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Sample records for endothelial cell migration

  1. Endothelial cells enhance migration of meniscus cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Eng, George M.; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the interactions between vascular endothelial cells and meniscal fibrochondrocytes from the inner avascular and outer vascular regions of the meniscus, and identify angiogenic factors that enhance cell migration and integrative repair. Methods Bovine meniscal fibrochondrocytes (bMFCs) from the inner and outer regions of meniscus were cultured for seven days with and without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a micropatterned three-dimensional hydrogel system for cell migration. Angiogenic factors secreted by HUVECs were probed for their role in paracrine mechanisms governing bMFC migration, and applied to a full-thickness defect model of meniscal repair in explants from the inner and outer regions over four weeks. Results Endothelial cells enhanced migration of inner and outer bMFCs in the micropatterned system via endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Supplementation of ET-1 significantly enhanced integration strength of full-thickness defects in inner and outer explants, and cell migration at the macro-scale, compared to controls without ET-1 treatment. Conclusion We report for the first time that bMFCs from both the avascular and vascular regions respond to the presence of endothelial cells with increased migration. Paracrine signaling by endothelial cells regulates the bMFCs differentially by region, but we identify ET-1 as an angiogenic factor that stimulates migration of inner and outer cells at the micro-scale, and integrative repair of inner and outer explants at the macro-scale. These findings reveal the regional interactions between vasculature and MFCs, and suggest ET-1 as a potential new treatment modality for avascular meniscal injuries, in order to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:25307081

  2. Alk1 controls arterial endothelial cell migration in lumenized vessels.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Elizabeth R; Menon, Prahlad G; Roman, Beth L

    2016-07-15

    Heterozygous loss of the arterial-specific TGFβ type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1), causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is characterized by development of fragile, direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, how decreased ALK1 signaling leads to AVMs is unknown. To understand the cellular mis-steps that cause AVMs, we assessed endothelial cell behavior in alk1-deficient zebrafish embryos, which develop cranial AVMs. Our data demonstrate that alk1 loss has no effect on arterial endothelial cell proliferation but alters arterial endothelial cell migration within lumenized vessels. In wild-type embryos, alk1-positive cranial arterial endothelial cells generally migrate towards the heart, against the direction of blood flow, with some cells incorporating into endocardium. In alk1-deficient embryos, migration against flow is dampened and migration in the direction of flow is enhanced. Altered migration results in decreased endothelial cell number in arterial segments proximal to the heart and increased endothelial cell number in arterial segments distal to the heart. We speculate that the consequent increase in distal arterial caliber and hemodynamic load precipitates the flow-dependent development of downstream AVMs. PMID:27287800

  3. Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M S; Spray, D C; Chanson, M; Montesano, R; Orci, L; Meda, P

    1989-12-01

    Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. Approximately 40-50% of the cells in a nonwounded confluent monolayer were coupled in groups of four to five cells (basal level). Basal levels of communication were also observed in sparse and preconfluent cultures, but were reduced in postconfluent monolayers. 30 min after wounding, coupling was markedly reduced between cells lining the wound. Communication at the wound was partially reestablished by 2 h, exceeded basal levels after 6 h and reached a maximum after 24 h, at which stage approximately 90% of the cells were coupled in groups of six to seven cells. When the wound had closed (after 8 d), the increase in communication was no longer observed. Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis inhibitor mitomycin C, but was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. The induction of wound-associated communication was also inhibited when migration was prevented by placing the cells immediately after wounding at 22 degrees C or after exposure to cytochalasin D, suggesting that the increase in communication is dependent on cells migrating into the wound area. In contrast, migration was not prevented when coupling was blocked by exposure of the cells to retinoic acid, although this agent did disrupt the characteristic sheet-like pattern of migration typically seen during endothelial repair. These results suggest that junctional communication may play an important role in wound repair, possibly by coordinating capillary endothelial cell migration. PMID:2592412

  4. Nerve growth factor-induced migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dollé, Jean-Pierre; Rezvan, Amir; Allen, Fred D; Lazarovici, Philip; Lelkes, Peter I

    2005-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a well known neurotropic and neurotrophic agonist in the nervous system, which recently was shown to also induce angiogenic effects in endothelial cells (ECs). To measure NGF effects on the migration of cultured ECs, an important step in neoangiogenesis, we optimized an omnidirectional migration assay using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and validated the assay with human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) and human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF). The potencies of nerve growth factor purified from various species (viper, mouse, and recombinant human) to stimulate HAEC migration was similar to that of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (EC50 of approximately 0.5 ng/ml). Recombinant human bFGF was significantly more efficacious than either viper NGF or rhVEGF, both of which stimulated HAEC migration by approximately 30% over basal spontaneous migration. NGF-mediated stimulation of HAEC migration was completely blocked by the NGF/TrkA receptor antagonist K252a [(8R*,9S*,11S*)-(/)-9-hydroxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-8-methyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11-epoxy-1H,-8H,11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo(a,g)cycloocta(c,d,e)trindene-1-one] (30 nM) but not by the VEGF/Flk receptor antagonist SU-5416 [3-[(2,4-dimethylpyrrol-5-yl) methylidenyl]-indolin-2-one] (250 nM), indicating a direct effect of NGF via TrkA receptor activation on HAEC migration. Viper NGF stimulation of HAEC migration was additively increased by either rhVEGF or rhbFGF, suggesting a potentiating interaction between their tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways. Viper NGF represents a novel pharmacological tool to investigate possible TrkA receptor subtypes in endothelial cells. The ability of NGF to stimulate migration of HAEC cells in vitro implies that this factor may play an important role in the cardiovascular system besides its well known effects in the nervous system. PMID:16123305

  5. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters. PMID:26936382

  6. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  7. Rapamycin inhibits re-endothelialization after percutaneous coronary intervention by impeding the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and inducing apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Li, Fei; Wang, Wen-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yi-Meng; Wang, Rui-An; Guo, Wen-Yi; Wang, Hai-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial-cell function is important in the healing of damaged endothelium after percutaneous coronary artery damage. In 3 different animal models, we sought to determine whether rapamycin (sirolimus) affects the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells. First, after we implanted stents in dogs, we found that re-endothelialization was impeded more by drug-eluting stents than by bare-metal stents, 30 days after percutaneous coronary intervention. Second, in vitro in rats, we found that 1-100 ng/mL of rapamycin time- and dose-dependently inhibited proliferation over 72 hr (with effects evident as early as 24 hr) and also dose-dependently induced endothelial progenitor-cell apoptosis. Finally, in vivo in rats, we observed that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was decreased after 5 days of rapamycin treatment. We conclude that rapamycin impedes re-endothelialization after drug-eluting stent implantation by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of coronary endothelial cells, inducing endothelial progenitor-cell apoptosis, and decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the circulation. PMID:20401293

  8. Neutrophil Elastase-Generated Fragment of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Stimulates Macrophage and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Kurtagic, Elma; Rich, Celeste B.; Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Elastase released from neutrophils as part of the innate immune system has been implicated in chronic diseases such as emphysema and cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that neutrophil elastase targets vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) for partial degradation to generate a fragment of VEGF (VEGFf) that has distinct activities. Namely, VEGFf binds to VEGF receptor 1 but not to VEGF receptor 2 and shows altered signaling compared to intact VEGF. In the present study we investigated the chemotactic function of VEGF and VEGFf released from cells by neutrophil elastase. We found that endothelial cells migrated in response to intact VEGF but not VEGFf whereas RAW 264.7 macrophages/monocytes and embryonic endothelial progenitor cells were stimulated to migrate by either VEGF or VEGFf. To investigate the role of elastase-mediated release of VEGF from cells/extracellular matrices, a co-culture system was established. High or low VEGF producing cells were co-cultured with macrophages, endothelial or endothelial progenitor cells and treated with neutrophil elastase. Elastase treatment stimulated macrophage and endothelial progenitor cell migration with the response being greater with the high VEGF expressing cells. However, elastase treatment led to decreased endothelial cell migration due to VEGF cleavage to VEGF fragment. These findings suggest that the tissue response to NE-mediated injury might involve the generation of diffusible VEGF fragments that stimulate inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:26672607

  9. Neuropilin2 expressed in gastric cancer endothelial cells increases the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells in response to VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Myung Hwan; Seo, Ji Heun; Kim, Jin; Kim, Min A; Lee, You Mie

    2009-08-01

    The structure and characteristics of the tumor vasculature are known to be different from those of normal vessels. Neuropilin2 (Nrp2), which is expressed in non-endothelial cell types, such as neuronal or cancer cells, functions as a receptor for both semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After isolating tumor and normal endothelial cells from advanced gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa tissues, respectively, we identified genes that were differentially expressed in gastric tumor endothelial (TEC) and normal endothelial cells (NEC) using DNA oligomer chips. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we confirmed the chip results by showing that Nrp2 gene expression is significantly up-regulated in TEC. Genes that were found to be up-regulated in TEC were also observed to be up-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were co-cultured with gastric cancer cells. In addition, HUVECs co-cultured with gastric cancer cells showed an increased reactivity to VEGF-induced proliferation and migration. Moreover, overexpression of Nrp2 in HUVECs significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration induced by VEGF. Observation of an immunohistochemical analysis of various human tumor tissue arrays revealed that Nrp2 is highly expressed in the tumor vessel lining and to a lesser extent in normal tissue microvessels. From these results, we suggest that Nrp2 may function to increase the response to VEGF, which is more significant in TEC than in NEC given the differential expression, leading to gastric TEC with aggressive angiogenesis phenotypes.

