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Sample records for endoplasmic reticulum membrane

  1. Membrane Protein Insertion at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2014-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins of the cell surface and most intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells are assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum. Two highly conserved and parallel pathways mediate membrane protein targeting to and insertion into this organelle. The classical cotranslational pathway, utilized by most membrane proteins, involves targeting by the signal recognition particle followed by insertion via the Sec61 translocon. A more specialized posttranslational pathway, employed by many tail-anchored membrane proteins, is composed of entirely different factors centered around a cytosolic ATPase termed TRC40 or Get3. Both of these pathways overcome the same biophysical challenges of ferrying hydrophobic cargo through an aqueous milieu, selectively delivering it to one among several intracellular membranes and asymmetrically integrating its transmembrane domain(s) into the lipid bilayer. Here, we review the conceptual and mechanistic themes underlying these core membrane protein insertion pathways, the complexities that challenge our understanding, and future directions to over-come these obstacles. PMID:21801011

  2. Supramolecular architecture of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Busnadiego, Rubén

    2016-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms membrane contact sites (MCS) with most other cellular organelles and the plasma membrane (PM). These ER-PM MCS, where the membranes of the ER and PM are closely apposed, were discovered in the early days of electron microscopy (EM), but only recently are we starting to understand their functional and structural diversity. ER-PM MCS are nowadays known to mediate excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in striated muscle cells and to play crucial roles in Ca(2+)and lipid homoeostasis in all metazoan cells. A common feature across ER-PM MCS specialized in different functions is the preponderance of cooperative phenomena that result in the formation of large supramolecular assemblies. Therefore, characterizing the supramolecular architecture of ER-PM MCS is critical to understand their mechanisms of function. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful EM technique uniquely positioned to address this issue, as it allows 3D imaging of fully hydrated, unstained cellular structures at molecular resolution. In this review I summarize our current structural knowledge on the molecular organization of ER-PM MCS and its functional implications, with special emphasis on the emerging contributions of cryo-ET. PMID:27068966

  3. STIM Proteins and the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca2+ levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca2+ channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca2+ channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca2+ channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca2+ signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes. PMID:21548779

  4. Topography of glycosylation reactions in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1986-05-25

    The translocation of UDP-glucose and GDP-mannose from an external to a luminal compartment has been examined in rat liver vesicles derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). RER vesicles with the same topographical orientation as in vivo were incubated with a mixture of (/sup 3/H)UDP-glucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)glucose to demonstrate that the intact sugar nucleotide was translocated into the lumen of the vesicles. The translocation of UDP-glucose was dependent on temperature and was saturable at high concentrations of the sugar nucleotide. The transfer of glucose to endogenous acceptors was dependent on the translocation of UDP-glucose into the lumen of the RER since leaky vesicles resulted in both a decrease in transport and transfer of glucose to endogenous acceptors. Preliminary results suggest that the mechanism of UDP-glucose transport into RER-derived vesicles is via a coupled exchange with luminal UMP. Using the same experimental approach to detect translocation of UDP-glucose into the lumen of RER vesicles, we were unable to detect transport of GDP-mannose. Incubation of leaky vesicles with GDP-mannose resulted in stimulation of the amount of mannose transferred to endogenous acceptors, in marked contrast to that observed for UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. These results suggest that whereas UDP-glucose is translocated across the RER membrane in vitro, GDP-mannose is not transported. In addition, these results tentatively suggest that there is asymmetric synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharides within the membrane of the RER.

  5. [Role of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Hang-Huan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Calcium overload is one of the important mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. Endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle which regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis by uptake, storage and mobilization of calcium. So it plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is widely distributed in cytoplasm, has a large number of membrane junction sites. Recent studies have reported that these junction sites are distributed on plasma membrane and organelle membranes (mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc.), separately. They could form complexes to regulate calcium transport. In this review, we briefly outlined the recent research progresses of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease, which may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27546511

  6. Bright fluorogenic squaraines with tuned cell entry for selective imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Collot, Mayeul; Kreder, Rémy; Tatarets, Anatoliy L; Patsenker, Leonid D; Mely, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-12-14

    A rational design of squaraine dyes with lipophilic and zwitterionic groups tunes cell entry, allowing for selective far-red/near-infrared imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum. They exhibit up to 110-fold fluorescence enhancement in biomembranes and enable cellular imaging at 1 nM concentration, which make them the brightest membrane probes to date. PMID:26455447

  7. ALUMINUM ALTERS CALCIUM TRANSPORT IN PLASMA MEMBRANE AND ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM FROM RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium is actively transported into intracellular organelles and out of the cytoplasm by Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPases located in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. he effects of aluminum on calcium transport were examined in the adult rat brain. 5Ca-uptake was examined in micr...

  8. Identification of the endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal in vesicle-associated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, P K; Hollerbach, C; Trimble, W S; Leber, B; Andrews, D W

    1999-12-24

    The vesicle-associated membrane proteins (Vamp(s)) function as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor proteins in the intracellular trafficking of vesicles. The membrane attachment of Vamps requires a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic sequence termed an insertion sequence. Unlike other insertion sequence-containing proteins, targeting of the highly homologous Vamp1 and Vamp2 to the endoplasmic reticulum requires ATP and a membrane-bound receptor. To determine if this mechanism of targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum extends to other Vamps, we compared the membrane binding of Vamp1 and Vamp2 with the distantly related Vamp8. Similar to the other Vamps, Vamp8 requires both ATP and a membrane component to target to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, binding curves for the three Vamps overlap, suggesting a common receptor-mediated process. We identified a minimal endoplasmic reticulum targeting domain that is both necessary and sufficient to confer receptor-mediated, ATP-dependent, binding of a heterologous protein to microsomes. Surprisingly, this conserved sequence includes four positively charged amino acids spaced along an amphipathic sequence, which unlike the carboxyl-terminal targeting sequence in mitochondrial Vamp isoforms, is amino-terminal to the insertion sequence. Because Vamps do not bind to phospholipid vesicles, it is likely that these residues mediate an interaction with a protein, rather than bind to acidic phospholipids. Therefore, we suggest that a bipartite motif is required for the specific targeting and integration of Vamps into the endoplasmic reticulum with receptor-mediated recognition of specifically configured positive residues leading to the insertion of the hydrophobic tail into the membrane. PMID:10601239

  9. Agonist-activated Ca2+ influx occurs at stable plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum junctions

    PubMed Central

    Treves, Susan; Vukcevic, Mirko; Griesser, Johanna; Armstrong, Clara-Franzini; Zhu, Michael X.; Zorzato, Fancesco

    2010-01-01

    Junctate is a 33 kDa integral protein of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum membranes that forms a macromolecular complex with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and TRPC3 channels. TIRF microscopy shows that junctate enhances the number of fluorescent puncta on the plasma membrane. The size and distribution of these puncta are not affected by the addition of agonists that mobilize Ca2+ from Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores. Puncta are associated with a significantly larger number of peripheral junctions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, which are further enhanced upon stable co-expression of junctate and TRPC3. The gap between the membranes of peripheral junctions is bridged by regularly spaced electron-dense structures of 10 nm. Ins(1,4,5)P3 inhibits the interaction of the cytoplasmic N-terminus of junctate with the ligand-binding domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ influx evoked by activation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors is increased where puncta are located. We conclude that stable peripheral junctions between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum are the anatomical sites of agonist-activated Ca2+ entry. PMID:21062895

  10. Regulation of calcium and phosphoinositides at endoplasmic reticulum-membrane junctions.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Jensen, Jill B; Hille, Bertil

    2016-04-15

    Effective cellular function requires both compartmentalization of tasks in space and time, and coordination of those efforts. The endoplasmic reticulum's (ER) expansive and ramifying structure makes it ideally suited to serve as a regulatory platform for organelle-organelle communication through membrane contacts. These contact sites consist of two membranes juxtaposed at a distance less than 30 nm that mediate the exchange of lipids and ions without the need for membrane fission or fusion, a process distinct from classical vesicular transport. Membrane contact sites are positioned by organelle-specific membrane-membrane tethering proteins and contain a growing number of additional proteins that organize information transfer to shape membrane identity. Here we briefly review the role of ER-containing membrane junctions in two important cellular functions: calcium signalling and phosphoinositide processing. PMID:27068956

  11. Expanded polyglutamine embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum causes membrane distortion and coincides with Bax insertion.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masashi; Li, Shimo; Itoh, Masanori; Wang, Miao-Xing; Hayakawa, Miki; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Chen, Huayue; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-27

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is important in various cellular functions, such as secretary and membrane protein biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. ER stress, including membrane distortion, is associated with many diseases such as Huntington's disease. In particular, nuclear envelope distortion is related to neuronal cell death associated with polyglutamine. However, the mechanism by which polyglutamine causes ER membrane distortion remains unclear. We used electron microscopy, fluorescence protease protection assay, and alkaline treatment to analyze the localization of polyglutamine in cells. We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane and noted an effect on morphology, including the dilation of ER luminal space and elongation of ER-mitochondria contact sites, in addition to the distortion of the nuclear envelope. The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. These results demonstrated that the ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death through Bax. PMID:27079237

  12. Intrinsic membrane glycoproteins with cytosol-oriented sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have examined the topography of N-acetylglucosamine-terminating glycoproteins in membranes from rat liver smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum (SER and RER). It was found that some of these glycoproteins are intrinsic membrane proteins with their sugars facing the cytosolic rather than the luminal side. This conclusion was reached by using vesicles from the SER and RER that were sealed and of the same topographical orientation as in vivo. These vesicles were incubated with UDP-(/sup 14/C)galactose (which does not enter the vesicles) and saturating amounts of soluble galactosyltransferase from milk, an enzyme that does not penetrate the lumen of the vesicles and that specifically adds galactose to terminal N-acetylglucosamine in a ..beta..1-4 linkage. Radioactive galactose was mainly transferred to SER proteins of apparent molecular mass 56 and 110 kDa and to a lesser extent RER and SER proteins of apparent molecular mass 46 and 72 kDa. These proteins are intrinsic membrane proteins, based on the inability of sodium carbonate at pH 11.5 to remove them from the membranes. Studies with peptide N-glycosidase F and chemical ..beta..-elimination showed that the 56-kDa protein of the SER vesicles contained terminal N-acetylglucosamine in an O-linkage to the protein. The above results suggest that some sugars of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may attain their final orientation in the membrane by mechanisms yet to be determined.

  13. Caveolin-1 binding to endoplasmic reticulum membranes and entry into the regulated secretory pathway are regulated by serine phosphorylation. Protein sorting at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, A; Arvan, P; Lisanti, M P

    2001-02-01

    Caveolin-1 serves as the main coat protein of caveolae membranes, as an intracellular cholesterol shuttle, and as a regulator of diverse signaling molecules. Of the 12 residues conserved across all caveolin isoforms from all species examined to date, only Ser(80) and Ser(168) could serve as phosphorylation sites. We show here that mimicking chronic phosphorylation of Ser(80) by mutation to Glu (i.e. Cav-1(S80E)), blocks phosphate incorporation. However, Cav-1(S168E) is phosphorylated to the same extent as wild-type caveolin-1. Cav-1(S80E) targets to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, remains oligomeric, and maintains normal membrane topology. In contrast, Cav-1(S80A), which cannot be phosphorylated, targets to caveolae membranes. Some exocrine cells secrete caveolin-1 in a regulated manner. Cav-1(S80A) is not secreted by AR42J pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells even in the presence of dexamethasone, an agent that induces the secretory phenotype. Conversely, Cav-1(S80E) is secreted to a greater extent than wild-type caveolin-1 following dexamethasone treatment. We conclude that caveolin-1 phosphorylation on invariant serine residue 80 is required for endoplasmic reticulum retention and entry into the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:11078729

  14. Transit of H2O2 across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is not sluggish.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Bánhegyi, Gabor; Bogeski, Ivan; Davies, Kelvin J A; Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Forman, Henry Jay; Görlach, Agnes; Kietzmann, Thomas; Laurindo, Francisco; Margittai, Eva; Meyer, Andreas J; Riemer, Jan; Rützler, Michael; Simmen, Thomas; Sitia, Roberto; Toledano, Michel B; Touw, Ivo P

    2016-05-01

    Cellular metabolism provides various sources of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different organelles and compartments. The suitability of H2O2 as an intracellular signaling molecule therefore also depends on its ability to pass cellular membranes. The propensity of the membranous boundary of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to let pass H2O2 has been discussed controversially. In this essay, we challenge the recent proposal that the ER membrane constitutes a simple barrier for H2O2 diffusion and support earlier data showing that (i) ample H2O2 permeability of the ER membrane is a prerequisite for signal transduction, (ii) aquaporin channels are crucially involved in the facilitation of H2O2 permeation, and (iii) a proper experimental framework not prone to artifacts is necessary to further unravel the role of H2O2 permeation in signal transduction and organelle biology. PMID:26928585

  15. Targeting of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Proteins and Ribosomes in Invertebrate Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Melissa M.; Hall, David H.; Victor, Martin; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2002-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is divided into rough and smooth domains (RER and SER). The two domains share most proteins, but RER is enriched in some membrane proteins by an unknown mechanism. We studied RER protein targeting by expressing fluorescent protein fusions to ER membrane proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. In several cell types RER and general ER proteins colocalized, but in neurons RER proteins were concentrated in the cell body, whereas general ER proteins were also found in neurites. Surprisingly RER membrane proteins diffused rapidly within the cell body, indicating they are not localized by immobilization. Ribosomes were also concentrated in the cell body, suggesting they may be in part responsible for targeting RER membrane proteins. PMID:12006669

  16. A few positively charged residues slow movement of a polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Marifu; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shotaro; Fujita, Hidenobu; Imai, Kenta; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2014-08-26

    Many polypeptide chains are translocated across and integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane through protein-conducting channels. During the process, amino acid sequences of translocating polypeptide chains are scanned by the channels and classified to be retained in the membrane or translocated into the lumen. We established an experimental system with which the kinetic effect of each amino acid residue on the polypeptide chain movement can be analyzed with a time resolution of tens of seconds. Positive charges greatly slow movement; only two lysine residues caused a remarkable slow down, and their effects were additive. The lysine residue was more effective than arginine. In contrast, clusters comprising three residues of each of the other 18 amino acids had little effect on chain movement. We also demonstrated that a four lysine cluster can exert the effect after being fully exposed from the ribosome. We concluded that as few as two to three residues of positively charged amino acids can slow the movement of the nascent polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This effect provides a fundamental basis of the topogenic function of positively charged amino acids. PMID:25093244

  17. Lipid homeostasis is involved in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum stress in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-09-16

    Maintaining cellular lipid composition is essential for many cell processes. Our previous study has demonstrated that Spt23 is an important transcription factor within the cell and responsible for the regulation of fatty acid desaturase genes. Disruption of SPT23 results in increased lipid saturation. In the present study, we found that lipid saturation caused by SPT23 deletion exhibited a growth defect under ethanol stress and increased chitin contents. Ergosterol synthesis-related genes were up-regulated to protect cells from plasma membrane damage in the presence of ethanol. The cell wall stress caused by increased chitin contents could not be attenuated by up-regulation of phospholipids synthesis-related genes in spt23Δ. Besides, lipid saturation induced expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation followed by activation of the cellular antioxidant system, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions. Taken together, our data suggested that lipid homeostasis has a close connection with cell responses to both plasma membrane stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:27524240

  18. Authentic In Vitro Replication of Two Tombusviruses in Isolated Mitochondrial and Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Tyng-Shyan

    2012-01-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses takes place on membranous structures derived from various organelles in infected cells. Previous works with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) revealed the recruitment of either peroxisomal or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes for replication. In case of Carnation Italian ringspot tombusvirus (CIRV), the mitochondrial membranes supported CIRV replication. In this study, we developed ER and mitochondrion-based in vitro tombusvirus replication assays. Using purified recombinant TBSV and CIRV replication proteins, we showed that TBSV could use the purified yeast ER and mitochondrial preparations for complete viral RNA replication, while CIRV preferentially replicated in the mitochondrial membranes. The viral RNA became partly RNase resistant after ∼40 to 60 min of incubation in the purified ER and mitochondrial preparations, suggesting that assembly of TBSV and CIRV replicases could take place in the purified ER and mitochondrial membranes in vitro. Using chimeric and heterologous combinations of replication proteins, we showed that multiple domains within the replication proteins are involved in determining the efficiency of tombusvirus replication in the two subcellular membranes. Altogether, we demonstrated that TBSV is less limited while CIRV is more restricted in utilizing various intracellular membranes for replication. Overall, the current work provides evidence that tombusvirus replication could occur in vitro in isolated subcellular membranes, suggesting that tombusviruses have the ability to utilize alternative organellar membranes during infection that could increase the chance of mixed virus replication and rapid evolution during coinfection. PMID:22973028

  19. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Autophagic Cell Death via Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Disruption in Normal Lung Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Soo Jin; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jinkyu; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in diverse fields including food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are widely used, but their effects on biological systems and mechanism of toxicity have not been elucidated fully. Here, we report the toxicological mechanism of TiO2-NP in cell organelles. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/mL TiO2-NP for 24 and 48 h. Our results showed that TiO2-NP induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells and disrupted the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and calcium ion balance, thereby increasing autophagy. In contrast, an inhibitor of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), mitigated the cellular toxic response, suggesting that TiO2-NP promoted toxicity via ER stress. This novel mechanism of TiO2-NP toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that further exhaustive research on the harmful effects of these nanoparticles in relevant organisms is needed for their safe application. PMID:26121477

  20. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Autophagic Cell Death via Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Disruption in Normal Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Soo Jin; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jinkyu; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in diverse fields including food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are widely used, but their effects on biological systems and mechanism of toxicity have not been elucidated fully. Here, we report the toxicological mechanism of TiO2-NP in cell organelles. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/mL TiO2-NP for 24 and 48 h. Our results showed that TiO2-NP induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells and disrupted the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and calcium ion balance, thereby increasing autophagy. In contrast, an inhibitor of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), mitigated the cellular toxic response, suggesting that TiO2-NP promoted toxicity via ER stress. This novel mechanism of TiO2-NP toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that further exhaustive research on the harmful effects of these nanoparticles in relevant organisms is needed for their safe application. PMID:26121477

  1. Stop-and-move of a marginally hydrophobic segment translocating across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yukiko; Yamagishi, Marifu; Imai, Kenta; Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-09-01

    Many membrane proteins are cotranslationally integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via the protein-conducting channel, the so-called translocon. The hydrophobic transmembrane segment of the translocating nascent polypeptide chain stops at the translocon and then moves laterally into the membrane. Partitioning of the hydrophobic segment into the membrane is the primary determinant for membrane insertion. Here, we examined the behavior of a marginally hydrophobic segment at the translocon and found that its stop-translocation was greatly affected by the C-terminally attached ribosomes. The marginally hydrophobic segment first stops at the membrane and then moves into the lumen as long as the nascent chain is attached to translating ribosomes. When it is released from the ribosome by the termination codon, the marginally hydrophobic segment does not move. Puromycin or RNase treatment also suppressed movement. The movement was reversibly inhibited by high-salt conditions and irreversibly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. There is an unstable state prior to the stable membrane insertion of the transmembrane segment. This characteristic state is maintained by the synthesizing ribosome. PMID:23747484

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane potassium channel dysfunction in high fat diet induced stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khodaee, Naser; Ghasemi, Maedeh; Saghiri, Reza; Eliassi, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we reported the presence of a large conductance K+ channel in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from rat hepatocytes. The channel open probability (Po) appeared voltage dependent and reached to a minimum 0.2 at +50 mV. Channel activity in this case was found to be totally inhibited at ATP concentration 2.5 mM, glibenclamide 100 µM and tolbutamide 400 µM. Existing evidence indicates an impairment of endoplasmic reticulum functions in ER stress condition. Because ER potassium channels have been involved in several ER functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was carried out to consider whether the ER potassium channel function is altered in a high fat diet model of ER stress. Male Wistar rats were made ER stress for 2 weeks with a high fat diet. Ion channel incorporation of ER stress model into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Our results indicate that the channel Po was significantly increased at voltages above +30 mV. Interestingly, addition of ATP 7.5 mM, glibenclamide 400 µM and tolbutamide 2400 µM totally inhibited the channel activities, 3-fold, 4-fold and 6-fold higher than that in the control groups, respectively. Our results thus demonstrate a modification in the ER K+ channel gating properties and decreased sensitivity to drugs in membrane preparations coming from ER high fat model of ER stress, an effect potentially linked to a change in ER K+ channel subunits in ER stress condition. Our results may provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying ER dysfunctions in ER stress. PMID:26417322

  3. A role for caveolin in transport of cholesterol from endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Smart, E J; Ying, Y s; Donzell, W C; Anderson, R G

    1996-11-15

    Caveolin is a 22-kDa membrane protein found associated with a coat material decorating the inner membrane surface of caveolae. A remarkable feature of this protein is its ability to migrate from caveolae directly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when membrane cholesterol is oxidized. We now present evidence caveolin is involved in transporting newly synthesized cholesterol from the ER directly to caveolae. MA104 cells and normal human fibroblasts transported new cholesterol to caveolae with a half-time of approximately 10 min. The cholesterol then rapidly flowed from caveolae to non-caveolae membrane. Cholesterol moved out of caveolae even when the supply of fresh cholesterol from the ER was interrupted. Treatment of cells with 10 microg/ml progesterone blocked cholesterol movement from ER to caveolae. Simultaneously, caveolin accumulated in the lumen of the ER, suggesting cholesterol transport is linked to caveolin movement. Caveolae fractions from cells expressing caveolin were enriched in cholesterol 3-4-fold, while the same fractions from cells lacking caveolin were not enriched. Cholesterol transport to the cell surface was nearly 4 times more rapid in cells expressing caveolin than in matched cells lacking caveolin. PMID:8910609

  4. The role of cholesterol in the association of endoplasmic reticulum membranes with mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Michiko; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endoplasmic reticulum subdomain termed MAM associates with mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biophysical role of lipids in the MAM-mitochondria association is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in vitro membrane association assay was used to examine the role of lipids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol was found to negatively regulate the association. -- Abstract: The unique endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain termed the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) engages the physical connection between the ER and the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a role in regulating IP{sub 3} receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} influx and the phospholipid transport between the two organelles. The MAM contains certain signaling and membrane-tethering proteins but also lipids including cholesterol. The biophysical role of lipids at the MAM, specifically in the physical interaction between the MAM of the ER and mitochondria, remains not totally clarified. Here we employed the in vitro membrane association assay to investigate the role of cholesterol in the association between MAMs and mitochondria. The purified MAMs and mitochondria were mixed in vitro in a test tube and then the physical association of the two subcellular organelles was quantified indirectly by measuring the presence of the MAM-specific protein sigma-1 receptors in the mitochondria fraction. Purified MAMs contained free cholesterol approximately 7 times higher than that in microsomes. We found that depletion of cholesterol in MAMs with methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (M{beta}C) significantly increases the association between MAMs and mitochondria, whereas M{beta}C saturated with cholesterol does not change the association. {sup 14}C-Serine pulse-labeling demonstrated that the treatment of living cells with M{beta}C decreases the level of de novo synthesized {sup 14}C-phosphatidylserine (PtSer) and concomitantly increases greatly the synthesis of

  5. Different Transmembrane Domains Associate with Distinct Endoplasmic Reticulum Components during Membrane Integration of a Polytopic Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meacock, Suzanna L.; Lecomte, Fabienne J.L.; Crawshaw, Samuel G.; High, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We have been studying the insertion of the seven transmembrane domain (TM) protein opsin to gain insights into how the multiple TMs of polytopic proteins are integrated at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We find that the ER components associated with the first and second TMs of the nascent opsin polypeptide chain are clearly distinct. The first TM (TM1) is adjacent to the α and β subunits of the Sec61 complex, and a novel component, a protein associated with the ER translocon of 10 kDa (PAT-10). The most striking characteristic of PAT-10 is that it remains adjacent to TM1 throughout the biogenesis and membrane integration of the full-length opsin polypeptide. TM2 is also found to be adjacent to Sec61α and Sec61β during its membrane integration. However, TM2 does not form any adducts with PAT-10; rather, a transient association with the TRAM protein is observed. We show that the association of PAT-10 with opsin TM1 does not require the N-glycosylation of the nascent chain and occurs irrespective of the amino acid sequence and transmembrane topology of TM1. We conclude that the precise makeup of the ER membrane insertion site can be distinct for the different transmembrane domains of a polytopic protein. We find that the environment of a particular TM can be influenced by both the “stage” of nascent chain biosynthesis reached, and the TM's relative location within the polypeptide. PMID:12475939

  6. IRE1 prevents endoplasmic reticulum membrane permeabilization and cell death under pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kanekura, Kohsuke; Ma, Xiucui; Murphy, John T.; Zhu, Lihua J.; Diwan, Abhinav; Urano, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a critical regulator of cell fate. IRE1 is a transmembrane protein with kinase and RNase activities that is localized to the ER and that promotes resistance to ER stress. Here we showed a mechanism by which IRE1 conferred protection against ER stress-mediated cell death. IRE1 signaling prevented ER membrane permeabilization mediated by Bax and Bak and cell death under ER stress conditions. Suppression of IRE1 signaling led to the accumulation of the BH3 domain-containing protein Bnip3, which in turn triggered the oligomerization of Bax and Bak in the ER membrane and ER membrane permeabilization. As a result, cells deficient in IRE1 were susceptible to leakage of ER contents in response to ER stress, which was associated with the accumulation of calcium in mitochondria, oxidative stress in the cytosol, and cell death. Our results reveal a role for IRE1 in preventing an initial step of cell death emanating from the ER and provide a potential target for treating diseases characterized by ER stress, including diabetes and Wolfram syndrome. PMID:26106220

  7. Effects of lipid peroxidation on membrane-bound enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. D.

    1971-01-01

    1. Induction of the formation of lipid peroxide in suspensions of liver microsomal preparations by incubation with ascorbate or NADPH, or by treatment with ionizing radiation, leads to a marked decrease of the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase. 2. The effect of peroxidation can be imitated by treating microsomal suspensions with detergents such as deoxycholate or with phospholipases. 3. The substrate, glucose 6-phosphate, protects the glucose 6-phosphatase activity of microsomal preparations against peroxidation or detergents. 4. The loss of glucose 6-phosphatase activity is not due to the formation of hydroperoxide or formation of malonaldehyde or other breakdown products of peroxidation, all of which are not toxic to the enzyme. 5. All experiments lead to the conclusion that the loss of activity of glucose 6-phosphatase resulting from peroxidation is a consequence of loss of membrane structure essential for the activity of the enzyme. 6. In addition to glucose 6-phosphatase, oxidative demethylation of aminopyrine or p-chloro-N-methylaniline, hydroxylation of aniline, NADPH oxidation and menadione-dependent NADPH oxidation are also strongly inhibited by peroxidation. However, another group of enzymes separated with the microsomal fraction, including NAD+/NADP+ glycohydrolase, adenosine triphosphatase, esterase and NADH–cytochrome c reductase are not inactivated by peroxidation. This group is not readily inactivated by treatment with detergents. 7. Lipid peroxidation, by controlling membrane integrity, may exert a regulating effect on the oxidative metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism of the endoplasmic reticulum in vivo. PMID:4399403

  8. Ribosome binding sites visualized on freeze-fractured membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Giddings, T H; Staehelin, L A

    1980-04-01

    Freeze-fracture micrographs of cells of the green alga Micrasterias denticulata stabilized by ultrarapid freezing reveal imprints of polysomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The imprints appear as broad, spiral ridges on the P faces and as corresponding wide grooves on the E faces of the membranes. Distinct 110-A particles with a spacing of 270 +/- 45 A are associated with the P-face ridges. Where imprints of individual ribosomes can be discerned, it is seen that there is a 1:1 relationship between the ribosomes and the 110-A particles, and that the 110-A particles are located in a peripheral position with respect to the polysome spirals. We propose that the 110-A particles could be structural equivalents of ribosome-binding sites, consisting of a molecule each of ribophorins I and II and a nascent polypeptide chain. These observations suggest that the spiral form of polysomes could result from the forces generated by the extrusion of the growing polypeptide chains to one side of the polysome. PMID:7364870

  9. Ribosome binding sites visualized on freeze-fractured membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Freeze-fracture micrographs of cells of the green alga Micrasterias denticulata stabilized by ultrarapid freezing reveal imprints of polysomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The imprints appear as broad, spiral ridges on the P faces and as corresponding wide grooves on the E faces of the membranes. Distinct 110-A particles with a spacing of 270 +/- 45 A are associated with the P-face ridges. Where imprints of individual ribosomes can be discerned, it is seen that there is a 1:1 relationship between the ribosomes and the 110-A particles, and that the 110-A particles are located in a peripheral position with respect to the polysome spirals. We propose that the 110- A particles could be structural equivalents of ribosome-binding sites, consisting of a molecule each of ribophorins I and II and a nascent polypeptide chain. These observations suggest that the spiral form of polysomes could result from the forces generated by the extrusion of the growing polypeptide chains to one side of the polysome. PMID:7364870

  10. Yeast Ist2 Recruits the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Plasma Membrane and Creates a Ribosome-Free Membrane Microcompartment

