can influence the diversity of bacterial endophytes colonizing sweet pepper. We propose additional chilling experiments to investigate the effect of chilling on functional, plant-beneficial abilities of bacterial endophytes associated with low-temperature-sensitive crops, such as sweet pepper. PMID:17215894

Rasche, Frank; Trondl, Robert; Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Sessitsch, Angela

2006-11-01

338

Antimicrobial activity of pyrrocidines from Acremonium zeae against endophytes and pathogens of maize.  

PubMed

Acremonium zeae produces pyrrocidines A and B, which are polyketide-amino acid-derived antibiotics, and is recognized as a seedborne protective endophyte of maize which augments host defenses against microbial pathogens causing seedling blights and stalk rots. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant in vitro activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides in assays performed using conidia as inoculum, with pyrrocidine A being more active than B. In equivalent assays performed with conidia or hyphal cells as inoculum, pyrrocidine A revealed potent activity against major stalk and ear rot pathogens of maize, including F. graminearum, Nigrospora oryzae, Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, and Rhizoctonia zeae. Pyrrocidine A displayed significant activity against seed-rotting saprophytes A. flavus and Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, as well as seed-infecting colonists of the phylloplane Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Curvularia lunata, which produces a damaging leaf spot disease. Protective endophytes, including mycoparasites which grow asymptomatically within healthy maize tissues, show little sensitivity to pyrrocidines. Pyrrocidine A also exhibited potent activity against Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskense, causal agent of Goss's bacterial wilt of maize, and Bacillus mojaviense and Pseudomonas fluorescens, maize endophytes applied as biocontrol agents, but were ineffective against the wilt-producing bacterium Pantoea stewartii. PMID:19055442

Wicklow, Donald T; Poling, Stephen M

2009-01-01

339

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves  

PubMed Central

We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok

2014-01-01

340

Genomics of Bacillus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

341

Genetic diversity and characterization of heavy metal-resistant-endophytic bacteria from two copper-tolerant plant species on copper mine wasteland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of endophytic bacteria from the copper-tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens and Commelina communis was evaluated by using cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the Cu-resistant isolates belonged to three major phylogenetic groups: Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Bacillus and Acinetobacter were predominant among the Cu-resistant isolates. Sequence analysis from the 16S rDNA clone

Le-Ni Sun; Yan-Feng Zhang; Lin-Yan He; Zhao-Jin Chen; Qing-Ya Wang; Meng Qian; Xia-Fang Sheng

2010-01-01

342

Genetic diversity and potential for promotion of plant growth detected in nodule endophytic bacteria of soybean grown in Heilongjiang province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 98 non-symbiotic endophytic bacterial strains isolated from soybean root nodules were classified into eight rDNA types in ARDRA analysis and 21 BOX types in BOX-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA identified these strains as Pantoea, Serratia, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Agrobacterium, and Burkholderia. Limited genetic diversity was revealed among these bacteria since most of the strains (85.7%) were

Ji Hong Li; En Tao Wang; Wen Feng Chen; Wen Xin Chen

2008-01-01

343

Endophytic Actinomycetes: Biocontrol Agents and Growth Promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diverse endophytic microbes construct complex interactions with their living hosts. Some are mutually supportive and others\\u000a parasitic, giving a large influence to plant health. Endophytic actinomycetes have attracted interest of microbiologists,\\u000a agrochemists and pharmacologists as the promising producers of novel antibiotics, growth promoters, and lead compounds to\\u000a develop new medicines and agrochemicals. Although the fruits of basic research concerning these

Masafumi Shimizu

344

Endophytic bacteria take the challenge to improve Cu phytoextraction by sunflower.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria from roots and crude seed extracts of a Cu-tolerant population of Agrostis capillaris were inoculated to a sunflower metal-tolerant mutant line, and their influence on Cu tolerance and phytoextraction was assessed using a Cu-contaminated soil series. Ten endophytic bacterial strains isolated from surface-sterilized A. capillaris roots were mixed to prepare the root endophyte inoculant (RE). In parallel, surface-sterilized seeds of A. capillaris were crushed in MgSO4 to prepare a crude seed extract containing seed endophytes (SE). An aliquot of this seed extract was filtered at 0.2 ?m to obtain a bacterial cell-free seed extract (SEF). After surface sterilization, germinated sunflower seeds were separately treated with one of five modalities: no treatment (C), immersion in MgSO4 (CMg) or SEF solutions and inoculation with RE or SE. All plants were cultivated on a Cu-contaminated soil series (13-1020 mg Cu kg(-1)). Cultivable RE strains were mostly members of the Pseudomonas genera, and one strain was closely related to Labrys sp. The cultivable SE strains belonged mainly to the Bacillus genera and some members of the Rhodococcus genera. The treatment effects depended on the soil Cu concentration. Both SE and SEF plants had a higher Cu tolerance in the 13-517 mg Cu kg(-1) soil range as reflected by increased shoot and root DW yields compared to control plants. This was accompanied by a slight decrease in shoot Cu concentration and increase in root Cu concentration. Shoot and root DW yields were more promoted by SE than SEF in the 13-114 mg Cu kg(-1) soil range, which could reflect the influence of seed-located bacterial endophytes. At intermediate soil Cu (416-818 mg Cu kg(-1) soil), the RE and CMg plants had lower shoot Cu concentrations than the control, SE and SEF plants. At high total soil Cu (617-1020 mg Cu kg(-1)), root DW yield of RE plants slightly increased and their root Cu concentration rose by up to 1.9-fold. In terms of phytoextraction efficiency, shoot Cu removal was increased for sunflower plants inoculated with crude and bacterial cell-free seed extracts by 1.3- to 2.2-fold in the 13-416 mg Cu kg(-1) soil range. Such increase was mainly driven by an enhanced shoot DW yield. The number and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the harvested sunflower tissues must be further examined. PMID:25561255

Kolbas, Aliaksandr; Kidd, Petra; Guinberteau, Jacques; Jaunatre, Renaud; Herzig, Rolf; Mench, Michel

2015-04-01

345

Endophytes as producers of peptides: an overview about the recently discovered peptides from endophytic microbes.  

PubMed

An endophyte is a fungus or bacterium that lives within a plant in a symbiotic relationship. Extensive colonization of the plant tissue by endophytes creates a barrier effect, where they outcompete and prevent pathogenic organisms from taking hold. This happens by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the growth of the competitors or pathogens. In this way they play a very important role in the plant defence mechanisms. The metabolites produced by these endophytes fall within a wide range of classes of compounds that include peptides which are the focus of this review. Peptides are increasingly being selected for drug development because they are specific for their targets and have a higher degree of interactions. There have been quite a number of endophytic peptides reported in the recent past indicating that endophytes can be used for the production of peptide based drugs. Molecular screening for NRPS, which shows peptide producing capability, has also shown that endophytes are potential producers of peptides. The presence of NRPS also offers the possibility of genetic modifications which may generate peptides with high pharmacological activities. This review, therefore, aims to show the current status of peptides isolated from endophytic bacteria and fungi in the recent decade. Endophytes as potential sources of peptides according to NRPS studies will also be discussed. PMID:25205333

Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C

2014-10-01

346

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES  

E-print Network

ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY ASSEMBLAGES in Environmental Science and titled "ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITIES OF BROMUS TECTORUM: MUTUALISMS, COMMUNITY no single explanation for the success of an individual species. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an annual

347

Examining endophyte interactions within fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cryptic endophyte consortia associated with embryonic tissues of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) are believed to serve mutualistic functions. However, the complexity of these endophyte communities makes cause-and-effect relationships difficult to establish. In fourwing saltbush, cryptic endo...