  10. Neuropilin2 expressed in gastric cancer endothelial cells increases the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells in response to VEGF.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Myung Hwan; Seo, Ji Heun; Kim, Jin; Kim, Min A; Lee, You Mie

    2009-08-01

    The structure and characteristics of the tumor vasculature are known to be different from those of normal vessels. Neuropilin2 (Nrp2), which is expressed in non-endothelial cell types, such as neuronal or cancer cells, functions as a receptor for both semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After isolating tumor and normal endothelial cells from advanced gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa tissues, respectively, we identified genes that were differentially expressed in gastric tumor endothelial (TEC) and normal endothelial cells (NEC) using DNA oligomer chips. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we confirmed the chip results by showing that Nrp2 gene expression is significantly up-regulated in TEC. Genes that were found to be up-regulated in TEC were also observed to be up-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were co-cultured with gastric cancer cells. In addition, HUVECs co-cultured with gastric cancer cells showed an increased reactivity to VEGF-induced proliferation and migration. Moreover, overexpression of Nrp2 in HUVECs significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration induced by VEGF. Observation of an immunohistochemical analysis of various human tumor tissue arrays revealed that Nrp2 is highly expressed in the tumor vessel lining and to a lesser extent in normal tissue microvessels. From these results, we suggest that Nrp2 may function to increase the response to VEGF, which is more significant in TEC than in NEC given the differential expression, leading to gastric TEC with aggressive angiogenesis phenotypes. PMID:19409892

  11. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  12. In-vivo cell tracking to quantify endothelial cell migration during zebrafish angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Prahlad G.; Rochon, Elizabeth R.; Roman, Beth L.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of endothelial cell migration as individual cells or collectively while remaining an integral component of a functional blood vessel has not been well characterized. In this study, our overarching goal is to define an image processing workflow to facilitate quantification of how endothelial cells within the first aortic arch and are proximal to the zebrafish heart behave in response to the onset of flow (i.e. onset of heart beating). Endothelial cell imaging was conducted at this developmental time-point i.e. ~24-28 hours post fertilization (hpf) when flow first begins, using 3D+time two-photon confocal microscopy of a live, wild-type, transgenic, zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in endothelial cell nuclei. An image processing pipeline comprised of image signal enhancement, median filtering for speckle noise reduction, automated identification of the nuclei positions, extraction of the relative movement of nuclei between consecutive time instances, and finally tracking of nuclei, was designed for achieving the tracking of endothelial cell nuclei and the identification of their movement towards or away from the heart. Pilot results lead to a hypothesis that upon the onset of heart beat and blood flow, endothelial cells migrate collectively towards the heart (by 21.51+/-10.35 μm) in opposition to blood flow (i.e. subtending 142.170+/-21.170 with the flow direction).

  13. Rho Mediates the Shear-Enhancement of Endothelial Cell Migration and Traction Force Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Yan-Ting; Li, Song; Marganski, William A.; Usami, Shunichi; Schwartz, Martin A.; Wang, Yu-Li; Dembo, Micah; Chien, Shu

    2004-01-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells in vivo occurs in a fluid dynamic environment due to blood flow, but the role of hemodynamic forces in cell migration is not yet completely understood. Here we investigated the effect of shear stress, the frictional drag of blood flowing over the cell surface, on the migration speed of individual endothelial cells on fibronectin-coated surfaces, as well as the biochemical and biophysical bases underlying this shear effect. Under static conditions, cell migration speed had a bell-shaped relationship with fibronectin concentration. Shear stress significantly increased the migration speed at all fibronectin concentrations tested and shifted the bell-shaped curve upwards. Shear stress also induced the activation of Rho GTPase and increased the traction force exerted by endothelial cells on the underlying substrate, both at the leading edge and the rear, suggesting that shear stress enhances both the frontal forward-pulling force and tail retraction. The inhibition of a Rho-associated kinase, p160ROCK, decreased the traction force and migration speed under both static and shear conditions and eliminated the shear-enhancement of migration speed. Our results indicate that shear stress enhances the migration speed of endothelial cells by modulating the biophysical force of tractions through the biochemical pathway of Rho-p160ROCK. PMID:15041692

  14. Paxillin controls endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis by altering neuropilin 2 expression.

    PubMed

    German, Alexandra E; Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Ingber, Donald E; Mammoto, Akiko

    2014-04-15

    Although a number of growth factors and receptors are known to control tumor angiogenesis, relatively little is known about the mechanism by which these factors influence the directional endothelial cell migration required for cancer microvessel formation. Recently, it has been shown that the focal adhesion protein paxillin is required for directional migration of fibroblasts in vitro. Here, we show that paxillin knockdown enhances endothelial cell migration in vitro and stimulates angiogenesis during normal development and in response to tumor angiogenic factors in vivo. Paxillin produces these effects by decreasing expression of neuropilin 2 (NRP2). Moreover, soluble factors secreted by tumors that stimulate vascular ingrowth, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also decrease endothelial cell expression of paxillin and NRP2, and overexpression of NRP2 reverses these effects. These results suggest that the VEGF-paxillin-NRP2 pathway could represent a new therapeutic target for cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:24522185

  15. Paxillin controls endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis by altering neuropilin 2 expression

    PubMed Central

    German, Alexandra E.; Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Ingber, Donald E.; Mammoto, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although a number of growth factors and receptors are known to control tumor angiogenesis, relatively little is known about the mechanism by which these factors influence the directional endothelial cell migration required for cancer microvessel formation. Recently, it has been shown that the focal adhesion protein paxillin is required for directional migration of fibroblasts in vitro. Here, we show that paxillin knockdown enhances endothelial cell migration in vitro and stimulates angiogenesis during normal development and in response to tumor angiogenic factors in vivo. Paxillin produces these effects by decreasing expression of neuropilin 2 (NRP2). Moreover, soluble factors secreted by tumors that stimulate vascular ingrowth, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also decrease endothelial cell expression of paxillin and NRP2, and overexpression of NRP2 reverses these effects. These results suggest that the VEGF–paxillin–NRP2 pathway could represent a new therapeutic target for cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:24522185

  16. Microtubule-organizing centers and cell migration: effect of inhibition of migration and microtubule disruption in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, A I; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I

    1983-05-01

    We have previously shown that microtubule-organizing centers (MTOC's) become preferentially oriented towards the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells (EC's) at the margin of an experimentally induced wound made in a confluent EC monolayer. To learn more about the mechanism responsible for the reorientation of MTOC's and to determine whether a similar reorientation takes place when cell migration is inhibited, we incubated the wounded cultures with colcemid (C) and cytochalasin B (CB), which disrupt microtubules (MT's) and microfilaments (MF's), respectively. The results obtained showed that the MTOC reorientation can occur independent of cell migration since MTOC's reoriented preferentially toward the wound edge in the CB-treated cultures, even though forward migration of the EC was inhibited. In addition, the MTOC reorientation is inhibited by C, indicating that it requires an intact system of MT's and/or other intracellular structures whose distribution is dependent on that of MT's. PMID:6341378

  17. AAMP Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis Through RhoA/Rho Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Tao; Yin, Tieying; Xie, Xiang; Wang, Guixue

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a complicated process including endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. AAMP plays a role in regulating cell migration of multiple cell types. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether AAMP regulates angiogenesis, and to clarify the role of AAMP in the VEGF-induced angiogenesis. We found that AAMP expressed in multiple cell types and mainly localized in cytoplasm and membrane in vascular endothelial cells. Using tube formation assay in vitro and aortic ring assay, siRNA-mediated knockdown and antibody blockade of AAMP impaired VEGF-induced endothelial cell tube formation and aortic ring angiogenic sprouting. Mechanistic studies showed that AAMP expression was significantly upregulated by VEGF in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Moreover, VEGF recruited AAMP to the cell membrane protrusions. AAMP regulates angiogenesis by mediating the spreading and migration of vascular endothelial cells. AAMP knock-down reduced VEGF-induced actin stress fibers and collagen gel contraction. Furthermore, we identified RhoA/Rho kinase signaling as an important factor that contributes to the action of AAMP in regulating endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Altogether, these data demonstrated the critical role of AAMP in angiogenesis and suggested blocking AAMP could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:26350504