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Holger; Schwappach, Blanche; Seedorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms contacts with the plasma membrane. These contacts are known to function in non-vesicular lipid transport and signaling. Ist2 resides in specific domains of the ER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where it binds phosphoinositide lipids at the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. Here, we report that Ist2 recruits domains of the yeast ER to the plasma membrane. Ist2 determines the amount of cortical ER present and the distance between the ER and the plasma membrane. Deletion of IST2 resulted in an increased distance between ER and plasma membrane and allowed access of ribosomes to the space between the two membranes. Cells that overexpress Ist2 showed an association of the nucleus with the plasma membrane. The morphology of the ER and yeast growth were sensitive to the abundance of Ist2. Moreover, Ist2-dependent effects on cytosolic pH and genetic interactions link Ist2 to the activity of the H+ pump Pma1 in the plasma membrane during cellular adaptation to the growth phase of the culture. Consistently we found a partial colocalization of Ist2-containing cortical ER and Pma1-containing domains of the plasma membrane. Hence Ist2 may be critically positioned in domains that couple functions of the ER and the plasma membrane. PMID:22808051

  11. Membrane-Spanning Sequences in Endoplasmic Reticulum Proteins Promote Phospholipid Flip-Flop.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Keisuke; Ishihama, Yasushi; Nakano, Minoru

    2016-06-21

    The mechanism whereby phospholipids rapidly flip-flop in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that the presence of a hydrophilic residue in the center of the model transmembrane peptide sequence effectively promoted phospholipid flip-flop and that hydrophilic residues composed 4.5% of the central regions of the membrane-spanning sequences of human ER membrane proteins predicted by SOSUI software. We hypothesized that ER proteins with hydrophilic residues might play a critical role in promoting flip-flop. Here, we evaluated the flip rate of fluorescently labeled lipids in vesicles containing each of the 11 synthetic peptides of membrane-spanning sequences, using a dithionite-quenching assay. Although the flippase activities of nine peptides were unexpectedly low, the peptides based on the EDEM1 and SPAST proteins showed enhanced flippase activity with three different fluorescently labeled lipids. The substitution of hydrophobic Ala with His or Arg in the central region of the EDEM1 or SPAST peptides, respectively, attenuated their ability to flip phospholipids. Interestingly, substituting Ala with Arg or His at a location outside of the central region of EDEM1 or SPAST, respectively, also affected the enhancement of flip-flop. These results indicated that both Arg and His are important for the ability of these two peptides to increase the flip rates. The EDEM1 peptide exhibited high activity at significantly low peptide concentrations, suggesting that the same side positioning of Arg and His in α-helix structure is critical for the flip-flop promotion and that the EDEM1 protein is a candidate flippase in the ER. PMID:27332127

  12. Three-dimensional architecture of extended synaptotagmin-mediated endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Busnadiego, Rubén; Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-04-21

    The close apposition between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, signaling, and lipid metabolism. The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts; tricalbins in yeast) are ER-anchored proteins that mediate the tethering of the ER to the PM and are thought to mediate lipid transfer between the two membranes. E-Syt cytoplasmic domains comprise a synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain followed by five C2 domains in E-Syt1 and three C2 domains in E-Syt2/3. Here, we used cryo-electron tomography to study the 3D architecture of E-Syt-mediated ER-PM contacts at molecular resolution. In vitrified frozen-hydrated mammalian cells overexpressing individual E-Syts, in which E-Syt-dependent contacts were by far the predominant contacts, ER-PM distance (19-22 nm) correlated with the amino acid length of the cytosolic region of E-Syts (i.e., the number of C2 domains). Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) shortened the ER-PM distance at E-Syt1-dependent contacts sites. E-Syt-mediated contacts displayed a characteristic electron-dense layer between the ER and the PM. These features were strikingly different from those observed in cells exposed to conditions that induce contacts mediated by the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and the Ca(2+) channel Orai1 as well as store operated Ca(2+) entry. In these cells the gap between the ER and the PM was spanned by filamentous structures perpendicular to the membranes. Our results define specific ultrastructural features of E-Syt-dependent ER-PM contacts and reveal their structural plasticity, which may impact on the cross-talk between the ER and the PM and the functions of E-Syts in lipid transport between the two bilayers. PMID:25787254

  13. Apolar surface area determines the efficiency of translocon-mediated membrane-protein integration into the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Öjemalm, Karin; Higuchi, Takashi; Jiang, Yang; Langel, Ülo; Nilsson, IngMarie; White, Stephen H; Suga, Hiroaki; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2011-08-01

    Integral membrane proteins are integrated cotranslationally into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process mediated by the Sec61 translocon. Transmembrane α-helices in a translocating polypeptide chain gain access to the surrounding membrane through a lateral gate in the wall of the translocon channel [van den Berg B, et al. (2004) Nature 427:36-44; Zimmer J, et al. (2008) Nature 455:936-943; Egea PF, Stroud RM (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:17182-17187]. To clarify the nature of the membrane-integration process, we have measured the insertion efficiency into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of model hydrophobic segments containing nonproteinogenic aliphatic and aromatic amino acids. We find that an amino acid's contribution to the apparent free energy of membrane-insertion is directly proportional to the nonpolar accessible surface area of its side chain, as expected for thermodynamic partitioning between aqueous and nonpolar phases. But unlike bulk-phase partitioning, characterized by a nonpolar solvation parameter of 23 cal/(mol · Å(2)), the solvation parameter for transfer from translocon to bilayer is 6-10 cal/(mol · Å(2)), pointing to important differences between translocon-guided partitioning and simple water-to-membrane partitioning. Our results provide compelling evidence for a thermodynamic partitioning model and insights into the physical properties of the translocon. PMID:21606334

  14. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana . E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  15. Research Resource: Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Integrity in β-Cells at the Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Kanekura, Kohsuke; Ou, Jianhong; Hara, Takashi; Zhu, Lihua J.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane integrity is an emerging target for human chronic diseases associated with ER stress. Despite the underlying importance of compromised ER membrane integrity in disease states, the entire process leading to ER membrane permeabilization and cell death is still not clear due to technical limitations. Here we describe a novel method for monitoring ER membrane integrity at the single-cell level in real time. Using a β-cell line expressing ER-targeted redox sensitive green fluorescent protein, we could identify a β-cell population undergoing ER membrane permeabilization induced by palmitate and could monitor cell fate and ER stress of these cells at the single-cell level. Our method could be used to develop a novel therapeutic modality targeting the ER membrane for ER-associated disorders, including β-cell death in diabetes, neurodegeneration, and Wolfram syndrome. PMID:25584413

  16. Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Oparka, Monika; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The different mechanisms employed by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors to regulate cell death pathways are strictly linked to their localization. In addition to the canonical control of apoptosis at a transcriptional/nuclear level, intracellular zones are emerging as pivotal sites for the activities of several proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Here, we review the function of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface as a primary platform for decoding danger signals as well as a structural accommodation for several regulator or effector proteins. PMID:27308328

  17. Structural basis of molecular recognition of the Leishmania small hydrophilic endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein (SHERP) at membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Moore, Benjamin; Miles, Andrew J; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Simpson, Peter; Iwata, Momi; Wallace, B A; Matthews, Stephen J; Smith, Deborah F; Brown, Katherine A

    2011-03-18

    The 57-residue small hydrophilic endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein (SHERP) shows highly specific, stage-regulated expression in the non-replicative vector-transmitted stages of the kinetoplastid parasite, Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that SHERP localizes as a peripheral membrane protein on the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum and on outer mitochondrial membranes, whereas its high copy number suggests a critical function in vivo. However, the absence of defined domains or identifiable orthologues, together with lack of a clear phenotype in transgenic parasites lacking SHERP, has limited functional understanding of this protein. Here, we use a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods to demonstrate that SHERP can be induced to adopt a globular fold in the presence of anionic lipids or SDS. Cross-linking and binding studies suggest that SHERP has the potential to form a complex with the vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, these results suggest that SHERP may function in modulating cellular processes related to membrane organization and/or acidification during vector transmission of infective Leishmania. PMID:21106528

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of Pca1p, a Polytopic Protein, via Interaction with the Proteasome at the Membrane.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan; Adle, David J; Zhao, Miaoyun; Qin, Xiaojuan; Kim, Heejeong; Lee, Jaekwon

    2016-07-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) plays a critical role in the destruction of terminally misfolded proteins at the secretory pathway. The system also regulates expression levels of several proteins such as Pca1p, a cadmium exporter in yeast. To gain better insight into the mechanisms underlying ERAD of Pca1p and other polytopic proteins by the proteasome in the cytosol, our study determined the roles for the molecular factors of ERAD in dislodging Pca1p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inactivation of the 20S proteasome leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated Pca1p in the ER membrane, suggesting a role for the proteasome in extraction of Pca1p from the ER. Pca1p formed a complex with the proteasome at the membrane in a Doa10p E3 ligase-dependent manner. Cdc48p is required for recruiting the proteasome to Pca1p. Although the Ufd2p E4 ubiquitin chain extension enzyme is involved in efficient degradation of Pca1p, Ufd2p-deficient cells did not affect the formation of a complex between Pca1p and the proteasome. Two other polytopic membrane proteins undergoing ERAD, Ste6*p and Hmg2p, also displayed the same outcomes observed for Pca1p. However, poly-ubiquitinated Cpy1*p, a luminal ERAD substrate, was detected in the cytosol independent of proteolytic activities of the proteasome. These results indicate that extraction and degradation of polytopic membrane proteins at the ER is a coupled event. This mechanism would relieve the cost of exposed hydrophobic domains in the cytosol during ERAD. PMID:27226596

  19. African Swine Fever Virus Is Enveloped by a Two-Membraned Collapsed Cisterna Derived from the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Andrés, Germán; García-Escudero, Ramón; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; Viñuela, Eladio

    1998-01-01

    During the cytoplasmic maturation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) within the viral factories, the DNA-containing core becomes wrapped by two shells, an inner lipid envelope and an outer icosahedral capsid. We have previously shown that the inner envelope is derived from precursor membrane-like structures on which the capsid layer is progressively assembled. In the present work, we analyzed the origin of these viral membranes and the mechanism of envelopment of ASFV. Electron microscopy studies on permeabilized infected cells revealed the presence of two tightly apposed membranes within the precursor membranous structures as well as polyhedral assembling particles. Both membranes could be detached after digestion of intracellular virions with proteinase K. Importantly, membrane loop structures were observed at the ends of open intermediates, which suggests that the inner envelope is derived from a membrane cisterna. Ultraestructural and immunocytochemical analyses showed a close association and even direct continuities between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and assembling virus particles at the bordering areas of the viral factories. Such interactions become evident with an ASFV recombinant that inducibly expresses the major capsid protein p72. In the absence of the inducer, viral morphogenesis was arrested at a stage at which partially and fully collapsed ER cisternae enwrapped the core material. Together, these results indicate that ASFV, like the poxviruses, becomes engulfed by a two-membraned collapsed cisterna derived from the ER. PMID:9765444

  20. Preprotein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in milieus crowded by proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, José. Antonio; Guzmán, Orlando; Navarro, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Translocation of preproteins chains between the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum lumen takes place in a milieu crowded primarily by proteins. We compute translocation and retrotranslocation times for chains of different length in a milieu crowded by spherical agents at volume fractions equivalent to that found in cells. These numerical times obtained from a diffusion-equation model subject to a potential given by the free energy of one chain, indicate that crowding increases the translocation time by up to five times compared to those in dilute conditions for average-size chains and by up to a thousand times for long chains. Retrotranslocation times become smaller than translocation ones, in approximately 75%. Translocation rates obtained in this work are similar to those found in a theoretical model for Brownian-ratchet translocation and coincide with in vitro experimental results (1-8 aminoacid/s) only in the limit of very long chains; for shorter chains, translocation rates are much faster. Our prediction that for long chains translocation rates would be significantly slowed by crowding can be tested experimentally using vesicles. Discrepancy of time-scales with experiments for short chains indicates that other factors beside crowding must be included in our model.

  1. Calcium binding chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Coe, Helen; Michalak, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major Ca(2+) store of the cell that impacts many cellular processes within the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum has roles in lipid and sterol synthesis, protein folding, post-translational modification and secretion and these functions are affected by intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+). In the endoplasmic reticulum there are several Ca(2+) buffering chaperones including calreticulin, Grp94, BiP and protein disulfide isomerase. Calreticulin is one of the major Ca(2+) binding/buffering chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum. It has a critical role in Ca(2+) signalling in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and this has significant impacts on many Ca(2+)-dependent pathways including control of transcription during embryonic development. In addition to Ca(2+) buffering, calreticulin plays important role in the correct folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. PMID:20093733

  2. A homologous cell-free system for studying protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Brennwald, P; Wise, J A

    1994-02-01

    We report the development of a homologous in vitro assay system for analysing translocation of proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our protocol for preparing an S. pombe extract capable of translating natural messenger RNAs was modified from a procedure previously used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which cells are lysed in a bead-beater. However, we were unable to prepare fission yeast microsomes active in protein translocation using existing budding yeast protocols. Instead, our most efficient preparations were isolated by fractionating spheroplasts, followed by extensive washing and size exclusion chromatography of the crude membranes. Translocation of two ER-targeted proteins, pre-acid phosphatase from S. pombe and prepro-alpha-factor from S. cerevisiae, was monitored using two distinct assays. First, evidence that a fraction of both proteins was sequestered within membrane-enclosed vesicles was provided by resistance to exogenously added protease. Second, the protected fraction of each protein was converted to a higher molecular weight, glycosylated form; attachment of carbohydrate to the translocated proteins was confirmed by their ability to bind Concanavalin A-Sepharose. Finally, we examined whether proteins could be translocated across fission yeast microsomal membranes after their synthesis was complete. Our results indicate that S. cerevisiae prepro-alpha-factor can be post-translationally imported into the fission yeast ER, while S. pombe pre-acid phosphatase crosses the membrane only by a co-translational mechanism. PMID:8203158

  3. A membrane protein enriched in endoplasmic reticulum exit sites interacts with COPII.

    PubMed

    Tang, B L; Ong, Y S; Huang, B; Wei, S; Wong, E T; Qi, R; Horstmann, H; Hong, W

    2001-10-26

    Although all mammalian COPII components have now been cloned, little is known of their interactions with other regulatory proteins involved in exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We report here that a mammalian protein (Yip1A) that is about 31% identical to S. cerevisiae and which interacts with and modulates COPII-mediated ER-Golgi transport. Yip1A transcripts are ubiquitously expressed. Transcripts of a related mammalian homologue, Yip1B, are found specifically in the heart. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yip1A is localized to vesicular structures that are concentrated at the perinuclear region. The structures marked by Yip1A co-localized with Sec31A and Sec13, components of the COPII coat protein complex. Immunoelectron microscopy also showed that Yip1A co-localizes with Sec13 at ER exit sites. Overexpression of the hydrophilic N terminus of Yip1A arrests ER-Golgi transport of the vesicular stomatitis G protein and causes fragmentation and dispersion of the Golgi apparatus. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein with the hydrophilic N terminus of Yip1A (GST-Yip1A) is able to bind to and deplete vital components from rat liver cytosol that is essential for in vitro vesicular stomatitis G transport. Peptide sequence analysis of cytosolic proteins that are specifically bound to GST-Yip1A revealed, among other proteins, mammalian COPII components Sec23 and Sec24. A highly conserved domain at the N terminus of Yip1A is required for Sec23/Sec24 interaction. Our results suggest that Yip1A is involved in the regulation of ER-Golgi traffic at the level of ER exit sites. PMID:11489904

  4. ORMDL proteins are a conserved new family of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmqvist, Lars; Tuson, Miquel; Marfany, Gemma; Herrero, Enric; Balcells, Susana; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser

    2002-01-01

    Background Annotations of completely sequenced genomes reveal that nearly half of the genes identified are of unknown function, and that some belong to uncharacterized gene families. To help resolve such issues, information can be obtained from the comparative analysis of homologous genes in model organisms. Results While characterizing genes from the retinitis pigmentosa locus RP26 at 2q31-q33, we have identified a new gene, ORMDL1, that belongs to a novel gene family comprising three genes in humans (ORMDL1, ORMDL2 and ORMDL3), and homologs in yeast, microsporidia, plants, Drosophila, urochordates and vertebrates. The human genes are expressed ubiquitously in adult and fetal tissues. The Drosophila ORMDL homolog is also expressed throughout embryonic and larval stages, particularly in ectodermally derived tissues. The ORMDL genes encode transmembrane proteins anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Double knockout of the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs leads to decreased growth rate and greater sensitivity to tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Yeast mutants can be rescued by human ORMDL homologs. Conclusions From protein sequence comparisons we have defined a novel gene family, not previously recognized because of the absence of a characterized functional signature. The sequence conservation of this family from yeast to vertebrates, the maintenance of duplicate copies in different lineages, the ubiquitous pattern of expression in human and Drosophila, the partial functional redundancy of the yeast homologs and phenotypic rescue by the human homologs, strongly support functional conservation. Subcellular localization and the response of yeast mutants to specific agents point to the involvement of ORMDL in protein folding in the ER. PMID:12093374

  5. Protein Translocation across the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Elisabet C.; Trueman, Steven F.; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-01-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a major site of protein biosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells, serving as the entry point for the secretory pathway and as the initial integration site for the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The core components of the protein translocation machinery have been identified, and high-resolution structures of the targeting components and the transport channel have been obtained. Research in this area is now focused on obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein translocation and membrane protein integration. PMID:23251026

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Chae, Soo-Wan; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han Jung

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for multiple cellular functions including protein folding and maturation and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. ER stress is activated by a variety of factors and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores homeostasis or activates cell death. Multiple studies have clarified the link between ER stress and cancer, and particularly the involvement of the UPR. The UPR seems to adjust the paradoxical microenvironment of cancer and, as such, is one of resistance mechanisms against cancer therapy. This review describes the activity of different UPRs involved in tumorigenesis and resistance to cancer therapy. PMID:25337575

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases represent one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. Despite important progress in prevention and treatment, these conditions still account for one third of all deaths annually. Often presented together with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, these chronic diseases are strongly influenced by pathways that lie at the interface of chronic inflammation and nutrient metabolism. Here I discuss recent advances in the study of endoplasmic reticulum stress as one mechanism that links immune response with nutrient sensing in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:20376052

  8. Targeting of OSBP-related protein 3 (ORP3) to endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane is controlled by multiple determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, Markku; Hynynen, Riikka; Karjalainen, Katja; Kuismanen, Esa; Hyvaerinen, Kati; Olkkonen, Vesa M. . E-mail: vesa.olkkonen@ktl.fi

    2005-11-01

    The intracellular targeting determinants of oxysterol binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 3 (ORP3) were studied using a series of truncated and point mutated constructs. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of ORP3 binds the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) products, PI(3,4)P{sub 2} and PI(3,4,5)P{sub 3}. A functional PH domain and flanking sequences are crucial for the plasma membrane (PM) targeting of ORP3. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting of ORP3 is regulated the by a FFAT motif (EFFDAxE), which mediates interaction with VAMP-associated protein (VAP)-A. The targeting function of the FFAT motif dominates over that of the PH domain. In addition, the exon 10/11 region modulates interaction of ORP3 with the ER and the nuclear membrane. Analysis of a chimeric ORP3:OSBP protein suggests that ligand binding by the C-terminal domain of OSBP induces allosteric changes that activate the N-terminal targeting modules of ORP3. Notably, over-expression of ORP3 together with VAP-A induces stacked ER membrane structures also known as organized smooth ER (OSER). Moreover, lipid starvation promotes formation of dilated peripheral ER (DPER) structures dependent on the ORP3 protein. Based on the present data, we introduce a model for the inter-relationships of the functional domains of ORP3 in the membrane targeting of the protein.

  9. Comparative biochemical and electron-microscopic study of membrane damage to the endoplasmic reticulum by a chemical carcinogen in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Merkur'eva, R.V.; Dolinskaya, S.I.; Shekhtman, A.B.; Gasanov, T.G.; Gadzhieva, T.I.; Shakmirova, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    Results are given of a comparative biochemical and electron-microscopic study of the membrane-damaging action of the chemical carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), as a result of exposure in vivo and in vitro. Experiments were carried out on rats. A characteristic feature of development of the biological effect of NDMA both in vivo and in vitro is a decrease in activity of the membrane-bound enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum chosen for study.

  10. Vacuole Membrane Protein 1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Required for Organelle Biogenesis, Protein Secretion, and Development

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Carilla-Latorre, Sergio; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Egea, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) is membrane protein of unknown molecular function that has been associated with pancreatitis and cancer. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a vmp1-related gene that we identified previously in a functional genomic study. Loss-of-function of this gene leads to a severe phenotype that compromises Dictyostelium growth and development. The expression of mammalian Vmp1 in a vmp1− Dictyostelium mutant complemented the phenotype, suggesting a functional conservation of the protein among evolutionarily distant species and highlights Dictyostelium as a valid experimental system to address the function of this gene. Dictyostelium Vmp1 is an endoplasmic reticulum protein necessary for the integrity of this organelle. Cells deficient in Vmp1 display pleiotropic defects in the secretory pathway and organelle biogenesis. The contractile vacuole, which is necessary to survive under hypoosmotic conditions, is not functional in the mutant. The structure of the Golgi apparatus, the function of the endocytic pathway and conventional protein secretion are also affected in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy of vmp1− cells showed the accumulation of autophagic features that suggests a role of Vmp1 in macroautophagy. In addition to these defects observed at the vegetative stage, the onset of multicellular development and early developmental gene expression are also compromised. PMID:18550798

  11. Fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial outer membrane in rats brown adipose tissue: activation of thermogenesis by Ca2+.

    PubMed

    de Meis, Leopoldo; Ketzer, Luisa A; da Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro; de Andrade, Ivone Rosa; Benchimol, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria thermogenesis is regulated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), GDP and fatty acids. In this report, we observed fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane with the mitochondrial outer membrane of rats BAT. Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA 1) was identified by immunoelectron microscopy in both ER and mitochondria. This finding led us to test the Ca(2+) effect in BAT mitochondria thermogenesis. We found that Ca(2+) increased the rate of respiration and heat production measured with a microcalorimeter both in coupled and uncoupled mitochondria, but had no effect on the rate of ATP synthesis. The Ca(2+) concentration needed for half-maximal activation varied between 0.08 and 0.11 microM. The activation of respiration was less pronounced than that of heat production. Heat production and ATP synthesis were inhibited by rotenone and KCN. Liver mitochondria have no UCP1 and during respiration synthesize a large amount of ATP, produce little heat, GDP had no effect on mitochondria coupling, Ca(2+) strongly inhibited ATP synthesis and had little or no effect on the small amount of heat released. These finding indicate that Ca(2+) activation of thermogenesis may be a specific feature of BAT mitochondria not found in other mitochondria such as liver. PMID:20209153

  12. [The progress of study about endoplasmic reticulum stress in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Jiang, B

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the most secreted proteins and membrane proteins are compounded, modified and folded into the correct structure in the endoplasmic reticulum. Only correctly folded proteins can be transported to the golgi apparatus for further processing. If the endoplasmic reticulum is insufficient to deal with the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, balance will be broken, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) will be started. To eliminate the unfolded proteins, cells will activate unfolded protein response (UPR) immediately for self-protection. If the induced ERS is strong or persistent, the UPR could not maintain the balance of homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum. Then the ERS will lead to C/EBP homologous protein activation and initiate cell apoptosis. The continuous ERS may participate in the occurrence and development of many diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes. In this article, the research progress of ERS and its relationship with glaucoma is reviewed. PMID:26979122

  13. Membrane topology of human monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 and identification of regions important for its localization to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Izzard, Sabrina; Vu, Huyen; Jin, Youzhi; Beauchamp, Erwan; Berthiaume, Luc G; Stone, Scot J

    2016-09-01

    Acyl CoA:2-monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2 has an important role in dietary fat absorption in the intestine. MGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol which is then utilized as a substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis. This triacylglycerol is then incorporated into chylomicrons which are released into the circulation. In this study, we determined the membrane topology of human MGAT2. Protease protection experiments showed that the C-terminus is exposed to the cytosol, while the N-terminus is partially buried in the ER membrane. MGAT2, like murine DGAT2, was found to have two transmembrane domains. We also identified a region of MGAT2 associated with the ER membrane that contains the histidine-proline-histidine-glycine sequence present in all DGAT2 family members that is thought to comprise the active site. Proteolysis experiments demonstrated that digestion of total cellular membranes from cells expressing MGAT2 with trypsin abolished MGAT activity, indicating that domains that are important for catalysis face the cytosol. We also explored the role that the five cysteines residues present in MGAT2 have in catalysis. MGAT activity was sensitive to two thiol modifiers, N-ethylmaleimide and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Furthermore, mutation of four cysteines resulted in a reduction in MGAT activity. However, when the C-terminal cysteine (C334) was mutated, MGAT activity was actually higher than that of wild-type FL-MGAT2. Lastly, we determined that both transmembrane domains of MGAT2 are important for its ER localization, and that MGAT2 is present in mitochondrial-associated membranes. PMID:27373844

  14. PIN6 auxin transporter at endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane mediates auxin homeostasis and organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sibu; Skůpa, Petr; Viaene, Tom; Zwiewka, Marta; Tejos, Ricardo; Klíma, Petr; Čarná, Mária; Rolčík, Jakub; De Rycke, Riet; Moreno, Ignacio; Dobrev, Petre I; Orellana, Ariel; Zažímalová, Eva; Friml, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    Plant development mediated by the phytohormone auxin depends on tightly controlled cellular auxin levels at its target tissue that are largely established by intercellular and intracellular auxin transport mediated by PIN auxin transporters. Among the eight members of the Arabidopsis PIN family, PIN6 is the least characterized candidate. In this study we generated functional, fluorescent protein-tagged PIN6 proteins and performed comprehensive analysis of their subcellular localization and also performed a detailed functional characterization of PIN6 and its developmental roles. The localization study of PIN6 revealed a dual localization at the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Transport and metabolic profiling assays in cultured cells and Arabidopsis strongly suggest that PIN6 mediates both auxin transport across the PM and intracellular auxin homeostasis, including the regulation of free auxin and auxin conjugates levels. As evidenced by the loss- and gain-of-function analysis, the complex function of PIN6 in auxin transport and homeostasis is required for auxin distribution during lateral and adventitious root organogenesis and for progression of these developmental processes. These results illustrate a unique position of PIN6 within the family of PIN auxin transporters and further add complexity to the developmentally crucial process of auxin transport. PMID:27240710

  15. Steric contribution of macromolecular crowding to the time and activation energy for preprotein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez Pérez, José Antonio; Guzmán, Orlando; Navarro-García, Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Protein translocation from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or vice versa, an essential process for cell function, includes the transport of preproteins destined to become secretory, luminal, or integral membrane proteins (translocation) or misfolded proteins returned to the cytoplasm to be degraded (retrotranslocation). An important aspect in this process that has not been fully studied is the molecular crowding at both sides of the ER membrane. By using models of polymers crossing a membrane through a pore, in an environment crowded by either static or dynamic spherical agents, we computed the following transport properties: the free energy, the activation energy, the force, and the transport times for translocation and retrotranslocation. Using experimental protein crowding data for the cytoplasm and ER sides, we showed that dynamic crowding, which resembles biological environments where proteins are translocated or retrotranslocated, increases markedly all the physical properties of translocation and retrotranslocation as compared with translocation in a diluted system. By contrast, transport properties in static crowded systems were similar to those in diluted conditions. In the dynamic regime, the effects of crowding were more notorious in the transport times, leading to a huge difference for large chains. We indicate that this difference is the result of the synergy between the free energy and the diffusivity of the translocating chain. That synergy leads to translocation rates similar to experimental measures in diluted systems, which indicates that the effects of crowding can be measured. Our data also indicate that effects of crowding cannot be neglected when studying translocation because protein dynamic crowding has a relevant steric contribution, which changes the properties of translocation.