348

Phylogeny in Aid of the Present and Novel Microbial Lineages: Diversity in Bacillus  

PubMed Central

Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains), B. cereus (211 strains), B. thuringiensis (108 strains), B. subtilis (271 strains), B. licheniformis (131 strains), B. pumilus (83 strains), B. megaterium (47 strains), B. sphaericus (42 strains), B. clausii (39 strains) and B. halodurans (36 strains) were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed. PMID:19212464

Porwal, Shalini; Lal, Sadhana; Cheema, Simrita; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

2009-01-01

349

Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Most pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Mucosal immunization, a non-invasive needle-free route, often stimulates a mucosal immune response that is both effective against mucosal and systemic pathogens. The development of mucosally administered heat-stable vaccines with long shelf life would therefore significantly enhance immunization programs in developing countries by avoiding the need for a cold chain or systemic injections. Currently, recombinant vaccine carriers are being used for antigen delivery. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for use as a non-invasive and heat stable antigen delivery system has proven successful. Bacterial spores protected by multiple layers of protein are known to be robust and resistant to desiccation. Stable constructs have been created by integration into the bacterial chromosome of immunogens. The spore coat has been used as a vehicle for heterologous antigen presentation and protective immunization. Sublingual (SL) and intranasal (IN) routes have recently received attention as delivery routes for therapeutic drugs and vaccines and recent attempts by several investigators, including our group, to develop vaccines that can be delivered intranasally and sublingually have met with a lot of success. As discussed in this Review, the use of Bacillus subtilis to express antigens that can be administered either intranasally or sublingually is providing new insights in the area of mucosal vaccines. In our work, we evaluated the efficacy of SL and IN immunizations with B. subtilis engineered to express tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) in mice and piglets. These bacteria engineered to express heterologous antigen either on the spore surface or within the vegetative cell have been used for oral, IN and SL delivery of antigens. A Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein, CotC was used as a fusion partner to express the tetanus fragment C. B. subtilis spores known to be highly stable and safe are also easy to purify making this spore-based display system a potentially powerful approach for surface expression of antigens. These advances will help to accelerate the development and testing of new mucosal vaccines against many human and animal diseases. PMID:22699442

Amuguni, Hellen; Tzipori, Saul

2012-01-01

350

Poplar and its Bacterial Endophytes: Coexistence and Harmony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an

Daniel van der Lelie; Safiyh Taghavi; Sébastien Monchy; Jorg Schwender; Lisa Miller; Richard Ferrieri; Alistair Rogers; Xiao Wu; Wei Zhu; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld; Lee Newman

2009-01-01

351

Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree  

PubMed Central

Every plant species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes represent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal endophytes associated with leaves of woody angiosperms are especially diverse; yet, fundamental aspects of their interactions with hosts are unknown. In contrast to the relatively species-poor endophytes that are vertically transmitted and act as defensive mutualists of some temperate grasses, the diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms are thought to contribute little to host defense. Here, we document high diversity, spatial structure, and host affinity among foliar endophytes associated with a tropical tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) across lowland Panama. We then show that inoculation of endophyte-free leaves with endophytes isolated frequently from naturally infected, asymptomatic hosts significantly decreases both leaf necrosis and leaf mortality when T. cacao seedlings are challenged with a major pathogen (Phytophthora sp.). In contrast to reports of fungal inoculation inducing systemic defense, we found that protection was primarily localized to endophyte-infected tissues. Further, endophyte-mediated protection was greater in mature leaves, which bear less intrinsic defense against fungal pathogens than do young leaves. In vitro studies suggest that host affinity is mediated by leaf chemistry, and that protection may be mediated by direct interactions of endophytes with foliar pathogens. Together, these data demonstrate the capacity of diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms to play an important but previously unappreciated role in host defense. PMID:14671327

Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Mejía, Luis Carlos; Kyllo, Damond; Rojas, Enith I.; Maynard, Zuleyka; Robbins, Nancy; Herre, Edward Allen

2003-01-01

352

Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5-1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J B; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2015-01-01

353

Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties  

PubMed Central

Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5–1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J. B.; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C.; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T.; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

2015-01-01

354

Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus).  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain HYC-10(T), which was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of a flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, captured from the sea off Xiamen Island, China. The bacterium was observed to be Gram positive, oxidase and catalase positive, rod shaped, and motile by subpolar flagella. The bacterium was found to grow at salinities of 0-12 % and at temperatures of 8-45 °C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze aesculin and gelatin, but was unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYC-10(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, with highest sequence similarity (99.3 %) to Bacillus aerophilus 28K(T), Bacillus stratosphericus 41KF2a(T) and Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), followed by Bacillus safensis DSM 19292(T) (99.5 %) and Bacillus pumilus DSM 27(T) (99.5 %), while the sequence similarities to others were all below 97.6 %. The genomic ANIm values between strain HYC-10(T) and three type strains (B. altitudinis DSM 21631(T), B. safensis DSM 19292(T) and B. pumilus DSM 27(T)) were determined to range from 89.11 to 91.53 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization estimate values between strain HYC-10(T) and the three type strains were from 36.60 to 44.00 %. The principal fatty acids identified were iso-C15:0 (39.1 %), anteiso-C15:0 (22.7 %), iso-C17:0 (13.1 %), C16:0 (6.1 %), anteiso-C17:0 (5.8 %) and iso-C16:0 (5.1 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined from the draft genome sequence to be 41.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-7 (100 %). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminoglycolipid, two glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids were found to be present. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain HYC-10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain HYC-10(T) (=CGMCC NO.1.12326(T) = LMG 27143(T) = MCCC 1A00008(T)). PMID:24158533

Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Yang; Shao, Zongze

2014-01-01

355

Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 ?g mL?1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 ?g mL?1). PMID:24772371

Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

2014-01-01

356

Endophytes influence protection and growth of an invasive plant  

PubMed Central

We investigated the symbiotic activities of fungal endophytes isolated from spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe. Previously, an analysis of community similarity had demonstrated differences in the endophyte communities of C. stoebe in its native and invaded ranges. Here, we found that specific endophytes can exert positive effects on their host, whereas others exert negative effects. Endophytes produced metabolites that inhibited germination of a competitor of C. stoebe. Endophytes also repelled a specialist insect herbivore, perhaps by producing biologically active volatiles. Yet other endophytes acted as cryptic pathogens of C. stoebe, suppressing its germination, reducing its growth, increasing the abundance of a generalist insect herbivore, and delaying or suppressing its flowering. Since, as reported here, endophytes are not functionally interchangeable, previously reported community differences could be contributing to the invasiveness of C. stoebe. PMID:19704862

Newcombe, George; Eigenbrode, SD; Raghavendra, Anil KH; Ding, H; Anderson, Cort L; Menjivar, R; Crawford, M; Schwarzländer, M

2009-01-01

357

Endophytes influence protection and growth of an invasive plant.  

PubMed

We investigated the symbiotic activities of fungal endophytes isolated from spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe. Previously, an analysis of community similarity had demonstrated differences in the endophyte communities of C. stoebe in its native and invaded ranges. Here, we found that specific endophytes can exert positive effects on their host, whereas others exert negative effects. Endophytes produced metabolites that inhibited germination of a competitor of C. stoebe. Endophytes also repelled a specialist insect herbivore, perhaps by producing biologically active volatiles. Yet other endophytes acted as cryptic pathogens of C. stoebe, suppressing its germination, reducing its growth, increasing the abundance of a generalist insect herbivore, and delaying or suppressing its flowering. Since, as reported here, endophytes are not functionally interchangeable, previously reported community differences could be contributing to the invasiveness of C. stoebe. PMID:19704862

Newcombe, George; Shipunov, Alexey; Eigenbrode, Sd; Raghavendra, Anil Kh; Ding, H; Anderson, Cort L; Menjivar, R; Crawford, M; Schwarzländer, M

2009-01-01

358

Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance.  

PubMed

Abstract The beneficial effects of endophytes on plant growth are important for agricultural ecosystems because they reduce the need for fertilizers and decrease soil and water pollution while compensating for environmental perturbations. Endophytic fungi are a novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites; moreover, recently they have been found to produce physiologically active gibberellins as well. The symbiosis of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi with crops can be a promising strategy to overcome the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. The association of such endophytes has not only increased plant biomass but also ameliorated plant-growth during extreme environmental conditions. Endophytic fungi represent a trove of unexplored biodiversity and a frequently overlooked component of crop ecology. The present review describes the role of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi, suggests putative mechanisms involved in plant endophyte stress interactions and discusses future prospects in this field. PMID:23984800

Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

2015-03-01

359

Bioactive spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp.  