  18. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka; Toda, Ken-ichi; Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  19. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Gaugler, Marie-Helene; Rodallec, Audrey; Bonnaud, Stephanie; Paris, Francois; Corre, Isabelle

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the role of RhoA in endothelial cell response to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RhoA is rapidly activated by single high-dose of radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation leads to RhoA/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced apoptosis does not require the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced alteration of endothelial adhesion and migration requires RhoA/ROCK. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells of the microvasculature are major target of ionizing radiation, responsible of the radiation-induced vascular early dysfunctions. Molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial responses to ionizing radiation, despite being increasingly investigated, still need precise characterization. Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions. Recent studies identified implication of RhoA/ROCK in radiation-induced increase in endothelial permeability but other endothelial functions altered by radiation might also require RhoA proteins. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1, either treated with Y-27632 (inhibitor of ROCK) or invalidated for RhoA by RNA interference were exposed to 15 Gy. We showed a rapid radiation-induced activation of RhoA, leading to a deep reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton with rapid formation of stress fibers. Endothelial early apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation was not affected by Y-27632 pre-treatment or RhoA depletion. Endothelial adhesion to fibronectin and formation of focal adhesions increased in response to radiation in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. Consistent with its pro-adhesive role, ionizing radiation also decreased endothelial cells migration and RhoA was required for this inhibition. These results highlight the role of RhoA GTPase in ionizing radiation-induced deregulation of essential endothelial

  20. The Histone Demethylase PHF8 Is Essential for Endothelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lunda; Hitzel, Juliane; Moll, Franziska; Kruse, Christoph; Malik, Randa Abdel; Preussner, Jens; Looso, Mario; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Steinhilber, Dieter; Brandes, Ralf P.; Fork, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic marks critically control gene expression and thus the cellular activity state. The functions of many epigenetic modifiers in the vascular system have not yet been studied. We screened for histone modifiers in endothelial cells and observed a fairly high expression of the histone plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (PHF8). Given its high expression, we hypothesize that this histone demethylase is important for endothelial cell function. Overexpression of PHF8 catalyzed the removal of methyl-groups from histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and H4K20, whereas knockdown of the enzyme increased H3K9 methylation. Knockdown of PHF8 by RNAi also attenuated endothelial proliferation and survival. As a functional readout endothelial migration and tube formation was studied. PHF8 siRNA attenuated the capacity for migration and developing of capillary-like structures. Given the impact of PHF8 on cell cycle genes, endothelial E2F transcription factors were screened, which led to the identification of the gene repressor E2F4 to be controlled by PHF8. Importantly, PHF8 maintains E2F4 but not E2F1 expression in endothelial cells. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that PHF8 reduces the H3K9me2 level at the E2F4 transcriptional start site, demonstrating a direct function of PHF8 in endothelial E2F4 gene regulation. Conclusion: PHF8 by controlling E2F4 expression maintains endothelial function. PMID:26751588

  1. Enhancement of endothelial cell migration by constitutively active LPA{sub 1}-expressing tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kitayoshi, Misaho; Kato, Kohei; Tanabe, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Kyohei; Fukui, Rie; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} stimulates cell migration of endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF expressions are increased by mutated LPA{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} is involved in angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutated LPA{sub 1} promotes cancer cell progression. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors belong to G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptors; LPA{sub 1} to LPA{sub 6}). They indicate a variety of cellular response by the interaction with LPA, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Recently, we have reported that constitutive active mutated LPA{sub 1} induced the strong biological effects of rat neuroblastoma B103 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of mutated LPA{sub 1} on the interaction between B103 cells and endothelial F-2 cells. Each LPA receptor expressing B103 cells were maintained in serum-free DMEM and cell motility assay was performed with a Cell Culture Insert. When F-2 cells were cultured with conditioned medium from Lpar1 and Lpar3-expressing cells, the cell motility of F-2 cells was significantly higher than control cells. Interestingly, the motile activity of F-2 cells was strongly induced by mutated LPA{sub 1} than other cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf)-A and Vegf-C. Pretreatment of LPA signaling inhibitors inhibited F-2 cell motility stimulated by mutated LPA{sub 1}. These results suggest that activation of LPA signaling via mutated LPA{sub 1} may play an important role in the promotion of angiogenesis in rat neuroblastoma cells.

  2. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun . E-mail: dli2@slu.edu

    2006-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), {delta}p85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways.

  3. CELSR1 Is a Positive Regulator of Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yi-Hong; Luo, Qi-Cong; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Xiao, Nai-An; Lu, Cong-Xia; Yue, Cen; Wang, Ning; Ma, Qi-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Cadherin is an epidermal growth factor and laminin-G seven-pass G-type receptor 1 (CELSR1) is a key component of the noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that critically regulates endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the biological significance of CELSR1 in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. For this, we applied both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches. To increase the endogenous expression of CELSR1, we used the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology and constructed an artificial TALE-VP64 activator. To knock down the expression of CELSR1, we generated lentivirus containing short hairpin RNA sequences targeting different regions of CELSR1 mRNA. Following up- or down-regulation of CELSR1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), we assessed in vitro cell proliferation by MTT assay, migration by scratch and transwell migration assays, and angiogenesis by tube formation analysis. We found that CELSR1 was endogenously expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HAEC. When focusing on HAEC, we found that upregulating CELSR1 expression significantly promoted cell growth, while knocking down CELSR1 inhibited the growth (p < 0.05). Using both scratch and transwell migration assays, we observed a positive correlation between CELSR1 expression and cell migratory capability. In addition, CELSR1 upregulation led to higher levels of tube formation in HAEC, while downregulating CELSR1 expression decreased tube formation (p < 0.05). Mechanistically, CELSR1-regulated migration and tube formation was mediated through disheveled segment polarity protein 3 (Dvl3). In conclusion, CELSR1 plays an important role in regulating multiple phenotypes of endothelial cells, including proliferation, migration, and formation of capillary-like structures. PMID:27301287

  4. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers.

    PubMed

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, HyoungJun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as "duro-repulsive" cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei. PMID:26996137

  5. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, HyoungJun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei. PMID:26996137

  6. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-03-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei.

  7. Endothelial directed collective migration depends on substrate stiffness via localized myosin contractility and cell-matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Canver, Adam Charles; Ngo, Olivia; Urbano, Rebecca Lownes; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2016-05-24

    Macrovascular endothelial injury, which may be caused by percutaneous intervention, requires endothelial cell directed collective migration to restore an intact endothelial monolayer. While interventions are often performed in arteries stiffened by cardiovascular disease, the effect of substrate stiffness on endothelial cell collective migration has not been examined. We studied porcine aortic endothelial cell directed collective migration using a modified cage assay on 4, 14, and 50kPa collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels. Total cell migration distance was measured over time, as were nuclear alignment and nuclear:total β-catenin as measures of cell directedness and cell-cell junction integrity, respectively. In addition, fibronectin fibers were examined as a measure of extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. We now show that endothelial cells collectively migrate farther on stiffer substrates by 24h. Cells were more directed in the migration direction on intermediate stiffness substrates from 12 to 24h, with an alignment peak 400-700µm back from the migratory interface. However, cells on the softest substrates had the highest cell-cell junction integrity. Cells on all substrates deposited fibronectin, however fibronectin fibers were most linear and aligned on the stiffer substrates. When Rho kinase (ROCK) was inhibited with Y27632, cells on soft substrates migrated farther and cells on both soft and stiff substrates were more directed. When α5 integrin was knocked down with siRNA, cells on stiffer substrates did not migrate as far and were less directed. These data suggest that ROCK-mediated myosin contractility inhibits endothelial cell collective migration on soft substrates, while cell-matrix interactions are critical to endothelial cell collective migration on stiff substrates. PMID:26792289

  8. CD93 and dystroglycan cooperation in human endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Marco; Bernardini, Giulia; Vannuccini, Silvia; Petraglia, Felice; Santucci, Annalisa; Orlandini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    CD93 is a transmembrane glycoprotein predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Although CD93 displays proangiogenic activity, its molecular function in angiogenesis still needs to be clarified. To get molecular insight into the biological role of CD93 in the endothelium, we performed proteomic analyses to examine changes in the protein profile of endothelial cells after CD93 silencing. Among differentially expressed proteins, we identified dystroglycan, a laminin-binding protein involved in angiogenesis, whose expression is increased in vascular endothelial cells within malignant tumors. Using immunofluorescence, FRET, and proximity ligation analyses, we observed a close interaction between CD93 and β-dystroglycan. Moreover, silencing experiments showed that CD93 and dystroglycan promoted endothelial cell migration and organization into capillary-like structures. CD93 proved to be phosphorylated on tyrosine 628 and 644 following cell adhesion on laminin through dystroglycan. This phosphorylation was shown to be necessary for a proper endothelial migratory phenotype. Moreover, we showed that during cell spreading phosphorylated CD93 recruited the signaling protein Cbl, which in turn was phosphorylated on tyrosine 774. Altogether, our results identify a new signaling pathway which is activated by the cooperation between CD93 and dystroglycan and involved in the control of endothelial cell function. PMID:26848865