  16. σ-1 Receptor at the Mitochondrial-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Karla-Sue C.; Prasad, Manoj; Thapliyal, Veena

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) is a small section of the outer mitochondrial membrane tethered to the ER by lipid and protein filaments. One such MAM protein is the σ-1 receptor, which contributes to multiple signaling pathways. We found that short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of σ-1 reduced pregnenolone synthesis by 95% without affecting expression of the inner mitochondrial membrane resident enzyme, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2. To explore the underlying mechanism of this effect, we generated a series of σ-receptor ligands: 5,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-1), 3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-5), and 6-methoxy-3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl) propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamide (KSCM-11) specifically bound to σ-1 in the nanomolar range, whereas KSCM-5 and KSCM-11 also bound to σ-2. Treatment of cells with the KSCM ligands led to decreased cell viability, with KSCM-5 having the most potent effect followed by KSCM-11. KSCM-1 increased σ-1 expression by 4-fold and progesterone synthesis, whereas the other compounds decreased progesterone synthesis. These differences probably are caused by ligand molecular structure. For example, KSCM-1 has two methoxy substituents at C-5 and C-6 of the benzofuran ring, whereas KSCM-11 has one at C-6. KSCM ligands or σ-1 knockdown did not alter the expression of ER resident enzymes that synthesize steroids. However, coimmunoprecipitation of the σ-1 receptor pulled down voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2), whose expression was enhanced by KSCM-1. VDAC2 plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria, suggesting that the σ-1 receptor at the MAM coordinates with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein for cholesterol trafficking into the mitochondria for metabolic regulation. PMID:22923735

  17. Selective activation of the transcription factor ATF6 mediates endoplasmic reticulum proliferation triggered by a membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Maiuolo, Jessica; Bulotta, Stefania; Verderio, Claudia; Benfante, Roberta; Borgese, Nica

    2011-05-10

    It is well known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is capable of expanding its surface area in response both to cargo load and to increased expression of resident membrane proteins. Although the response to increased cargo load, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is well characterized, the mechanism of the response to membrane protein load has been unclear. As a model system to investigate this phenomenon, we have used a HeLa-TetOff cell line inducibly expressing a tail-anchored construct consisting of an N-terminal cytosolic GFP moiety anchored to the ER membrane by the tail of cytochrome b5 [GFP-b(5)tail]. After removal of doxycycline, GFP-b(5)tail is expressed at moderate levels (1-2% of total ER protein) that, nevertheless, induce ER proliferation, as assessed both by EM and by a three- to fourfold increase in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. We investigated possible participation of each of the three arms of the UPR and found that only the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) arm was selectively activated after induction of GFP-b(5)tail expression; peak ATF6α activation preceded the increase in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Surprisingly, up-regulation of known ATF6 target genes was not observed under these conditions. Silencing of ATF6α abolished the ER proliferation response, whereas knockdown of Ire1 was without effect. Because GFP-b(5)tail lacks a luminal domain, the response we observe is unlikely to originate from the ER lumen. Instead, we propose that a sensing mechanism operates within the lipid bilayer to trigger the selective activation of ATF6. PMID:21521793

  18. Nonvesicular lipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The transport of lipids from their synthesis site at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to different target membranes could be mediated by both vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. Nonvesicular lipid transport appears to be the major transport route of certain lipid species, and could be mediated by either spontaneous lipid transport or by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Although nonvesicular lipid transport has been extensively studied for more than four decades, its underlying mechanism, advantage and regulation, have not been fully explored. In particular, the function of LTPs and their involvement in intracellular lipid movement remain largely controversial. In this article, we describe the pathways by which lipids are synthesized at the ER and delivered to different cellular membranes, and discuss the role of LTPs in lipid transport both in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:23028121

  19. The protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Gilmore, R; Müller, M; Blobel, G

    1982-12-24

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (r.e.r.) has been postulated to possess a single translation-coupled translocation system (in multiple copies) that effects signal sequence-mediated translocation of all secretory and lysosomal proteins and integration of all integral membrane proteins whose port of entry is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (G. Blobel 1980 Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496-1500). Two proteins have been isolated that are components of the r.e.r. translocation system. Their properties and function in protein translocation across and integration into membranes are discussed. PMID:6131460

  20. Co-chaperone Specificity in Gating of the Polypeptide Conducting Channel in the Membrane of the Human Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Stefan; Klein, Marie-Christine; Gamayun, Igor; Melnyk, Armin; Jung, Martin; Schäuble, Nico; Wang, Qian; Hemmis, Birgit; Bochen, Florian; Greiner, Markus; Lampel, Pavel; Urban, Sabine Katharina; Hassdenteufel, Sarah; Dudek, Johanna; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Wagner, Richard; Cavalié, Adolfo; Zimmermann, Richard

    2015-07-24

    In mammalian cells, signal peptide-dependent protein transport into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel, the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex. Previous work has characterized the Sec61 complex as a potential ER Ca(2+) leak channel in HeLa cells and identified ER lumenal molecular chaperone immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP) as limiting Ca(2+) leakage via the open Sec61 channel by facilitating channel closing. This BiP activity involves binding of BiP to the ER lumenal loop 7 of Sec61α in the vicinity of tyrosine 344. Of note, the Y344H mutation destroys the BiP binding site and causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and diabetes in mice. Here, we systematically depleted HeLa cells of the BiP co-chaperones by siRNA-mediated gene silencing and used live cell Ca(2+) imaging to monitor the effects on ER Ca(2+) leakage. Depletion of either one of the ER lumenal BiP co-chaperones, ERj3 and ERj6, but not the ER membrane-resident co-chaperones (such as Sec63 protein, which assists BiP in Sec61 channel opening) led to increased Ca(2+) leakage via Sec6 complex, thereby phenocopying the effect of BiP depletion. Thus, BiP facilitates Sec61 channel closure (i.e. limits ER Ca(2+) leakage) via the Sec61 channel with the help of ERj3 and ERj6. Interestingly, deletion of ERj6 causes pancreatic β-cell failure and diabetes in mice and humans. We suggest that co-chaperone-controlled gating of the Sec61 channel by BiP is particularly important for cells, which are highly active in protein secretion, and that breakdown of this regulatory mechanism can cause apoptosis and disease. PMID:26085089

  1. Co-chaperone Specificity in Gating of the Polypeptide Conducting Channel in the Membrane of the Human Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Schorr, Stefan; Klein, Marie-Christine; Gamayun, Igor; Melnyk, Armin; Jung, Martin; Schäuble, Nico; Wang, Qian; Hemmis, Birgit; Bochen, Florian; Greiner, Markus; Lampel, Pavel; Urban, Sabine Katharina; Hassdenteufel, Sarah; Dudek, Johanna; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Wagner, Richard; Cavalié, Adolfo; Zimmermann, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cells, signal peptide-dependent protein transport into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel, the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex. Previous work has characterized the Sec61 complex as a potential ER Ca2+ leak channel in HeLa cells and identified ER lumenal molecular chaperone immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP) as limiting Ca2+ leakage via the open Sec61 channel by facilitating channel closing. This BiP activity involves binding of BiP to the ER lumenal loop 7 of Sec61α in the vicinity of tyrosine 344. Of note, the Y344H mutation destroys the BiP binding site and causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and diabetes in mice. Here, we systematically depleted HeLa cells of the BiP co-chaperones by siRNA-mediated gene silencing and used live cell Ca2+ imaging to monitor the effects on ER Ca2+ leakage. Depletion of either one of the ER lumenal BiP co-chaperones, ERj3 and ERj6, but not the ER membrane-resident co-chaperones (such as Sec63 protein, which assists BiP in Sec61 channel opening) led to increased Ca2+ leakage via Sec6 complex, thereby phenocopying the effect of BiP depletion. Thus, BiP facilitates Sec61 channel closure (i.e. limits ER Ca2+ leakage) via the Sec61 channel with the help of ERj3 and ERj6. Interestingly, deletion of ERj6 causes pancreatic β-cell failure and diabetes in mice and humans. We suggest that co-chaperone-controlled gating of the Sec61 channel by BiP is particularly important for cells, which are highly active in protein secretion, and that breakdown of this regulatory mechanism can cause apoptosis and disease. PMID:26085089

  2. Structural organization of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Gia K; Rolls, Melissa M; Rapoport, Tom A

    2002-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system but consists of various domains that perform different functions. Structurally distinct domains of this organelle include the nuclear envelope (NE), the rough and smooth ER, and the regions that contact other organelles. The establishment of these domains and the targeting of proteins to them are understood to varying degrees. Despite its complexity, the ER is a dynamic structure. In mitosis it must be divided between daughter cells and domains must be re-established, and even in interphase it is constantly rearranged as tubules extend along the cytoskeleton. Throughout these rearrangements the ER maintains its basic structure. How this is accomplished remains mysterious, but some insight has been gained from in vitro systems. PMID:12370207

  3. Barriers to uniformity within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andrew K O; Chao, Jesse T; Loewen, Christopher J R

    2014-08-01

    Differentiating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into different physical domains may help the ER spatially regulate its many functions. For example, ER sheets are highly decorated with ribosomes for protein synthesis, whereas tubules usually correspond to smooth ER. Hence, ER morphology may play direct roles in functional diversification within the ER. The ER also makes direct physical contacts with other organelles, called ER junctions, enabling further functional diversification through input from external sources. In yeast, an ER diffusion barrier has now been discovered at the bud neck that compartmentalizes the ER into bud and mother diffusion domains by restricting the lateral diffusion of ER membrane proteins. Therefore, diffusion barriers also likely contribute to functional diversification within the ER by creating suites of molecular factors within ER diffusion domains. PMID:24732434

  4. An endoplasmic reticulum-specific cyclophilin.

    PubMed Central

    Hasel, K W; Glass, J R; Godbout, M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1991-01-01

    Cyclophilin is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. A degenerate oligonucleotide based on a conserved cyclophilin sequence was used to isolate cDNA clones representing a ubiquitously expressed mRNA from mice and humans. This mRNA encodes a novel 20-kDa protein, CPH2, that shares 64% sequence identity with cyclophilin. Bacterially expressed CPH2 binds cyclosporin A and is a cyclosporin A-inhibitable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Cell fractionation of rat liver followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that CPH2 is not cytosolic but rather is located exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that cyclosporin A mediates its effect on cells through more than one cyclophilin and that cyclosporin A-induced misfolding of T-cell membrane proteins normally mediated by CPH2 plays a role in immunosuppression. Images PMID:1710767

  5. Acetylation in vitro of constituent polypeptides by smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Golgi membrane fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sambasivam, H.; Murray, R.K.

    1986-05-01

    Many polypeptides of the membranes of the ER are phosphorylated. To determine if any such polypeptides are acetylated, microsomal and other classical subcellular fractions were incubated with (/sup 3/H) acetyl-CoA; the specific activity of the microsomal fraction (MF) was the greatest. SDS-PAGE revealed that some 20 polypeptides of the MF were acetylated; 2-D electrophoretograms extended this number to approximately 60. Separation of the MF into smooth (S) and rough (R) fractions showed that the great majority of the labelled polypeptides belonged to the former. Isolation of a Golgi fraction revealed that its acetylation activity was approximately 3-fold greater than the SER fraction. Extensive proteolytic digestion of the MF followed by radiochromatography disclosed some 9 components whose precise nature (acetylated amino acids and/or sialic acids, etc.) is under study. Assuming that the majority of the radioactivity is in the former components and that a similar process occurs in vivo, the authors suggest that the Golgi apparatus may be a major site of acetylation of membrane and possibly other proteins.

  6. Valosin-containing protein-interacting membrane protein (VIMP) links the endoplasmic reticulum with microtubules in concert with cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein (CLIMP)-63.

    PubMed

    Noda, Chikano; Kimura, Hana; Arasaki, Kohei; Matsushita, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Wakana, Yuichi; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2014-08-29

    The distribution and morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in mammalian cells depend on both dynamic and static interactions of ER membrane proteins with microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein (CLIMP)-63 is exclusively localized in sheet-like ER membranes, typical structures of the rough ER, and plays a pivotal role in the static interaction with MTs. Our previous study showed that the 42-kDa ER-residing form of syntaxin 5 (Syn5L) regulates ER structure through the interactions with both CLIMP-63 and MTs. Here, we extend our previous study and show that the valosin-containing protein/p97-interacting membrane protein (VIMP)/SelS is also a member of the family of proteins that shape the ER by interacting with MTs. Depletion of VIMP causes the spreading of the ER to the cell periphery and affects an MT-dependent process on the ER. Although VIMP can interact with CLIMP-63 and Syn5L, it does not interact with MT-binding ER proteins (such as Reep1) that shape the tubular smooth ER, suggesting that different sets of MT-binding ER proteins are used to organize different ER subdomains. PMID:25008318

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation and Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Julian; Huang, Edmond Y; Olzmann, James A

    2016-07-17

    The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction. The same ERAD machinery also controls the flux through various metabolic pathways by coupling the turnover of metabolic enzymes to the levels of key metabolites. We review the current understanding and biological significance of ERAD-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism in mammalian cells. PMID:27296502

  8. The carboxyl-terminus of cytochrome b5 confers endoplasmic reticulum specificity by preventing spontaneous insertion into membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms that determine the correct subcellular localization of proteins targeted to membranes by tail-anchor sequences are poorly defined. Previously, we showed that two isoforms of tung tree (Vernicia fordii) tail-anchored cytochrome b5 (Cb5) target specifically to endoplasmic reti...

  9. Ist2 in the Yeast Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum Promotes Trafficking of the Amino Acid Transporter Bap2 to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Wendelin; Meese, Klaus; Seedorf, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The equipment of the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with specific nutrient transporters is highly regulated by transcription, translation and protein trafficking allowing growth in changing environments. The activity of these transporters depends on a H+ gradient across the plasma membrane generated by the H+-ATPase Pma1. We found that the polytopic membrane protein Ist2 in the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for efficient leucine uptake during the transition from fermentation to respiration. Experiments employing tandem fluorescence timer protein tag showed that Ist2 was necessary for efficient trafficking of newly synthesized leucine transporter Bap2 from the ER to the plasma membrane. This finding explains the growth defect of ist2Δ mutants during nutritional challenges and illustrates the important role of physical coupling between cortical ER and plasma membrane. PMID:24416406

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2013-09-01

    The human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 and 2 proteins were initially identified as homologues of human placental leucine aminopeptidase/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. They are categorized as a unique class of proteases based on their subcellular localization on the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. ERAPs play an important role in the N-terminal processing of the antigenic precursors that are presented on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. ERAPs are also implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological phenomena and pathogenic conditions. In this review, the current knowledge on ERAPs is summarized. PMID:23946506

  11. A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. )

    1993-06-01

    Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Proliferation and Morphogenesis of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Driven by the Membrane Domain of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase in Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Sergi; Grados-Torrez, Ricardo Enrique; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Cortadellas, Nuria; Ferrer, Joan Carles

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) has a key regulatory role in the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis and is composed of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchoring membrane domain with low sequence similarity among eukaryotic kingdoms and a conserved cytosolic catalytic domain. Organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum (OSER) structures are common formations of hypertrophied tightly packed ER membranes devoted to specific biosynthetic and secretory functions, the biogenesis of which remains largely unexplored. We show that the membrane domain of plant HMGR suffices to trigger ER proliferation and OSER biogenesis. The proliferating membranes become highly enriched in HMGR protein, but they do not accumulate sterols, indicating a morphogenetic rather than a metabolic role for HMGR. The N-terminal MDVRRRPP motif present in most plant HMGR isoforms is not required for retention in the ER, which was previously proposed, but functions as an ER morphogenic signal. Plant OSER structures are morphologically similar to those of animal cells, emerge from tripartite ER junctions, and mainly build up beside the nuclear envelope, indicating conserved OSER biogenesis in high eukaryotes. Factors other than the OSER-inducing HMGR construct mediate the tight apposition of the proliferating membranes, implying separate ER proliferation and membrane association steps. Overexpression of the membrane domain of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HMGR leads to ER hypertrophy in every tested cell type and plant species, whereas the knockout of the HMG1 gene from Arabidopsis, encoding its major HMGR isoform, causes ER aggregation at the nuclear envelope. Our results show that the membrane domain of HMGR contributes to ER morphogenesis in plant cells. PMID:26015445

  13. Proliferation and Morphogenesis of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Driven by the Membrane Domain of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Sergi; Grados-Torrez, Ricardo Enrique; Leivar, Pablo; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Cortadellas, Nuria; Ferrer, Joan Carles; Campos, Narciso

    2015-07-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) has a key regulatory role in the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis and is composed of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchoring membrane domain with low sequence similarity among eukaryotic kingdoms and a conserved cytosolic catalytic domain. Organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum (OSER) structures are common formations of hypertrophied tightly packed ER membranes devoted to specific biosynthetic and secretory functions, the biogenesis of which remains largely unexplored. We show that the membrane domain of plant HMGR suffices to trigger ER proliferation and OSER biogenesis. The proliferating membranes become highly enriched in HMGR protein, but they do not accumulate sterols, indicating a morphogenetic rather than a metabolic role for HMGR. The N-terminal MDVRRRPP motif present in most plant HMGR isoforms is not required for retention in the ER, which was previously proposed, but functions as an ER morphogenic signal. Plant OSER structures are morphologically similar to those of animal cells, emerge from tripartite ER junctions, and mainly build up beside the nuclear envelope, indicating conserved OSER biogenesis in high eukaryotes. Factors other than the OSER-inducing HMGR construct mediate the tight apposition of the proliferating membranes, implying separate ER proliferation and membrane association steps. Overexpression of the membrane domain of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HMGR leads to ER hypertrophy in every tested cell type and plant species, whereas the knockout of the HMG1 gene from Arabidopsis, encoding its major HMGR isoform, causes ER aggregation at the nuclear envelope. Our results show that the membrane domain of HMGR contributes to ER morphogenesis in plant cells. PMID:26015445

  14. A LAPF/phafin1-like protein regulates TORC1 and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in response to endoplasmic reticulum membrane stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Adam; Cunningham, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is a poorly understood regulator of programmed cell death that involves leakage of luminal lysosomal or vacuolar hydrolases into the cytoplasm. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LMP can be induced by antifungals and endoplasmic reticulum stressors when calcineurin also has been inactivated. A genome-wide screen revealed Pib2, a relative of LAPF/phafin1 that regulates LMP in mammals, as a pro-LMP protein in yeast. Pib2 associated with vacuolar and endosomal limiting membranes in unstressed cells in a manner that depended on its FYVE domain and on phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) biosynthesis. Genetic experiments suggest that Pib2 stimulates the activity of TORC1, a vacuole-associated protein kinase that is sensitive to rapamycin, in a pathway parallel to the Ragulator/EGO complex containing the GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2. A hyperactivating mutation in the catalytic subunit of TORC1 restored LMP to the gtr1∆ and pib2∆ mutants and also prevented the synthetic lethality of the double mutants. These findings show novel roles of PI(3)P and Pib2 in the regulation of TORC1, which in turn promoted LMP and nonapoptotic death of stressed cells. Rapamycin prevented the death of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans during exposure to fluconazole plus a calcineurin inhibitor, suggesting that TORC1 broadly promotes sensitivity to fungistats in yeasts. PMID:26510498

  15. Cell Death and Survival Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Axis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, R.; Rodriguez, A.E.; Kuzmicic, J.; Gutierrez, T.; Lopez-Crisosto, C.; Quiroga, C.; Díaz-Elizondo, J.; Chiong, M.; Gillette, T.G.; Rothermel, B.A.; Lavandero, S.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has a central role in biosynthesis of a variety of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria generate ATP, synthesize and process numerous metabolites, and are key regulators of cell death. The architectures of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria change continually via the process of membrane fusion, fission, elongation, degradation, and renewal. These structural changes correlate with important changes in organellar function. Both organelles are capable of moving along the cytoskeleton, thus changing their cellular distribution. Numerous studies have demonstrated coordination and communication between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. A focal point for these interactions is a zone of close contact between them known as the mitochondrial–associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which serves as a signaling juncture that facilitates calcium and lipid transfer between organelles. Here we review the emerging data on how communication between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria can modulate organelle function and determine cellular fate. PMID:23228132

  16. Cell death and survival through the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial axis.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, R; Rodriguez, A E; Kuzmicic, J; Gutierrez, T; Lopez-Crisosto, C; Quiroga, C; Díaz-Elizondo, J; Chiong, M; Gillette, T G; Rothermel, B A; Lavandero, S

    2013-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has a central role in biosynthesis of a variety of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria generate ATP, synthesize and process numerous metabolites, and are key regulators of cell death. The architectures of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria change continually via the process of membrane fusion, fission, elongation, degradation, and renewal. These structural changes correlate with important changes in organellar function. Both organelles are capable of moving along the cytoskeleton, thus changing their cellular distribution. Numerous studies have demonstrated coordination and communication between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. A focal point for these interactions is a zone of close contact between them known as the mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which serves as a signaling juncture that facilitates calcium and lipid transfer between organelles. Here we review the emerging data on how communication between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria can modulate organelle function and determine cellular fate. PMID:23228132

  17. Continuous network of endoplasmic reticulum in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, M; Slater, N T; Fein, A; Schmidek, A; Reese, T S

    1994-01-01

    Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellar slices injected with an oil drop saturated with 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate [DiIC16(3) or DiI] to label the endoplasmic reticulum were observed by confocal microscopy. DiI spread throughout the cell body and dendrites and into the axon. DiI spreading is due to diffusion in a continuous bilayer and is not due to membrane trafficking because it also spreads in fixed neurons. DiI stained such features of the endoplasmic reticulum as densities at branch points, reticular networks in the cell body and dendrites, nuclear envelope, spines, and aggregates formed during anoxia nuclear envelope, spines, and aggregates formed during anoxia in low extracellular Ca2+. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, where optical conditions provide more detail, DiI labeled a clearly delineated network of endoplasmic reticulum in the cell body. We conclude that there is a continuous compartment of endoplasmic reticulum extending from the cell body throughout the dendrites. This compartment may coordinate and integrate neuronal functions. Images PMID:7519781

  18. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Fractions from Mammary Epithelial Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chanat, Eric; Le Parc, Annabelle; Lahouassa, Hichem; Badaoui, Bouabid

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating animals, the mammary epithelial cells that surround the lumen of the acini produce and secrete copious amounts of milk. Functional differentiation of these mammary epithelial cells depends on the development of high-efficiency secretory pathways, notably for protein and lipid secretion. Protein secretion is a fundamental process common to all animal cells that involves a subset of cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, en masse secretion of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the form of milk fat globules is a unique feature of the mammary epithelial cell. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets, the intracellular precursors of milk fat globules, originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, as do most milk-specific proteins. This organelle is therefore pivotal in the biogenesis of milk components. Fractionation of the cell into its subcellular parts is an approach that has proven very powerful for understanding organelle function and for studying the specific role of an organelle in a given cell activity. Here we describe a method for the purification of both smooth and rough microsomes, the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum fragments that form from endoplasmic reticulum domains when cells are broken up, from mammary gland tissue at lactation. PMID:27048289

  19. Transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide, estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: evidence for different transport systems.

    PubMed

    Wlcek, Katrin; Hofstetter, Lia; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Important reactions of drug metabolism, including UGT mediated glucuronidation and steroidsulfatase mediated hydrolysis of sulfates, take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. Consequently, UGT generated glucuronides, like estradiol-17β-glucuronide, have to be translocated back into the cytoplasm to reach their site of excretion. Also steroidsulfatase substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, have to cross the ER membrane to reach their site of hydrolysis. Based on their physicochemical properties such compounds are not favored for passive diffusion and therefore likely necessitate transport system(s) to cross the ER membrane in either direction. The current study aims to investigate the transport of taurocholate, estradiol-17β-glucuronide, and estrone-3-sulfate in smooth (SER) and rough (RER) endoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles isolated from Wistar and TR(-) rat liver. Time-dependent and bidirectional transport was demonstrated for taurocholate, showing higher uptake rates in SER than RER vesicles. For estradiol-17β-glucuronide a fast time-dependent efflux with similar efficiencies from SER and RER but no clear protein-mediated uptake was shown, indicating an asymmetric transport system for this substrate. Estrone-3-sulfate uptake was time-dependent and higher in SER than in RER vesicles. Inhibition of steroidsulfatase mediated estrone-3-sulfate hydrolysis decreased estrone-3-sulfate uptake but had no effect on taurocholate or estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport. Based on inhibition studies and transport characteristics, three different transport mechanisms are suggested to be involved in the transport of taurocholate, estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17β-glucuronide across the ER membrane. PMID:24406246

  20. Shaping the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Csilla-Maria; Guigas, Gernot; Veres, Andreas; Neumann, Brigitte; Stemmann, Olaf; Weiss, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Organelles in eukaryotic cells often have complex shapes that deviate significantly from simple spheres. A prime example is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that forms an extensive network of membrane tubules in many mammalian cell types and in reconstitution assays in vitro. Despite the successful hunt for molecular determinants of ER shape we are still far from having a comprehensive understanding of ER network morphogenesis. Here, we have studied the hitherto neglected influence of the host substrate when reconstituting ER networks in vitro as compared to ER networks in vivo. In culture cells we observed cytoplasm-spanning ER networks with tubules being connected almost exclusively by three-way junctions and segment lengths being narrowly distributed around a mean length of about 1μm. In contrast, networks reconstituted from purified ER microsomes on flat glass or gel substrates of varying stiffness showed significantly broader length distributions with an up to fourfold larger mean length. Self-assembly of ER microsomes on small oil droplets, however, yielded networks that resembled more closely the native ER network of mammalian cells. We conclude from these observations that the ER microsomes' inherent self-assembly capacity is sufficient to support network formation with a native geometry if the influence of the host substrate's surface chemistry becomes negligible. We hypothesize that under these conditions the networks' preference for three-way junctions follows from creating 'starfish-shaped' vesicles when ER microsomes with a protein-induced spontaneous curvature undergo fusion. PMID:27287725

  1. [The biological effects of liposome interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum].

    PubMed

    Foia, L; Costuleanu, N; Pavel, M

    1998-01-01

    Liposome research is a thriving field at the confluence of biophysics, cell biology and medicine. The principal medical application of liposomes is based on their potential to act as carriers for a broad spectrum of drugs and other agents, including antigens with or without immunomodulators in vaccination. Treatment of peritoneal macrophages of rats with small unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC SUV) potentiated their activation for tumor cell lysis by endotoxins. The measurement of the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene showed a phase transition. No phase transition was observed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes of macrophages either treated or not treated with cholesterol/DPPC SUV. The synergistic effect of DPPC SUV on the tumoricidal activity of macrophages induced by endotoxins appears to be correlated with the changes in the properties of the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Both effects were transient; they had the same kinetics of induction and reversion. PMID:10756813

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  3. Analysis of Conditional Paralytic Mutants in Drosophila Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase Reveals Novel Mechanisms for Regulating Membrane Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, S.; Consoulas, C.; Kuromi, H.; Basole, A.; Mukai, L.; Kidokoro, Y.; Krishnan, K. S.; Ramaswami, M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual contributions made by different calcium release and sequestration mechanisms to various aspects of excitable cell physiology are incompletely understood. SERCA, a sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, being the main agent for calcium uptake into the ER, plays a central role in this process. By isolation and extensive characterization of conditional mutations in the Drosophila SERCA gene, we describe novel roles of this key protein in neuromuscular physiology and enable a genetic analysis of SERCA function. At motor nerve terminals, SERCA inhibition retards calcium sequestration and reduces the amplitude of evoked excitatory junctional currents. This suggests a direct contribution of store-derived calcium in determining the quantal content of evoked release. Conditional paralysis of SERCA mutants is also marked by prolonged neural activity-driven muscle contraction, thus reflecting the phylogenetically conserved role of SERCA in terminating contraction. Further analysis of ionic currents from mutants uncovers SERCA-dependent mechanisms regulating voltage-gated calcium channels and calcium-activated potassium channels that together control muscle excitability. Finally, our identification of dominant loss-of-function mutations in SERCA indicates novel intra- and intermolecular interactions for SERCA in vivo, overlooked by current structural models. PMID:15520268

  4. C-terminal domain of rodent intestinal mucin Muc3 is proteolytically cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum to generate extracellular and membrane components.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongquan; Khatri, Ismat A; Forstner, Janet F

    2002-01-01

    Although human MUC3 and rodent Muc3 are both membrane-associated intestinal mucins, the present study has explored the possibility that rodent Muc3 might exist in soluble as well as membrane forms. No evidence was obtained for the existence of soluble splice variants; however, experiments with heterologous cells transfected with cDNA encoding the 381-residue C-terminal domain of rodent Muc3 showed that a definitive proteolytic cleavage occurs during processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The products consisted of a V5-tagged 30 kDa extracellular glycopeptide and a Myc-tagged 49 kDa membrane-associated glycopeptide. Throughout their cellular transport to the plasma membrane, the two fragments remained associated by non-covalent SDS-sensitive interactions. Site-specific mutagenesis pinpointed the need for glycine and serine residues in the cleavage sequence Leu-Ser-Lys-Gly-Ser-Ile-Val-Val, which is localized between the two epidermal-growth-factor-like motifs of the mucin. A similar cleavage sequence (Phe-Arg-Pro-Gly downward arrow Ser-Val-Val-Val, where downward arrow signifies the cleavage site) has been reported in human MUC1 and analogous sites are present in human MUC3, MUC12 and MUC17. Thus early proteolytic cleavage may be a conserved characteristic of many membrane-associated mucins, possibly as a prelude to later release of their large extracellular domains at cell surfaces. PMID:12027806

  5. Reticulomics: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies with Two Plasmodesmata-Localized Reticulon Family Proteins Identify Binding Partners Enriched at Plasmodesmata, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Botchway, Stanley W; Slade, Susan E; Knox, Kirsten; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Oparka, Karl; Hawes, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a ubiquitous organelle that plays roles in secretory protein production, folding, quality control, and lipid biosynthesis. The cortical ER in plants is pleomorphic and structured as a tubular network capable of morphing into flat cisternae, mainly at three-way junctions, and back to tubules. Plant reticulon family proteins (RTNLB) tubulate the ER by dimerization and oligomerization, creating localized ER membrane tensions that result in membrane curvature. Some RTNLB ER-shaping proteins are present in the plasmodesmata (PD) proteome and may contribute to the formation of the desmotubule, the axial ER-derived structure that traverses primary PD. Here, we investigate the binding partners of two PD-resident reticulon proteins, RTNLB3 and RTNLB6, that are located in primary PD at cytokinesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Coimmunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein-tagged RTNLB3 and RTNLB6 followed by mass spectrometry detected a high percentage of known PD-localized proteins as well as plasma membrane proteins with putative membrane-anchoring roles. Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy assays revealed a highly significant interaction of the detected PD proteins with the bait RTNLB proteins. Our data suggest that RTNLB proteins, in addition to a role in ER modeling, may play important roles in linking the cortical ER to the plasma membrane. PMID:26353761

  6. The effect of acclimation temperature on the fusion kinetics of lipid vesicles derived from endoplasmic reticulum membranes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Estuardo J; Hazel, Jeffrey R

    2002-02-01

    Membrane fusion is an obligatory step in many vital cellular processes. The well-established enrichment of bilayer-destabilizing lipids in membranes of poikilotherms subjected to growth at low temperatures leads to the prediction that such membranes will possess a greater propensity to undergo fusion. This hypothesis was explicitly tested in the present study by determining the kinetics of fusion between small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) prepared from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes of thermally-acclimated (to 5 and 20 degrees C) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and bovine brain phosphatidylserine (BBPS). At temperatures above 10 degrees C, ER vesicles from 5 degrees C-acclimated trout, fused more rapidly and to a greater extent with BBPS vesicles (by average factors of 1.25- and 1.45-fold, respectively) than ER vesicles of 20 degrees C-acclimated trout. At temperatures >35 degrees C, apparent fusion rates declined while the extent of fusion increased in both acclimation groups. Fusion kinetics were found to be well correlated with and limited by the physical properties and phase state of the BBPS vesicles. These results indicate that dynamic attributes of biological membranes, such as the propensity to undergo fusion, are of potential regulatory significance and are partially conserved when growth or environmental temperature changes. PMID:11818217