PubMed

Nine new spirobisnaphthalenes, palmarumycins B1-B9 (1-9), along with 13 known compounds (10-22), were isolated from cultures of the fungus Berkleasmium sp., an endophyte isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra and by comparison with known compounds. Compounds 7-9 contain an uncommon 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one unit. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria and for their antifungal effects against the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Palmarumycin C8 (22) exhibited the best antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition, diepoxin ? (11) and palmarumycin C8 (22) showed pronounced cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A 549, A 2780) with IC50 values of 1.28-5.83 ?M. PMID:25237727

Shan, Tijiang; Tian, Jin; Wang, Xiaohan; Mou, Yan; Mao, Ziling; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Jungui; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan

2014-10-24

360

Bioactive metabolites from an endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. inhabiting Clidemia hirta.  

PubMed

An endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. was isolated from Clidemia hirta and analyzed for its secondary metabolites that lead to the isolation of three bioactive molecules. The compounds were purified from the culture broth of the fungus and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods as (R)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-4-one (1), 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)pentan-1-one (2) and (Z)-1-(2-(2-butyryl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybut-2-en-1-one (3). Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the human leukemia cell line, HL-60 with an IC50 of 4 ?g/ml. This compound induced G2 arrest of the HL-60 cell cycle significantly. In addition, out of these compounds, 2 and 3 were active against several bacterial pathogens. Compound 2 was active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with IC50 values varying from 18 to 30 ?g/ml, and compound 3 displayed activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens with an IC50 value of 6 ?g/ml. Compounds 2 and 3 are novel whereas compound 1 was reported earlier but the stereochemistry of its C-2 methyl is established for the first time. PMID:23870821

Zilla, Mahesh K; Qadri, Masroor; Pathania, Anup S; Strobel, Gary A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Kumar, Sunil; Guru, Santosh K; Bhushan, Shashi; Singh, Sanjay K; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ali, Asif

2013-11-01

361

Bioactive aromatic derivatives from endophytic fungus, Cytospora sp.  

PubMed

Two new benzyl gamma-butyrolactone analogues, (R)-5-((S)-hydroxy(phenyl)-methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (1) and its 6-acetate (2), and a new naphthalenone derivative (8), together with eight additional known aromatic derivatives, (S)-5-((S)-hydroxy(phenyl)-methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3), (S)-5-benzyl-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (4), 5-phenyl-4-oxopentanoic acid (5), gamma-oxo-benzenepentanoic acid methyl ester (6), 3-(2,5-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-3-phenyl-2-furyl)propionic acid (7), (3R)-5-methylmellein (9), integracins A (10) and B (11) were isolated from Cytospora sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Ilex canariensis from Gomera. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, comparison with reported data, and chemical interconversion. The absolute configurations of the new compounds (1, 2, 8) were established on the basis of optical rotation or CD spectra analysis. Preliminary studies showed antimicrobial activity of these compounds against the fungi Microbotryum violaceum, Botrytis cinerea and Septoria tritici, the alga Chlorella fusca, and the bacterium Bacillus megaterium. PMID:21615028

Lu, Shan; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hussain, Hidayat; Yi, Yanghua; Li, Ling; Zhang, Wen

2011-05-01

362

Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

2010-01-01

363

Evolution of Reproductive Morphology in Leaf Endophytes  

PubMed Central

The endophytic lifestyle has played an important role in the evolution of the morphology of reproductive structures (body) in one of the most problematic groups in fungal classification, the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). Mapping fungal morphologies to two groups in the Leiotiomycetes, the Rhytismatales and Hemiphacidiaceae reveals significant divergence in body size, shape and complexity. Mapping ecological roles to these taxa reveals that the groups include endophytic fungi living on leaves and saprobic fungi living on duff or dead wood. Finally, mapping of the morphologies to ecological roles reveals that leaf endophytes produce small, highly reduced fruiting bodies covered with fungal tissue or dead host tissue, while saprobic species produce large and intricate fruiting bodies. Intriguingly, resemblance between asexual conidiomata and sexual ascomata in some leotiomycetes implicates some common developmental pathways for sexual and asexual development in these fungi. PMID:19158947

Wang, Zheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Yang, Zhu L.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

2009-01-01

364

Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

365

Physiology of dairy-associated Bacillus spp. over a wide pH range.  

PubMed

Bacillus species isolated from alkaline wash solutions used for cleaning in place in South African dairy factories have been suggested to contaminate product contact surfaces of dairy processing equipment and result in post-pasteurization spoilage of milk and milk products. Growth and attachment of such Bacillus isolates under alkaline and acidic conditions have not been previously described. Therefore, the in vitro growth temperature and pH ranges, attachment abilities and hydrophobicity, and enzyme production capabilities of four Bacillus isolates (tentatively identified as B. subtilis115, B. pumilus122, B. licheniformis137 and B. cereus144) previously isolated from the alkaline wash solutions in a South African dairy were examined. Growth pH ranges were determined in buffered Standard One-like Nutrient Broth and in unbuffered 1% Milk Medium at pH values ranging from 3 to 12. Growth and attachment to stainless steel surfaces and production of protease and lipase enzymes were determined in 1% Milk Medium at pH 4, 7 and 10. Colony hydrophobicity of each isolate by the Direction of Spreading Method (DOS) was also determined at pH 4, 7 and 10. In addition, Arrhenius plots were used to examine the growth temperature ranges of the isolates. All isolates grew at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 9.5 in buffered Standard One-like Nutrient Broth, and from pH 4 to 10 in 1% Milk Medium. All isolates also attached to stainless steel at pH 4, 7 and 10 in 1% Milk Medium. Generally the attachment of B. subtilis115, B. pumilus122 and B. lichenformis137 to stainless steel surfaces was enhanced at pH 4 and 10, compared to pH 7. By contrast, the best attachment of B. cereus144 cells to stainless steel surfaces was at pH 7. Planktonic and attached cells of all isolates produced proteolytic enzymes at pH 7 and 10, but not at pH 4. Similarly, planktonic and attached cells of B. subtilis115, B. pumilus122 and B. licheniformis137 produced lipolytic enzymes at pH 7 and 10, and weak lipolysis was observed at pH 4. The Bacillus cereus144 isolate showed no lipolytic activity at pH 10. All isolates exhibited low hydrophobic properties at all pH values even though attachment to stainless steel at the same pH values occurred. None of the isolates grew below 11 degrees C or above 56 degrees C, and optimum growth temperatures were in the high mesophilic range (36-44 degrees C). PMID:10746574

Lindsay, D; Brözel, V S; Mostert, J F; von Holy, A

2000-03-10

366

Linking ex planta fungi with their endophytic stages: Perisporiopsis, a common leaf litter and soil fungus, is a frequent endophyte of Hevea spp. and other plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that endophytic fungi originate from local environmental sources, and endophyte identity and composition can be predicted based on surrounding ex planta fungi. As part of a pilot study to characterize endophytes and ex planta fungi (e.g. saprotrophs) of wild Hevea trees, endophytes were isolated with almost identical ITS sequences, but these were unidentifiable using GenBank database.

Priscila Chaverri; Romina O. Gazis

2011-01-01

367

INSECTSYMBIONT INTERACTIONS Endophyte-Mediated Resistance to Herbivores Depends on Herbivore  

E-print Network

the production of alkaloids. Although endophytes are common in nature, relatively little is known about. preferring endophyte-disinfected plants and Encoptolophus costalis (Scudder) and Romalea guttata (Houttuyn

Rudgers, Jennifer

368

77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...IA 50010. Product name: Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 Technical...Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 at 95%. Proposed...Induced Systemic Resistance with Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 at 5%....