  9. Effect of surface chemistry on the integrin induced pathway in regulating vascular endothelial cells migration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Gao, Min; Ma, Yunlong; Yu, Hongchi; Cui, Fu-zhai; Gregersen, Hans; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Guixue; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2015-02-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is essential for reendothelialization after implantation of cardiovascular biomaterials. Reendothelialization is largely determined by surface properties of implants. In this study, surfaces modified with various chemical functional groups (CH3, NH2, COOH, OH) prepared by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used as model system. Expressions and distributions of critical proteins in the integrin-induced signaling pathway were examined to explore the mechanisms of surface chemistry regulating EC migration. The results showed that SAMs modulated cell migration were in the order CH3>NH2>OH>COOH, determined by differences in the expressions of focal adhesion components and Rho GTPases. Multiple integrin subunits showed difference in a surface chemistry-dependent manner, which induced a stepwise activation of signaling cascades associated with EC migration. This work provides a broad overview of surface chemistry regulated endothelial cell migration and establishes association among the surface chemistry, cell migration behavior and associated integrin signaling events. Understanding the relationship between these factors will help us to understand the surface/interface behavior between biomaterials and cells, reveal molecular mechanism of cells sensing surface characterization, and guide surface modification of cardiovascular implanted materials. PMID:25575348

  10. ATP increases the migration of microglia across the brain endothelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoji; Inagaki, Manato; Fujita, Yu; Kimoto, Takehiro; Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Komano, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral microcapillary endothelium, known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), acts as a barrier between the blood and the interstitial fluid of the brain. The BBB therefore controls the passage of nutrients into the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia show a specific affinity for migration into the CNS, and this migration appears to occur independently of BBB integrity. To study the migration of microglia across the BBB, we developed an in vitro co-culture system of mouse brain endothelial cells (MBECs) and Ra2 microglia using Transwell inserts. We first investigated the influence of microglia or ATP, a microglial chemotactic factor, on MBEC barrier integrity. The addition of microglia or ATP led to the disruption of the MBEC monolayer and significantly decreased barrier function as measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Furthermore, ATP promoted the migration of microglia but not macrophages across the MBEC monolayer. An inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) decreased the transmigration of microglia in our system, indicating that MMPs play a role in microglial chemotaxis. We specifically identify a role for microglia-derived MMP-2. In conclusion, we offer evidence that microglia migration across the brain endothelial cell monolayer is increased in the presence of ATP in a manner that involves MMP secretion. PMID:26934979

  11. Syndecan-4 regulates the bFGF-induced chemotactic migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wu, Han; Xie, Jun; Li, Guannan; Gu, Rong; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Chemotactic migration of endothelial cells (ECs) guided by extracellular attractants is essential for blood vessel formation. Synd4 is a ubiquitous heparin sulfate proteoglycan receptor on the cell surface that has been identified to promote angiogenesis during tissue repair. Here, the role synd4 played in chemotactic migration of ECs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with Lenti-synd4-RNAi or Lenti-null. Cell migration was observed in a 2D-chemotaxis slide with a stable gradient of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for 18 h using time-lapse microscopy. Synd4 knockdown HUVECs showed reduced mobility compared with the control. In animal studies, Matrigel premixed with bFGF was used to induce the migration of ECs. The cells migrated less distance from the skin in the Matrigel plugs of synd4 null mice compared with the control mice. Then recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene (Ad-synd4) or null (Ad-null) were constructed to enhance the synd4 expression of migratory cells in Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice. Migratory cells with synd4 overexpression did not invade further in the Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice, but showed a high ability to proliferate. PMID:27541034

  12. TIMP-1 inhibits microvascular endothelial cell migration by MMP-dependent and MMP-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Takemi; Akahane, Manabu; Shah, Amy; Connor, Christine M; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P

    2004-12-10

    It was reported over a decade ago that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) suppresses angiogenesis in experimental models but the mechanism is still incompletely understood. This in vitro study focused on the molecular basis of TIMP-1-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) migration, a key step in the angiogenic process. Both recombinant human TIMP-1 and the synthetic MMP inhibitors, GM6001 and MMP-2-MMP-9 Inhibitor III, suppressed migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) in a dose-dependent fashion. The MMP-dependent inhibition of migration was associated with increased expression of the junctional adhesion proteins, VE-cadherin and PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. TIMP-1 also caused MMP-independent dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (pY397) and paxillin, which was associated with reduced number of F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. Moreover, TIMP-1 stimulated expression of PTEN that has been shown to reduce phosphorylation of FAK and inhibit cell migration. Our data suggest that TIMP-1 inhibits HDMVEC migration through MMP-dependent stimulation of VE-cadherin and MMP-independent stimulation of PTEN with subsequent dephosphorylation of FAK and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:15530852

  13. Adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes across human brain microvessel endothelial cells are differentially regulated by endothelial cell adhesion molecules and modulate monolayer permeability.

    PubMed

    Wong, Donald; Prameya, Rukmini; Dorovini-Zis, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    The mechanisms by which polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) cross the human blood-brain barrier have not been fully elucidated. Using a well characterized in vitro model of the human BBB, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules on the adhesion and transendothelial migration of PMN across primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC). A small number of PMN (0.06%) adhered to unstimulated HBMEC, and the basal adhesion was not affected by anti-adhesion molecule antibodies. Treatment of HBMEC with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha resulted in increased PMN adhesion that was significantly inhibited by blocking antibodies to E-selectin and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1 or PECAM-1. A very small number of adherent PMN migrated across unstimulated HBMEC monolayers. Migration increased 2 to 20 fold following stimulation of HBMEC with TNF-alpha. Monoclonal antibody blocking studies showed that PMN used ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, E-selectin or PECAM-1 to move across activated monolayers. Anti-adhesion molecule antibodies did not diminish the basal PMN migration. Ultrastructurally, PMN often aggregated on top and between adjacent endothelial cells and adhered by first extending pseudopodia along the apical endothelial surface. They then flattened and inserted themselves between endothelial cells in order to migrate across the monolayers. At the end of the migration period, the cultures resumed their continuity with no evidence of disruption. Transendothelial migration of PMN decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the permeability to horseradish peroxidase, which penetrated alongside the migrating leukocytes. A blocking antibody to ICAM-1 that greatly decreased migration, had no effect on the permeability changes. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms that regulate the entry of PMN into the brain and the increased permeability of the BBB in CNS inflammation. PMID:17291598

  14. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical Wnt signalling regulates human endothelial cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Chingwen Yeh Juching; Fan Taiping; Smith, Stephen K.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen

    2008-01-11

    Cell to cell interaction is one of the key processes effecting angiogenesis and endothelial cell function. Wnt signalling is mediated through cell-cell interaction and is involved in many developmental processes and cellular functions. In this study, we investigated the possible function of Wnt5a and the non-canonical Wnt pathway in human endothelial cells. We found that Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical Wnt signalling regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Blocking this pathway using antibody, siRNA or a down-stream inhibitor led to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and monolayer wound closure. We also found that the mRNA level of Wnt5a is up-regulated when endothelial cells are treated with a cocktail of inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest non-canonical Wnt signalling plays a role in regulating endothelial cell growth and possibly in angiogenesis.

  15. Migration of eosinophils across endothelial cell monolayers: interactions among IL-5, endothelial-activating cytokines, and C-C chemokines.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, S; Ponath, P; Schleimer, R P

    2000-04-01

    Eosinophils are the predominant cell type recruited in inflammatory reactions in response to allergen challenge. The mechanisms of selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic reactions are not fully elucidated. In this study, the ability of several C-C chemokines to induce transendothelial migration (TEM) of eosinophils in vitro was assessed. Eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and RANTES induced eosinophil TEM across unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner with the following rank order of potency: eotaxin approximately eotaxin-2 > MCP-4 approximately RANTES. The maximal response induced by eotaxin or eotaxin-2 exceeded that of RANTES or MCP-4. Preincubation of eosinophils with anti-CCR3 Ab (7B11) completely blocked eosinophil TEM induced by eotaxin, MCP-4, and RANTES. Activation of endothelial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced concentration-dependent migration of eosinophils, which was enhanced synergistically in the presence of eotaxin and RANTES. Anti-CCR3 also inhibited eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC. The ability of eosinophil-active cytokines to potentiate eosinophil TEM was assessed by investigating eotaxin or RANTES-induced eosinophil TEM across resting and IL-1beta-stimulated HUVEC in the presence or absence of IL-5. The results showed synergy between IL-5 and the chemokines but not between IL-5 and the endothelial activator IL-1beta. Our data suggest that eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-4, and RANTES induce eosinophil TEM via CCR3 with varied potency and efficacy. Activation of HUVEC by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or priming of eosinophils by IL-5 both promote CCR3-dependent migration of eosinophils from the vasculature in conjunction with CCR3-active chemokines. PMID:10725746