  7. DHCR24 associates strongly with the endoplasmic reticulum beyond predicted membrane domains: implications for the activities of this multi-functional enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Zerenturk, Eser J.; Sharpe, Laura J.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol synthesis occurs in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), where most of the cholesterogenic machinery resides. As membrane-bound proteins, their topology is difficult to determine, and thus their structures are largely unknown. To help resolve this, we focused on the final enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, DHCR24 (3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase). Prediction programmes and previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding which regions of DHCR24 are associated with the membrane, although there was general agreement that this was limited to only the N-terminal portion. Here, we present biochemical evidence that in fact the majority of the enzyme is associated with the ER membrane. This has important consequences for the many functions attributed to DHCR24. In particular, those that suggest DHCR24 alters its localization within the cell should be reassessed in light of this new information. Moreover, we propose that the expanding database of post-translational modifications will be a valuable resource for mapping the topology of membrane-associated proteins, such as DHCR24, that is, flagging cytosolic residues accessible to modifying enzymes such as kinases and ubiquitin ligases. PMID:24502685

  8. Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) regulates steroidogenic activity via steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) interaction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Manoj; Kaur, Jasmeet; Pawlak, Kevin J; Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M; Bose, Himangshu S

    2015-01-30

    Steroid hormones are essential for carbohydrate metabolism, stress management, and reproduction and are synthesized from cholesterol in mitochondria of adrenal glands and gonads/ovaries. In acute stress or hormonal stimulation, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis by an unknown mechanism. Here, we report for the first time that StAR interacts with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) at the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) prior to its translocation to the mitochondrial matrix. In the MAM, StAR interacts with mitochondrial proteins Tom22 and VDAC2. However, Tom22 knockdown by siRNA had no effect on pregnenolone synthesis. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR was expressed but not processed into the mitochondria as a mature 30-kDa protein. VDAC2 interacted with StAR via its C-terminal 20 amino acids and N-terminal amino acids 221-229, regulating the mitochondrial processing of StAR into the mature protein. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR could not enter the mitochondria or interact with MAM-associated proteins, and therefore steroidogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, the N terminus was not essential for StAR activity, and the N-terminal deletion mutant continued to interact with VDAC2. The endoplasmic reticulum-targeting prolactin signal sequence did not affect StAR association with the MAM and thus its mitochondrial targeting. Therefore, VDAC2 controls StAR processing and activity, and MAM is thus a central location for initiating mitochondrial steroidogenesis. PMID:25505173

  9. Mitochondria-associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane (MAM) Regulates Steroidogenic Activity via Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR)-Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2) Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Manoj; Kaur, Jasmeet; Pawlak, Kevin J.; Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are essential for carbohydrate metabolism, stress management, and reproduction and are synthesized from cholesterol in mitochondria of adrenal glands and gonads/ovaries. In acute stress or hormonal stimulation, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis by an unknown mechanism. Here, we report for the first time that StAR interacts with voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2) at the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM) prior to its translocation to the mitochondrial matrix. In the MAM, StAR interacts with mitochondrial proteins Tom22 and VDAC2. However, Tom22 knockdown by siRNA had no effect on pregnenolone synthesis. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR was expressed but not processed into the mitochondria as a mature 30-kDa protein. VDAC2 interacted with StAR via its C-terminal 20 amino acids and N-terminal amino acids 221–229, regulating the mitochondrial processing of StAR into the mature protein. In the absence of VDAC2, StAR could not enter the mitochondria or interact with MAM-associated proteins, and therefore steroidogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, the N terminus was not essential for StAR activity, and the N-terminal deletion mutant continued to interact with VDAC2. The endoplasmic reticulum-targeting prolactin signal sequence did not affect StAR association with the MAM and thus its mitochondrial targeting. Therefore, VDAC2 controls StAR processing and activity, and MAM is thus a central location for initiating mitochondrial steroidogenesis. PMID:25505173

  10. Desumoylation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane VAP Family Protein Scs2 by Ulp1 and SUMO Regulation of the Inositol Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Felberbaum, Rachael; Wilson, Nicole R.; Cheng, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational protein modification by the ubiquitin-like SUMO protein is critical to eukaryotic cell regulation, but much remains unknown regarding its operation and substrates. Here we report that specific mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ulp1 SUMO protease, including its coiled-coil (CC) domain, lead to the accumulation of distinct sumoylated proteins in vivo. A prominent ∼50-kDa sumoylated protein accumulates in a Ulp1 CC mutant. The protein was identified as Scs2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that regulates phosphatidylinositol synthesis and lipid trafficking. Mutation of lysine 180 of Scs2 abolishes its sumoylation. Notably, impairment of either cellular sumoylation or cellular desumoylation mechanisms inhibits cell growth in the absence of inositol and exacerbates the inositol auxotrophy caused by deletion of SCS2. Mutants lacking the Ulp2 SUMO protease are the most severely affected, and this defect was traced to the mutants' impaired ability to induce transcription of INO1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of inositol biosynthesis. Conversely, inositol starvation induces a striking change in the profiles of total cellular SUMO conjugates. These results provide the first evidence of cross-regulation between the SUMO and inositol pathways, including the sumoylation of an ER membrane protein central to phospholipid synthesis and phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:22025676

  11. Site-specific Proteolysis Mobilizes TorsinA from the Membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in Response to ER Stress and B Cell Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenguang; Brown, Rebecca S H; Tang, Chih-Hang Anthony; Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew; Schlieker, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Torsin ATPases are the only representatives of the AAA+ ATPase family that reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope. Two of these, TorsinA and TorsinB, are anchored to the ER membrane by virtue of an N-terminal hydrophobic domain. Here we demonstrate that the imposition of ER stress leads to a proteolytic cleavage event that selectively removes the hydrophobic domain from the AAA+ domain of TorsinA, which retains catalytic activity. Both the pharmacological inhibition profile and the identified cleavage site between two juxtaposed cysteine residues are distinct from those of presently known proteases, suggesting that a hitherto uncharacterized, membrane-associated protease accounts for TorsinA processing. This processing occurs not only in stress-exposed cell lines but also in primary cells from distinct organisms including stimulated B cells, indicating that Torsin conversion in response to physiologically relevant stimuli is an evolutionarily conserved process. By establishing 5-nitroisatin as a cell-permeable inhibitor for Torsin processing, we provide the methodological framework for interfering with Torsin processing in a wide range of primary cells without the need for genetic manipulation. PMID:26953341

  12. The Yeast Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2B Translation Initiation Complex Interacts with the Fatty Acid Synthesis Enzyme YBR159W and Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Christopher M.; Samir, Parimal; Fites, J. Scott; Villarreal, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using affinity purifications coupled with mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid assays, we show the Saccharomyces cerevisiae translation initiation factor complex eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) and the very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) synthesis keto-reductase enzyme YBR159W physically interact. The data show that the interaction is specifically between YBR159W and eIF2B and not between other members of the translation initiation or VLCFA pathways. A ybr159wΔ null strain has a slow-growth phenotype and a reduced translation rate but a normal GCN4 response to amino acid starvation. Although YBR159W localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, subcellular fractionation experiments show that a fraction of eIF2B cofractionates with lipid membranes in a YBR159W-independent manner. We show that a ybr159wΔ yeast strain and other strains with null mutations in the VLCFA pathway cause eIF2B to appear as numerous foci throughout the cytoplasm. PMID:23263984

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  15. Endoplasmic-Reticulum Calcium Depletion and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Missiaen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca2+ store not only sets up cytosolic Ca2+ signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca2+ depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca2+ may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca2+ causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca2+ depletion. PMID:21441595

  16. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins. PMID:24162596

  17. Protein Secretion and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Benham, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    In a complex multicellular organism, different cell types engage in specialist functions, and as a result, the secretory output of cells and tissues varies widely. Whereas some quiescent cell types secrete minor amounts of proteins, tissues like the pancreas, producing insulin and other hormones, and mature B cells, producing antibodies, place a great demand on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our understanding of how protein secretion in general is controlled in the ER is now quite sophisticated. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, particularly when applying insight gained from model systems to the more complex situations found in vivo. This article describes recent advances in our understanding of the ER and its role in preparing proteins for secretion, with an emphasis on glycoprotein quality control and pathways of disulfide bond formation. PMID:22700933

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yingchao; Li, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an intricate mechanism that mediates numerous responses during brain ischemia, thus being essential to determine the fate of neurons. In recent years, studies of the mechanisms of brain ischemic injury have centered on ER stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, dysfunction of mitochondria, inflammatory reactions, calcium overload and death receptor pathways. The role of ER stress is highly important. In addition to resulting in neuronal cell death through calcium toxicity and apoptotic pathways, ER stress also triggers a series of adaptive responses including unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy, the expression of pro-survival proteins and the enhancement of ER self-repair ability, leading to less ischemic brain damage. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in understanding of the relations between ER stress and brain ischemia. PMID:26289799

  19. The Cdc48 machine in endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dieter H; Stolz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The AAA-type ATPase Cdc48 (named p97/VCP in mammals) is a molecular machine in all eukaryotic cells that transforms ATP hydrolysis into mechanic power to unfold and pull proteins against physical forces, which make up a protein's structure and hold it in place. From the many cellular processes, Cdc48 is involved in, its function in endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) is understood best. This quality control process for proteins of the secretory pathway scans protein folding and discovers misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the organelle, destined for folding of these proteins and their further delivery to their site of action. Misfolded lumenal and membrane proteins of the ER are detected by chaperones and lectins and retro-translocated out of the ER for degradation. Here the Cdc48 machinery, recruited to the ER membrane, takes over. After polyubiquitylation of the protein substrate, Cdc48 together with its dimeric co-factor complex Ufd1-Npl4 pulls the misfolded protein out and away from the ER membrane and delivers it to down-stream components for degradation by a cytosolic proteinase machine, the proteasome. The known details of the Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4 motor complex triggered process are subject of this review article. PMID:21945179

  20. An Absence of Nuclear Lamins in Keratinocytes Leads to Ichthyosis, Defective Epidermal Barrier Function, and Intrusion of Nuclear Membranes and Endoplasmic Reticulum into the Nuclear Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hea-Jin; Tatar, Angelica; Tu, Yiping; Nobumori, Chika; Yang, Shao H.; Goulbourne, Chris N.; Herrmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) have been considered to be essential for many crucial functions in the cell nucleus (e.g., DNA replication and mitotic spindle formation). However, this view has been challenged by the observation that an absence of both B-type lamins in keratinocytes had no effect on cell proliferation or the development of skin and hair. The latter findings raised the possibility that the functions of B-type lamins are subserved by lamins A and C. To explore that idea, we created mice lacking all nuclear lamins in keratinocytes. Those mice developed ichthyosis and a skin barrier defect, which led to death from dehydration within a few days after birth. Microscopy of nuclear-lamin-deficient skin revealed hyperkeratosis and a disordered stratum corneum with an accumulation of neutral lipid droplets; however, BrdU incorporation into keratinocytes was normal. Skin grafting experiments confirmed the stratum corneum abnormalities and normal BrdU uptake. Interestingly, the absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes resulted in an interspersion of nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes with the chromatin. Thus, a key function of the nuclear lamina is to serve as a “fence” and prevent the incursion of cytoplasmic organelles into the nuclear chromatin. PMID:25312645

  1. An absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes leads to ichthyosis, defective epidermal barrier function, and intrusion of nuclear membranes and endoplasmic reticulum into the nuclear chromatin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hea-Jin; Tatar, Angelica; Tu, Yiping; Nobumori, Chika; Yang, Shao H; Goulbourne, Chris N; Herrmann, Harald; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2014-12-01

    B-type lamins (lamins B1 and B2) have been considered to be essential for many crucial functions in the cell nucleus (e.g., DNA replication and mitotic spindle formation). However, this view has been challenged by the observation that an absence of both B-type lamins in keratinocytes had no effect on cell proliferation or the development of skin and hair. The latter findings raised the possibility that the functions of B-type lamins are subserved by lamins A and C. To explore that idea, we created mice lacking all nuclear lamins in keratinocytes. Those mice developed ichthyosis and a skin barrier defect, which led to death from dehydration within a few days after birth. Microscopy of nuclear-lamin-deficient skin revealed hyperkeratosis and a disordered stratum corneum with an accumulation of neutral lipid droplets; however, BrdU incorporation into keratinocytes was normal. Skin grafting experiments confirmed the stratum corneum abnormalities and normal BrdU uptake. Interestingly, the absence of nuclear lamins in keratinocytes resulted in an interspersion of nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membranes with the chromatin. Thus, a key function of the nuclear lamina is to serve as a "fence" and prevent the incursion of cytoplasmic organelles into the nuclear chromatin. PMID:25312645

  2. STIM2 enhances receptor-stimulated Ca²⁺ signaling by promoting recruitment of STIM1 to the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hwei Ling; de Souza, Lorena Brito; Zheng, Changyu; Cheng, Kwong Tai; Liu, Xibao; Goldsmith, Corinne M; Feske, Stefan; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2015-01-13

    A central component of receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signaling is store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is activated by the assembly of STIM1-Orai1 channels in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) (ER-PM) junctions in response to depletion of ER Ca(2+). We report that STIM2 enhances agonist-mediated activation of SOCE by promoting STIM1 clustering in ER-PM junctions at low stimulus intensities. Targeted deletion of STIM2 in mouse salivary glands diminished fluid secretion in vivo and SOCE activation in dispersed salivary acinar cells stimulated with low concentrations of muscarinic receptor agonists. STIM2 knockdown in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells diminished agonist-induced Ca(2+) signaling and nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells). STIM2 lacking five carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues did not promote formation of STIM1 puncta at low concentrations of agonist, whereas coexpression of STIM2 with STIM1 mutant lacking the polybasic region STIM1ΔK resulted in co-clustering of both proteins. Together, our findings suggest that STIM2 recruits STIM1 to ER-PM junctions at low stimulus intensities when ER Ca(2+) stores are mildly depleted, thus increasing the sensitivity of Ca(2+) signaling to agonists. PMID:25587190

  3. A Fungal Sarcolemmal Membrane-Associated Protein (SLMAP) Homolog Plays a Fundamental Role in Development and Localizes to the Nuclear Envelope, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Nordzieke, Steffen; Zobel, Thomas; Fränzel, Benjamin; Wolters, Dirk A.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcolemmal membrane-associated protein (SLMAP) is a tail-anchored protein involved in fundamental cellular processes, such as myoblast fusion, cell cycle progression, and chromosomal inheritance. Further, SLMAP misexpression is associated with endothelial dysfunctions in diabetes and cancer. SLMAP is part of the conserved striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex required for specific signaling pathways in yeasts, filamentous fungi, insects, and mammals. In filamentous fungi, STRIPAK was initially discovered in Sordaria macrospora, a model system for fungal differentiation. Here, we functionally characterize the STRIPAK subunit PRO45, a homolog of human SLMAP. We show that PRO45 is required for sexual propagation and cell-to-cell fusion and that its forkhead-associated (FHA) domain is essential for these processes. Protein-protein interaction studies revealed that PRO45 binds to STRIPAK subunits PRO11 and SmMOB3, which are also required for sexual propagation. Superresolution structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) further established that PRO45 localizes to the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. SIM also showed that localization to the nuclear envelope requires STRIPAK subunits PRO11 and PRO22, whereas for mitochondria it does not. Taken together, our study provides important insights into fundamental roles of the fungal SLMAP homolog PRO45 and suggests STRIPAK-related and STRIPAK-unrelated functions. PMID:25527523

  4. The Arabidopsis Synaptotagmin1 Is Enriched in Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites and Confers Cellular Resistance to Mechanical Stresses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Vanneste, Steffen; Lee, Eunkyoung; McFarlane, Heather E.; Esteban del Valle, Alicia; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites are evolutionarily conserved microdomains that have important roles in specialized metabolic functions such as ER-PM communication, lipid homeostasis, and Ca2+ influx. Despite recent advances in knowledge about ER-PM contact site components and functions in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, relatively little is known about the functional significance of these structures in plants. In this report, we characterize the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phospholipid binding Synaptotagmin1 (SYT1) as a plant ortholog of the mammal extended synaptotagmins and yeast tricalbins families of ER-PM anchors. We propose that SYT1 functions at ER-PM contact sites because it displays a dual ER-PM localization, it is enriched in microtubule-depleted regions at the cell cortex, and it colocalizes with Vesicle-Associated Protein27-1, a known ER-PM marker. Furthermore, biochemical and physiological analyses indicate that SYT1 might function as an electrostatic phospholipid anchor conferring mechanical stability in plant cells. Together, the subcellular localization and functional characterization of SYT1 highlights a putative role of plant ER-PM contact site components in the cellular adaptation to environmental stresses. PMID:25792253

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity. PMID:26473940

  6. LRP130, a single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding protein, localizes at the outer nuclear and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interacts with mRNA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naoto; Fukuda, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nagao, Minako; Sugimura, Takashi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    LRP130 (also known as a LRPPRC) is an RNA and single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and recently identified as a candidate gene responsible for the Leigh syndrome, a French-Canadian type cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. However, the biological function of LRP130 still remains largely unresolved. In the present study, we found that the C-terminal half of the mouse LRP130 located within a 120 amino acid sequence (a.a. 845-964) binds to synthetic RNA homopolymers, poly(G), poly(U), and poly(C), as well as r(CUGCC)(6). Assessment of the subcellular localization indicated both nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial fractions to be positive. To further analyze the subcellular localization of LRP130, a nuclear/ER fraction was fractionated into the nucleoplasm (NP) and nuclear envelope (NE)/ER, and the latter was further separated into outer nuclear membrane (ONM)/ER and inner nuclear membrane (INM) by treatment with Triton X-100. LRP130 was detectable in all three fractions, and the distribution pattern was in good accordance with that known for ONM/ER proteins. Interestingly, immunostaining of HeLa cells demonstrated nuclear rim staining of LRP130, specifically at the outside of the NE and also at ER, and association of LRP130 with poly(A)(+) RNA was restricted only to the ONM/ER fraction. Overexpression of full-length mouse LRP130 fused with EGFP resulted in nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA in HeLa cells. Taking all these results together, it is suggested that LRP130, a novel type of RNA-binding protein, associates with mRNA/mRNP complexes at the outside of NE and ER, and plays a role in control of mRNA metabolisms. PMID:15081402

  7. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  8. Activation of autophagy by unfolded proteins during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochen; Srivastava, Renu; Howell, Stephen H; Bassham, Diane C

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is defined as the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and is caused by conditions such as heat or agents that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, including tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Autophagy, a major pathway for degradation of macromolecules in the vacuole, is activated by these stress agents in a manner dependent on inositol-requiring enzyme 1b (IRE1b), and delivers endoplasmic reticulum fragments to the vacuole for degradation. In this study, we examined the mechanism for activation of autophagy during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. The chemical chaperones sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid were found to reduce tunicamycin- or dithiothreitol-induced autophagy, but not autophagy caused by unrelated stresses. Similarly, over-expression of BINDING IMMUNOGLOBULIN PROTEIN (BIP), encoding a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) molecular chaperone, reduced autophagy. Autophagy activated by heat stress was also found to be partially dependent on IRE1b and to be inhibited by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, suggesting that heat-induced autophagy is due to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression in Arabidopsis of the misfolded protein mimics zeolin or a mutated form of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) also induced autophagy in an IRE1b-dependent manner. Moreover, zeolin and CPY* partially co-localized with the autophagic body marker GFP-ATG8e, indicating delivery to the vacuole by autophagy. We conclude that accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is a trigger for autophagy under conditions that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26616142

  9. Sequential NO production by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum during induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juanita; Bersier, Geraldine; Badin, Romina Aron; Cymeryng, Cora; Parodi, Armando; Boveris, Alberto

    2002-05-01

    Early stages of rat thymocyte apoptosis measured as annexin-V positive events and induced by methylprednisolone (MPS), etoposide, and thapsigargin, showed a sequential increase in nitric oxide (NO) production by mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Thapsigargin induced the highest NO production, a sevenfold increase as compared with untreated thymocytes, in mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. MPS and etoposide were equally effective in increasing NO production by mitochondrial membranes by a factor of 4-5, with only a slight increase in NO production by endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Western blot analysis of both types of membrane indicated that a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzyme is present in mitochondrial membranes and reacts with antibodies to i-NOS (type II), while reactivity to antibodies to e-NOS (type III) was restricted to endoplasmic reticulum. The participation of endoplasmic reticulum during apoptosis was further determined by alterations in UDP-Glucosyltransferase (UDP-GT) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. Increased UDP-GT activity was observed after thapsigargin treatment, and no changes were found after treatment with etoposide or MPS. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activity markedly decreased during apoptosis, being stronger after thapsigargin treatment. The latest stage of the apoptotic process was measured by caspase activities. Caspase 3 activity was markedly increased by the three apoptosis inducers; caspase 6 was only activated by MPS and etoposide, while caspase 8 was not activated by any of these inducers. It is clear that mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are involved in thapsigargin induced thymocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, other thymocyte apoptotic pathways, such as those induced by MPS or etoposide, seem to centrally involve mitochondria but not endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12009851

  10. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum crosstalk in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Giovanni; Kawamata, Hibiki

    2016-06-01

    Physical and functional interactions between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are crucial for cell life. These two organelles are intimately connected and collaborate to essential processes, such as calcium homeostasis and phospholipid biosynthesis. The connections between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum occur through structures named mitochondria associated membranes (MAMs), which contain lipid rafts and a large number of proteins, many of which serve multiple functions at different cellular sites. Growing evidence strongly suggests that alterations of ER-mitochondria interactions are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating and rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutations in proteins that participate in ER-mitochondria interactions and MAM functions are increasingly being associated with genetic forms of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This evidence strongly suggests that, rather than considering the two organelles separately, a better understanding of the disease process can derive from studying the alterations in their crosstalk. In this review we discuss normal and pathological ER-mitochondria interactions and the evidence that link them to ALS. PMID:26282323

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum: insights from proteomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuequn; Karnovsky, Alla; Sans, Maria Dolors; Andrews, Philip C.; Williams, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional intracellular organelle responsible for the synthesis, processing and trafficking of a wide variety of proteins essential for cell growth and survival. Thesefore, comprehensive characterization of the ER proteome is of great importance to the understanding of its functions and has been actively pursued in the past decade by scientists in the proteomics field. This review summarizes major proteomic studies published in the past decade that focused on the ER proteome. We evaluate the data sets obtained from two different organs, liver and pancreas each of which contains a primary cell type (hepatocyte and acinar cell) with specialized functions. We also discuss how the nature of the proteins uncovered is related to the methods of organelle purification, organelle purity and the techniques used for protein separation prior to mass spectrometry. In addition, this review also puts emphasis on the biological insights gained from these studies regarding to the molecular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum including protein synthesis and translocation, protein folding and quality control, ER-associated degradation and ER stress, ER export and membrane trafficking, calcium homeostasis, and detoxification and drug metabolism. PMID:21080494

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Genome Damage, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Naomi; Gutierrez, Karina; Michalak, Marek; Bordignon, Vilceu; Agellon, Luis B.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. A large body of work has focused on the activation of the ER stress response in cancer cells to facilitate their survival and tumor growth; however, there are some studies suggesting that the ER stress response can also mitigate cancer progression. Despite these contradictions, it is clear that the ER stress response is closely associated with cancer biology. The ER stress response classically encompasses activation of three separate pathways, which are collectively categorized the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR has been extensively studied in various cancers and appears to confer a selective advantage to tumor cells to facilitate their enhanced growth and resistance to anti-cancer agents. It has also been shown that ER stress induces chromatin changes, which can also facilitate cell survival. Chromatin remodeling has been linked with many cancers through repression of tumor suppressor and apoptosis genes. Interplay between the classic UPR and genome damage repair mechanisms may have important implications in the transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells. PMID:25692096

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ulianich, Luca; Insabato, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common gynecologic malignancy often diagnosed at early stage. In spite of a huge advance in our understanding of EC biology, therapeutic modalities do not have significantly changed over the past 40 years. A restricted number of genes have been reported to be mutated in EC, mediating cell proliferation and invasiveness. However, besides these alterations, few other groups and ourselves recently identified the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and GRP78 increase following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as mechanisms favoring growth and invasion of EC cells. Here, a concise update on currently available data in the field is presented, analyzing the crosstalk between the UPR and the main signaling pathways regulating EC cell proliferation and survival. It is evident that this is a rapidly expanding and promising issue. However, more data are very likely to yield a better understanding on the mechanisms through which EC cells can survive the low oxygen and glucose tumor microenvironment. In this perspective, the UPR and, particularly, GRP78 might constitute a novel target for the treatment of EC in combination with traditional adjuvant therapy. PMID:25593927

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-Qiong; Yu, Jin-Tai; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan

    2015-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves many crucial cellular functions. However, when misfolded or unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER, the stress of ER will be induced. Meanwhile, the intracellular signaling network, which is called unfolded protein response, will also be activated to cope with. Those unfolded proteins can be recognized by three kinds of stress sensors which are IRE1, PERK, and ATF6. Based on lots of medical reports, ER stress in postmortem brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, animals, and vitro models have indicated that ER dysfunction might work as an important part in causing AD. In this review, we demonstrated that the effect of ER stress contributed to the pathogenesis of AD. ER stress associates almost the whole brain pathology processes which can be observed in AD, such as gene mutation of presenilin1, the abnormal clipped mRNA of presenilin2, β-amyloid production, tau phosphorylation, and cell death. The status of ER stress and unfolded protein response in the pathogenesis of AD also suggests they can be used as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24715417

  16. Reconstitution into liposomes of membrane proteins involved in ribosome binding on rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosome-binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M; Sakai, M; Horigome, T; Omata, S; Sugano, H

    1981-01-01

    A membrane protein fraction having a high affinity for polyribosomes was isolated from microsomal membranes of rat liver and was incorporated into liposomes made from microsomal lipids to evaluate the polyribosome-binding capacity of the reconstituted liposomes, with the following results. (1) The polyribosome binding to the reconstituted liposomes depended on the amounts of polyribosomes added to the binding mixture. (2) Liposomes made from lipids alone did not bind any polyribosomes. (3) The polyribosome-binding capacity of the reconstituted liposomes was very sensitive to proteolytic enzyme and strongly inhibited by addition of 0.1 mM-aurintricarboxylic acid or by increasing KCl concentration. These results suggest that the binding mechanism of polyribosomes to the reconstituted liposomes is much like that for rough microsomal membrane stripped of endogenous polyribosomes. PMID:7306032

  17. Role of 26S proteasome and HRD genes in the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, an integral endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, R Y; Gardner, R G; Rine, J

    1996-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), a key enzyme of sterol synthesis, is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In both humans and yeast, HMG-R is degraded at or in the ER. The degradation of HMG-R is regulated as part of feedback control of the mevalonate pathway. Neither the mechanism of degradation nor the nature of the signals that couple the degradation of HMG-R to the mevalonate pathway is known. We have launched a genetic analysis of the degradation of HMG-R in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a selection for mutants that are deficient in the degradation of Hmg2p, an HMG-R isozyme. The underlying genes are called HRD (pronounced "herd"), for HMG-CoA reductase degradation. So far we have discovered mutants in three genes: HRD1, HRD2, and HRD3. The sequence of the HRD2 gene is homologous to the p97 activator of the 26S proteasome. This p97 protein, also called TRAP-2, has been proposed to be a component of the mature 26S proteasome. The hrd2-1 mutant had numerous pleiotropic phenotypes expected for cells with a compromised proteasome, and these phenotypes were complemented by the human TRAP-2/p97 coding region. In contrast, HRD1 and HRD3 genes encoded previously unknown proteins predicted to be membrane bound. The Hrd3p protein was homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-1 protein, a negative regulator of at least two different membrane proteins, and contained an HRD3 motif shared with several other proteins. Hrd1p had no full-length homologues, but contained an H2 ring finger motif. These data suggested a model of ER protein degradation in which the Hrd1p and Hrd3p proteins conspire to deliver HMG-R to the 26S proteasome. Moreover, our results lend in vivo support to the proposed role of the p97/TRAP-2/Hrd2p protein as a functionally important component of the 26S proteasome. Because the HRD genes were required for the degradation of both regulated and unregulated substrates of ER degradation, the HRD genes are the

  18. Studies on membrane proteins involved in ribosome binding on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribophorins have no ribosome-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, H; Tondokoro, N; Asano, Y; Mizusawa, K; Yamagishi, R; Horigome, T; Sugano, H

    1987-01-01

    A membrane protein fraction showing affinity for ribosomes was isolated from rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) in association with ribosomes by treatment of the microsomes with Emulgen 913 and then solubilized from the ribosomes with sodium deoxycholate. This protein fraction was separated into two fractions, glycoproteins, including ribophorins I and II, and non-glycoproteins, virtually free from ribophorins I and II, on concanavalin A-Sepharose columns. The two fractions were each reconstituted into liposomes to determine their ribosome-binding activities. The specific binding activity of the non-glycoprotein fraction was approx. 2.3-fold higher than that of the glycoprotein fraction. The recovery of ribosome-binding capacity of the two fractions was about 85% of the total binding capacity of the material applied to a concanavalin A-Sepharose column, and about 90% of it was found in the non-glycoprotein fraction. The affinity constants of the ribosomes for the reconstituted liposomes were somewhat higher than those for stripped rough microsomes. The mode of ribosome binding to the reconstituted liposomes was very similar to that to the stripped rough microsomes, in its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes and its strong inhibition by increasing KCl concentration. These results support the idea that ribosome binding to rat liver microsomes is not directly mediated by ribophorins I and II, but that another unidentified membrane protein(s) plays a role in ribosome binding. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3663192