2012-06-27

369

75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fungicide. Active ingredient: Bacillus pumilus strain GHA180 at 0.43...GHA180. Active ingredient: Bacillus pumilus strain GHA180 at 0.001...Tandem. Active ingredient: Bacillus pumilus strain GHA180 at...

2010-11-24

370

Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates. PMID:25344260

Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

2015-01-01

371

Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

372

Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes  

PubMed Central

Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

373

Impact of the endophyte on animal production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum L.) is widely utilized for forage in the eastern half of the USA. The grass is productive and persistent under low management; whish is attributed to alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most tall fescue plants. Unfortua...

374

Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

375

ORIGINAL PAPER An ICEBs1-like element may be associated with the extreme  

E-print Network

resistance of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores Madhan R. Tirumalai · George E. Fox Received: 15 March 2013 of the genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and the closely related type strain, B. pumilus ATCC7061T , exposed and conjugative element SAFR-032 Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032 ATCC7061T Bacillus pumilus ATCC7061T BSU

Fox, George

376

Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings  

PubMed Central

Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

2011-01-01

377

Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure  

PubMed Central

Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

2014-01-01

378

Culturable endophytic bacteria enhance Ni translocation in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.  

PubMed

In this work, both culture-dependent and independent approaches were used to identify and isolate endophytic bacteria from roots of the Ni hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. A total of 17 isolates were cultured from root samples, selected for tolerance to 6mM Ni and grouped by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Bacterial species cultivated from roots belonged to seven genera, Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, Agreia, Bacillus, Sthenotrophomonas, Kocuria and Variovorax. The culture-independent approach confirmed the presence of Microbacterium and Arthrobacter while only other five clones corresponding to different amplified ribosomal DNA restriction patterns were detected. Five selected highly Ni-resistant bacteria showing also plant growth promoting activities, were inoculated into seeds of N. caerulescens, and in vivo microscopic analysis showed rapid root colonisation. Inoculated plants showed increased shoot biomass, root length and root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Root colonisation was also evident, but not effective, in the non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum. Seed inoculation with selected Ni-resistant endophytic bacteria may represent a powerful tool in phytotechnologies, although transferring it to biomass species still requires further studies and screening. PMID:25277966

Visioli, Giovanna; D'Egidio, Sara; Vamerali, Teofilo; Mattarozzi, Monica; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria

2014-12-01

379

Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

2013-01-01

380

Bacterial endophytes contribute to abiotic stress adaptation in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.).  

PubMed

Endophytes are nonpathogenic plant-associated bacteria that can play an important role in plant vitality and may confer resistance to abiotic or biotic stress. The effects of 5 endophytic bacterial strains isolated from pepper plants showing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity were studied in sweet pepper under in vitro conditions. Four of the strains tested showed production of indole acetic acid. Plant growth, osmotic potential, free proline content, and gene expression were monitored in leaves and roots under control and mild osmotic stress conditions. All indole acetate producers promoted growth in Capsicum annuum L. 'Ziegenhorn Bello', from which they were isolated. Osmotic stress caused an increase in the content of free proline in the leaves of both inoculated and noninoculated plants. Inoculated control plants also revealed higher proline levels in comparison with noninoculated control plants. Differential gene expression patterns of CaACCO, CaLTPI, CaSAR82A, and putative P5CR and P5CS genes during moderate stress were observed, depending on the bacterium applied. Inoculation with 2 bacterial strains, EZB4 and EZB8 (Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively), resulted in a significantly reduced upregulation or even downregulation of the stress-inducible genes CaACCO and CaLTPI, as compared with the gene expression in noninoculated plants. This indicates that both strains reduced abiotic stress in pepper under the conditions tested. PMID:18026213

Sziderics, A H; Rasche, F; Trognitz, F; Sessitsch, A; Wilhelm, E

2007-11-01

381

Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed.  

PubMed

Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus spp. isolates with the best characteristics were identified by gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing as B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus and B. megaterium. These isolates were further investigated for their activity against the pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rates, biofilm formation and production of glycosyl hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, ten selected isolates were assessed for heat resistance of spores and the effect on porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. mojavensis, showed the best overall characteristics and, therefore, potential for usage as probiotic additives in feed. A large number of taxonomically diverse strains made it possible to reveal species and subspecies-specific trends, contributing to our understanding of the probiotic potential of Bacillus species. PMID:24201893

Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Cantor, Mette Dines; Nielsen, Bea; Brockmann, Elke; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

2014-02-01

382

In vitro growth response of bread-spoilage Bacillus strains to selected natural antimicrobials.  

PubMed

This study assessed the in vitro responses of Bacillus (B.) strains isolated from ropey bread to natural antimicrobials under optimum growth conditions. The responses of six Bacillus strains [B. subtilis (2), B. licheniformis (2) and B. pumilus (2)] to acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), calcium lactate (CL) and a lactate-containing cocktail (LCC), singly and in combinations were determined and compared to calcium propionate (CP). Isolates were each inoculated into flasks containing Nutrient Broth (NB) and the respective antimicrobial treatments and pHs were left unadjusted. A duplicate set of flasks, also containing NB and the respective antimicrobials, but adjusted to pH's corresponding to those of baked brown bread containing the same antimicrobials was also inoculated. Growth curves were obtained spectrophotometrically and used to estimate lag times. The organic acids used in this study [0.1% (v/v) AA and 0.25% (v/v) LA] singly and in combination with each other and with CL, CP or LCC, completely inhibited the growth of all six Bacillus strains, but only at non-adjusted pHs. The efficacies of LA, AA and CL notably decreased when the pH of the test media containing the respective preservatives was adjusted to the corresponding in situ (bread) values. However, the natural antimicrobials were still as effective as CP in retarding growth of the six Bacillus strains at the in situ (bread) pH values. PMID:12872315

Pattison, T L; Lindsay, D; Von Holy, A

2003-01-01

383

Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA) production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC) gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degrada- tion were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultiva- tion and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. PMID:25720168

Nongkhlaw, Fenella Mary War; Joshi, S R

2014-12-01

384

Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: Effects and potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to\\u000a various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained.\\u000a Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and

W. M. M. S. Bandara; Gamini Seneviratne; S. A. Kulasooriya

2006-01-01

385

Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony  

SciTech Connect

Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

2009-09-01

386

Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.  

PubMed

Consumption of locoweeds, legumes endemic in arid western USA, has long been associated with locoism, a disease of ruminant animals. To explore the relationship between fungi associated with locoweed and locoweed toxicity, 11 locoweed populations from various sites in New Mexico were assessed for endophytic fungi. Endophytes were isolated from the leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of eight populations of the toxic locoweeds Astragalus mollissimus, Oxytropis lambertii, and O. sericea. Fungal cultures grew very slowly and sporadically produced subcylindrical conidia with very dark transverse septa. All cultured endophytes produced the alkaloid swainsonine, which causes locoism. Endophyte-infected locoweed populations produced swainsonine, and the swainsonine level of endophyte strains in vitro was highly correlated with the swainsonine level of their host plant populations. The rDNA ITS from mycelia from four endophyte isolates and beta-tubulin encoding regions from mycelia of 18 fungal endophyte isolates were amplified using PCR and the nucleic acid sequences were analyzed. The nucleic acid sequences of the beta-tubulin encoding regions were essentially identical among all the endophytes regardless of plant genus and locations. Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia. However, with the paucity of Embellisia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. PMID:14531620

Braun, Karen; Romero, Jennifer; Liddell, Craig; Creamer, Rebecca

2003-08-01

387

Elimination of ergovaline from a grass–Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte  

PubMed Central

The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of ergopeptines requires the activities of two peptide synthetases, LPS1 and LPS2. A peptide synthetase gene hypothesized to be important for ergopeptine biosynthesis was identified in C. purpurea by its clustering with another ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene, dmaW. Sequence analysis conducted independently of the research presented here indicates that this gene encodes LPS1 [Tudzynski, P., Holter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N. & Keller, U. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133–141]. We have cloned a similar peptide synthetase gene from Neotyphodium lolii and inactivated it by gene knockout in Neotyphodium sp. Lp1. The resulting strain retained full compatibility with its perennial ryegrass host plant as assessed by immunoblotting of tillers and quantitative PCR. However, grass–endophyte associations containing the knockout strain did not produce detectable quantities of ergovaline as analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergovaline in endophyte-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock. PMID:11592979

Panaccione, Daniel G.; Johnson, Richard D.; Wang, Jinghong; Young, Carolyn A.; Damrongkool, Prapassorn; Scott, Barry; Schardl, Christopher L.