  16. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Sayama, Koji

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

  17. Transferrin Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration and Invasion: Implication in Cartilage Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Carlevaro, Mariella F.; Albini, Adriana; Ribatti, Domenico; Gentili, Chiara; Benelli, Roberto; Cermelli, Silvia; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cancedda, Fiorella Descalzi

    1997-01-01

    During endochondral bone formation, avascular cartilage differentiates to hypertrophic cartilage that then undergoes erosion and vascularization leading to bone deposition. Resting cartilage produces inhibitors of angiogenesis, shifting to production of angiogenic stimulators in hypertrophic cartilage. A major protein synthesized by hypertrophic cartilage both in vivo and in vitro is transferrin. Here we show that transferrin is a major angiogenic molecule released by hypertrophic cartilage. Endothelial cell migration and invasion is stimulated by transferrins from a number of different sources, including hypertrophic cartilage. Checkerboard analysis demonstrates that transferrin is a chemotactic and chemokinetic molecule. Chondrocyte-conditioned media show similar properties. Polyclonal anti-transferrin antibodies completely block endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by purified transferrin and inhibit the activity produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes by 50–70% as compared with controls. Function-blocking mAbs directed against the transferrin receptor similarly reduce the endothelial migratory response. Chondrocytes differentiating in the presence of serum produce transferrin, whereas those that differentiate in the absence of serum do not. Conditioned media from differentiated chondrocytes not producing transferrin have only 30% of the endothelial cell migratory activity of parallel cultures that synthesize transferrin. The angiogenic activity of transferrins was confirmed by in vivo assays on chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane, showing promotion of neovascularization by transferrins purified from different sources including conditioned culture medium. Based on the above results, we suggest that transferrin is a major angiogenic molecule produced by hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral bone formation. PMID:9087450

  18. Distribution of microtubule organizing centers in migrating sheets of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, A I; May, L M; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I

    1981-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the position of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and the direction of migration of a sheet of endothelial cells (EC). Using immunofluorescence and phase microscopy the MTOC's of migrating EC were visualized as the cells moved into an in vitro experimental wound produced by mechanical denudation of part of a confluent monolayer culture. Although the MTOC's in nonmigrating EC were randomly positioned in relation to the nucleus, in migrating cells the position of the MTOC's changed so that 80% of the cells had the MTOC positioned in front of the nucleus toward the direction of movement of the endothelial sheet. This repositioning of the MTOC occurred within the first 4 h after wounding and was associated with the beginning of migration of EC's into the wounded area as seen by time-lapse cinemicrophotography. These studies focus attention on the MTOC as a cytoskeletal structure that may play a role in determining the direction of cell movement. PMID:7309800

  19. Thymosin {beta}4 promotes the migration of endothelial cells without intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Selmi, Anna; Malinowski, Mariusz; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Radoslaw; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2012-08-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of T{beta}4 on cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation after exogenous treatment, but the mechanism by which T{beta}4 functions is still unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that incubation of endothelial cells with T{beta}4 induced synthesis and secretion of various proteins, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and matrix metaloproteinases. We also showed that T{beta}4 interacts with Ku80, which may operate as a novel receptor for T{beta}4 and mediates its intracellular activity. In this paper, we provide evidence that T{beta}4 induces cellular processes without changes in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. External treatment of HUVECs with T{beta}4 and its mutants deprived of the N-terminal tetrapeptide AcSDKP (T{beta}4{sub AcSDKPT/4A}) or the actin-binding sequence KLKKTET (T{beta}4{sub KLKKTET/7A}) resulted in enhanced cell migration and formation of tubular structures in Matrigel. Surprisingly, the increased cell motility caused by T{beta}4 was not associated with the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation monitored with Fluo-4 NW or Fura-2 AM. Therefore, it is unlikely that externally added T{beta}4 induces HUVEC migration via the surface membrane receptors known to generate Ca{sup 2+} influx. Our data confirm the concept that externally added T{beta}4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration.

  20. Sphingosine kinase-1 is a hypoxia-regulated gene that stimulates migration of human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Stephanie; Doell, Frauke; Roemer, Isolde; Bubnova, Svetlana

    2008-04-18

    Sphingosine kinases (SK) catalyze the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate which in turn regulates cell responses such as proliferation and migration. Here, we show that exposure of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 to hypoxia stimulates a increased SK-1, but not SK-2, mRNA, protein expression, and activity. This effect was due to stimulated SK-1 promoter activity which contains two putative hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive-elements (HRE). By deletion of one of the two HREs, hypoxia-induced promoter activation was abrogated. Furthermore, hypoxia upregulated the expression of HIF-1{alpha} and HIF-2{alpha}, and both contributed to SK-1 gene transcription as shown by selective depletion of HIF-1{alpha} or HIF-2{alpha} by siRNA. The hypoxia-stimulated SK-1 upregulation was functionally coupled to increased migration since the selective depletion of SK-1, but not of SK-2, by siRNAs abolished the migratory response. In summary, these data show that hypoxia upregulates SK-1 activity and results in an accelerated migratory capacity of endothelial cells. SK-1 may thus serve as an attractive therapeutic target to treat diseases associated with increased endothelial migration and angiogenesis such as cancer growth and progression.

  1. Effect of beta-escin sodium on endothelial cells proliferation, migration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Jing-Rong

    2008-01-01

    beta-Escin, the major active compound in extracts of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum seed, has shown clinically significant activity in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Our previous studies had shown that beta-escin sodium inhibited angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in aortic disk assay. In this study, we explored the direct effect of beta-escin sodium on proliferation, migration and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and ECV304 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay showed that beta-escin sodium (10, 20, 40 microg/ml) inhibited endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation dose-dependently. beta-escin sodium also induced ECs apoptosis at 40 microg/ml. Cell migration was evaluated by an improved wound assay: barren spot assay. And the direct effect on cell motility excluding influence of cell proliferation was examined by High Content Screening (HCS, Cellomics) assay. The data indicated that beta-escin sodium suppressed ECs migration and cell motility. Western blot results suggested that beta-escin sodium acts on ECs possibly by increasing expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and decreasing expression of PKC-alpha and activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Our findings give the evidence that beta-escin sodium might have potential anti-angiogenic activity via its direct effects on ECs. PMID:18718875

  2. Signalling mechanisms of SDF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlmann, Christoph Ruediger Wolfram . E-mail: Chr_Kuhlmann@web.de; Schaefer, Christian Alexander; Reinhold, Lars; Tillmanns, Harald; Erdogan, Ali

    2005-10-07

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of stromal-derived factor-1-{alpha} (SDF-1-{alpha}) on endothelial angiogenic effects. SDF-1-{alpha} (50 ng/ml) increased the number of cultured endothelial cells from 33,653 {+-} 1183 to 55,398 {+-} 2741, which significantly reduced by adding the BK{sub Ca}-inhibitor iberiotoxin, or the endothelial nitric oxide synthase-blocker, L-NMMA (n = 24, p < 0.05). Using the 'Fences'-assay a significant increase of HUVEC migration induced by SDF-1-{alpha} was reported, which was blocked by the addition of iberiotoxin or L-NMMA (n = 12, p < 0.05). BK{sub Ca} open-state probability (NPo) was analysed using the patch-clamp technique and NPo was increased from 0.003 (control) to 0.052 (SDF-1-{alpha}; n = 10, p < 0.05). NO synthesis was measured using a cGMP-radioimmunoassay. A significant increase of cGMP levels from 0.952 pmol/mg protein to 2.179 pmol/mg protein was observed, that was abolished by L-NMMA and significantly reduced by iberiotoxin (n = 15, p < 0.05). SDF-1-{alpha} increases endothelial proliferation and migration involving the activation of BK{sub Ca} and an increased production of NO.

  3. Endothelial Cell Migration and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Are the Result of Loss of Breast Tissue Polarity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Amy; Cuevas, Ileana; Kenny, Paraic A; Miyake, Hiroshi; Mace, Kimberley; Ghajar, Cyrus; Boudreau, Aaron; Bissell, Mina; Boudreau, Nancy

    2009-05-26

    Recruiting a new blood supply is a rate-limiting step in tumor progression. In a three-dimensional model of breast carcinogenesis, disorganized, proliferative transformed breast epithelial cells express significantly higher expression of angiogenic genes compared with their polarized, growth-arrested nonmalignant counterparts. Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by malignant cells enhanced recruitment of endothelial cells (EC) in heterotypic cocultures. Significantly, phenotypic reversion of malignant cells via reexpression of HoxD10, which is lost in malignant progression, significantly attenuated VEGF expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha}-independent fashion and reduced EC migration. This was due primarily to restoring polarity: forced proliferation of polarized, nonmalignant cells did not induce VEGF expression and EC recruitment, whereas disrupting the architecture of growth-arrested, reverted cells did. These data show that disrupting cytostructure activates the angiogenic switch even in the absence of proliferation and/or hypoxia and restoring organization of malignant clusters reduces VEGF expression and EC activation to levels found in quiescent nonmalignant epithelium. These data confirm the importance of tissue architecture and polarity in malignant progression.