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Bailes, Julian E; Lee, John M; Robson, Matthew J; Omalu, Bennet I; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. METHODS The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. RESULTS The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. PMID

  20. Stress Responses from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hironori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways such as calcium signaling and lipid signaling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signaling, inflammatory signaling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signaling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signaling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM. PMID:25941664

  1. Terasaki Spiral Ramps in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-01

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Terasaki spiral ramps in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-31

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data. PMID:25396396

  3. Inhibition of translocation of nascent apolipoprotein B across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is associated with selective inhibition of the synthesis of apolipoprotein B.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Liang, J s; Fisher, E A; Ginsberg, H N

    2000-09-01

    In HepG2 cells, inhibition of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum by an microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor (CP-10447) in the presence of N-acetyl-leucinyl-norleucinal, a proteasomal inhibitor, results in accumulation of newly synthesized apoB in the translocation channel. Here we demonstrated that such accumulation led to a specific reduction of apoB synthesis. ApoB mRNA levels remained unchanged, but we observed reduced rates of elongation of nascent apoB in puromycin-synchronized cells pretreated with MTP inhibitor. This observation was consistent with a longer half-ribosome transit time for the synthesis of apoB in MTP-inhibited cells. Initiation of translation of apoB mRNA was not impaired by MTP inhibition. Overall, these findings suggest that translocation arrest of apoB in the endoplasmic reticulum channel can exert a selective and negative effect on the synthesis of apoB at the stage of elongation. PMID:10846173

  4. LDL–cholesterol transport to the endoplasmic reticulum: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pfisterer, Simon G.; Peränen, Johan; Ikonen, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the present information related to the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes, with a focus on Nieman-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cholesterol delivery toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We review data suggesting that several pathways may operate in parallel, including membrane transport routes and membrane contact sites (MCSs). Recent findings There is increasing appreciation that MCSs provide an important mechanism for intermembrane lipid transfer. In late endosome–ER contacts, three protein bridges involving oxysterol binding protein related protein (ORP)1L-vesicle associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)D3-VAP and ORP5-NPC1 proteins have been reported. How much they contribute to the flux of LDL–cholesterol to the ER is currently open. Studies for lipid transfer via MCSs have been most advanced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, a new sterol-binding protein family conserved between yeast and man was identified. Its members localize at MCSs and were named lipid transfer protein anchored at membrane contact sites (Lam) proteins. In yeast, sterol transfer between the ER and the yeast lysosome may be facilitated by a Lam protein. Summary Increasing insights into the role of MCSs in directional sterol delivery between membranes propose that they might provide routes for LDL–cholesterol transfer to the ER. Future work should reveal which specific contacts may operate for this, and how they are controlled by cholesterol homeostatic machineries. PMID:27054443

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Harmeet; Kaufman, Randal J

    2011-04-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are sensed by the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The accumulation of unfolded proteins sequesters BiP so it dissociates from three ER-transmembrane transducers leading to their activation. These transducers are inositol requiring (IRE) 1α, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor (ATF) 6α. PERK phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) resulting in global mRNA translation attenuation, and concurrently selectively increases the translation of several mRNAs, including the transcription factor ATF4, and its downstream target CHOP. IRE1α has kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) activities. IRE1α autophosphorylation activates the RNase activity to splice XBP1 mRNA, to produce the active transcription factor sXBP1. IRE1α activation also recruits and activates the stress kinase JNK. ATF6α transits to the Golgi compartment where it is cleaved by intramembrane proteolysis to generate a soluble active transcription factor. These UPR pathways act in concert to increase ER content, expand the ER protein folding capacity, degrade misfolded proteins, and reduce the load of new proteins entering the ER. All of these are geared toward adaptation to resolve the protein folding defect. Faced with persistent ER stress, adaptation starts to fail and apoptosis occurs, possibly mediated through calcium perturbations, reactive oxygen species, and the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. The UPR is activated in several liver diseases; including obesity associated fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-induced liver injury, all of which are associated with steatosis, raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent alteration in lipid homeostasis is the mechanism that underlies the steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a pathogenic event in several liver

  6. Three-dimensional organization of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane around the mitochondrial constriction site in mammalian cells revealed by using focused-ion beam tomography.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Keisuke; Okayama, Satoko; Togo, Akinobu; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria associate at multiple contact sites to form specific domains known as mitochondria-ER associated membranes (MAMs) that play a role in the regulation of various cellular processes such as Ca2+ transfer, autophagy, and inflammation. Recently, it has been suggested that MAMs are also involved in mitochondrial dynamics, especially fission events. Cytological analysis showed that ER tubules were frequently located close to each other in mitochondrial fission sites that accumulate fission-related proteins. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of ER-mitochondrial contacts in yeast mitochondria by using cryo-electron tomography also showed that ER tubules were attached near the constriction site, which is considered to be a fission site1). MAMs have been suggested to play a role in the initiation of mitochondrial fission, although the molecular relationships between MAMs and the mitochondrial fission process have not been established. Although an ER-mitochondrial membrane association has also been observed at the fission site in mammalian mitochondria, the detailed organization of MAMs around mammalian mitochondria remains to be established. To visualize the 3D distribution of the ER-mitochondrial contacts around the mitochondria, especially around the constriction site in mammalian cells, we attempted 3D structural analysis of the mammalian cytoplasm using high-resolution focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) tomography, and observed the distribution pattern of ER contacts around the mammalian mitochondrial constriction site.Rat hepatocytes and HeLa cells were used. Liver tissue was obtained from male rats (Wistar, 6W) fixed by transcardial perfusion of 2% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) under deep anesthesia. HeLa cells were fixed with the same fixative. The specimens were then stained en bloc to enhance membrane contrast and embedded in epoxy resin2). The surface of

  7. Microdomains of endoplasmic reticulum within the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaakinen, Mika; Papponen, Hinni; Metsikkoe, Kalervo

    2008-01-15

    The relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells has remained obscure. In this study, we found that ER- and SR-specific membrane proteins exhibited diverse solubility properties when extracted with mild detergents. Accordingly, the major SR-specific protein Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) remained insoluble in Brij 58 and floated in sucrose gradients while typical ER proteins were partially or fully soluble. Sphingomyelinase treatment rendered SERCA soluble in Brij 58. Immunofluorescence staining for resident ER proteins revealed dispersed dots over I bands contrasting the continuous staining pattern of SERCA. Infection of isolated myofibers with enveloped viruses indicated that interfibrillar protein synthesis occurred. Furthermore, we found that GFP-tagged Dad1, able to incorporate into the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, showed the dot-like structures but the fusion protein was also present in membranes over the Z lines. This behaviour mimics that of cargo proteins that accumulated over the Z lines when blocked in the ER. Taken together, the results suggest that resident ER proteins comprised Brij 58-soluble microdomains within the insoluble SR membrane. After synthesis and folding in the ER-microdomains, cargo proteins and non-incorporated GFP-Dad1 diffused into the Z line-flanking compartment which likely represents the ER exit sites.

  8. Probing Endoplasmic Reticulum Dynamics using Fluorescence Imaging and Photobleaching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey; Snapp, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This UNIT describes approaches and tools for studying the dynamics and organization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and proteins in living cells using commercially available widefield and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). It has been long appreciated that the ER plays a number of key roles in secretory protein biogenesis, calcium regulation, and lipid synthesis. However, study of these processes has been often restricted to biochemical assays that average the behaviors of millions of lysed cells or to imaging static fixed cells. Now, with new fluorescent protein reporter tools, highly sensitive commercial microscopes, and photobleaching techniques, it is possible to interrogate the behaviors of ER proteins, membranes, and stress pathways in single cells with exquisite spatial and temporal resolution. The ER presents a unique set of imaging challenges including the high mobility of ER membranes, a diverse range of dynamic ER structures, and the influence of post-translational modifications on fluorescent protein reporters. Solutions to these challenges are described and considerations for performing photobleaching assays, especially Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss in Photobleaching (FLIP) for ER proteins will be discussed. In addition, ER reporters and ER-specific pharmacologic compounds are presented with a focus on misfolded secretory protein stress and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). PMID:24510787

  9. Terasaki Ramps in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure, Function and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Greg; Guven, Jemal; Valencia, Dulce-Maria

    2015-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has long been considered an exceedingly important and complex cellular organelle in eukaryotes (like you). It is a membrane structure, part folded lamellae, part tubular network, that both envelopes the nucleus and threads its way outward, all the way to the cell's periphery. Despite the elegant mechanics of bilayer membranes offered by the work of Helfrich and Canham, as far as the ER is concerned, theory has mostly sat on the sidelines. However, refined imaging of the ER has recently revealed beautiful and subtle geometrical forms - simple geometries, from the mathematical point of view - which some have called a ``parking garage for ribosomes.'' I'll review the discovery and physics of Terasaki ramps and discuss their relation to cell-biological questions, such as ER and nuclear-membrane re-organization during mitosis. Rather than being a footnote in a textbook on differential geometry, these structures suggest answers to a number of the ER's structure-function problems.

  10. Stressed-Out Endoplasmic Reticulum Inflames the Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny; Argon, Yair

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial infection induces inflammasome activation and release of interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines. Bronner et al. (2015) show that during Brucella abortus infection, an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, IRE1α, initiates NLRP3- and caspase-2-mediated mitochondrial damage that potentiates NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. PMID:26377891

  11. Evidence That Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Has Dual Membrane Topology in the Endoplasmic Reticulum of HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wurie, Haja R.; Buckett, Linda; Zammit, Victor A.

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and secretion are important functions of the liver that have major impacts on health, as overaccumulation of TAG within the liver (steatosis) or hypersecretion of TAG within very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) both have deleterious metabolic consequences. Two diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs 1 and 2) can catalyze the final step in the synthesis of TAG from diacylglycerol, which has been suggested to play an important role in the transfer of the glyceride moiety across the endoplasmic reticular membrane for (re)synthesis of TAG on the lumenal aspect of the endoplasmic reticular (ER) membrane (Owen, M., Corstorphine, C. C., and Zammit, V. A. (1997) Biochem. J. 323, 17–21). Recent topographical studies suggested that the oligomeric enzyme DGAT1 is exclusively lumen facing (latent) in the ER membrane. By contrast, in the present study, using two specific inhibitors of human DGAT1, we present evidence that DGAT1 has a dual topology within the ER of HepG2 cells, with approximately equal DGAT1 activities exposed on the cytosolic and lumenal aspects of the ER membrane. This was confirmed by the observation of the loss of both overt (partial) and latent (total) DGAT activity in microsomes prepared from livers of Dgat1−/− mice. Conformational differences between DGAT1 molecules having the different topologies were indicated by the markedly disparate sensitivities of the overt DGAT1 to one of the inhibitors. These data suggest that DGAT1 belongs to the family of oligomeric membrane proteins that adopt a dual membrane topology. PMID:21846726

  12. Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, Melanie; Marion, Michel; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A. . E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2007-07-01

    Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum: Where nucleotide sugar transport meets cytokinin control mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Michael CE; Werner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional eukaryotic organelle where the vast majority of secretory proteins are folded and assembled to achieve their correct tertiary structures. The lumen of the ER and Golgi apparatus also provides an environment for numerous glycosylation reactions essential for modifications of proteins and lipids, and for cell wall biosynthesis. These glycosylation reactions require a constant supply of cytosolically synthesized substrate precursors, nucleotide sugars, which are transported by a group of dedicated nucleotide sugar transporters (NST). Recently, we have reported on the identification of a novel ER-localized NST protein, ROCK1, which mediates the transport of UDP-linked acetylated hexosamines across the ER membrane in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that the activity of ROCK1 is important for the regulation of cytokinin-degrading enzymes, cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX), in the ER and, thus, for cytokinin responses. In this addendum we will address the biochemical and cellular activity of the ROCK1 transporter and its phylogenetic relation to other NST proteins. PMID:26418963

  14. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum: a social network in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Doyle, Caitlin; Qi, Xingyun; Zheng, Huanquan

    2012-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network comprised of ribosome-studded sheets and smooth tubules. The ER plays crucial roles in the biosynthesis and transport of proteins and lipids, and in calcium (Ca(2+) ) regulation in compartmentalized eukaryotic cells including plant cells. To support its well-segregated functions, the shape of the ER undergoes notable changes in response to both developmental cues and outside influences. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on molecular mechanisms underlying the unique morphology and dynamics of the ER, and the importance of the interconnected ER network in cell polarity. In animal and yeast cells, two family proteins, the reticulons and DP1/Yop1, are required for shaping high-curvature ER tubules, while members of the atlastin family of dynamin-like GTPases are involved in the fusion of ER tubules to make an interconnected ER network. In plant cells, recent data also indicate that the reticulons are involved in shaping ER tubules, while RHD3, a plant member of the atlastin GTPases, is required for the generation of an interconnected ER network. We will also summarize the current knowledge on how the ER interacts with other membrane-bound organelles, with a focus on how the ER and Golgi interplay in plant cells. PMID:23046093

  16. N-Linked Protein Glycosylation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Jörg; Aebi, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The attachment of glycans to asparagine residues of proteins is an abundant and highly conserved essential modification in eukaryotes. The N-glycosylation process includes two principal phases: the assembly of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) and the transfer of the oligosaccharide to selected asparagine residues of polypeptide chains. Biosynthesis of the LLO takes place at both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and it involves a series of specific glycosyltransferases that catalyze the assembly of the branched oligosaccharide in a highly defined way. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) selects the Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus sequence on polypeptide chains and generates the N-glycosidic linkage between the side-chain amide of asparagine and the oligosaccharide. This ER-localized pathway results in a systemic modification of the proteome, the basis for the Golgi-catalyzed modification of the N-linked glycans, generating the large diversity of N-glycoproteome in eukaryotic cells. This article focuses on the processes in the ER. Based on the highly conserved nature of this pathway we concentrate on the mechanisms in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23751184

  17. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  18. The Host Targeting motif in exported Plasmodium proteins is cleaved in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Andrew R.; Speicher, Kaye D.; Tamez, Pamela A.; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Speicher, David W.; Haldar, Kasturi

    2010-01-01

    During the blood stage of its lifecycle, the malaria parasite resides and replicates inside a membrane vacuole within its host cell, the human erythrocyte. The parasite exports many proteins across the vacuole membrane and into the host cell cytoplasm. Most exported proteins are characterized by the presence of a Host Targeting (HT) motif, also referred to as a Plasmodium Export Element (PEXEL), which corresponds to the consensus sequence RxLxE/D/Q. During export the HT motif is cleaved by an unknown protease. Here, we generate parasite lines expressing HT motif containing proteins that are localized to different compartments within the parasite or host cell. We find that the HT motif in a protein that is retained in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum, is cleaved and N-acetylated as efficiently as a protein that is exported. This shows that cleavage of the HT motif occurs early in the secretory pathway, in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:20117149

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse decidua during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Jia-Qi; Dou, Hai-Ting; Liu, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhao, Meng-Long; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-10-15

    Unfolded or misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Although it is known that ER stress is crucial for mammalian reproduction, little is known about its physiological significance and underlying mechanism during decidualization. Here we show that Ire-Xbp1 signal transduction pathway of unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in decidual cells. The process of decidualization is compromised by ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid sodium (TUDCA) and Ire specific inhibitor STF-083010 both in vivo and in vitro. A high concentration of ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) suppresses stromal cells proliferation and decidualization, while a lower concentration is beneficial. We further show that ER stress induces DNA damage and polyploidization in stromal cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that the GRP78/Ire1/Xbp1 signaling pathway of ER stress-UPR is activated and involved in mouse decidualization. PMID:27283502

  20. Nodal endoplasmic reticulum, a specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum found in gravity-sensing root tip columella cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Staehelin, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of columella root cap cells has been postulated to play a role in gravity sensing. We have re-examined the ultrastructure of columella cells in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) root tips preserved by high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution techniques to gain more precise information about the organization of the ER in such cells. The most notable findings are: the identification of a specialized form of ER, termed "nodal ER," which is found exclusively in columella cells; the demonstration that the bulk of the ER is organized in the form of a tubular network that is confined to a peripheral layer under the plasma membrane; and the discovery that this ER-rich peripheral region excludes Golgi stacks, vacuoles, and amyloplasts but not mitochondria. Nodal ER domains consist of an approximately 100-nm-diameter central rod composed of oblong subunits to which usually seven sheets of rough ER are attached along their margins. These domains form patches at the interface between the peripheral ER network and the ER-free central region of the cells, and they occupy defined positions within central and flanking columella cells. Over one-half of the nodal ER domains are located along the outer tangential walls of the flanking cells. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin A cause an increase in size and a decrease in numbers of nodal ER domains. We postulate that the nodal ER membranes locally modulate the gravisensing signals produced by the sedimenting amyloplasts, and that the confinement of all ER membranes to the cell periphery serves to enhance the sedimentability of the amyloplasts in the central region of columella cells.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: implications for inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the emerging role of cellular stress responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent findings The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a primitive cellular pathway that is engaged when responding to endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulates autophagy. Highly secretory cells such as Paneth cells and goblet cells in the intestines are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress and are exceedingly dependent upon a properly functioning UPR to maintain cellular viability and homeostasis. Primary genetic abnormalities within the components of the UPR (e.g. XBP1, ARG2, ORMDL3), genes that encode proteins reliant upon a robust secretory pathway (e.g. MUC2, HLAB27) and environmental factors that create disturbances in the UPR (e.g. microbial products and inflammatory cytokines) are important factors in the primary development and/or perpetuation of intestinal inflammation. Summary Endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important new pathway involved in the development of intestinal inflammation associated with IBD and likely other intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:20495455

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a potential target for therapy.

    PubMed

    Montague, Karli; Malik, Bilal; Gray, Anna L; La Spada, Albert R; Hanna, Michael G; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Greensmith, Linda

    2014-07-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease and in motor neuron disease, where cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is also involved in the pathogenesis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice that carry 100 pathogenic polyglutamine repeats in the androgen receptor, and develop a late-onset neuromuscular phenotype with motor neuron degeneration, were studied. We observed a disturbance in endoplasmic reticulum-associated calcium homeostasis in cultured embryonic motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice, which was accompanied by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress reduced the endoplasmic reticulum-associated cell death pathway. Examination of spinal cord motor neurons of pathogenic mice at different disease stages revealed elevated expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirming an increase in this stress response in vivo. Importantly, the most significant increase was detected presymptomatically, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may play an early and possibly causal role in disease pathogenesis. Our results therefore indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway could potentially be a therapeutic target for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and related polyglutamine diseases. PMID:24898351

  3. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum-related Ca sup 2+ ATPase in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bikfalvi, A.; Enouf, J.; Bredoux, R.; Dupuy, E.; Bourdeau, N.; Levy-Toledano, S.; Tobelem, G. ); Lompre, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors demonstrated by immunological and molecular methods the presence of a reticulum endoplasmic-related Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase in human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOME cells). HOME cells reacted positively with a previously characterized sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase antibody as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Western blotting revealed that the antibody recognized a 95-100 kDa protein. {sup 35}S-Metabolic labeling led to the detection of a similar protein with which the purified sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase compete. Dot-blotting experiments indicated that a substantial amount of Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase was present in HOME cell membranes. In addition, Northern blot analysis using a cDNA probe from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum showed the presence of mRNA species of 4 kb. As these experiments were conducted in comparison with cell types with well-defined Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases, the results suggest the presence of a endoplasmic reticulum-related Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase in HOME cells.

  4. Protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum as a conduit to human disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Kaufman, Randal J

    2016-01-21

    In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for the folding and trafficking of proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Environmental insults or increased protein synthesis often lead to protein misfolding in the organelle, the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins - known as endoplasmic reticulum stress - and the activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response to restore homeostasis. If protein misfolding is not resolved, cells die. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the unfolded protein response help to determine cell fate and function. Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to the aetiology of many human diseases. PMID:26791723

  5. Cell Cycle-dependent Changes in Localization and Phosphorylation of the Plasma Membrane Kv2.1 K+ Channel Impact Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Contact Sites in COS-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Melanie M; Austin, Daniel C; Sack, Jon T; Trimmer, James S

    2015-12-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) comprises distinct subcellular domains with diverse functions that need to be dynamically coordinated with intracellular events, one of the most impactful being mitosis. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is conditionally localized to large PM clusters that represent specialized PM:endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites (PM:ER MCS), and overexpression of Kv2.1 induces more exuberant PM:ER MCS in neurons and in certain heterologous cell types. Localization of Kv2.1 at these contact sites is dynamically regulated by changes in phosphorylation at one or more sites located on its large cytoplasmic C terminus. Here, we show that Kv2.1 expressed in COS-1 cells undergoes dramatic cell cycle-dependent changes in its PM localization, having diffuse localization in interphase cells, and robust clustering during M phase. The mitosis-specific clusters of Kv2.1 are localized to PM:ER MCS, and M phase clustering of Kv2.1 induces more extensive PM:ER MCS. These cell cycle-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and the induction of PM:ER MCS are accompanied by increased mitotic Kv2.1 phosphorylation at several C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv2.1 is significantly increased upon metaphase arrest in COS-1 and CHO cells, and in a pancreatic β cell line that express endogenous Kv2.1. The M phase clustering of Kv2.1 at PM:ER MCS in COS-1 cells requires the same C-terminal targeting motif needed for conditional Kv2.1 clustering in neurons. The cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 were not accompanied by changes in the electrophysiological properties of Kv2.1 expressed in CHO cells. Together, these results provide novel insights into the cell cycle-dependent changes in PM protein localization and phosphorylation. PMID:26442584

  6. N-Myristoyltransferase 1 interacts with calnexin at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Elzbieta; Millott, Robyn; Liu, Wen-Xin; Beauchamp, Erwan; Berthiaume, Luc G; Michalak, Marek

    2015-12-25

    Calnexin is a type 1 integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane molecular chaperone with a highly conserved C-terminal domain oriented to the cytoplasm. Protein N-myristoylation plays an important role in a wide variety of cellular signal transduction pathways and it is catalyzed by N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), a cytoplasmic and ER associated enzyme. Here using yeast two-hybrid screen, Western blot analysis, immunoprecipitation, immunolocalization and cellular fractionation we discovered that N-myristoyltransferase 1 interacts with calnexin at the ER. These observations point at a previously unrecognized contribution of calnexin to the retention of NMT1 at the ER membrane. PMID:26603938

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Inflammatory Basis of Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2010-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site in the cell for protein folding and trafficking and is central to many cellular functions. Failure of the ER's adaptive capacity results in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which intersects with many different inflammatory and stress signaling pathways. These pathways are also critical in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The ER and related signaling networks are emerging as a potential site for the intersection of inflammation and metabolic disease. PMID:20303879

  8. One step at a time: endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vembar, Shruthi S.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is monitored by ER quality control (ERQC) mechanisms. Proteins that pass ERQC criteria traffic to their final destinations through the secretory pathway, whereas non-native and unassembled subunits of multimeric proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. During ERAD, molecular chaperones and associated factors recognize and target substrates for retrotranslocation to the cytoplasm, where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome machinery. The discovery of diseases that are associated with ERAD substrates highlights the importance of this pathway. Here, we summarize our current understanding of each step during ERAD, with emphasis on the factors that catalyse distinct activities. PMID:19002207

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: an unrecognized actor in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Fougeray, Sophie; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2009-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an adaptive response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER, which can trigger cell dedifferentiation and cell suicide. Increasing evidences suggest its implication in mediating allograft injury. Herein, we summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and discuss its implication in allograft injury. Increasing our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:19741454

  10. Proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Nobuhiro; Nakanishi, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Although previous studies suggest that proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes involves caspase-3, the mechanism underlying the activation of caspase-3 is unknown. Here, we analyzed caspase activation in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, MEG-01, which forms proplatelets spontaneously. Specific activation of caspase-3 and caspase-4 was found in proplatelets. Consistent with previous observations of caspase-4 autoactivation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, several ER stress marker proteins were expressed during proplatelet formation. A pharmacological ER stressor enhanced platelet production via proplatelet formation, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 caused suppression. These results suggest that ER stress is a mechanism underlying the maturation of megakaryocytes. PMID:27296088

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a novel mechanism and therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-qing; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Lin-xi

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum is a principal organelle responsible for folding, post-translational modifications and transport of secretory, luminal and membrane proteins, thus palys an important rale in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a condition that is accelerated by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins after endoplasmic reticulum environment disturbance, triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological factors, such as nutrient deprivation, altered glycosylation, calcium depletion, oxidative stress, DNA damage and energy disturbance, etc. ERS may initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore cellular homeostasis or lead to apoptosis. Numerous studies have clarified the link between ERS and cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on ERS-associated molecular mechanisms that participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes of heart and blood vessels. In addition, a number of drugs that regulate ERS was introduced, which may be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. This review may open new avenues for studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and discovering novel drugs targeting ERS. PMID:26838072

  12. [Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany; Thervet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a situation caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, triggering an evolutionary conserved adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response. When adaptation fails, excessive and prolonged ER stress triggers cell suicide. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative and heart diseases. The implication of the ER stress is not well recognized in solid organ transplantation, but increasing evidence suggests its implication in mediating allograft injury. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and to discuss its implication during tissue injury in solid organ transplantation. The possible implications of the ER stress in the modifications of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes are also discussed beyond the scope of adaptation and cell death. Increasing the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:20412745

  13. Molecular Characterization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 from Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minchul; Ryou, Hee-Joo; Yun, Eun-Young; Goo, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    We isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (bERO1, a specific oxidant of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)) from Bombyx mori. This protein has a putative open reading frame (ORF) of 489 amino acids and a predicted size of 57.4 kDa. Although bERO1 protein shares less than 57% amino acid sequence homology with other reported ERO1s, it contains two conserved redox active motifs, a Cys-X-X-X-X-Cys motif of N-terminal and Cys-X-X-Cys-X-X-Cys motif of C-terminal. Both motifs are typically present in ERO1 protein family members. The bEro1 mRNA expression was highest in posterior silk gland on the sixth day of the 5th instar larvae. Expression of bEro1 mRNA also markedly increased during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by stimulation with antimycin, calcium ionophore A23187, dithiothreitol, H2O2, monencin, and tunicamycin. In addition, expression levels of bEro1 exactly coincided with that of bPdi. This is the first result suggesting that bERO1 plays an essential role in ER quality control through the combined activities of bERO1 and bPDI as a catalyst of protein folding in the ER and sustaining cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:26556347

  14. Molecular Characterization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 from Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Seo, Minchul; Ryou, Hee-Joo; Yun, Eun-Young; Goo, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    We isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (bERO1, a specific oxidant of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)) from Bombyx mori. This protein has a putative open reading frame (ORF) of 489 amino acids and a predicted size of 57.4 kDa. Although bERO1 protein shares less than 57% amino acid sequence homology with other reported ERO1s, it contains two conserved redox active motifs, a Cys-X-X-X-X-Cys motif of N-terminal and Cys-X-X-Cys-X-X-Cys motif of C-terminal. Both motifs are typically present in ERO1 protein family members. The bEro1 mRNA expression was highest in posterior silk gland on the sixth day of the 5th instar larvae. Expression of bEro1 mRNA also markedly increased during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by stimulation with antimycin, calcium ionophore A23187, dithiothreitol, H₂O₂, monencin, and tunicamycin. In addition, expression levels of bEro1 exactly coincided with that of bPdi. This is the first result suggesting that bERO1 plays an essential role in ER quality control through the combined activities of bERO1 and bPDI as a catalyst of protein folding in the ER and sustaining cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:26556347

  15. 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) localizes to endoplasmic reticulum not peroxisomes, and NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic property determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Seki, Midori; Yasui, Akina; Murasaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Masashi; Yamashita, Yukari; Sakaguchi, Masao; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2009-01-15

    70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein subfamily D. ABC subfamily D proteins are also known as peroxisomal ABC proteins. Therefore, P70R is thought to be a peroxisomal membrane protein. However, the subcellular localization of P70R is not extensively investigated. In this study, we transiently expressed P70R in fusion with HA (P70R-HA) in CHO cells and examined subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, P70R-HA was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), not to peroxisomes. To examine the ER-targeting property of P70R, we expressed various NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs of P70R. Among the NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs, mutant proteins starting with hydrophobic transmembrane segment (TMS) were localized to ER, but the ones containing the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic cytosolic domain were not. ABC subfamily D proteins destined for peroxisomes have NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic region adjacent to TMS1. However, only P70R lacks the region and is translated with NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic TMS1. Furthermore, attachment of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic domain to the NH{sub 2}-terminus of P70R excluded P70R from the ER-targeting pathway. These data suggest that P70R resides in the ER but not the peroxisomal membranes, and the hydrophobic property of NH{sub 2}-terminal region determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins.