2001-01-01

388

Cytotoxicity in Bacillus mojavensis is abolished following loss of surfactin synthesis: implications for assessment of toxicity and food poisoning potential.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis and the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis have periodically been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of food poisoning despite the fact that the organisms do not possess the genes associated with enteropathogenicity in Bacillus cereus. We show here that Bacillus mojavensis, an organism closely related to B. subtilis, is able to produce toxic components which identify as a complex of three different surfactin analogues. These cyclic lipopeptides were soluble in methanol, heat stable after treatment in a boiling water bath for 10 min, resistant to enzymatic degradation by pepsin, trypsin, endoprotease V8 and proteinase K and formed pores in planar lipid bilayers. They were cytotoxic when tested in a series of commonly used laboratory cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactate dehydrogenase release, haemolysis, inhibition of both protein synthesis in Vero cells and motility in boar sperm. We show that such in vitro markers of enterotoxicity are due entirely to production of cyclic lipopeptides since deletion of sfp, a gene essential for surfactin synthesis which abolished the cytotoxicity to Vero cells, boar sperm motility and haemolytic activity. Thus, the relevance of cyclic lipopeptides as food poisoning toxins needs to be evaluated in assays other than the cell cytotoxicity assays in common use. PMID:17467096

From, C; Hormazabal, V; Hardy, S P; Granum, P E

2007-06-10

389

Host status of endophyte-infected and noninfected tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) ...

390

Ring B aromatic steroids from an endophytic fungus, Colletotrichum sp.  

PubMed

The new (22E,24R)-3-acetoxy-19(10-->6)-abeo-ergosta-5,7,9,22-tetraen-3beta-ol (1) and the known (22E,24R)-19(10-->6)-abeo-ergosta-5,7,9,22-tetraen-3beta-ol (2), two interesting ergosteroids with rare aromatized ring B, together with seven known derivatives, namely (22E,24R)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol (3), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,7,22-trien-3-one (4), (22E,24R)-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), (22E,24R)-5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol (6), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (7), (22E,24R)-6-acetoxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (8), and (22E,24R)-3,6-diacetoxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (9), were isolated from Colletotrichum sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Ilex canariensis from Gomera. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, comparison with reported data, and chemical interconversion. The isolation of these metabolites not only displays a beautiful array of chemical diversity, but also gives insight into the biosynthetic interconnections. Preliminary studies showed antimicrobial activity of these compounds against the fungus Microbotryum violaceum, the alga Chlorella fusca, and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium. PMID:19967971

Zhang, Wen; Draeger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten

2009-11-01

391

Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant–bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2, produce volatile and non-volatile organic acids, and reduce rock particle size to form mineral

M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

2009-01-01

392

Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi of Epacrids (Ericaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research to date has been confined to a small number of epacrid taxa from a limited range of habitats, it appears\\u000a that most endophytes that have been isolated fromepacrid hair roots are probably ericoidmycorrhizal fungi. An array of mainly\\u000a Helotiales ascomycetes forms putative ericoid mycorrhizal associations with epacrids, but root systems of individual plants\\u000a in the field are dominated

John W. G. Cairney

393

Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

394

REGULAR ARTICLE The invasive Sorghum halepense harbors endophytic  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE The invasive Sorghum halepense harbors endophytic N2-fixing bacteria and alters properties via significant changes in soil biogeochemistry. Keywords N2-fixing bacteria . Endophytes. A culture approach was used to isolate these N2-fixing bacteria from plant tissues, and 16S rRNA gene

Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

395

Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes were frequently isolated from mountain birch (Betula pubescens var. tortuosa (Ledeb.) Nyman) leaves at a subarctic site where natural air pollution is low. We tested whether simulated acid rain had any influence on the occurrence of endophytes. Dry controls with only ambient rain and irrigated controls treated with spring water of pH 6 were compared with acid treatments at

M. L. Helander; S. Neuvonen; T. Sieber; O. Petrini

1993-01-01

396

Hidden diversity of endophytic fungi in an invasive plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes are important in plant ecology and common in plants. We attempted to test cointroduction and host-jumping hypotheses on a community basis by comparing endophytes isolated from invasive spotted knapweed ( Centaurea stoebe , Aster- aceae) in its native and invaded ranges. Of 92 combined, sequence-based haplotypes representing eight classes of Fungi, 78 oc- curred in only one of

Alexey Shipunov; George Newcombe; Anil K. H. Raghavendra; Cort L. Anderson

2008-01-01

397

Fungal endophyte increases the allelopathic effects of an invasive forb.  

PubMed

Endophytic plant symbionts can have powerful effects on the way their hosts interact with pathogens, competitors, and consumers. The presence of endophytes in plants can alter food webs, community composition and ecosystem processes, suggesting that endophyte-plant symbioses may represent unique forms of extended phenotypes. We tested the impact of the fungal endophyte Alternaria alternata (phylotype CID 120) on the allelopathic effect of the invasive forb Centaurea stoebe when in competition with the North American native bunchgrass Koeleria macrantha in a greenhouse competition experiment. The allelopathic effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha when infected with the fungal endophyte was more than twice that of endophyte-free C. stoebe. However, this allelopathic effect was a small part of the very large competitive effect of C. stoebe on K. macrantha in all treatments, likely because of the priority effects in our experimental design. To our knowledge, these results are the first experimental evidence for a symbiotic relationship between plants and fungal endophytes affecting allelopathic interactions between competing plants, and thus provide insight into the mechanisms by which fungal endophytes may increase the competitive ability of their hosts. PMID:24488227

Aschehoug, Erik T; Callaway, Ragan M; Newcombe, George; Tharayil, Nishanth; Chen, Shuyan

2014-05-01

398

Mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the distributions and functions of mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are present in the Arctic and Antarctic to 82 °N and 63 °S, respectively, with fine endophyte being the dominant form of AM in roots at higher latitudes. Ecto- (ECM) and ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizas both occur in the Arctic to 79

K. K. Newsham; R. Upson; D. J. Read

2009-01-01

399

Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oxytropis glabra DC. is an important poisonous plant species in Inner Mongolia steppe. In this research the endophytic fungi from O. glabra DC. were studied both by microbiological and molecular biological techniques. The results showed as follows: The in vitro cultured endophytic fungi displ...

400

A Complex Ergovaline Gene Cluster in Epichloe Endophytes of Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloeand Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte- infected grasses. Cloning and analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene from Neotyphodium lolii revealed

Damien J. Fleetwood; Barry Scott; Aiko Tanaka; Richard D. Johnson

2007-01-01

401

Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds. PMID:25343583

Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

2014-10-24

402

Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge  

SciTech Connect

A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

2009-04-01

403

Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties. PMID:24689302

Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

2014-02-01

404

Bacillus pumilus of Palk Bay origin inhibits quorum-sensing-mediated virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to inhibit quoring-sensing(QS)-mediated virulence factors of representative Gram-negative bacteria by marine bacterial isolates. Bacteria isolated from Palk Bay sediments were screened for anti-QS activity. Eleven strains inhibited QS signals in Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and C. violaceum CV026. The marine bacterial strain S8-07 reduced the accumulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) and showed

Chari Nithya; Chairman Aravindraja; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2010-01-01

405

Covalent immobilization of xylanase produced from Bacillus pumilus SV-85S on electrospun polymethyl methacrylate nanofiber membrane.  