  4. The configuration of fibrin clots determines capillary morphogenesis and endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Nehls, V; Herrmann, R

    1996-05-01

    In the living organism, capillary growth frequently occurs in a fibrin-rich extracellular matrix. The structure and the mechanical properties of fibrin clots are influenced by various macromolecules (i.e., hyaluronic acid and thrombospondin) and also by pH, ionic strength, and thrombin concentrations of the milieu in which they polymerize. The configuration (three-dimensional architecture) and the rigidity of fibrin clots correlate with their opacity measured by spectrophotometric absorbance readings at 350 nm. By using bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells and bovine fibrinogen, we show here that transparent fibrin clots (A(350) < 1.0), polymerized at > or = pH 7.5 or in the presence of increased thrombin or sodium chloride concentrations, strongly stimulated capillary morphogenesis in vitro. In contrast, opaque fibrin gels (A(350) > 1.5), polymerized at pH 7.2 or in the presence of dextran, stimulated only the migration of endothelial cells but not capillary morphogenesis. We demonstrate that the angiomorphogenic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are strongly dependent on the structure of the fibrin clots. Our findings suggest that bFGF/VEGF primarily stimulate the proliferation of endothelial cells, whereas the three-dimensional architecture of the fibrin matrix is decisive for capillary morphogenesis. PMID:8992233

  5. TNFα Regulates Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration via CADM1 and NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    Prisco, Anthony R.; Hoffmann, Brian R.; Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; McDermott-Roe, Chris; Stodola, Timothy J.; Exner, Eric C.; Greene, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in 1997, many clinical trials were conducted using EPCs as a cellular based therapy with the goal of restoring damaged organ function by inducing growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Results were disappointing, largely because the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EPC-induced angiogenesis were not clearly understood. Following injection, EPCs must migrate to the target tissue and engraft prior to induction of angiogenesis. In this study EPC migration was investigated in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, to test the hypothesis that organ damage observed in ischemic diseases induces an inflammatory signal that is important for EPC homing. In this study, EPC migration and incorporation were modeled in vitro using a co-culture assay where TNFα treated EPCs were tracked while migrating towards vessel-like structures. It was found that TNFα treatment of EPCs increased migration and incorporation into vessel-like structures. Using a combination of genomic and proteomic approaches, NF-kB mediated upregulation of CADM1 was identified as a mechanism of TNFα induced migration. Inhibition of NF-kB or CADM1 significantly decreased migration of EPCs in vitro suggesting a role for TNFα signaling in EPC homing during tissue repair. PMID:26867147

  6. Nature's rheologists: Lymphatic endothelial cells control migration in response to shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Gerald; Dunn, Alex; Surya, Vinay

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels and are sensitive to fluid flow as part of their physiological function. EC organization, migration and vessel development are profoundly influenced by shear stresses, with important implications in cardiovascular disease and tumor metastasis. How ECs sense fluid flow is a central and unanswered question in cardiovascular biology. We developed a high-throughput live-cell flow chamber that models the gradients in wall shear stress experienced by ECs in vivo. Live-cell imaging allows us to probe cellular responses to flow, most notably EC migration, which has a key role in vessel remodeling. We find that most EC subtypes, including ECs from the venous, arterial, and microvascular systems, migrate in the flow direction. In contrast, human lymphatic microvascular ECs (hLMVECs) migrate against flow and up spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Further experiments reveal that hLMVECs are sensitive to the magnitude, direction, and the local spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Lastly, recent efforts have aimed to link this directional migration to spatial gradients in cell-mediated small molecule emission that may be linked to the gradient in wall shear stress.

  7. Migration of Co-cultured Endothelial Cells and Osteoblasts in Composite Hydroxyapatite/Polylactic Acid Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    SHAH, AMITA R.; SHAH, SARITA R.; OH, SUNHO; ONG, JOO L.; WENKE, JOSEPH C.; AGRAWAL, C. MAULI

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of bone in large segmental bone defects requires regeneration of both cortical bone and trabecular bone. A scaffold design consisting of a hydroxyapatite (HA) ring surrounding a polylactic acid (PLA) core simulates the structure of bone and provides an environment for indirect and direct co-culture conditions. In this exper iment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) and normal human primary osteoblasts (OB) were co-cultured to evaluate cell migration and interactions within this biphasic composite scaffold. Both cell types were able to migrate between the different material phases of the scaffold. It was also observed that OB migration increased when they were co-cultured with ECs, whereas EC migration decreased in co-culture. The results show that co-culture of ECs and OBs in this composite biphasic scaffold allows for migration of cells throughout the scaffold and that pre-seeding a scaffold with ECs can increase OB infiltration into desired areas of the scaffold. PMID:21769541

  8. ER Alpha Rapid Signaling Is Required for Estrogen Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Ueda, Kazutaka; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Diomede, Olga I.; Andrade, Tiffany; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), which likely underlies its ability to accelerate re-endothelialization and reduce adverse remodeling after vascular injury. In previous studies, we have shown that the protective effects of E2 (the active endogenous form of estrogen) in vascular injury require the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). ERα transduces the effects of estrogen via a classical DNA binding, “genomic” signaling pathway and via a more recently-described “rapid” signaling pathway that is mediated by a subset of ERα localized to the cell membrane. However, which of these pathways mediates the effects of estrogen on endothelial cells is poorly understood. Here we identify a triple point mutant version of ERα (KRR ERα) that is specifically defective in rapid signaling, but is competent to regulate transcription through the “genomic” pathway. We find that in ECs expressing wild type ERα, E2 regulates many genes involved in cell migration and proliferation, promotes EC migration and proliferation, and also blocks the adhesion of monocytes to ECs. ECs expressing KRR mutant ERα, however, lack all of these responses. These observations establish KRR ERα as a novel tool that could greatly facilitate future studies into the vascular and non-vascular functions of ERα rapid signaling. Further, they support that rapid signaling through ERα is essential for many of the transcriptional and physiological responses of ECs to E2, and that ERα rapid signaling in ECs, in vivo, may be critical for the vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen. PMID:27035664

  9. The YSNSG cyclopeptide derived from tumstatin inhibits tumor angiogenesis by down-regulating endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Thevenard, Jessica; Ramont, Laurent; Devy, Jérome; Brassart, Bertrand; Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurélie; Floquet, Nicolas; Schneider, Laurence; Ouchani, Farid; Terryn, Christine; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that the CNYYSNS peptide derived from tumstatin inhibited in vivo tumor progression. The YSNS motif formed a beta-turn crucial for biological activity. More recently, a YSNSG cyclopeptide with a constrained beta-turn on the YSNS residues was designed. Intraperitoneal administration of the YSNSG cyclopeptide inhibited in vivo melanoma progression more efficiently than the native linear peptide. In the present article, we showed that the YSNSG cyclopeptide also triggered an inhibition of in vivo tumor neovascularization and we further analyzed its in vitroantiangiogenic effect. The YSNSG cyclopeptide did not alter endothelial cell proliferation but inhibited cell migration by 83% in an in vitro wound healing model. The inhibition was mediated by a decrease in active MT1-MMP at the migration front as well as a decrease in u-PA and u-PAR expression. The cyclopeptide also altered beta1-integrin distribution in endothelial cell lamellipodia, induced a strong decrease in the phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p125(FAK)), disorganized F-actin stress fibers and decreased the number of lamellipodia, resulting in a non migratory phenotype. Our results confirm the YSNSG cyclopeptide as a potent antitumor agent, through both the inhibition of invasive properties of tumor cells and the antiangiogenic activity. PMID:19551865

  10. Endothelial cell activation promotes foam cell formation by monocytes following transendothelial migration in an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Westhorpe, Clare L. V.; Dufour, Eric M.; Maisa, Anna; Jaworowski, Anthony; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Muller, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Foam cells are a pathological feature present at all stages of atherosclerosis. Foam cells develop from monocytes that enter the nascent atheroma and subsequently ingest modified low density lipoproteins (LDL). The regulation of this process has previously been studied in vitro using cultured macrophages fed modified LDL. We used our existing in vitro model of transendothelial migration (TEM) to study this process in a more physiologically relevant setting. In our model, monocytes undergo TEM across a primary endothelial monolayer into an underlying three-dimensional collagen matrix in the presence of 20% human serum. Foam cells were detected by Oil Red O staining for intracellular lipid droplets. We demonstrate that sub-endothelial monocytes can develop into foam cells within 48 hours of TEM across TNF-α activated endothelium, in the absence of additional lipids. Our data indicate a role for both monocyte-endothelial interactions and soluble factors in the regulation of foam cell development, including oxidation of LDL in situ from lipid present in culture medium following TNF-α stimulation of the endothelial cells. Our study provides a simple model for investigating foam cell development in vitro that mimics cell migration in vivo, and demonstrates the critical role of inflammation in regulating early atherogenic events. PMID:22609311