  16. Bcl-2 maintains the mitochondrial membrane potential, but fails to affect production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress, in sodium palmitate-induced β-cell death

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodium palmitate causes apoptosis of β-cells, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 has been shown to counteract this event. However, the exact mechanisms that underlie palmitate-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and through which pathway Bcl-2 executes the protective effect are still unclear. Methods A stable Bcl-2-overexpressing RINm5F cell clone (BMG) and its negative control (B45) were exposed to palmitate for up to 8 h, and cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and NF-κB activation were studied in time course experiments. Results Palmitate exposure for 8 h resulted in increased cell death rates, and this event was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. Bcl-2 overexpression promoted in parallel also a delayed induction of GADD153/CHOP and a weaker phosphorylation of BimEL in palmitate-exposed cells. At earlier time points (2–4 h) palmitate exposure resulted in increased generation of ROS, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and a modest increase in the phosphorylation of eIF2α and IRE1α. BMG cells produced similar amounts of ROS and displayed the same eIF2α and IRE1α phosphorylation rates as B45 cells. However, the palmitate-induced dissipation of Δψm was partially counteracted by Bcl-2. In addition, basal NF-κB activity was increased in BMG cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that Bcl-2 counteracts palmitate-induced β-cell death by maintaining mitochondrial membrane integrity and augmenting NF-κB activity, but not by affecting ROS production and ER stress. PMID:25266628

  17. Pharmacological Modulators of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for correct protein folding, a step in protein synthesis that is critical for the functional conformation of proteins. ER stress is a primary feature of secretory cells and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, such as certain neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a defense mechanism to attenuate ER stress and maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Two major degradation systems, including the proteasome and autophagy, are involved in this defense system. If ER stress overwhelms the capacity of the cell’s defense mechanisms, apoptotic death may result. This review is focused on the various pharmacological modulators that can protect cells from damage induced by ER stress. The possible mechanisms for cytoprotection are also discussed. PMID:26840310

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensing in the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Pincus, David; Gotthardt, Katja; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Secretory and transmembrane proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded proteins and exit as either folded proteins in transit to their target organelles or as misfolded proteins targeted for degradation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains the protein-folding homeostasis within the ER, ensuring that the protein-folding capacity of the ER meets the load of client proteins. Activation of the UPR depends on three ER stress sensor proteins, Ire1, PERK, and ATF6. Although the consequences of activation are well understood, how these sensors detect ER stress remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that yeast Ire1 directly binds to unfolded proteins, which induces its oligomerization and activation. BiP dissociation from Ire1 regulates this oligomeric equilibrium, ultimately modulating Ire1’s sensitivity and duration of activation. The mechanistic principles of ER stress sensing are the focus of this review. PMID:23388626

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Tony J; Robinson, Philip C; Haroon, Nigil

    2015-09-01

    There has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of AS. The advent of genome-wide association studies has increased the known loci associated with AS to more than 40. The endoplasmic reticulum resident aminopeptidases (ERAP) 1 and 2 were identified in this manner and are of particular interest. There appears to be a genetic as well as a functional interaction of ERAP1 and 2 with HLA-B27 based on the known functions of these molecules. Recent studies on the structure, immunological effects and the peptide-trimming properties of ERAP 1 and 2 have helped to provide insight into their pathogenic potential in AS. In this review, we explore the role of ERAP 1 and 2 in the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26070942

  20. The Gp78 ubiquitin ligase: probing endoplasmic reticulum complexity.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, Pascal; Nabi, Ivan R

    2012-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been classically divided, based on electron microscopy analysis, into parallel ribosome-studded rough ER sheets and a tubular smooth ER network. Recent studies have identified molecular constituents of the ER, the reticulons and DP1, that drive ER tubule formation and whose expression determines expression of ER sheets and tubules and thereby rough and smooth ER. However, segregation of the ER into only two domains remains simplistic and multiple functionally distinct ER domains necessarily exist. In this review, we will discuss the sub-organization of the ER in different domains focusing on the localization and role of the gp78 ubiquitin ligase in the mitochondria-associated smooth ER and on the evidence for a quality control ERAD domain. PMID:22045301

  1. Cytoprotective small molecule modulators of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Soumyabrata; Dahl, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Cellular health depends on the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold, assemble, and modify critical proteins to maintain viability. When the ER cannot process proteins effectively, a condition known as ER stress ensues. When this stress is excessive or prolonged, cell death via apoptotic pathways is triggered. Interestingly, most major diseases have been shown to be intimately linked to ER stress, including diabetes, stroke, neurodegeneration, and many cancers. Thus, controlling ER stress presents a significant strategy for drug development for these diseases. The goal of this review is to present various small molecules that alleviate ER stress with the intention that they may serve as useful starting points for therapeutic agent development. PMID:27091069

  2. Role of p97 and Syntaxin 5 in the Assembly of Transitional Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Line; Bergeron, John J.M.; Lavoie, Christine; Hendriks, Rob; Gushue, Jennifer; Fazel, Ali; Pelletier, Amélie; Morré, D. James; Subramaniam, V. Nathan; Hong, Wanjin; Paiement, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER) consists of confluent rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) domains. In a cell-free incubation system, low-density microsomes (1.17 g cc−1) isolated from rat liver homogenates reconstitute tER by Mg2+GTP- and Mg2+ATP-hydrolysis–dependent membrane fusion. The ATPases associated with different cellular activities protein p97 has been identified as the relevant ATPase. The ATP depletion by hexokinase or treatment with either N-ethylmaleimide or anti-p97 prevented assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER. High-salt washing of low-density microsomes inhibited assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER, whereas the readdition of purified p97 with associated p47 promoted reconstitution. The t-SNARE syntaxin 5 was observed within the smooth ER domain of tER, and antisyntaxin 5 abrogated formation of this same membrane compartment. Thus, p97 and syntaxin 5 regulate assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER and hence one of the earliest membrane differentiated components of the secretory pathway. PMID:10930451

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in myotonic dystrophy type 1 muscle.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Koji; Nakamori, Masayuki; Furuya, Hirokazu; Arahata, Hajime; Kanemoto, Soshi; Kimura, Takashi; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masanori P; Sakoda, Saburo; Fujii, Naoki; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2007-11-01

    In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), alternative splicing of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) genes has been reported. These proteins are essential for maintaining intracellular Ca2+ in skeletal muscle. To clarify involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in DM1 muscles, we examined the activation of ER stress-related proteins by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In four of five DM1 muscle biopsies, except for a muscle biopsy from a patient with the shortest CTG expansion and no myotonia, increased expression of GRP78 and calnexin, and phosphorylation of PERK and eIF-2 alpha were revealed in fibers with sarcoplasmic masses and in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps. Caspase-3 and -7 were also expressed in these fibers. Increased expression of GRP78 in these DM1 muscles was confirmed by western blot analysis. GRP78 mRNA and spliced isoform of XBP1 mRNA were also increased in DM1 muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we demonstrated increased expression of GRP78 in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps in all three muscle biopsies from neurogenic muscular atrophies. However, five muscle biopsies from central core disease presumably with disturbed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and a muscle biopsy from paramyotonia congenita with myotonia showed no activation of these proteins. Taken together, ER stress is involved in muscle wasting in DM1. However, it seems to be evoked not only by disrupted intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:17661063

  4. Maternal obesity alters endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in offspring pancreas.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Jumpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Kapur, Sabrina R; Pombo, Joaquim; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is increasing in parallel with obesity rates. Stress-related alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), are associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate ER imbalance in the pancreas of a mice model of adult and perinatal diet-induced obesity. Twenty female C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control (Con) or obesogenic (Ob) diets prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring were weaned onto Con or Ob diets up to 6 months post-partum. Then, after sacrifice, plasma biochemical analyses, gene expression, and protein concentrations were measured in pancreata. Offspring of Ob-fed mice had significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001) and plasma leptin (p < 0.001) and decreased insulin (p < 0.01) levels. Maternal obesogenic diet decreased the total and phosphorylated Eif2α and increased spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Pancreatic gene expression of downstream regulators of UPR (EDEM, homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident (HERP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3BI/LC3BII) were differently disrupted by obesogenic feeding in both mothers and offspring (from p < 0.1 to p < 0.001). Maternal obesity and Ob feeding in their offspring alter UPR in NAFPD, with involvement of proapoptotic and autophagy-related markers. Upstream and downstream regulators of PERK, IRE1α, and ATF6 pathways were affected differently following the obesogenic insults. PMID:26979740

  5. Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of translocation apparatus proteins.

    PubMed

    Black, V H; Sanjay, A; van Leyen, K; Möeller, I; Lauring, B; Kreibich, G

    2002-11-01

    Steroid-secreting cells possess abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum whose membranes contain many enzymes involved in sterol and steroid synthesis. In this study we demonstrate that adrenal smooth microsomal subfractions enriched in these membranes also possess high levels of proteins belonging to the translocation apparatus, proteins previously assumed to be confined to morphologically identifiable rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). We further demonstrate that these smooth microsomal subfractions are capable of effecting the functions of these protein complexes: co-translational translocation, signal peptide cleavage and N-glycosylation of newly synthesized polypeptides. We hypothesize that these elements participate in regulating the levels of ER-targeted membrane proteins involved in cholesterol and steroid metabolism in a sterol-dependent and hormonally-regulated manner. PMID:12530645

  6. Effects of a Sublethal and Transient Stress of the Endoplasmic Reticulum on the Mitochondrial Population.

    PubMed

    Vannuvel, Kayleen; Van Steenbrugge, Martine; Demazy, Catherine; Ninane, Noëlle; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Fransolet, Maude; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are not discrete intracellular organelles but establish close physical and functional interactions involved in several biological processes including mitochondrial bioenergetics, calcium homeostasis, lipid synthesis, and the regulation of apoptotic cell death pathways. As many cell types might face a transient and sublethal ER stress during their lifetime, it is thus likely that the adaptive UPR response might affect the mitochondrial population. The aim of this work was to study the putative effects of a non-lethal and transient endoplasmic reticulum stress on the mitochondrial population in HepG2 cells. The results show that thapsigargin and brefeldin A, used to induce a transient and sublethal ER stress, rapidly lead to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, O2 (•-) production and less efficient respiration. These changes in mitochondrial function are transient and preceded by the phosphorylation of JNK. Inhibition of JNK activation by SP600125 prevents the decrease in O2 (•-) production and the mitochondrial network fragmentation observed in cells exposed to the ER stress but has no impact on the reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, our data show that a non-lethal and transient ER stress triggers a rapid activation of JNK without inducing apoptosis, leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and a reduction of O2 (•-) production. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1913-1931, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680008

  7. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR Ortholog Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Protein with Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K.; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  10. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  11. Unfolded protein stress in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria: a role in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bernales, Sebastián; Soto, Marisol Morales; McCullagh, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Protein-folding occurs in several intracellular locations including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In normal conditions there is a balance between the levels of unfolded proteins and protein folding machinery. Disruption of homeostasis and an accumulation of unfolded proteins trigger stress responses, or unfolded protein responses (UPR), in these organelles. These pathways signal to increase the folding capacity, inhibit protein import or expression, increase protein degradation, and potentially trigger cell death. Many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases involve the accumulation of misfolded proteins in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The exact participation of the UPRs in the onset of neurodegeneration is unclear, but there is significant evidence for the alteration of these pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Here we will discuss the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress and the possible contributions of the UPR in these organelles to the development of two neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:22539924

  12. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  13. Protein kinase RNA- like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway plays a major role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress- induced apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered one of the mechanisms contributing to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated cell apoptosis. In diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), cell apoptosis is generally accepted as the etiological factor and closely related to cardiac ROS generation. ER stress is proposed the link between ROS and cell apoptosis; however, the signaling pathways and their roles in participating ER stress- induced apoptosis in DCM are still unclear. Methods In this study, we investigated the signaling transductions in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis in animal model of DCM. Moreover, in order to clarify the roles of IRE1 (inositol - requiring enzyme-1), PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)- like ER kinase) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor-6) in conducting apoptotic signal in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis, we further investigated apoptosis in high- glucose incubated cardiomyocytes with IRE1, ATF6 and PERK- knocked down respectively. Results we demonstrated that the ER stress sensors, referred as PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, were activated in ROS- mediated ER stress- induced cell apoptosis in rat model of DCM which was characterized by cardiac pump and electrical dysfunctions. The deletion of PERK in myocytes exhibited stronger protective effect against apoptosis induced by high- glucose incubation than deletion of ATF6 or IRE in the same myocytes. By subcellular fractionation, rather than ATF6 and IRE1, in primary cardiomyocytes, PERK was found a component of MAMs (mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes) which was the functional and physical contact site between ER and mitochondria. Conclusions ROS- stimulated activation of PERK signaling pathway takes the major responsibility rather than IRE1 or ATF6 signaling pathways in ROS- medicated ER stress- induced myocyte apoptosis in DCM. PMID:24180212

  14. Temperature-sensitive, Post-translational Regulation of Plant Omega-3 Fatty-acid Desaturases is Mediated by the Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in ambient temperature represent a major physiological challenge to poikilothermic organisms that requires rapid adjustments in the composition of cellular membranes in order to preserve overall membrane dynamics and integrity. In plants, the endoplasmic reticulum-localized omega-3 fatty ac...

  15. ER-phagy mediates selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum independently of the core autophagy machinery

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Sebastian; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selective autophagy of damaged or redundant organelles is an important mechanism for maintaining cell homeostasis. We found previously that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes massive ER expansion and triggers the formation of large ER whorls. Here, we show that stress-induced ER whorls are selectively taken up into the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, by a process termed ER-phagy. Import into the vacuole does not involve autophagosomes but occurs through invagination of the vacuolar membrane, indicating that ER-phagy is topologically equivalent to microautophagy. Even so, ER-phagy requires neither the core autophagy machinery nor several other proteins specifically implicated in microautophagy. Thus, autophagy of ER whorls represents a distinct type of organelle-selective autophagy. Finally, we provide evidence that ER-phagy degrades excess ER membrane, suggesting that it contributes to cell homeostasis by controlling organelle size. PMID:25052096

  16. Overlapping signal sequences control nuclear localization and endoplasmic reticulum retention of GRP58

    SciTech Connect

    Adikesavan, Anbu Karani; Unni, Emmanual; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2008-12-12

    Glucose-regulated GRP58 has shown clinical applications to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cancer. GRP58 is localized in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nucleus. Twenty-four amino acids at the N-terminal hydrophobic region are known to target GRP58 to ER for synthesis at the ER membrane and translocation into the ER lumen. In addition, GRP58 contains putative nuclear localization (494KPKKKKK500) and ER retention (502QEDL505) signals. However, the role of these signals in nuclear import and ER retention of GRP58 remains unknown. Present studies investigated the signals that control nuclear localization and ER retention of GRP58. Deletion/mutation of nuclear localization signal (NLS) abrogated nuclear import of GRP58. NLS attached to EGFP localized EGFP in the nucleus. However, deletion/mutation of putative ER retention signal alone did not alter ER retention of GRP58. Interestingly, a combined deletion/mutation of NLS and ER retention signals blocked the GRP58 retention in the ER. These results concluded that overlapping NLS and ER retention signal sequences regulate nuclear localization and ER retention of GRP58.

  17. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum nucleoside diphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Failer, Bernd U; Braun, Norbert; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2002-10-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase (EC ) related to two secreted ATP- and ADP-hydrolyzing apyrases of the bloodsucking insects, Cimex lectularius and Phlebotomus papatasi. The rat brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1209 bp encoding a protein of 403 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 45.7 kDa. The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with varying preponderance. The immunohistochemical analysis of the Myc-His-tagged enzyme expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed its association with the endoplasmic reticulum and also with pre-Golgi intermediates. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase is a membrane protein with its catalytic site facing the organelle lumen. It hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates in the order UDP >GDP = IDP >CDP but not ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolyzed to a minor extent, and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca(2+), insensitive to Mg(2+), and had a K(m) for UDP of 216 microm. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase may support glycosylation reactions related to quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12167635

  18. Autophagy is activated for cell survival after endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Maiko; Hino, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Atsushi; Morikawa, Keisuke; Kondo, Shinichi; Kanemoto, Soshi; Murakami, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Manabu; Tanii, Ichiro; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Shiosaka, Sadao; Hammarback, James A; Urano, Fumihiko; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2006-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 "dots"), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells treated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, the autophagy induced by ER stress was inhibited, indicating that the IRE1-JNK pathway is required for autophagy activation after ER stress. In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress. PMID:17030611

  19. Autophagy Is Activated for Cell Survival after Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Maiko; Hino, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Atsushi; Morikawa, Keisuke; Kondo, Shinichi; Kanemoto, Soshi; Murakami, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Manabu; Tanii, Ichiro; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Shiosaka, Sadao; Hammarback, James A.; Urano, Fumihiko; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 “dots”), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells treated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, the autophagy induced by ER stress was inhibited, indicating that the IRE1-JNK pathway is required for autophagy activation after ER stress. In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress. PMID:17030611

  20. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  1. Periostin promotes secretion of fibronectin from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Kudo, Akira

    2016-02-19

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported to the extracellular milieu through the secretory pathway, and assembled into an extracellular architecture. A previous study of ours showed that periostin, a secretory protein, interacts with fibronectin and is involved in ECM remodeling. Here we show that periostin played a role in fibronectin secretion from the ER. Co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays revealed an interaction between periostin and fibronectin in the ER. Although accumulation of fibronectin was detected in the ER of fibroblastic C3H10T1/2 cells, forced expression of periostin in those cells decreased the accumulation of fibronectin in the ER, suggesting that periostin promoted the secretion of fibronectin. A substitution mutant of tryptophan at the position 65 to alanine in the EMI domain of periostin, which caused periostin to lose its ability to interact with fibronectin, did not decrease the accumulation. Furthermore, targeted disruption of periostin in mice caused the non-fibrillar and ectopic deposition of fibronectin in the periodontal ligament. Thus, these results demonstrate a subcellular role of periostin in promotion of fibronectin secretion from the ER. PMID:26820539

  2. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum localization and activity of maize auxin biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Seo, Hyesu; Park, Woong June; Hawes, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is a major growth hormone in plants and the first plant hormone to be discovered and studied. Active research over >60 years has shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms of its action including transport, perception, signal transduction, and a variety of biosynthetic pathways in various species, tissues, and developmental stages. The complexity and redundancy of the auxin biosynthetic network and enzymes involved raises the question of how such a system, producing such a potent agent as auxin, can be appropriately controlled at all. Here it is shown that maize auxin biosynthesis takes place in microsomal as well as cytosolic cellular fractions from maize seedlings. Most interestingly, a set of enzymes shown to be involved in auxin biosynthesis via their activity and/or mutant phenotypes and catalysing adjacent steps in YUCCA-dependent biosynthesis are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Positioning of auxin biosynthetic enzymes at the ER could be necessary to bring auxin biosynthesis in closer proximity to ER-localized factors for transport, conjugation, and signalling, and allow for an additional level of regulation by subcellular compartmentation of auxin action. Furthermore, it might provide a link to ethylene action and be a factor in hormonal cross-talk as all five ethylene receptors are ER localized. PMID:26139824

  4. Protein Bodies in Leaves Exchange Contents through the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Saberianfar, Reza; Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Joensuu, Jussi J.; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles. PMID:27242885

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol; Woo, Je Moon; Son, Yong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulation in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Miharada, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in bone marrow and are maintained in a dormant state within a special microenvironment, their so-called "niche". Detaching from the niche induces cell cycle progression, resulting in a reduction of the reconstitution capacity of HSCs. In contrast, fetal liver HSCs actively divide without losing their stem cell potentials. Thus, it has been unclear what types of cellular responses and metabolic changes occur in growing HSCs. We previously discovered that HSCs express relatively low levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins governing protein folding, making HSCs vulnerable to an elevation of stress signals caused by accumulation of un-/misfolded proteins (ER stress) upon in vitro culture. Interestingly, fetal liver HSCs do not show ER stress elevation despite unchanged levels of chaperone proteins. Our latest studies utilizing multiple mouse models revealed that in the fetal liver bile acids as chemical chaperones play a key role supporting the protein folding which results in the suppression of ER stress induction. These findings highlight the importance of ER stress regulations in hematopoiesis. PMID:27599423

  7. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Orofacial Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Sun; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yun Sook; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological diseases and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory mediators induce neuronal damage and trigger the neuropathic or inflammatory pain. But there is very little data on the role of the ER stress response in pain mechanisms. In this study, we explored whether the ER stress response is involved in orofacial inflammatory pain by using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rat model. The thermal pain hypersensitivity increased significantly after CFA injection. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress response genes, GRP78/Bip and p-eIF2α, increased significantly in trigeminal ganglion (TG) of CFA-injected rats compared to control animals. In immunofluorescence analysis, a significant increase of GRP78 and p-eIF2α immunopositive neurons was observed in CFA-injected TG compared to control TG. When we administered an ER stress modulator, salubrinal, CFA-induced thermal pain hypersensitivity was temporally reduced. Thus, our study suggests that ER stress responses in TG neurons contribute to CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and may comprise an important molecular mechanism underlying the orofacial inflammatory pain pathway. PMID:25548537

  8. The antioxidant machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum: Protection and signaling.

    PubMed

    Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Cellular metabolism is inherently linked to the production of oxidizing by-products, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). When present in excess, H2O2 can damage cellular biomolecules, but when produced in coordinated fashion, it typically serves as a mobile signaling messenger. It is therefore not surprising that cell health critically relies on both low-molecular-weight and enzymatic antioxidant components, which protect from ROS-mediated damage and shape the propagation and duration of ROS signals. This review focuses on H2O2-antioxidant cross talk in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is intimately linked to the process of oxidative protein folding. ER-resident or ER-regulated sources of H2O2 and other ROS, which are subgrouped into constitutive and stimulated sources, are discussed and set into context with the diverse antioxidant mechanisms in the organelle. These include two types of peroxide-reducing enzymes, a high concentration of glutathione derived from the cytosol, and feedback-regulated thiol-disulfide switches, which negatively control the major ER oxidase ER oxidoreductin-1. Finally, new evidence highlighting emerging principles of H2O2-based cues at the ER will likely set a basis for establishing ER redox processes as a major line of future signaling research. A fundamental problem that remains to be solved is the specific, quantitative, time resolved, and targeted detection of H2O2 in the ER and in specialized ER subdomains. PMID:25744411

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Interacts With Inflammation in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Stewart Siyan; Luo, Katherine L.; Shi, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a critical organelle for normal cell function and homeostasis. Disturbed protein folding process in the ER, termed ER stress, leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) that encompasses a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. The UPR can either restore ER homeostasis or activate pro-apoptotic pathways depending on specific insults, intensity and duration of the stress, and cell types. ER stress and the UPR have recently been linked to inflammation in a variety of human pathologies including autoimmune diseases, infection, neurodegenerative disease, and metabolic disorders. In the cell, ER stress and inflammatory signaling share extensive regulators and effectors in a broad spectrum of biological processes. In spite of different etiologies, the two signaling pathways were shown to form a vicious cycle in exacerbating cellular dysfunction and causing apoptosis in many cells and tissues. However, the interaction between ER stress and inflammation in many of these diseases remains elusive. Further understanding of those issues may enable the development of novel therapies that spontaneously target these pathogenic pathways. PMID:26201832

  10. Protein Bodies in Leaves Exchange Contents through the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Saberianfar, Reza; Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Joensuu, Jussi J; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles. PMID:27242885

  11. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jeremy T; Schoborg, Todd A; Bergman, Zane J; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  12. Quantitative proteomic survey of endoplasmic reticulum in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanping; Jiang, Ying; Ying, Wantao; Gong, Yan; Yan, Yujuan; Yang, Dong; Ma, Jie; Xue, Xiaofang; Zhong, Fan; Wu, Songfeng; Hao, Yunwei; Sun, Aihua; Li, Tao; Sun, Wei; Wei, Handong; Zhu, Yunping; Qian, Xiaohong; He, Fuchu

    2010-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the critical function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in liver, we carried out a proteomic survey of mouse liver ER. The ER proteome was profiled with a new three-dimensional, gel-based strategy. From 6152 and 6935 MS spectra, 903 and 1042 proteins were identified with at least two peptides matches at 95% confidence in the rough (r) and smooth (s) ER, respectively. Comparison of the rER and sER proteomes showed that calcium-binding proteins are significantly enriched in the sER suggesting that the ion-binding function of the ER is compartmentalized. Comparison of the rat and mouse ER proteomes showed that 662 proteins were common to both, comprising 53.5% and 49.3% of those proteomes, respectively. We proposed that these proteins were stably expressed proteins that were essential for the maintenance of ER function. GO annotation with a hypergeometric model proved this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, 210 unknown proteins and some proteins previously reported to occur in the cytosol were highly enriched in the ER. This study provides a reference map for the ER proteome of liver. Identification of new ER proteins will enhance our current understanding of the ER and also suggest new functions for this organelle. PMID:20073521

  13. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Shuang; Yu, Pei-Pei; Sun, Ying; Wang, Dan-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Fen; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Jun; Sun, Lu-Guo; Song, Zhen-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front‑line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin‑induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose‑regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  14. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Jeremy T.; Schoborg, Todd A.; Bergman, Zane J.; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  15. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in drug-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Foufelle, Fabienne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is a key issue for public health because some side effects can be severe and life-threatening. These adverse effects can also be a major concern for the pharmaceutical companies since significant toxicity can lead to the interruption of clinical trials, or the withdrawal of the incriminated drugs from the market. Recent studies suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could be an important event involved in drug liability, in addition to other key mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Indeed, drug-induced ER stress could lead to several deleterious effects within cells and tissues including accumulation of lipids, cell death, cytolysis, and inflammation. After recalling important information regarding drug-induced adverse reactions and ER stress in diverse pathophysiological situations, this review summarizes the main data pertaining to drug-induced ER stress and its potential involvement in different adverse effects. Drugs presented in this review are for instance acetaminophen (APAP), arsenic trioxide and other anticancer drugs, diclofenac, and different antiretroviral compounds. We also included data on tunicamycin (an antibiotic not used in human medicine because of its toxicity) and thapsigargin (a toxic compound of the Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica) since both molecules are commonly used as prototypical toxins to induce ER stress in cellular and animal models. PMID:26977301

  16. PERK-opathies: An Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mechanism Underlying Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle C; Meier, Shelby E; Ingram, Alexandria L; Abisambra, Jose F

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a vital role in maintaining cell homeostasis as a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, prolonged UPR activity leads to cell death. This time-dependent dual functionality of the UPR represents the adaptive and cytotoxic pathways that result from ER stress. Chronic UPR activation in systemic and neurodegenerative diseases has been identified as an early sign of cellular dyshomeostasis. The Protein Kinase R-like ER Kinase (PERK) pathway is one of three major branches in the UPR, and it is the only one to modulate protein synthesis as an adaptive response. The specific identification of prolonged PERK activity has been correlated with the progression of disorders such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer, suggesting that PERK plays a role in the pathology of these disorders. For the first time, the term "PERK-opathies" is used to group these diseases in which PERK mediates detriment to the cell culminating in chronic disorders. This article reviews the literature documenting links between systemic disorders with the UPR, but with a specific emphasis on the PERK pathway. Then, articles reporting links between the UPR, and more specifically PERK, and neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Finally, a therapeutic perspective is discussed, where PERK interventions could be potential remedies for cellular dysfunction in chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26679859

  17. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, HONG-SHUANG; YU, PEI-PEI; SUN, YING; WANG, DAN-FENG; DENG, XIAO-FEN; BAO, YONG-LI; SONG, JUN; SUN, LU-GUO; SONG, ZHEN-BO; LI, YU-XIN

    2016-01-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front-line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin-induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  18. A Metabotropic-Like Flux-Independent NMDA Receptor Regulates Ca2+ Exit from Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca Balderas, Pavel; Aguilera, Penélope

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes were long thought to be only structural cells in the CNS; however, their functional properties support their role in information processing and cognition. The ionotropic glutamate N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) is critical for CNS functions, but its expression and function in astrocytes is still a matter of research and debate. Here, we report immunofluorescence (IF) labeling in rat cultured cortical astrocytes (rCCA) of all NMDAR subunits, with phenotypes suggesting their intracellular transport, and their mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR. IF and Western Blot revealed GluN1 full-length synthesis, subunit critical for NMDAR assembly and transport, and its plasma membrane localization. Functionally, we found an iCa2+ rise after NMDA treatment in Fluo-4-AM labeled rCCA, an effect blocked by the NMDAR competitive inhibitors D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) and Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and dependent upon GluN1 expression as evidenced by siRNA knock down. Surprisingly, the iCa2+ rise was not blocked by MK-801, an NMDAR channel blocker, or by extracellular Ca2+ depletion, indicating flux-independent NMDAR function. In contrast, the IP3 receptor (IP3R) inhibitor XestosponginC did block this response, whereas a Ryanodine Receptor inhibitor did so only partially. Furthermore, tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein enhanced the NMDA elicited iCa2+ rise to levels comparable to those reached by the gliotransmitter ATP, but with different population dynamics. Finally, NMDA depleted the rCCA mitochondrial membrane potential (mΔψ) measured with JC-1. Our results demonstrate that rCCA express NMDAR subunits which assemble into functional receptors that mediate a metabotropic-like, non-canonical, flux-independent iCa2+ increase. PMID:25954808

  19. Stability and flexibility of marginally hydrophobic–segment stalling at the endoplasmic reticulum translocon

    PubMed Central

    Kida, Yuichiro; Ishihara, Yudai; Fujita, Hidenobu; Onishi, Yukiko; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Many membrane proteins are integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane through the protein-conducting channel, the translocon. Transmembrane segments with insufficient hydrophobicity for membrane integration are frequently found in multispanning membrane proteins, and such marginally hydrophobic (mH) segments should be accommodated, at least transiently, at the membrane. Here we investigated how mH-segments stall at the membrane and their stability. Our findings show that mH-segments can be retained at the membrane without moving into the lipid phase and that such segments flank Sec61α, the core channel of the translocon, in the translational intermediate state. The mH-segments are gradually transferred from the Sec61 channel to the lipid environment in a hydrophobicity-dependent manner, and this lateral movement may be affected by the ribosome. In addition, stalling mH-segments allow for insertion of the following transmembrane segment, forming an Ncytosol/Clumen orientation, suggesting that mH-segments can move laterally to accommodate the next transmembrane segment. These findings suggest that mH-segments may be accommodated at the ER membrane with lateral fluctuation between the Sec61 channel and the lipid phase. PMID:26823014