PubMed

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanofiber membrane (NFM) was synthesized by an electrospinning technique. These membranes were utilized as a support for immobilization of xylanase enzyme to study its pH stability, thermal stability, and reusability. The morphology of aligned NFM was studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The PMMA NFM was functionalized with phenylenediamine and activated with glutaraldehyde to yield an aldehyde group on its surface for covalent immobilization of xylanase. The Fourier transform infrared analysis of the covalently immobilized xylanase confirmed that the enzyme was immobilized on PMMA NFM via amide linkages. The immobilization efficiency of covalently bound xylanase was found experimentally to be 90%. A forward shift in pH optima from 6.0-7.0 (soluble enzyme) to 7.0-9.0 (immobilized enzyme) was observed after xylanase immobilization. The pH and temperature stability of xylanase were enhanced upon its covalent immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was active on repeated use and retained ?80% of its initial activity after 11 reaction cycles. The improved thermal and operational stability of the covalently immobilized enzyme on PMMA NFM might be advantageous for industrial applications. PMID:23586605

Kumar, Pankaj; Gupta, Ashish; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Mathur, Rakesh B; Nagar, Sushil; Gupta, Vijay K

2013-01-01

406

Biosorption of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by Bacillus pumilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial adsorption of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) and various polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was investigated in an effort to determine the significance of microorganisms as potential agents in transferring the molecules in the environment. The microorganisms used in this study were cultivated under low nutrient conditions for 2months. The increase and decrease of 1,2,3,4-TCDD and PCDFs in the samples were measured by GC\\/MS.

Hyo-Bong Hong; Seok-Hwan Hwang; Yoon-Seok Chang

2000-01-01

407

Endophytic colonization ability of two deep-water rice endophytes, Pantoea sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. using green fluorescent protein reporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization ability of the two endophytic bacteria, isolated from surface sterilized seeds of Jaisurya variety of deep-water rice viz., Pantoea sp. and Ochrobactrum sp., was compared after genetically tagging them with a constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein gene (gfp). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of hydroponically grown seedlings of Jaisurya rice, inoculated with gfp-tagged endophytes, revealed that both Pantoea sp.

Subhash C. Verma; Anamika Singh; Soumitra Paul Chowdhury; Anil K. Tripathi

2004-01-01

408

Biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, Rhizoctonia bataticola.  

PubMed

A total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium udam, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. These were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Eight of the isolates belonged to Bacillus and one to Paenibacillus. The phylogenetic relationship among the selected isolates was studied and phylogenetic trees were generated. The selected isolates were screened for biocontrol traits like production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes, antibiotics, and plant growth promoting traits like indole 3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen fixation. A modified assessment scheme was used to select the most efficient biocontrol isolates Paenibacillus sp. HKA-15 (HKA-15) and Bacillus sp. HKA-121 (HKA-121) as potential candidates for charcoal rot biocontrol as well as soybean plant growth promotion. PMID:19067044

Senthilkumar, M; Swarnalakshmi, K; Govindasamy, V; Lee, Young Keun; Annapurna, K

2009-04-01

409

Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

410

Performance by Spring-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cows grazing 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] infected with its wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) generally display suboptimal performance. Recently, endophyte strains that do not produce compounds toxic to cattle have been incorporated into tall ...

411

Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

412

Automated ribotyping and antibiotic resistance determining of Bacillus spp from conjunctiva of diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): We aimed to characterize the phenotype and genotype of Bacillus spp isolated from diabetic patients’ eyes, by studying the drug sensitivity patterns with a disc-diffusion method. Materials and Methods: Fifty eyes of 25 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with at least 10 years of diabetes history, were included in the study. We analyzed the eyes for the presence of Bacillus spp.; presumptive isolates were identified by morphological, and biochemical tests, and confirmed by the VITEK system. Automated EcoRI ribotyping was performed with a RiboPrinter® Microbial Characterization System. We determined the antibiotic resistance of the isolates by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion test. Results: Seven out of 25 patients were on insulin treatment; 7 on oral anti-diabetic medication; and 11 on combination therapy of insulin and oral medications. Among the 28 Bacillus spp isolates, 14 were B. cereus, 11 were B. pumilus, 2 were B. mojavensis and 1 was B. subtilis. Almost all the strains were either resistant or multiresistant, particularly towards cefuroxime, methicillin, and ceftazidime. Conclusion: Diabetic patients seem to be more prone to B. cereus infections than healthy individuals. It would be greatly beneficial to understand and recognize the prevalence of microorganisms and their resistance patterns for better outcome in ocular surgeries. PMID:24711899

Argun K?vanç, Sertaç; K?vanç, Merih; Güllülü, Gülay

2014-01-01

413

Isolation and characterisation of Bacillus spp. antagonistic to Vibrio parahaemolyticus for use as probiotics in aquaculture.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the major factors affecting the development of aquaculture and the safety of seafood. Using the antagonism of probiotics against pathogens is an alternative strategy to antibiotics and a common trend to control food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a total of 249 isolates were isolated from four types of seafood (Litopenaeus vannamei, Oratosquilla oratoria, Mactra veneriformis and Portunus trituberculatus) and coastal sediment from Liaodong Bay in the Bohai Sea, China with five different separation agars. The most isolates came from the sample of coastal sediment and on agar of 2216E, which accounted for 36.14 and 54.62 % respectively. Twenty-four among 249 isolates displayed direct antimicrobial activity to V. parahaemolyticus with spot inoculation. Sixteen active isolates were selected for extracellular antimicrobial activity using the Oxford cup method. Only strains of B16 and J7 showed extracellular antimicrobial activity and were identified as Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus mojavensis respectively based on the physiological identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Both of the strains B16 and J7 exhibited extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity and antagonism against more than one indicator bacteria in vitro, which indicates that the two strains have broad potential application as suitable probiotic candidates in aquaculture while B. mojavensis was first reported to inhibit pathogenic Vibrio spp. in vitro. There is no particular trait as to antagonism of B. pumilus B16 or B. mojavensis J7 to Gram-positive or Gram-negative indicator bacteria. PMID:25737203

Liu, Xue-Fei; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Rong; Cai, Lu-Yun; Li, Xiu-Xia; Chen, Jin-Ru; Lyu, Shu-Xia

2015-05-01

414

Endophytes are hidden producers of maytansine in Putterlickia roots.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have lent evidence to the fact that certain so-called plant metabolites are actually biosynthesized by associated microorganisms. In this work, we show that the original source organism(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of the important anticancer and cytotoxic compound maytansine is the endophytic bacterial community harbored specifically within the roots of Putterlickia verrucosa and P. retrospinosa plants. Evaluation of the root endophytic community by chemical characterization of their fermentation products using HPLC-HRMS(n), along with a selective microbiological assay using the maytansine-sensitive type strain Hamigera avellanea revealed the endophytic production of maytansine. This was further confirmed by the presence of AHBA synthase genes in the root endophytic communities. Finally, MALDI-imaging-HRMS was used to demonstrate that maytansine produced by the endophytes is typically accumulated mainly in the root cortex of both plants. Our study, thus, reveals that maytansine is actually a biosynthetic product of root-associated endophytic microorganisms. The knowledge gained from this study provides fundamental insights on the biosynthesis of so-called plant metabolites by endophytes residing in distinct ecological niches. PMID:25478947

Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Kusari, Parijat; Gottfried, Sebastian; Zühlke, Sebastian; Louven, Kathrin; Hentschel, Ute; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

2014-12-26

415

Pogostol biosynthesis by the endophytic fungus Geniculosporium.  