  11. A Unique Role for Endothelial Cell Kinesin Light Chain 1, Variant 1 in Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Bita F; Muller, William A

    2016-05-01

    A reservoir of parajunctional membrane in endothelial cells, the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC), is critical for transendothelial migration (TEM). We have previously shown that targeted recycling of the LBRC to the site of TEM requires microtubules and a kinesin molecular motor. However, the identity of the kinesin and mechanism of cargo binding were not known. We show that microinjection of endothelial cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for kinesin-1 significantly blocked LBRC-targeted recycling and TEM. In complementary experiments, knocking down KIF5B, a ubiquitous kinesin-1 isoform, in endothelial cells significantly decreased targeted recycling of the LBRC and leukocyte TEM. Kinesin heavy chains move cargo along microtubules by one of many kinesin light chains (KLCs), which directly bind the cargo. Knocking down KLC 1 isoform variant 1 (KLC1C) significantly decreased LBRC-targeted recycling and TEM, whereas knocking down other isoforms of KLC1 had no effect. Re-expression of KLC1C resistant to the knockdown shRNA restored targeted recycling and TEM. Thus kinesin-1 and KLC1C are specifically required for targeted recycling and TEM. These data suggest that of the many potential combinations of the 45 kinesin family members and multiple associated light chains, KLC1C links the LBRC to kinesin-1 (KIF5B) during targeted recycling and TEM. Thus, KLC1C can potentially be used as a target for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:26994343

  12. Trypsinogen 4 boosts tumor endothelial cells migration through proteolysis of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2

    PubMed Central

    Ghilardi, Carmen; Silini, Antonietta; Figini, Sara; Anastasia, Alessia; Lupi, Monica; Fruscio, Robert; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Bani, MariaRosa

    2015-01-01

    Proteasescontribute to cancer in many ways, including tumor vascularization and metastasis, and their pharmacological inhibition is a potential anticancer strategy. We report that human endothelial cells (EC) express the trypsinogen 4 isoform of the serine protease 3 (PRSS3), and lack both PRSS2 and PRSS1. Trypsinogen 4 expression was upregulated by the combined action of VEGF-A, FGF-2 and EGF, angiogenic factors representative of the tumor microenvironment. Suppression of trypsinogen 4 expression by siRNA inhibited the angiogenic milieu-induced migration of EC from cancer specimens (tumor-EC), but did not affect EC from normal tissues. We identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a matrix associated inhibitor of cell motility, as the functional target of trypsinogen 4, which cleaved TFPI-2 and removed it from the matrix put down by tumor-EC. Silencing tumor-EC for trypsinogen 4 accumulated TFPI2 in the matrix. Showing that angiogenic factors stimulate trypsinogen 4 expression, which hydrolyses TFPI-2 favoring a pro-migratory situation, our study suggests a new pathway linking tumor microenvironment signals to endothelial cell migration, which is essential for angiogenesis and blood vessel remodeling. Abolishing trypsinogen 4 functions might be an exploitable strategy as anticancer, particularly anti-vascular, therapy. PMID:26318044

  13. Activated T Cell Trans-Endothelial Migration Relies on Myosin-IIA Contractility for Squeezing the Cell Nucleus through Endothelial Cell Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobelli, Jordan; Estin Matthews, Miriam; Chen, Stephanie; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Following activation, T cells are released from lymph nodes to traffic via the blood to effector sites. The re-entry of these activated T cells into tissues represents a critical step for them to carry out local effector functions. Here we have assessed defects in effector T cells that are acutely depleted in Myosin-IIA (MyoIIA) and show a T cell intrinsic requirement for this motor to facilitate the diapedesis step of extravasation. We show that MyoIIA accumulates at the rear of T cells undergoing trans-endothelial migration. T cells can extend protrusions and project a substantial portion of their cytoplasm through the endothelial wall in the absence of MyoIIA. However, this motor protein plays a crucial role in allowing T cells to complete the movement of their relatively rigid nucleus through the endothelial junctions. In vivo, this defect manifests as poor entry into lymph nodes, tumors and into the spinal cord, during tissue-specific autoimmunity, but not the spleen. This suggests that therapeutic targeting of this molecule may allow for differential attenuation of tissue-specific inflammatory responses. PMID:24069389

  14. Soluble tissue factor has unique angiogenic activities that selectively promote migration and differentiation but not proliferation of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    He Yingbo; Chang Guodong; Zhan Shunli; Song Xiaomin; Wang Xiaofeng; Luo Yongzhang

    2008-06-06

    The level of circulating tissue factor (TF) is up-regulated in human angiogenesis-related malignancies. However, whether circulating TF has angiogenic activities has not been determined. Soluble TF (sTF) is the main domain of circulating TF. Here, using cell migration, wound healing, and tubule formation assays, human recombinant sTF was found to significantly promote the migration and differentiation of endothelial cells. The stress fiber formation and rearrangement induced by sTF observed through immunofluorescence microscope may be responsible for the stimulatory migration effect of sTF. Nevertheless, sTF had no effects on endothelial cell proliferation. Interestingly, sTF can be internalized by endothelial cells, which implies a novel mechanism for sTF in angiogenesis. These results suggest that sTF has unique angiogenic activities and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to treat diseases associated with angiogenesis such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Cross talk Initiated by Endothelial Cells Enhances Migration and Inhibits Anoikis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through STAT3/Akt/ERK Signaling12

    PubMed Central

    Neiva, Kathleen G; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Miyazawa, Marta; Warner, Kristy A; Karl, Elisabeta; Nör, Jacques E

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that cancer cells secrete angiogenic factors to recruit and sustain tumor vascular networks. However, little is known about the effect of endothelial cell-secreted factors on the phenotype and behavior of tumor cells. The hypothesis underlying this study is that endothelial cells initiate signaling pathways that enhance tumor cell survival and migration. Here, we observed that soluble mediators from primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells (OSCC-3, UM-SCC-1, UM-SCC-17B, UM-SCC-74A). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL- 6), interleukin-8 (CXCL8), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are upregulated in endothelial cells cocultured with HNSCC. Blockade of endothelial cell-derived IL-6, CXCL8, or EGF by gene silencing or neutralizing antibodies inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK in tumor cells, respectively. Notably, activation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK by endothelial cells enhanced migration and inhibited anoikis of tumor cells. We have previously demonstrated that Bcl-2 is upregulated in tumor microvessels in patients with HNSCC. Here, we observed that Bcl-2 signaling induces expression of IL-6, CXCL8, and EGF, providing a mechanism for the upregulation of these cytokines in tumor-associated endothelial cells. This study expands the contribution of endothelial cells to the pathobiology of tumor cells. It unveils a new mechanism in which endothelial cells function as initiators of molecular crosstalks that enhance survival and migration of tumor cells. PMID:19484147

  16. Vegfa signaling promotes zebrafish intestinal vasculature development through endothelial cell migration from the posterior cardinal vein.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Andrew L; Baltrunaite, Kristina; Bower, Neil I; Rossi, Andrea; Stainier, Didier Y R; Hogan, Benjamin M; Sumanas, Saulius

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying organ vascularization are not well understood. The zebrafish intestinal vasculature forms early, is easily imaged using transgenic lines and in-situ hybridization, and develops in a stereotypical pattern thus making it an excellent model for investigating mechanisms of organ specific vascularization. Here, we demonstrate that the sub-intestinal vein (SIV) and supra-intestinal artery (SIA) form by a novel mechanism from angioblasts that migrate out of the posterior cardinal vein and coalesce to form the intestinal vasculature in an anterior to posterior wave with the SIA forming after the SIV. We show that vascular endothelial growth factor aa (vegfaa) is expressed in the endoderm at the site where intestinal vessels form and therefore likely provides a guidance signal. Vegfa/Vegfr2 signaling is required for early intestinal vasculature development with mutation in vegfaa or loss of Vegfr2 homologs causing nearly complete inhibition of the formation of the intestinal vasculature. Vegfc and Vegfr3 function, however, are dispensable for intestinal vascularization. Interestingly, ubiquitous overexpression of Vegfc resulted in an overgrowth of the SIV, suggesting that Vegfc is sufficient to induce SIV development. These results argue that Vegfa signaling directs endothelial cells to migrate out of existing vasculature and coalesce to form the intestinal vessels. It is likely that a similar mechanism is utilized during vascularization of other organs. PMID:26769101

  17. EGF and PGE2: effects on corneal endothelial cell migration and monolayer spreading during wound repair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joyce, N C; Joyce, S J; Powell, S M; Meklir, B