  20. Proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes after ether or halothane.

    PubMed

    Ross, W T; Cardell, R R

    1978-05-01

    Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatic ultrastructure were studied in rats after two hours of anesthesia with 1 MAC halothane or diethyl ether. Twelve hours after cessation of either anesthetic smooth endoplasmic reticulum was increased in centrilobular but not in periportal hepatocytes. This change persisted at 24- and 36-hour sampling times. Microsomal cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 decreased after halothane anesthesia (by 7 to 20 per cent of control). Diethyl ether caused increased cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 (27 and 18 per cent, respectively) at the 36-hour sampling time. NADPH cytochrome c reductase did not change significantly after either agent. The authors interpret these results to mean that both agents promote conversion of rough endoplasmic reticulum to smooth endoplasmic reticulum or, alternatively, that the anesthetics decrease degradation of smooth endoplasmic membranes. Since only ether caused an increase in the microsomal content of enzymes of the drug-metabolizing enzyme system, it is concluded that these two anesthetics act on hepatic cells by dissimilar mechanisms. PMID:646150

  1. Identification of a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, B.; Ichida, A.; Wang, Y.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some isoforms appear to reside in non-plasma membrane locations. To begin delineating their functions, we investigated the subcellular localization of isoform ACA2p (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2 protein) in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ACA2p resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In buoyant density sucrose gradients performed with and without Mg2+, ACA2p cofractionated with an ER membrane marker and a typical "ER-type" Ca2+-ATPase, ACA3p/ECA1p. To visualize its subcellular localization, ACA2p was tagged with a green fluorescence protein at its C terminus (ACA2-GFPp) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We collected fluorescence images from live root cells using confocal and computational optical-sectioning microscopy. ACA2-GFPp appeared as a fluorescent reticulum, consistent with an ER location. In addition, we observed strong fluorescence around the nuclei of mature epidermal cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ACA2p may also function in the nuclear envelope. An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates transglutaminase 2 leading to protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JIN-HAENG; JEONG, JAEHO; JEONG, EUI MAN; CHO, SUNG-YUP; KANG, JEONG WOOK; LIM, JISUN; HEO, JINBEOM; KANG, HYUNSOOK; KIM, IN-GYU; SHIN, DONG-MYUNG

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) contributes to a variety of protein conformational disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cataracts. The accumulation of improperly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which promotes either repair or degradation of the damaged proteins. Inadequate UPR results in protein aggregation that may contribute to the development of age-related degenerative diseases. TGase2 is a calcium-dependent enzyme that irreversibly modifies proteins by forming cross-linked protein aggregates. Intracellular TGase2 is activated by oxidative stress which generates large quantities of unfolded proteins. However, the relationship between TGase2 activity and UPR has not yet been established. In the present study, we demonstrated that ER stress activated TGase2 in various cell types. TGase2 activation was dependent on the ER stress-induced increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration but not on the TGase2 protein expression level. Enzyme substrate analysis revealed that TGase2-mediated protein modification promoted protein aggregation concurrently with decreasing water solubility. Moreover, treatment with KCC009, a TGase2 inhibitor, abrogated ER stress-induced TGase2 activation and subsequent protein aggregation. However, TGase2 activation had no effect on ER stress-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that the accumulation of misfolded proteins activates TGase2, which further accelerates the formation of protein aggregates. Therefore, we suggest that inhibition of TGase2 may be a novel strategy by which to prevent the protein aggregation in age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24481335

  3. Disulfide Mispairing During Proinsulin Folding in the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Haataja, Leena; Manickam, Nandini; Soliman, Ann; Tsai, Billy; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Proinsulin folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remains incompletely understood, but it is clear that in mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), progression of the (three) native disulfide bonds of proinsulin becomes derailed, causing insulin deficiency, β-cell ER stress, and onset of diabetes. Herein, we have undertaken a molecular dissection of proinsulin disulfide bond formation, using bioengineered proinsulins that can form only two (or even only one) of the native proinsulin disulfide bonds. In the absence of preexisting proinsulin disulfide pairing, Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) (a major determinant of ER stress response activation and proinsulin stability) preferentially initiates B-A chain disulfide bond formation, whereas Cys(B7)-Cys(A7) can initiate only under oxidizing conditions beyond that existing within the ER of β-cells. Interestingly, formation of these two "interchain" disulfide bonds demonstrates cooperativity, and together, they are sufficient to confer intracellular transport competence to proinsulin. The three most common proinsulin disulfide mispairings in the ER appear to involve Cys(A11)-Cys(A20), Cys(A7)-Cys(A20), and Cys(B19)-Cys(A11), each disrupting the critical Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) pairing. MIDY mutations inhibit Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) formation, but treatment to force oxidation of this disulfide bond improves folding and results in a small but detectable increase of proinsulin export. These data suggest possible therapeutic avenues to ameliorate ER stress and diabetes. PMID:26822090

  4. Diverse roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors in bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Pillich, Helena; Loose, Maria; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial infection often leads to cellular damage, primarily marked by loss of cellular integrity and cell death. However, in recent years, it is being increasingly recognized that, in individual cells, there are graded responses collectively termed cell-autonomous defense mechanisms that induce cellular processes designed to limit cell damage, enable repair, and eliminate bacteria. Many of these responses are triggered not by detection of a particular bacterial effector or ligand but rather by their effects on key cellular processes and changes in homeostasis induced by microbial effectors when recognized. These in turn lead to a decrease in essential cellular functions such as protein translation or mitochondrial respiration and the induction of innate immune responses that may be specific to the cellular deficit induced. These processes are often associated with specific cell compartments, e.g., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under non-infection conditions, these systems are generally involved in sensing cellular stress and in inducing and orchestrating the subsequent cellular response. Thus, perturbations of ER homeostasis result in accumulation of unfolded proteins which are detected by ER stress sensors in order to restore the normal condition. The ER is also important during bacterial infection, and bacterial effectors that activate the ER stress sensors have been discovered. Increasing evidence now indicate that bacteria have evolved strategies to differentially activate different arms of ER stress sensors resulting in specific host cell response. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms used by bacteria to activate the ER stress sensors and discuss their role during infection. PMID:26883353

  5. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Zhang, Nan; Vangheluwe, Peter; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in the intracellular concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i) regulate diverse cellular processes including fertilization. In mammalian eggs, the [Ca2+]i changes induced by the sperm unfold in a pattern of periodical rises, also known as [Ca2+]i oscillations. The source of Ca2+ during oscillations is the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]ER), but it is presently unknown how [Ca2+]ER is regulated. Here, we show using mouse eggs that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by a variety of agonists, including PLCζ, SrCl2 and thimerosal, provoke simultaneous but opposite changes in [Ca2+]ER and cause differential effects on the refilling and overall load of [Ca2+]ER. We also found that Ca2+ influx is required to refill [Ca2+]ER, because the loss of [Ca2+]ER was accelerated in medium devoid of Ca2+. Pharmacological inactivation of the function of the mitochondria and of the Ca2+-ATPase pumps PMCA and SERCA altered the pattern of oscillations and abruptly reduced [Ca2+]ER, especially after inactivation of mitochondria and SERCA functions. We also examined the expression of SERCA2b protein and found that it was expressed throughout oocyte maturation and attained a conspicuous cortical cluster organization in mature eggs. We show that its overexpression reduces the duration of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced [Ca2+]i rises, promotes initiation of oscillations and enhances refilling of [Ca2+]ER. Collectively, our results provide novel insights on the regulation of [Ca2+]ER oscillations, which underlie the unique Ca2+-signalling system that activates the developmental program in mammalian eggs. PMID:24101727

  6. Targeted induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress induces cartilage pathology.

    PubMed

    Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben; Kung, Louise; Eardley, Rachel; Knowles, Lynette; Heeran, Mel; Thornton, David J; Wilson, Richard; Bateman, John F; Poulsom, Richard; Arvan, Peter; Kadler, Karl E; Briggs, Michael D; Boot-Handford, Raymond P

    2009-10-01

    Pathologies caused by mutations in extracellular matrix proteins are generally considered to result from the synthesis of extracellular matrices that are defective. Mutations in type X collagen cause metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS), a disorder characterised by dwarfism and an expanded growth plate hypertrophic zone. We generated a knock-in mouse model of an MCDS-causing mutation (COL10A1 p.Asn617Lys) to investigate pathogenic mechanisms linking genotype and phenotype. Mice expressing the collagen X mutation had shortened limbs and an expanded hypertrophic zone. Chondrocytes in the hypertrophic zone exhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and a robust unfolded protein response (UPR) due to intracellular retention of mutant protein. Hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and osteoclast recruitment were significantly reduced indicating that the hypertrophic zone was expanded due to a decreased rate of VEGF-mediated vascular invasion of the growth plate. To test directly the role of ER stress and UPR in generating the MCDS phenotype, we produced transgenic mouse lines that used the collagen X promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (the cog mutant of thyroglobulin) in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The hypertrophic chondrocytes in this mouse exhibited ER stress with a characteristic UPR response. In addition, the hypertrophic zone was expanded, gene expression patterns were disrupted, osteoclast recruitment to the vascular invasion front was reduced, and long bone growth decreased. Our data demonstrate that triggering ER stress per se in hypertrophic chondrocytes is sufficient to induce the essential features of the cartilage pathology associated with MCDS and confirm that ER stress is a central pathogenic factor in the disease mechanism. These findings support the contention that ER stress may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of many connective tissue disorders associated with the expression of mutant extracellular matrix

  7. Pael receptor, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Yuzuru

    2003-10-01

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by mutations of the parkin gene. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically recognizes its substrate protein, promoting its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that AR-JP may be caused by accumulation of an unidentified neurotoxic protein, which is a substrate of parkin. Based on this hypothesis, we cloned parkin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system and identified a putative G protein-coupled receptor protein,which we named the Pael receptor (Pael-R). When overexpressed in cells, this receptor became unfolded, insoluble, and ubiquitinated. Accumulation of the insoluble Pael-R subsequently led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death. Parkin specifically ubiquitinates the unfolded Pael-R and promotes its degradation, resulting in suppression of cell death induced by the accumulation of unfolded Pael-R. Moreover, insoluble Pael-R accumulates in the brains of AR-JP patients. It is highly expressed by the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, strongly suggesting that accumulation of unfolded Pael-R may lead to selective death of dopaminergic neurons in AR-JP.Recently, we identified Hsp70 and its co-chaperone CHIP as novel parkin-binding partners. We found that CHIP enhanced parkinmediated ubiquitination of Pael-R. In concert with Hsp70, CHIP also enhanced the ability of parkin to inhibit cell death induced by Pael-R, indicating that CHIP and Hsp70 are both co-factors of parkin. PMID:14579121

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: key promoter of rosacea pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2014-12-01

    Recent scientific interest in the pathogenesis of rosacea focuses on abnormally high facial skin levels of cathelicidin and the trypsin-like serine protease kallikrein 5 (KLK5) that cleaves the cathelicidin precursor protein into the bioactive fragment LL-37, which exerts crucial proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been identified in rosacea skin supporting the participation of the innate immune system. Notably, TLRs are expressed on sensory neurons and increase neuronal excitability linking TLR signalling to the transmission of neuroinflammatory responses. It is the intention of this viewpoint to present a unifying concept that links all known clinical trigger factors of rosacea such as UV irradiation, heat, skin irritants and special foods to one converging point: enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress via upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 increases TLR2 expression, resulting in enhanced production of cathelicidin and KLK5 mediating downstream proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial signalling. The presented concept identifies rosacea trigger factors as environmental stressors that enhance the skin's ER stress response. Exaggerated cutaneous ER stress that stimulates the TLR2-driven inflammatory response may involve sebocytes, keratinocytes, monocyte-macrophages and sensory cutaneous neurons. Finally, all antirosacea drugs are proposed to attenuate the ER stress signalling cascade at some point. Overstimulated ER stress signalling may have evolutionarily evolved as a compensatory mechanism to balance impaired vitamin D-driven LL-37-mediated antimicrobial defenses due to lower exposure of UV-B irradiation of the northern Celtic population. PMID:25047092

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 and rheumatic disease: functional variation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tri M.; Colbert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent developments in our understanding of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) function in relation to its role in MHC class I peptide presentation and HLA class I-associated diseases. Recent findings ERAP1 polymorphisms exhibiting loss-of-function have been associated with protection from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aminopeptidase function of ERAP1 optimizes peptides for binding and presentation by MHC class I. Most studies have revealed reduced MHC class I expression in situations of reduced ERAP1 function. Under these circumstances the presented peptides are often N-terminally extended, and cell surface complexes are unstable and fall apart more readily. In contrast, peptides presented by HLA-B*27:05 when ERAP1 is silenced are frequently extended on the C-terminus. Recent work has emphasized the importance of assessing the function of allotypes encoded by ERAP1 haplotypes, rather than effects of single amino acid substitutions. The allotypes found in a series of AS patients were poorer at restoring HLA-B27 expression than allotypes found in unaffected controls, which may seem contrary to the genetic data linking loss-of-function to protection. Summary More work is needed to understand how ERAP1 variants associated with risk and protection influence the quality and quantity of peptides available for binding to HLA class I molecules in the ER. Moreover, we need to determine allele-specific effects of ERAP1 variants in the context of HLA-B*51 and HLA-Cw*6, which are associated with Behçet’s disease and psoriasis, respectively. PMID:26002027

  10. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Bakeman, Anna; Glasser, Rebecca; Boggs, Janet; Pacut, Crystal; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, has a negative impact on cognitive health. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated during metabolic syndrome, however it is not known which factor associated with metabolic syndrome contributes to this stress. ER stress has been reported to play a role in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. The role of ER stress in the development of insulin resistance in hippocampal neurons is not known. In the current study, we investigated ER stress in the hippocampus of 3 different mouse models of metabolic syndrome: the C57BL6 mouse on a high fat (HF) diet; apolipoprotein E, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (ApoE 3KO) mice; and the low density lipoprotein receptor, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (LDLR 3KO) mice. We demonstrate that ER stress is activated in the hippocampus of HF mice, and for the first time, in ApoE 3KO mice, but not LDLR 3KO mice. The HF and ApoE 3KO mice are hyperglycemic; however, the LDLR 3KO mice have normal glycemia. This suggests that hyperglycemia may play a role in the activation of ER stress in the hippocampus. Similarly, we also demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling is only present in the HF and ApoE 3KO mice, which suggests that ER stress may play a role in insulin resistance in the hippocampus. To confirm this we pharmacologically induced ER stress with thapsigargin in human hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate for the first time that thapsigargin leads to ER stress and impaired insulin signaling in human hippocampal neurons. Our results may provide a potential mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and cognitive health. PMID:26775176

  11. Ethanol Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Zunji; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Fan, Zhiqin; Chen, Gang; Xu, Mei; Bower, Kimberley A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Li, Mingtao; Fang, Shengyun; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during brain development causes profound damages to the central nervous system (CNS). The underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress, which is characterized by translational attenuation, synthesis of ER chaperone proteins, and activation of transcription factors. Sustained ER stress ultimately leads to cell death. ER stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative processes. Methods Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol induces ER stress in the developing brain. Seven-day-old C57BL/6 mice were acutely exposed to ethanol by subcutaneous injection and the expression of ER stress-inducible proteins (ERSIPs) and signaling pathways associated with ER stress were examined. Results Ethanol exposure significantly increased the expression of ERSIPs and activated signaling pathways associated with ER stress; these include ATF6, CHOP/GADD153, GRP78, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor as well as the phosphorylation of IRE1α, eIF2α, PERK, and PKR. The ethanol-induced increase in ERSIPs occurred within 4 hours of ethanol injection, and levels of some ERSIPs remained elevated after 24 hours of ethanol exposure. Ethanol-induced increase in phosphorylated eIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP was distributed in neurons of specific areas of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Conclusions Our finding indicates that ethanol induces ER stress in immature neurons, providing novel insight into ethanol’s detrimental effect on the developing CNS. PMID:21599712

  12. Presenilin 2 Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Coupling by Tuning the Antagonistic Effect of Mitofusin 2.

    PubMed

    Filadi, Riccardo; Greotti, Elisa; Turacchio, Gabriele; Luini, Alberto; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Communication between organelles plays key roles in cell biology. In particular, physical and functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for regulation of various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here, we demonstrate that Presenilin 2 (PS2), mutations in which underlie familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), promotes ER-mitochondria coupling only in the presence of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). PS2 is not necessary for the antagonistic effect of Mfn2 on organelle coupling, although its abundance can tune it. The two proteins physically interact, whereas their homologues Mfn1 and PS1 are dispensable for this interplay. Moreover, PS2 mutants associated with FAD are more effective than the wild-type form in modulating ER-mitochondria tethering because their binding to Mfn2 in mitochondria-associated membranes is favored. We propose a revised model for ER-mitochondria interaction to account for these findings and discuss possible implications for FAD pathogenesis. PMID:27239030

  13. Coordination of stress, Ca2+, and immunogenic signaling pathways by PERK at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Garg, Abhishek D; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main coordinator of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, protein synthesis, and folding. The ER is also implicated in the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including mitochondria, plasma membrane (PM), and endosomes, thereby orchestrating through interorganelle signaling pathways, a variety of cellular responses including Ca2+ homeostasis, metabolism, and cell death signaling. Upon loss of its folding capacity, incited by a number of stress signals including those elicited by various anticancer therapies, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is launched to restore ER homeostasis. The ER stress sensor protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) is a key mediator of the UPR and its role during ER stress has been largely recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that PERK may govern signaling pathways through UPR-independent functions. Here, we discuss emerging noncanonical roles of PERK with particular relevance for the induction of danger or immunogenic signaling and interorganelle communication. PMID:26872313

  14. Cell Biology of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus through Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Smirle, Jeffrey; Au, Catherine E.; Jain, Michael; Dejgaard, Kurt; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John

    2013-01-01

    Enriched endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes subjected to mass spectrometry have uncovered over a thousand different proteins assigned to the ER and Golgi apparatus of rat liver. This, in turn, led to the uncovering of several hundred proteins of poorly understood function and, through hierarchical clustering, showed that proteins distributed in patterns suggestive of microdomains in cognate organelles. This has led to new insights with respect to their intracellular localization and function. Another outcome has been the critical testing of the cisternal maturation hypothesis showing overwhelming support for a predominant role of COPI vesicles in the transport of resident proteins of the ER and Golgi apparatus (as opposed to biosynthetic cargo). Here we will discuss new insights gained and also highlight new avenues undertaken to further explore the cell biology of the ER and the Golgi apparatus through tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:23284051

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the on site function of resident PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Popov, Doina

    2012-06-15

    Growing evidence links the stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, liver, heart, renal and neurodegenerative diseases, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, identification of molecular pathways beyond ER stress and their appropriate modulation might alleviate the stress, and direct toward novel tools to fight this disturbance. An interesting resident of the ER membrane is protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme that negatively regulates insulin and leptin signaling, contributing to insulin and leptin resistance. Recently, new functions of PTP1B have been established linked to ER stress response. This review evaluates the novel data on ER stressors, discusses the mechanisms beyond PTP1B function in the ER stress response, and emphasizes the potential therapeutic exploitation of PTP1B to relieve ER stress. PMID:22609202

  16. Taking organelles apart, putting them back together and creating new ones: lessons from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Christine; Roy, Line; Lanoix, Joël; Taheri, Mariam; Young, Robin; Thibault, Geneviève; Farah, Carol Abi; Leclerc, Nicole; Paiement, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle. It is composed of four subcompartments including nuclear envelope (NE), rough ER (rER), smooth ER (sER) and transitional ER (tER). The subcompartments are interconnected, can fragment and dissociate and are able to reassemble again. They coordinate with cell function by way of protein regulators in the surrounding cytosol. The activity of the many associated molecular machines of the ER as well as the fluid nature of the limiting membrane of the ER contribute extensively to the dynamics of the ER. This review examines the properties of the ER that permit its isolation and purification and the physiological conditions that permit reconstitution both in vitro and in vivo in normal and in disease conditions. PMID:21536318

  17. Protein 600 is a microtubule/endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein in CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Shim, Su Yeon; Wang, Jian; Asada, Naoyuki; Neumayer, Gernot; Tran, Hong Chi; Ishiguro, Kei-ichiro; Sanada, Kamon; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Nguyen, Minh Dang

    2008-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature pointing to cytoskeletal proteins as spatial organizers and interactors of organelles. In this study, we identified protein 600 (p600) as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP) developmentally regulated in neurons. p600 exhibits the unique feature to interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Silencing of p600 by RNA interference (RNAi) destabilizes neuronal processes in young primary neurons undergoing neurite extension and containing scarce staining of the ER marker Bip. Furthermore, in utero electroporation of p600 RNAi alters neuronal migration, a process that depends on synergistic actions of microtubule dynamics and ER functions. p600-depleted migrating neurons display thin, crooked, and "zigzag" leading process with very few ER membranes. Thus, p600 constitutes the only known MAP to associate with the ER in neurons, and this interaction may impact on multiple cellular processes ranging from neuronal development to neuronal maturation and plasticity. PMID:18385319

  18. The deadly connection between endoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+, protein synthesis, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Guyla G.; White, Misti C.; Wu, Jian-He; Vallejo, Matthew; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in Ca2+ signaling and protein processing. Accumulation of unfolded proteins following ER Ca2+ depletion triggers the ER stress response (ERSR), which facilitates protein folding and removal of damaged proteins and can induce cell death. Unfolded proteins bind to chaperones, such as the glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 and cause the release of GRP78-repressed proteins executing ERSR. Methods Several glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes were used to analyze ERSR using standard western blots, reverse transcription–PCR, viability assays, and single cell Ca2+ imaging. Results ERSR induction with thapsigargin results in a more intense ERSR associated with a larger loss of ER Ca2+, activation of ER-associated caspases (4/12) and caspase 3, and a higher rate of malignant glioma cell death than in normal glial cells. Malignant glioma cells have higher levels of protein synthesis and expression of the translocon (a component of the ribosomal complex, guiding protein entry in the ER), the activity of which is associated with the loss of ER Ca2+. Our experiments confirm increased expression of the translocon in malignant glioma cells. In addition, blockade of the ribosome-translocon complex with agents differently affecting translocon Ca2+ permeability causes opposite effects on ERSR deployment and death of malignant glioma cells. Conclusions Excessive ER Ca2+ loss due to translocon activity appears to be responsible for the enhancement of ERSR, leading to the death of glioma cells. The results reveal a characteristic of malignant glioma cells that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat incurable glial malignancies. PMID:24569545

  19. PARM-1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Molecule Involved in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Imoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Asada, Satoshi; Adachi, Atsuo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Oh, Hidemasa; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    To identify novel transmembrane and secretory molecules expressed in cardiac myocytes, signal sequence trap screening was performed in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. One of the molecules identified was a transmembrane protein, prostatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1). While PARM-1 has been identified as a gene induced in prostate in response to castration, its function is largely unknown. Our expression analysis revealed that PARM-1 was specifically expressed in hearts and skeletal muscles, and in the heart, cardiac myocytes, but not non-myocytes expressed PARM-1. Immunofluorescent staining showed that PARM-1 was predominantly localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Dahl salt-sensitive rats, high-salt diet resulted in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, and significantly stimulated PARM-1 expression in the hearts, with a concomitant increase in ER stress markers such as GRP78 and CHOP. In cultured cardiac myocytes, PARM-1 expression was stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, but not by hypertrophic stimuli. A marked increase in PARM-1 expression was observed in response to ER stress inducers such as thapsigargin and tunicamycin, which also induced apoptotic cell death. Silencing PARM-1 expression by siRNAs enhanced apoptotic response in cardiac myocytes to ER stresses. PARM-1 silencing also repressed expression of PERK and ATF6, and augmented expression of CHOP without affecting IRE-1 expression and JNK and Caspase-12 activation. Thus, PARM-1 expression is induced by ER stress, which plays a protective role in cardiac myocytes through regulating PERK, ATF6 and CHOP expression. These results suggested that PARM-1 is a novel ER transmembrane molecule involved in cardiac remodeling in hypertensive heart disease. PMID:20305782

  20. Role of syntaxin 18 in the organization of endoplasmic reticulum subdomains.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, Takayuki; Aoki, Takehiro; Arasaki, Kohei; Hirose, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Samata, Rie; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Arimitsu, Nagisa; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Tani, Katsuko

    2009-05-15

    The presence of subdomains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enables this organelle to perform a variety of functions, yet the mechanisms underlying their organization are poorly understood. In the present study, we show that syntaxin 18, a SNAP (soluble NSF attachment protein) receptor localized in the ER, is important for the organization of two ER subdomains, smooth/rough ER membranes and ER exit sites. Knockdown of syntaxin 18 caused a global change in ER membrane architecture, leading to the segregation of the smooth and rough ER. Furthermore, the organization of ER exit sites was markedly changed concomitantly with dispersion of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi complex. These morphological changes in the ER were substantially recovered by treatment of syntaxin-18-depleted cells with brefeldin A, a reagent that stimulates retrograde membrane flow to the ER. These results suggest that syntaxin 18 has an important role in ER subdomain organization by mediating the fusion of retrograde membrane carriers with the ER membrane. PMID:19401338

  1. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process involving several metabolic and signalling pathways. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated apoptosis can be induced in the pathological conditions of atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the disease progression. Notably, they may play a role in the development of vulnerable plaques that induce thrombosis and are therefore especially dangerous. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response is regulated by several signaling mechanisms that involve protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these molecules can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets to improve treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we will discuss the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in atherosclerosis development in different cell types and summarize the current knowledge on potential therapeutic agents targeting molecules regulating these pathways and their possible use for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:26840309

  2. New insights in the role of Bcl-2 Bcl-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rudner, J; Jendrossek, V; Belka, C

    2002-10-01

    The oncogenic protein Bcl-2 which is expressed in membranes of different subcellular organelles protects cells from apoptosis induced by endogenic stimuli. Most of the results published so far emphasise the importance of Bcl-2 at the mitochondria. Several recent observations suggest a role of Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 located at the ER was shown to interfere with apoptosis induction by Bax, ceramides, ionising radiation, serum withdrawal and c-myc expression. Although the detailed functions of Bcl-2 at the ER remain elusive, several speculative mechanisms may be supposed. For instance, Bcl-2 at the ER may regulate calcium fluxes between the ER and the mitochondria. In addition, Bcl-2 is able to interact with the endoplasmic protein Bap31 thus avoiding caspase activation at the ER. Bcl-2 may also abrogate the function of ER located pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 like proteins by heterodimerization. Current data on the function of Bcl-2 at the ER, its role for the modulation of calcium fluxes and its influence on caspase activation at the ER are reviewed. PMID:12207177

  3. CYP2J2-Derived Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Suppress Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxu; Ni, Li; Yang, Lei; Duan, Quanlu; Chen, Chen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes apoptosis and is associated with heart failure. Whether CYP2J2 and its arachidonic acid metabolites [epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] have a protective influence on ER stress and heart failure has not been studied. Assays of myocardial samples from patients with end-stage heart failure showed evidence of ER stress. Chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) or angiotensin II (AngII) by osmotic mini-pump induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice as evaluated by hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography. Interestingly, transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific CYP2J2 expression were protected against heart failure compared with wild-type mice. ISO or AngII administration induced ER stress and apoptosis, and increased levels of intracellular Ca2+. These phenotypes were abolished by CYP2J2 overexpression in vivo or exogenous EETs treatment of cardiomyocytes in vitro. ISO or AngII reduced sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) expression in hearts or isolated cardiomyocytes; however, loss of SERCA2a expression was prevented in CYP2J2 Tr hearts in vivo or in cardiomyocytes treated with EETs in vitro. The reduction of SERCA2a activity was concomitant with increased oxidation of SERCA2a. EETs reversed SERCA2a oxidation through increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced reactive oxygen species levels. Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, similarly decreased oxidized SERCA2a levels, restored SERCA2a activity, and markedly reduced ER stress response in the mice treated with ISO. In conclusion, CYP2J2-derived EETs suppress ER stress response in the heart and protect against cardiac failure by maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and SERCA2a expression and activity. PMID:24145329

  4. CYP2J2-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids suppress endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxu; Ni, Li; Yang, Lei; Duan, Quanlu; Chen, Chen; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wang, Dao Wen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes apoptosis and is associated with heart failure. Whether CYP2J2 and its arachidonic acid metabolites [epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] have a protective influence on ER stress and heart failure has not been studied. Assays of myocardial samples from patients with end-stage heart failure showed evidence of ER stress. Chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) or angiotensin II (AngII) by osmotic mini-pump induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice as evaluated by hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography. Interestingly, transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific CYP2J2 expression were protected against heart failure compared with wild-type mice. ISO or AngII administration induced ER stress and apoptosis, and increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+). These phenotypes were abolished by CYP2J2 overexpression in vivo or exogenous EETs treatment of cardiomyocytes in vitro. ISO or AngII reduced sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) expression in hearts or isolated cardiomyocytes; however, loss of SERCA2a expression was prevented in CYP2J2 Tr hearts in vivo or in cardiomyocytes treated with EETs in vitro. The reduction of SERCA2a activity was concomitant with increased oxidation of SERCA2a. EETs reversed SERCA2a oxidation through increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced reactive oxygen species levels. Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, similarly decreased oxidized SERCA2a levels, restored SERCA2a activity, and markedly reduced ER stress response in the mice treated with ISO. In conclusion, CYP2J2-derived EETs suppress ER stress response in the heart and protect against cardiac failure by maintaining intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and SERCA2a expression and activity. PMID:24145329

  5. Detection of GTP-binding proteins in purified derivatives of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, J; Roy, L; Paiement, J