PubMed

Six (13)C-labelled isotopomers of mevalonolactone were synthesised and used in feeding experiments with the endophytic fungus Geniculosporium. The high incorporation rates of (13)C-label into a sesquiterpene that was found in headspace extracts of the fungus enabled unambiguous identification of this volatile as pogostol without the need for compound purification, simply by collecting the volatile fraction with a closed-loop stripping apparatus followed by direct (13)C NMR analysis (CLSA-NMR). The feeding experiments also gave insights into the biosynthesis of pogostol, including stereochemical aspects of the terpene cyclisation reaction. The possible biological function of pogostol is discussed. PMID:25186118

Barra, Lena; Schulz, Barbara; Dickschat, Jeroen S

2014-11-01

416

Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

2000-01-01

417

Aminopeptidase activities of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE May I. BS Major Su'ojen: Bio"henist y AMINOPEPTIDASE ACTIVITIES OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND BACILLUS LICHENIFOP'(IS A Thesis by Justin Sing Liu Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman cf Comsittee) r/ Head of Department) (Member...) (Member) May 1969 ABSTRACT Aminopeptidase Activities of Bacillus Subtilis and Bacillus Licheniformis. (May, 1969) Justin S. Liu, B. S. , Baylor University Directed by Dr. J. N. Prescott The presence of aminopeptidase in culture filtrates...

Liu, Justin Sing

1969-01-01

418

Induced Systemic Resistance and Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacillus spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other gram-negative bacteria. Several reviews have summarized various aspects of the large volume of literature on Pseudomonas spp. as elicitors of ISR. Fewer published accounts of ISR by Bacillus spp. are available, and we review this literature for the first time. Published results are summarized showing that specific strains of the species B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, B. pasteurii, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. mycoides, and B. sphaericus elicit significant reductions in the incidence or severity of various diseases on a diversity of hosts. Elicitation of ISR by these strains has been demonstrated in greenhouse or field trials on tomato, bell pepper, muskmelon, watermelon, sugar beet, tobacco, Arabidopsis sp., cucumber, loblolly pine, and two tropical crops (long cayenne pepper and green kuang futsoi). Protection resulting from ISR elicited by Bacillus spp. has been reported against leaf-spotting fungal and bacterial pathogens, systemic viruses, a crown-rotting fungal pathogen, root-knot nematodes, and a stem-blight fungal pathogen as well as damping-off, blue mold, and late blight diseases. Reductions in populations of three insect vectors have also been noted in the field: striped and spotted cucumber beetles that transmit cucurbit wilt disease and the silver leaf whitefly that transmits Tomato mottle virus. In most cases, Bacillus spp. that elicit ISR also elicit plant growth promotion. Studies on mechanisms indicate that elicitation of ISR by Bacillus spp. is associated with ultrastructural changes in plants during pathogen attack and with cytochemical alterations. Investigations into the signal transduction pathways of elicited plants suggest that Bacillus spp. activate some of the same pathways as Pseudomonas spp. and some additional pathways. For example, ISR elicited by several strains of Bacillus spp. is independent of salicylic acid but dependent on jasmonic acid, ethylene, and the regulatory gene NPR1-results that are in agreement with the model for ISR elicited by Pseudomonas spp. However, in other cases, ISR elicited by Bacillus spp. is dependent on salicylic acid and independent of jasmonic acid and NPR1. In addition, while ISR by Pseudomonas spp. does not lead to accumulation of the defense gene PR1 in plants, in some cases, ISR by Bacillus spp. does. Based on the strains and results summarized in this review, two products for commercial agriculture have been developed, one aimed mainly at plant growth promotion for transplanted vegetables and one, which has received registration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for disease protection on soybean. PMID:18944464

Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min; Zhang, Shouan

2004-11-01

419

Biocontrol potential of endophytes harbored in Radula marginata (liverwort) from the New Zealand ecosystem.  

PubMed

Radula marginata and Cannabis sativa L. are two phylogenetically unrelated plant species containing structurally similar secondary metabolites like cannabinoids. The major objective of our work was the isolation, identification, biocontrol efficacies, biofilm forming potential and anti-biofilm ability of endophytic microbial community of the liverwort R. marginata, as compared to bacterial endophytic isolates harbored in C. sativa plants. A total of 15 endophytic fungal and 4 endophytic bacterial isolates were identified, including the presence of a bacterial endosymbiont within an endophytic fungal isolate. The endosymbiont was visible only when the fungus containing it was challenged with two phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Trichothecium roseum, highlighting a tripartite microbe-microbe interaction and biocontrol potency of endophytes under biotic stress. We also observed sixteen types of endophytic fungal-pathogen and twelve types of endophytic bacterial-pathogen interactions coupled to varying degree of growth inhibitions of either the pathogen or endophyte or both. This showed the magnitude of biocontrol efficacies of endophytes in aiding plant fitness benefits under different media (environmental) conditions. Additionally, it was ecologically noteworthy to find the presence of similar endophytic bacterial genera in both Radula and Cannabis plants, which exhibited similar functional traits like biofilm formation and general anti-biofilm activities. Thus far, our work underlines the biocontrol potency and defensive functional traits (in terms of antagonism and biofilm formation) of endophytes harbored in liverwort R. marginata as compared to the endophytic community of phylogenetically unrelated but phytochemically similar plant C. sativa. PMID:25100187

Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

2014-10-01

420

Fungal endophyte metabolism and allelopathic interactions with host plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides produces the fumonisin mycotoxins, which are of significant concern for their animal toxicity caused by inhibition of ceramide synthase and disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisin-producing strains associated with maize cause leaf lesions, develo...

421

Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)  

PubMed Central

Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500??g/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125??g/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 ?g/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5??g/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125??g/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

2014-01-01

422

Genomic and chemical insights into biosurfactant production by the mangrove-derived strain Bacillus safensis CCMA-560.  

PubMed

Many Bacillus species can produce biosurfactant, although most of the studies on lipopeptide production by this genus have been focused on Bacillus subtilis. Surfactants are broadly used in pharmaceutical, food and petroleum industry, and biological surfactant shows some advantages over the chemical surfactants, such as less toxicity, production from renewable, cheaper feedstocks and development of novel recombinant hyperproducer strains. This study is aimed to unveil the biosurfactant metabolic pathway and chemical composition in Bacillus safensis strain CCMA-560. The whole genome of the CCMA-560 strain was previously sequenced, and with the aid of bioinformatics tools, its biosurfactant metabolic pathway was compared to other pathways of closely related species. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry (MS) were used to characterize the biosurfactant molecule. B. safensis CCMA-560 metabolic pathway is similar to other Bacillus species; however, some differences in amino acid incorporation were observed, and chemical analyses corroborated the genetic results. The strain CCMA-560 harbours two genes flanked by srfAC and srfAD not present in other Bacillus spp., which can be involved in the production of the analogue gramicidin. FTIR and MS showed that B. safensis CCMA-560 produces a mixture of at least four lipopeptides with seven amino acids incorporated and a fatty acid chain with 14 carbons, which makes this molecule similar to the biosurfactant of Bacillus pumilus, namely, pumilacidin. This is the first report on the biosurfactant production by B. safensis, encompassing the investigation of the metabolic pathway and chemical characterization of the biosurfactant molecule. PMID:25586584

Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; de Souza Galaverna, Renan; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Greenfield, Paul; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Melo, Itamar Soares; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

2015-04-01

423

Spectrum and Population Dynamics of Bacterial Root Endophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conclusion, of the plants thus far studied, the spectrum and diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots varies greatly.\\u000a What about the endophytic bacterial spectrum of plants growing under extreme climatic conditions, such as halophytes and xerophytes?\\u000a Survival mechanisms developed by those bacteria may have some interesting industrial or pharmaceutical applications. Newly\\u000a developed cultivation-independent methods have made clear that

Johannes Hallmann; Gabriele Berg

424

Isolation of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from wetland rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria are believed to contribute substantial amounts of N to certain gramineous crops. We have been interested to find (a) a diazotroph(s) in rice which can aggressively and stably persist and fix nitrogen in interior tissues and (b) unique rice-diazotrophic endophyte combinations. To achieve these objectives, it has been essential to find an efficient method to surface sterilize

W. L. Barraquio; L. Revilla; J. K. Ladha

1997-01-01

425

Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations\\u000a are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound\\u000a impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the

Richard S. Quilliam; David L. Jones

2010-01-01

426

Survey of indigenous bacterial endophytes from cotton and sweet corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypic diversity of indigenous bacterial endophytes within stems and roots of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was determined in field trials throughout one growing season. Strains were isolated from surface-disinfested tissues and identified by fatty acid analysis. Gram-negative bacteria comprised 70.5% of the endophytic bacteria and 27 of the 36 genera identified. The most

John A. McInroy; Joseph W. Kloepper

1995-01-01

427

Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytic Bacteria for Improved Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interior of plants provides habitat for a wide range of bacteria and fungi (endophytes) that benefit the plant host in\\u000a a variety of ways including by phytohormone production, pollutant degradation, increasing nutrient acquisition, stress tolerance,\\u000a and pathogen resistance. The use of nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) endophytes has the potential of decreasing our dependency\\u000a on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that has a number

Sharon Lafferty Doty

428

Bacterial Endophytes as Elicitors of Induced Systemic Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

As discussed in this review, selected strains of nonpathogenic endophytic bacteria can elicit ISR in plants, leading to reductions\\u000a in severity of various diseases. Research on such endophytes has concentrated both on delineating the pathosystems where protection\\u000a results and in understanding plant responses that occur during the signal transduction pathways that culminate in disease\\u000a protection. In many cases, elicitation of

Joseph W. Kloepper; Choong-Min Ryu

429

Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.  

PubMed

As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot. PMID:20012108

Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

2010-06-01

430

Genetic characterization of uncultured fungal endophytes from Bouteloua eriopoda and Atriplex canescens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obligate fungal endophytes form cryptic communities in vascular plants which can defy detection and isolation by microscopic examination of reproductive structures. Molecular detection by PCR amplification of fungal DNA sequences alone is insufficient, since target endophyte sequences are unknown a...

431

Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

432

Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

433

Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes  

E-print Network

Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mycorrhizal fungi) belowground. In a greenhouse experiment, we manipulated the presence/ absence of both fungi mycorrhizal colonization of roots. Additionally, for plants with the endophyte, the density of endophyte

Rudgers, Jennifer

434

Preferential association of endophytic bradyrhizobia with different rice cultivars and its implications for rice endophyte evolution.  

PubMed

Plant colonization by bradyrhizobia is found not only in leguminous plants but also in nonleguminous species such as rice. To understand the evolution of the endophytic symbiosis of bradyrhizobia, the effect of the ecosystems of rice plantations on their associations was investigated. Samples were collected from various rice (Oryza sativa) tissues and crop rotational systems. The rice endophytic bradyrhizobia were isolated on the basis of oligotrophic properties, selective medium, and nodulation on siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum). Six bradyrhizobial strains were obtained exclusively from rice grown in a crop rotational system. The isolates were separated into photosynthetic bradyrhizobia (PB) and nonphotosynthetic bradyrhizobia (non-PB). Thai bradyrhizobial strains promoted rice growth of Thai rice cultivars better than the Japanese bradyrhizobial strains. This implies that the rice cultivars possess characteristics that govern rice-bacterium associations. To examine whether leguminous plants in a rice plantation system support the persistence of rice endophytic bradyrhizobia, isolates were tested for legume nodulation. All PB strains formed symbioses with Aeschynomene indica and Aeschynomene evenia. On the other hand, non-PB strains were able to nodulate Aeschynomene americana, Vigna radiata, and M. atropurpureum but unable to nodulate either A. indica or A. evenia. Interestingly, the nodABC genes of all of these bradyrhizobial strains seem to exhibit low levels of similarity to those of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS285. From these results, we discuss the evolution of the plant-bradyrhizobium association, including nonlegumes, in terms of photosynthetic lifestyle and nod-independent interactions. PMID:25710371

Piromyou, Pongdet; Greetatorn, Teerana; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Okubo, Takashi; Shinoda, Ryo; Nuntakij, Achara; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

2015-05-01

435

Studies on Endophytic Colonization Ability of Two Upland Rice Endophytes, Rhizobium sp. and Burkholderia sp., Using Green Fluorescent Protein Reporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization ability of the two endophytic bacteria, isolated from surface sterilized roots of upland cultivated rice viz.,\\u000a Rhizobium sp. and Burkholderia sp., was compared after genetically tagging them with a constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein gene (gfp\\/gusA). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of gnotobiotically grown seedlings of Narendradhan 97, inoculated with gfp\\/gusA-tagged endophytes, revealed that both Rhizobium sp. and Burkholderia

Manoj Kumar Singh; Chanda Kushwaha; Ramesh Kumar Singh

2009-01-01

436

Antimicrobial Activity and Biodiversity of Endophytic Fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and\\/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in\\u000a D. devonianum were categorized into

Yong-Mei XingJuan; Juan Chen; Jin-Long Cui; Xiao-Mei Chen; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

437

Endophytic fungi from Nerium oleander L (Apocynaceae): main constituents and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse endophytic fungi exist within plant aerial tissues, with a global estimate of up to a million undescribed species.\\u000a These endophytes constitute a rich bio-resource for exploration to discover new natural products. Here we investigate fungal\\u000a endophytes associated with a medicinal plant, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). A total of 42 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the host plant. Total

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Kevin D. Hyde; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

2007-01-01

438

Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

439

Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

Higginbotham, Sarah J; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

2013-01-01

440

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize

Denise K. Zinniel; Patricia A. Lambrecht; N. Beth Harris; Zhengyu Feng; Daniel Kuczmarski; Phyllis Higley; Carol A. Ishimaru; Alahari Arunakumari; Raul G. Barletta; Anne M. Vidaver

2002-01-01

441

Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution,  

E-print Network

screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restrictionConservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada Abstract Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We

Raizada, Manish N.

442

Interactions between Meloidogyne incognita and endophytic bacteria in cotton and cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse studies with cotton and cucumber were made to determine the effects of inoculation of the parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita on population dynamics of indigenous bacterial endophytes and introduced endophytic bacterial strains JM22 (Enterobacter asburiae) and 89B-61 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) applied as seed treatments. Internal communities of endophytic bacteria in roots were generally largest in the presence of M. incognita. Recovery

J. Hallmann; A. Quadt-Hallmann; R. Rodr??guez-Kábana; J. W. Kloepper

1998-01-01

443

ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM SEEDS OF NICOTIANA TABACUM CAN REDUCE CADMIUM PHYTOTOXICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although endophytic bacteria seem to have a close association with their host plant, little is known about the influence of seed endophytic bacteria on initial plant development and on their interactions with plants under conditions of metal toxicity. In order to further elucidate this close relationship, we isolated endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized Nicotiana tabacum seeds that were collected from

Chiara Mastretta; Safiyh Taghavi; Daniel van der Lelie; Alessio Mengoni; Francesca Galardi; Christina Gonnelli; Tanja Barac; Jana Boulet; Nele Weyens; Jaco Vangronsveld

2009-01-01

444

Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

445

Fungal grass endophytes and arthropod communities: lessons from plant defence theory and multitrophic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids produced by systemic fungal endophytes of grasses are thought to act as defensive agents against herbivores. Endophytic alkaloids may reduce arthropod herbivore abundances and diversity in agronomic grasses. Yet, accumulating evidence, particularly from native grasses, shows that herbivore preference, abundances and species richness are sometimes greater on endophyte-infected plants, even those with high alkaloids, contrary to the notion of

Stanley H. Faeth; Susanna Saari

446

Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, A. D., Clement, S. L., and Kaiser, W. J. 1991. Survey and detection of endophytic fungi in Lolium germ plasm by direct staining and aphid assays. Plant Dis. 75:169-173. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of

A. DAN WILSON; STEPHEN L. CLEMENT; WALTER J. KAISER

447

Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties. PMID:25501262

Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

2015-01-01

448

Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes to invasion by the non-native  

E-print Network

Potential for endophyte symbiosis to increase resistance of the native grass Poa alsodes grass, Poa alsodes, and a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) improved the g