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in determining the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion stimulated by GTP in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), we have looked for GTP-binding proteins. Rough microsomes from rat liver were treated for the release of ribosomes, and the membrane proteins were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The polypeptides were then blotted on to nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP [Bhullar & Haslam (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620]. A doublet of polypeptides (23 and 24 kDa) was detected in the presence of 2 microM-MgCl2. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was blocked by 1-5 mM-EDTA, 10-10,000 nM-GTP or 10 microM-GDP. Either guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at 100 nM completely inhibited binding, but ATP, CTP or UTP at 10 mciroM did not. Pretreatment of microsomes by mild trypsin treatment (0.5-10 micrograms of trypsin/ml, concentrations known not to affect microsomal permeability) led to inhibition of [alpha-32P]GTP binding, suggesting a cytosolic membrane orientation for the GTP-binding proteins. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis revealed the 23 and 24 kDa [alpha-32P]GTP-binding proteins to have similar acid isoelectric points. [alpha-32P]GTP binding occurred to similar proteins of rough microsomes from rat liver, rat prostate and dog pancreas, as well as to a 23 kDa protein of rough microsomes from frog liver, but occurred to distinctly different proteins in a rat liver plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. Thus [alpha-32P]GTP binding has been demonstrated to two low-molecular-mass (approx. 21 kDa) proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of several varied cell types. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2508629

  6. Syntaxin 5 Overexpression and β-Amyloid 1–42 Accumulation in Endoplasmic Reticulum of Hippocampal Cells in Rat Brain Induced by Ozone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and it is currently accepted that oxidative damage precedes the overproduction of A42 peptide. We have reported that ozone causes oxidative stress inducing neurodegeneration in the brain of rats. It is associated with A42 overproduction and intracellular accumulation in hippocampus. Organelles like mitochondria, intracellular membranes, and endoplasmic reticulum have been identified as sites of A42 production and accumulation affecting cellular metabolism. However whether ozone exposure induces overproduction and/or accumulation of A42 in endoplasmic reticulum has not been studied. We evaluated this effect in the endoplasmic reticulum of hippocampal cells of rats exposed chronically to low doses of ozone (0.25 ppm) at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. The effect of the presence of A42 in endoplasmic reticulum was analyzed evaluating the expression of the chaperone Syntaxin 5. Our results show an accumulation of A42 peptide in this organelle. It was observed by immunofluorescence and by WB in endoplasmic fractions from hippocampal cells of rats at 60 and 90 days of treatment. Significant overexpression of the chaperone Syntaxin 5 at 60 and 90 days of treatment was observed (⁎P < 0.05). These results indicate that the exposure to environmental pollutants could be involved as a risk factor for neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27366738

  7. Syntaxin 5 Overexpression and β-Amyloid 1-42 Accumulation in Endoplasmic Reticulum of Hippocampal Cells in Rat Brain Induced by Ozone Exposure.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis Fernando; Rivas-Arancibia, Selva

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and it is currently accepted that oxidative damage precedes the overproduction of A42 peptide. We have reported that ozone causes oxidative stress inducing neurodegeneration in the brain of rats. It is associated with A42 overproduction and intracellular accumulation in hippocampus. Organelles like mitochondria, intracellular membranes, and endoplasmic reticulum have been identified as sites of A42 production and accumulation affecting cellular metabolism. However whether ozone exposure induces overproduction and/or accumulation of A42 in endoplasmic reticulum has not been studied. We evaluated this effect in the endoplasmic reticulum of hippocampal cells of rats exposed chronically to low doses of ozone (0.25 ppm) at 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. The effect of the presence of A42 in endoplasmic reticulum was analyzed evaluating the expression of the chaperone Syntaxin 5. Our results show an accumulation of A42 peptide in this organelle. It was observed by immunofluorescence and by WB in endoplasmic fractions from hippocampal cells of rats at 60 and 90 days of treatment. Significant overexpression of the chaperone Syntaxin 5 at 60 and 90 days of treatment was observed ((⁎) P < 0.05). These results indicate that the exposure to environmental pollutants could be involved as a risk factor for neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27366738

  8. Cytochrome P450 System Proteins Reside in Different Regions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R.; Brignac-Huber, Lauren M.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 function is dependent on the ability of these enzymes to successfully interact with their redox partners, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because the ER is heterogeneous in lipid composition, membrane microdomains with different characteristics are formed. Ordered microdomains are more tightly packed, and enriched in saturated fatty acids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, whereas disordered regions contain higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The goal of this study was to determine if the P450 system proteins localize to different regions of the ER. The localization of CYP1A2, CYP2B4, and CYP2E1 within the ER was determined by partial membrane solubilization with Brij 98, centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and immune blotting of the gradient fractions to identify ordered and disordered microdomains. CYP1A2 resided almost entirely in the ordered regions of the ER with CPR also localized predominantly to this region. CYP2B4 was equally distributed between the ordered and disordered domains. In contrast, CYP2E1 localized to the disordered membrane regions. Removal of cholesterol (an important constituent of ordered domains) led to the relocation of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CPR to the disordered regions. Interestingly, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 localized to different membrane microdomains, despite their high degree of sequence similarity. These data demonstrate that P450 system enzymes are organized in specific membrane regions, and their localization can be affected by depletion of membrane cholesterol. The differential localization of different P450s in specific membrane regions may provide a novel mechanism for modulating P450 function. PMID:25236845

  9. Cytochrome P450 system proteins reside in different regions of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R; Brignac-Huber, Lauren M; Backes, Wayne L

    2014-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) function is dependent on the ability of these enzymes to successfully interact with their redox partners, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because the ER is heterogeneous in lipid composition, membrane microdomains with different characteristics are formed. Ordered microdomains are more tightly packed, and enriched in saturated fatty acids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, whereas disordered regions contain higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the P450 system proteins localize to different regions of the ER. The localization of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CYP2E1 within the ER was determined by partial membrane solubilization with Brij 98, centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient and immune blotting of the gradient fractions to identify ordered and disordered microdomains. CYP1A2 resided almost entirely in the ordered regions of the ER with CPR also localized predominantly to this region. CYP2B4 was equally distributed between the ordered and disordered domains. In contrast, CYP2E1 localized to the disordered membrane regions. Removal of cholesterol (an important constituent of ordered domains) led to the relocation of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CPR to the disordered regions. Interestingly, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 localized to different membrane microdomains, despite their high degree of sequence similarity. These data demonstrate that P450 system enzymes are organized in specific membrane regions, and their localization can be affected by depletion of membrane cholesterol. The differential localization of different P450 in specific membrane regions may provide a novel mechanism for modulating P450 function. PMID:25236845

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in obesity and obesity-related disorders: An expanded view.

    PubMed

    Pagliassotti, Michael J; Kim, Paul Y; Estrada, Andrea L; Stewart, Claire M; Gentile, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. PMID:27506731

  11. The Nucleolar Channel System of Human Endometrium Is Related to Endoplasmic Reticulum and R-Rings

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Nupur; Zapantis, Gregory; Aubuchon, Mira; Santoro, Nanette; Bazett-Jones, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleolar channel system (NCS) is a well-established ultrastructural hallmark of the postovulation endometrium. Its transient presence has been associated with human fertility. Nevertheless, the biogenesis, composition, and function of these intranuclear membrane cisternae are unknown. Membrane systems with a striking ultrastructural resemblance to the NCS, termed R-rings, are induced in nuclei of tissue culture cells by overexpression of the central repeat domain of the nucleolar protein Nopp140. Here we provide a first molecular characterization of the NCS and compare the biogenesis of these two enigmatic organelles. Like the R-rings, the NCS consists of endoplasmic reticulum harboring the marker glucose-6-phosphatase. R-ring formation initiates at the nuclear envelope, apparently by a calcium-mediated Nopp140-membrane interaction, as supported by the calcium-binding ability of Nopp140, the inhibition of R-ring formation by calcium chelators, and the concentration of Nopp140 and complexed calcium in R-rings. Although biogenesis of the NCS may initiate similarly, the reduced presence of complexed calcium and Nopp140 suggests the involvement of additional factors. PMID:17429075

  12. Unique Requirement for ESCRT Factors in Flavivirus Particle Formation on the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Keisuke; Arimoto, Masaru; Arakawa, Masashi; Nara, Atsuki; Saito, Kazunobu; Omori, Hiroko; Arai, Arisa; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Konishi, Eiji; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Morita, Eiji

    2016-08-30

    Flavivirus infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane rearrangements to generate a compartment for replication of the viral genome and assembly of viral particles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified several ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins that are recruited to sites of virus replication on the ER. Systematic small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening revealed that release of both dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus was dramatically decreased by single depletion of TSG101 or co-depletion of specific combinations of ESCRT-III proteins, resulting in ≥1,000-fold titer reductions. By contrast, release was unaffected by depletion of some core ESCRTs, including VPS4. Reintroduction of ESCRT proteins to siRNA-depleted cells revealed interactions among ESCRT proteins that are crucial for flavivirus budding. Electron-microscopy studies revealed that the CHMP2 and CHMP4 proteins function directly in membrane deformation at the ER. Thus, a unique and specific subset of ESCRT contributes to ER membrane biogenesis during flavivirus infection. PMID:27545892

  13. Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation (ERAD) by Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Leticia; Goder, Veit

    2014-01-01

    Quality control of protein folding inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) includes chaperone-mediated assistance in folding and the selective targeting of terminally misfolded species to a pathway called ER-associated protein degradation, or simply ERAD. Once selected for ERAD, substrates will be transported (back) into the cytosol, a step called retrotranslocation. Although still ill defined, retrotranslocation likely involves a protein conducting channel that is in part formed by specific membrane-embedded E3 ubiquitin ligases. Early during retrotranslocation, reversible self-ubiquitination of these ligases is thought to aid in initiation of substrate transfer across the membrane. Once being at least partially exposed to the cytosol, substrates will become ubiquitinated on the cytosolic side of the ER membrane by the same E3 ubiquitin ligases. Ubiquitin on substrates was originally thought to be a permanent modification that (1) promotes late steps of retrotranslocation by recruiting the energy-providing ATPase Cdc48p/p97 via binding to its associated adaptor proteins and that (2) serves to target substrates to the proteasome. Recently it became evident, however, that the poly-ubiquitin chains (PUCs) on ERAD substrates are often subject to extensive remodeling, or processing, at several stages during ERAD. This review recapitulates the current knowledge and recent findings about PUC processing on ERAD substrates and ubiquitination of ERAD machinery components and discusses their functional consequences. PMID:25100021

  14. Single-channel properties of a rat brain endoplasmic reticulum anion channel.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A G; Murray, D; Ashley, R H

    1997-01-01

    Many intracellular membranes contain ion channels, although their physiological roles are often poorly understood. In this study we incorporated single anion channels colocalized with rat brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-release channels into planar lipid bilayers. The channels opened in bursts, with more activity at negative (cytoplasm-ER lumen) membrane potentials, and they occupied four open conductance levels with frequencies well described by the binomial equation. The probability of a protomer being open decreased from approximately 0.7 at -40 mV to approximately 0.2 at +40 mV, and the channels selected between different anions in the order PSCN > PNO3 > PBr > PCl > PF. They were also permeant to cations, including the large cation Tris+ (PTris/PCl = 0.16). Their conductance saturated at 170 pS in choline Cl. The channels were inactivated by 15 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and blocked with low affinity (KD of 1-100 microM) by anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, ethacrynic acid, frusemide (furosemide), HEPES, the indanyloxyacetic acid derivative IAA-94, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), and Zn2+. Unlike protein translocation pores, the channels were unaffected by high salt concentrations or puromycin. They may regulate ER Ca2+ release, or be channel components en route to their final cellular destinations. Alternatively, they may contribute to the fusion machinery involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. PMID:9199781

  15. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  16. Chlorhexidine-induced apoptosis or necrosis in L929 fibroblasts: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Gisele; Cardoso, Cristina R.B.; Larson, Roy E.; Silva, Joao S.; Rossi, Marcos A.

    2009-01-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), widely used as antiseptic and therapeutic agent in medicine and dentistry, has a toxic effect both in vivo and in vitro. The intrinsic mechanism underlying CHX-induced cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells is, however, still unknown. A recent study from our laboratory has suggested that CHX may induce death in cultured L929 fibroblasts via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This hypothesis was further tested by means of light and electron microscopy, quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, fluorescence visualization of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluation of the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), a marker of activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured L929 fibroblasts. Our finding showing increased Grp 78 expression in CHX-treated cells and the results of flow cytometry, cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum fluorescence visualization, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to suggest that CHX elicits accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes ER overload, resulting in ER stress and cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. It must be pointed out, however, that this does not necessarily mean that ER stress is the only way that CHX kills L929 fibroblasts, but rather that ER stress is an important target or indicator of cell death induced by this drug.

  17. Trimeric intracellular cation channels and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyu; Lin, Peihui; Yamazaki, Daiju; Park, Ki Ho; Komazaki, Shinji; Chen, S R Wayne; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-02-14

    Trimeric intracellular cation channels (TRIC) represents a novel class of trimeric intracellular cation channels. Two TRIC isoforms have been identified in both the human and the mouse genomes: TRIC-A, a subtype predominantly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells, and TRIC-B, a ubiquitous subtype expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all tissues. Genetic ablation of either TRIC-A or TRIC-B leads to compromised K(+) permeation and Ca(2+) release across the SR/ER membrane, supporting the hypothesis that TRIC channels provide a counter balancing K(+) flux that reduces SR/ER membrane depolarization for maintenance of the electrochemical gradient that drives SR/ER Ca(2+) release. TRIC-A and TRIC-B seem to have differential functions in Ca(2+) signaling in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Tric-a(-/-) mice display defective Ca(2+) sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents in arterial smooth muscle and develop hypertension, in addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Knockout of TRIC-B results in abnormal IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in airway epithelial cells, respiratory defects, and neonatal lethality. Double knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B show embryonic lethality as a result of cardiac arrest. Such an aggravated lethality indicates that TRIC-A and TRIC-B share complementary physiological functions in Ca(2+) signaling in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Tric-a(-/-) and Tric-b(+/-) mice are viable and susceptible to stress-induced heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that TRIC-A directly modulates the function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 Ca(2+) release channel, which in turn controls store-overload-induced Ca(2+) release from the SR. Thus, the TRIC channels, in addition to providing a countercurrent for SR/ER Ca(2+) release, may also function as accessory proteins that directly modulate the ryanodine receptor/IP3 receptor channel functions. PMID:24526676

  18. Lynx1 Shifts α4β2 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Stoichiometry by Affecting Assembly in the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Weston A.; Henderson, Brandon J.; Yu, Caroline; Parker, Rell L.; Richards, Christopher I.; Lester, Henry A.; Miwa, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neurotoxin-like receptor binding proteins, such as lynx modulators, are topologically positioned to exert pharmacological effects by binding to the extracellular portion of nAChRs. These actions are generally thought to proceed when both lynx and the nAChRs are on the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on α4β2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lynx1 affects assembly of nascent α4 and β2 subunits and alters the stoichiometry of the receptor population that reaches the plasma membrane. Additionally, these data suggest that lynx1 shifts nAChR stoichiometry to low sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 pentamers primarily through this interaction in the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than solely via direct modulation of activity on the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, these data represent the first test of the hypothesis that a lynx family member, or indeed any glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, could act within the cell to alter assembly of a multisubunit protein. PMID:25193667

  19. Lynx1 shifts α4β2 nicotinic receptor subunit stoichiometry by affecting assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Weston A; Henderson, Brandon J; Yu, Caroline; Parker, Rell L; Richards, Christopher I; Lester, Henry A; Miwa, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neurotoxin-like receptor binding proteins, such as lynx modulators, are topologically positioned to exert pharmacological effects by binding to the extracellular portion of nAChRs. These actions are generally thought to proceed when both lynx and the nAChRs are on the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that lynx1 also exerts effects on α4β2 nAChRs within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lynx1 affects assembly of nascent α4 and β2 subunits and alters the stoichiometry of the receptor population that reaches the plasma membrane. Additionally, these data suggest that lynx1 shifts nAChR stoichiometry to low sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 pentamers primarily through this interaction in the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than solely via direct modulation of activity on the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, these data represent the first test of the hypothesis that a lynx family member, or indeed any glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, could act within the cell to alter assembly of a multisubunit protein. PMID:25193667

  20. The reticulons: Guardians of the structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Di Sano, Federica; Bernardoni, Paolo; Piacentini, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a peripheral network of tubules and membrane sheets. The tubules are shaped by a specific class of curvature stabilizing proteins, the reticulons and DP1; however it is still unclear how the sheets are assembled. The ER is the cellular compartment responsible for secretory and membrane protein synthesis. The reducing conditions of ER lead to the intra/inter-chain formation of new disulphide bonds into polypeptides during protein folding assessed by enzymatic or spontaneous reactions. Moreover, ER represents the main intracellular calcium storage site and it plays an important role in calcium signaling that impacts many cellular processes. Accordingly, the maintenance of ER function represents an essential condition for the cell, and ER morphology constitutes an important prerogative of it. Furthermore, it is well known that ER undergoes prominent shape transitions during events such as cell division and differentiation. Thus, maintaining the correct ER structure is an essential feature for cellular physiology. Now, it is known that proper ER-associated proteins play a fundamental role in ER tubules formation. Among these ER-shaping proteins are the reticulons (RTN), which are acquiring a relevant position. In fact, beyond the structural role of reticulons, in very recent years new and deeper functional implications of these proteins are emerging in relation to their involvement in several cellular processes.

  1. A microsomal ATP-binding protein involved in efficient protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Dierks, T; Volkmer, J; Schlenstedt, G; Jung, C; Sandholzer, U; Zachmann, K; Schlotterhose, P; Neifer, K; Schmidt, B; Zimmermann, R

    1996-01-01

    Protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum depends on nucleoside triphosphates. Photoaffinity labelling of microsomes with azido-ATP prevents protein transport at the level of association of precursor proteins with the components of the transport machinery, Sec61alpha and TRAM proteins. The same phenotype of inactivation was observed after depleting a microsomal detergent extract of ATP-binding proteins by passage through ATP-agarose and subsequent reconstitution of the pass-through into proteoliposomes. Transport was restored by co-reconstitution of the ATP eluate. This eluate showed eight distinct bands in SDS gels. We identified five lumenal proteins (Grp170, Grp94, BiP/Grp78, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), one membrane protein (ribophorin I) and two ribosomal proteins (L4 and L5). In addition to BiP (Grp78), Grp170 was most efficiently retained on ATP-agarose. Purified BiP did not stimulate transport activity. Sequence analysis revealed a striking similarity of Grp170 and the yeast microsomal protein Lhs1p which was recently shown to be involved in protein transport into yeast microsomes. We suggest that Grp170 mediates efficient insertion of polypeptides into the microsomal membrane at the expense of nucleoside triphosphates. Images PMID:9003769

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and oxidoreductases: critical regulators of tumor cell survival and immunorecognition.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomás; Simmen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed "bulk flow," ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER by their substrates. Solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response upregulate their target genes. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the folding of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an "eat-me" signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:25386408

  3. Minocycline prevents paraquat-induced cell death through attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuen-Lin; Lee, Yi-Chao; Yang, Ying-Chen; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Huang, Nai-Kuei

    2012-03-25

    Paraquat (PQ) was demonstrated to induce dopaminergic neuron death and is used as a Parkinson's disease (PD) mimetic; however, its mechanism remains contradictory. Alternatively, minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline and is undergoing clinical trials for treating PD with an unresolved mechanism. We thus investigated the molecular mechanism of minocycline in preventing PQ-induced cytotoxicity. In this study, minocycline was effective in preventing PQ-induced apoptotic cell death, which involves the cleavages of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3 and increased fluorescence intensity of annexin V-FITC. In addition, PQ also quickly induced alterations of unfolded protein responses (UPRs) and subsequently dysfunction of the mitochondria (such as the decrease in membrane potential and increase in membrane permeability and superoxide formation). Finally, the mechanism of minocycline in preventing PQ-induced apoptosis might be mediated by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, which respectively results in caspase-12 activation and the release of H2O2, HtrA2/Omi, and Smac/Diablo. Thus, minocycline could possibly be used to treat other neurodegenerative disorders with similar pathologic mechanisms. PMID:22245251

  4. Cotranslational Intersection between the SRP and GET Targeting Pathways to the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Schäffer, Thea; Wölfle, Tina; Fitzke, Edith; Thiel, Gerhard; Rospert, Sabine

    2016-09-15

    Targeting of transmembrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proceeds via either the signal recognition particle (SRP) or the guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway, consisting of Get1 to -5 and Sgt2. While SRP cotranslationally targets membrane proteins containing one or multiple transmembrane domains, the GET pathway posttranslationally targets proteins containing a single C-terminal transmembrane domain termed the tail anchor. Here, we dissect the roles of the SRP and GET pathways in the sorting of homologous, two-membrane-spanning K(+) channel proteins termed Kcv, Kesv, and Kesv-VV. We show that Kcv is targeted to the ER cotranslationally via its N-terminal transmembrane domain, while Kesv-VV is targeted posttranslationally via its C-terminal transmembrane domain, which recruits Get4-5/Sgt2 and Get3. Unexpectedly, nascent Kcv recruited not only SRP but also the Get4-5 module of the GET pathway to ribosomes. Ribosome binding of Get4-5 was independent of Sgt2 and was strongly outcompeted by SRP. The combined data indicate a previously unrecognized cotranslational interplay between the SRP and GET pathways. PMID:27354063

  5. [Physiological functions of endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca pump and pharmacology of inhibitors of the pump].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Shigekawa, M

    1993-09-01

    This review is derived from the symposium held at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society (March, 1993). The symposium consisted of six invited papers whose general theme was the application of recently found ATPase inhibitors selective to SR- and ER-Ca(2+)-ATPase to the analyses of the physiological and pharmacological roles of endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca stores. Inhibitors used were: thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone and 3',3",5',5"-tetraiodosulfophthalein. Gingerol was found to facilitate the action of the ATPase. In either smooth, cardiac or skeletal muscle, sympathetic neurons or several cell lines these inhibitors affected a variety of cell functions and conditions such as contraction, ionic conductance and excitability of the plasma membrane, regulation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, transport of viral glycoprotein to the cell surface. Many of these studies utilized either single or cultured cell preparations or skinned muscle. These inhibitors were shown to be useful tools for investigating the SR and ER functioning as Ca sources or Ca sequestrating pumps, and further for estimating the contribution of ER or SR to regulating the flux of Ca2+ and other ions through the plasma membrane. Results of analyses using these inhibitors are discussed. PMID:8406230

  6. Transport along the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum mediates the trafficking of GABAB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, José I.; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matías; Salas, Daniela A.; Ramírez, Omar A.; Cornejo, Víctor H.; Lu, Hsiangmin E.; Blanpied, Thomas A.; Couve, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In neurons, secretory organelles within the cell body are complemented by the dendritic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi outposts (GOPs), whose role in neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is poorly understood. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B metabotropic receptors (GABABRs) regulate the efficacy of synaptic transmission throughout the brain. Their plasma membrane availability is controlled by mechanisms involving an ER retention motif and assembly-dependent ER export. Thus, they constitute an ideal molecular model to study ER trafficking, but the extent to which the dendritic ER participates in GABABR biosynthesis has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we show that GABAB1 localizes preferentially to the ER in dendrites and moves long distances within this compartment. Not only diffusion but also microtubule and dynein-dependent mechanisms control dendritic ER transport. GABABRs insert throughout the somatodendritic plasma membrane but dendritic post-ER carriers containing GABABRs do not fuse selectively with GOPs. This study furthers our understanding of the spatial selectivity of neurotransmitter receptors for dendritic organelles. PMID:24895402

  7. Molecular determinants that mediate the sorting of human ATG9A from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Catherine; Gilis, Florentine; Boonen, Marielle; Jadot, Michel

    2016-09-01

    ATG9A is a multispanning membrane protein required for autophagosome formation. Under basal conditions, neosynthesized ATG9A proteins travel to the Golgi apparatus and cycle between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. In the present work, we searched for molecular determinants involved in the subcellular trafficking of human ATG9A in HeLa cells using sequential deletions and point mutations. Deletion of amino acids L(340) to L(354) resulted in the retention of ATG9A in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found that substitution of the L(711)YM(713) sequence (located in the C-terminal region of ATG9A) by alanine residues severely impaired its transport through the Golgi apparatus. This defect could be corrected by oligomerization of the mutant protein with co-transfected wild-type ATG9A, suggesting that ATG9A oligomerization may help its sorting through biosynthetic compartments. Lastly, the study of the consequences of the LYM/AAA mutation on the intracellular trafficking of ATG9A highlighted that some newly synthesized ATG9A can bypass the Golgi apparatus to reach the plasma membrane. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the intracellular pathways followed by ATG9A to reach different subcellular compartments, and into the intramolecular determinants that drive the sorting of this protein. PMID:27316455

  8. The liver isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 is not targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Broadway, Neil M; Pease, Richard J; Birdsey, Graeme; Shayeghi, Majid; Turner, Nigel A; David Saggerson, E

    2003-01-01

    Liver microsomal fractions contain a malonyl-CoA-inhibitable carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) activity. It has been proposed [Fraser, Corstorphine, Price and Zammit (1999) FEBS Lett. 446, 69-74] that this microsomal CAT activity is due to the liver form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT1) being targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as well as to mitochondria, possibly by an N-terminal signal sequence [Cohen, Guillerault, Girard and Prip-Buus (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 5403-5411]. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected to express a fusion protein in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was fused to the C-terminus of L-CPT1. Confocal microscopy showed that this fusion protein was localized to mitochondria, and possibly to peroxisomes, but not to the ER. cDNAs corresponding to truncated (amino acids 1-328) or full-length L-CPT1 were transcribed and translated in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes. However, there was no evidence of authentic insertion of CPT1 into the ER membrane. Rat liver microsomal fractions purified by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation contained an 88 kDa protein (p88) which was recognized by an anti-L-CPT1 antibody and by 2,4-dinitrophenol-etomoxiryl-CoA, a covalent inhibitor of L-CPT1. Abundance of p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity were increased approx. 3-fold by starvation for 24 h. Deoxycholate solubilized p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity from microsomes to approximately the same extent. The microsomal fraction contained porin, which, relative to total protein, was as abundant as in crude mitochondrial outer membranes fractions. It is concluded that L-CPT1 is not targeted to the ER membrane and that malonyl-CoA CAT in microsomal fractions is L-CPT1 that is derived from mitochondria, possibly from membrane contact sites. PMID:12401113

  9. Evidence that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating endoplasmic reticulum-associated Ca2+ fluxes.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, M; Dubyak, G; Chen, L; Nuñez, G; Miesfeld, R L; Distelhorst, C W

    1994-01-01

    BCL-2 is a 26-kDa integral membrane protein that represses apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Recent findings indicate that Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates apoptosis in mouse lymphoma cells. In view of growing evidence that BCL-2 localizes to the ER, as well as mitochondria and the perinuclear membrane, we investigated the possibility that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating Ca2+ fluxes through the ER membrane. A cDNA encoding BCL-2 was introduced into WEHI7.2 cells and two subclones, W.Hb12 and W.Hb13, which express high and low levels of BCL-2 mRNA and protein, respectively, were isolated. WEHI7.2 cells underwent apoptosis in response to treatment with the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone, whereas W.Hb12 and W.Hb13 cells were protected from apoptosis, revealing a direct relationship between the level of BCL-2 expression and the degree of protection. Significantly, BCL-2 also blocked induction of apoptosis by thapsigargin (TG), a highly specific inhibitor of the ER-associated Ca2+ pump. TG completely inhibited ER Ca2+ pumping in both WEHI7.2 and W.Hb12 cells, but the release of Ca2+ into the cytosol after inhibition of ER Ca2+ pumping was significantly less in W.Hb12 cells than in WEHI7.2 cells, indicating that BCL-2 reduces Ca2+ efflux through the ER membrane. By reducing ER Ca2+ efflux, BCL-2 interfered with a signal for "capacitative" entry of extracellular Ca2+, preventing a sustained increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in TG-treated cells. These findings suggest that BCL-2 either directly or indirectly regulates the flux of Ca2+ across the ER membrane, thereby abrogating Ca2+ signaling of apoptosis. Images PMID:8022822

  10. The exocyst affects protein synthesis by acting on the translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Joshua H; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Mostov, Keith E

    2003-06-01

    We previously showed that the exocyst complex specifically affected the synthesis and delivery of secretory and basolateral plasma membrane proteins. Significantly, the entire spectrum of secreted proteins was increased when the hSec10 (human Sec10) component of the exocyst complex was overexpressed, suggestive of post-transcriptional regulation (Lipschutz, J. H., Guo, W., O'Brien, L. E., Nguyen, Y. H., Novick, P., and Mostov, K. E. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell 11, 4259-4275). Here, using an exogenously transfected basolateral protein, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and a secretory protein, gp80, we show that pIgR and gp80 protein synthesis and delivery are increased in cells overexpressing Sec10 despite the fact that mRNA levels are unchanged, which is highly indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. To test specificity, we also examined the synthesis and delivery of an exogenous apical protein, CNT1 (concentrative nucleoside transporter 1), and found no increase in CNT1 protein synthesis, delivery, or mRNA levels in cells overexpressing Sec10. Sec10-GFP-overexpressing cell lines were created, and staining was seen in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was demonstrated previously in yeast that high levels of expression of SEB1, the Sec61beta homologue, suppressed sec15-1, an exocyst mutant (Toikkanen, J., Gatti, E., Takei, K., Saloheimo, M., Olkkonen, V. M., Soderlund, H., De Camilli, P., and Keranen, S. (1996) Yeast 12, 425-438). Sec61beta is a member of the Sec61 heterotrimer, which is the main component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocon. By co-immunoprecipitation we show that Sec10, which forms an exocyst subcomplex with Sec15, specifically associates with the Sec61beta component of the translocon and that Sec10 overexpression increases the association of other exocyst complex members with Sec61beta. Proteosome inhibition does not appear to be the mechanism by which increased protein synthesis occurs in the face of equivalent amounts of m