    1995-07-01

    In vivo repair of the adult human corneal endothelium occurs mainly by movement of cells into the wound defect rather than by cell division. Two forms of cell movement contribute to endothelial wound repair: migration of individual cells into the defect and spreading of the confluent monolayer into the wound area. This laboratory has developed a tissue culture model using rabbit corneal endothelial cells pretreated with the mitotic inhibitor 5-fluorouracil to mimic the relatively amitotic state of human corneal endothelium in vivo. This model permits study of the effects of growth factors and other agents on individual cell migration and monolayer spreading in response to wounding. mRNA for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor has been detected in cultured corneal endothelial cells and EGF receptors have been detected on human corneal endothelial cells in situ, suggesting that this growth factor may act in an autocrine manner. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is synthesized by cultured corneal endothelial cells and is present in relatively high quantity in aqueous humor in response to corneal wounding and to inflammation in the anterior chamber. Although corneal endothelial cells may be exposed to both EGF and PGE2, little is known about their effects on monolayer repair. The current study compared the effects of PGE2 alone, EGF alone, and both agents in combination on individual cell migration and monolayer spreading using the wound model system and also determined the effect of EGF on PGE2 secretion using a commercial immunoassay. A 15 min exposure of wounded cultures to exogenous PGE2 stimulated individual cell migration and suppressed monolayer spreading.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7587307

  18. The enzyme L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) methyltransferase is required for VEGF-dependent endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ouanouki, Amira; Desrosiers, Richard R

    2016-02-01

    The protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) methyltransferase (PIMT) methylates proteins carrying altered aspartyl residues in their structure. PIMT is postulated to limit the accumulation of these damaged proteins with abnormal aspartyl residues. However, little is known about the role of PIMT in tumor growth and almost nothing about its involvement in angiogenic processes. We previously reported that PIMT was up-regulated when endothelial cells were detached from extracellular matrix, leading us to postulate that PIMT could play a critical role during angiogenic steps, since the contacts between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix are intensively regulated during this process. Here, we demonstrated that PIMT down-regulation by siRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inhibited both cell migration and tube formation in vitro when stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conversely, overexpression of wild-type PIMT promoted HUVEC migration in the presence of VEGF, while this response was prevented in cells transfected with the inactive mutant PIMT(D83V). Similar results were obtained with the two forms of PIMT regarding their capacity to regulate the action of VEGF during the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Together, these data highlight the importance of the catalytic activity of PIMT to mediate VEGF effects during endothelial cell migration and tube formation in angiogenesis. Furthermore, these results identify a new function for PIMT as an enzyme involved in pro-angiogenic processes. PMID:26738492

  19. Network formation through active migration of human vascular endothelial cells in a multilayered skeletal myoblast sheet.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Eiji; Ngo, Trung Xuan; Takezawa, Yasunori; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Taya, Masahito; Kino-oka, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Autologous transplantation of myoblast sheet has attracted attention as a new technique for curing myocardial infarction. Myoblast sheet has the ability to secret cytokines that improve heart function via the facilitation of angiogenesis on affected part. To mimic the in vivo angiogenesis in the myoblast sheet after transplantation, a five-layered cell sheet of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs) was overlaid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which enables evaluation of dynamic HUVEC behavior. HUVECs existing initially at the bottom of the sheet changed to be a stretched shape and migrated upward compared with the surrounding HSMMs in the sheet. Prolonged incubation resulted in network formation of HUVECs in the middle of the sheet, although non-networked HUVECs continued to migrate to the top of the sheet, which meant the spatial habitation of HUVECs in the cell sheet. Image processing was performed to determine the variation in the extent of network formation at different HUVEC densities. It was found that the extent of formed network depended on the frequency of encounters among HUVECs in the middle of the sheet. The present system, which can evaluate network formation, is considered to be a promising in vitro angiogenesis model. PMID:23117213

  20. Endothelial cell migration and morphogenesis on silk fibroin scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite electret.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miho; Soya, Tomoko; Hiratai, Rumi; Nagai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Morita, Ikuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of composite wound dressing films made of silk fibroin (SF) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) or polarized HA (pHA) powders on endothelial cell (EC) behaviors that have important roles in the wound-healing process. XRD revealed the SF films to be semicrystalline, with a broad peak centered at about 20.7° which is characteristic of β-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix. The SF composite films with 0.6 (w/v)% in concentration of HA powder (HA/SF) or pHA powder (pHA/SF) contained HA crystals of amorphous and silk II crystalline structures. SEM observation showed that there were differences in SF morphology between HA/SF and pHA/SF. The pHA/SF exhibited a furry texture around the pHA crystals, most likely due to the stored charged and zeta potentials. The HA/SF and pHA/SF films enhanced EC migration compared with that on the SF film. The number of migrated cells on the HA/SF and pHA/SF was ~1.5 times larger than that on the SF. The quantitative analysis of the endothelial morphogenesis indicated that the pHA/SF film enhanced the formation of capillary-like structures compared with SF and HA/SF. Thus, pHA/SF may potentially stimulate and contribute to the enhancement of angiogenesis in the wound-healing process. PMID:22275235

  1. Differential Regulation of CXCL5 by FGF2 in Osteoblastic and Endothelial Niche Cells Supports Hematopoietic Stem Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Cho, Hye-Sim; Shin, Hong-In

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell maintenance requires a specific microenvironment. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mainly maintained by the endosteal osteoblast (OB) niche, which provides a quiescent HSC microenvironment, and the vascular niche, which regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mobilization of HSCs. The systemic administration of FGF2 failed to induce normal hematopoiesis in bone marrow (BM) by reducing SDF-1, an important factor for hematopoiesis. Interestingly, SDF-1 levels were decreased in the OBs, but increased in vascular endothelial C166 cells when FGF2 was administered. We hypothesized that FGF2 induces changes in HSC migration from BM; therefore, we investigated FGF2-induced factors of HSC migration by a microarray chip. We searched the genes that were decreased in primary OBs, but increased in C166 cells upon FGF2 treatment. We confirmed selected genes that function in the extracellular region and identified the CXCR2-related chemokine candidate LIX/Cxcl5. A chemotaxis assay showed that CXCL5 induced the migration of HSCs (CD34−/lowLSK). Our data suggest that the differential regulation of the chemokine CXCL5 between OBs and endothelial cells upon FGF2 treatment is involved in HSC mobilization from the OB niche or BM to peripheral blood. PMID:22827607

  2. The anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide inhibits neutrophil adherence to and migration across monolayers of cytokine-activated endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dapino, P; Ottonello, L; Dallegri, F

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophil migration through the microvascular endothelium represents a fundamental event for the cell accumulation at sites of tissue injury. Owing to their capacity to modify the structural and functional characteristics of endothelial cells, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) play a pivotal role in directing circulating neutrophils away from the bloodstream to the interstitial tissue. In order to study neutrophil transendothelial migration, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown to confluence on the polycarbonate filter of two-compartment migration chambers. Pretreatment of the endothelial cell monolayers with TNF alpha for 4 h resulted in rapid migration of approximately 50% of subsequently added neutrophils across the layers. In contrast, < 10% of added neutrophils penetrated untreated endothelial monolayers. Using TNF alpha-treated endothelium, neutrophil transmigration was inhibited by the methane sulfonanilide anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide. Moreover, neutrophil adherence to TNF alpha-treated endothelial monolayers, cultured in microtiter wells, was markedly reduced by nimesulide. A linear correlation between the drug-dependent inhibition of neutrophil transmigration and neutrophil adherence was found. Finally, nimesulide did not interfere with the TNF alpha ability to convert resting endothelium into a pro-adhesive and pro-locomotory cell layer. The data suggest that nimesulide reduces neutrophil transendothelial migration primarily by limiting the cell anchorage to the TNF alpha-activated endothelium. Therefore, the drug has the potential to down-regulate neutrophil extravasation and, in turn, the burden of neutrophil oxidants and proteases leading to tissue injury at sites of inflammation. PMID:7824814

  3. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration-Enhancing Factors in the Secretome of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamprom, Witchayaporn; Kheolamai, Pakpoom; U-Pratya, Yaowalak; Supokawej, Aungkura; Wattanapanitch, Methichit; Laowtammathron, Chuti; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depend largely on their ability to secrete cytokines or factors that modulate immune response, enhance cell survival, and induce neovascularization in the target tissues. We studied the secretome profile of gestational tissue-derived MSCs and their effects on functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), another angiogenic cell type that plays an important role during the neovascularization. MSCs derived from placental tissues (PL-MSCs) significantly enhanced EPC migration while BM-MSCs, which are the standard source of MSCs for various clinical applications, did not. By using protein fractionation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified several novel candidates for EPC migration enhancing factor in PL-MSCs secretome that could be used to enhance neovascularization in the injured/ischemic tissues. We recommend that the strategy developed in our study could be used to systematically identify therapeutically useful molecules in the secretomes of other MSC sources for the clinical applications. PMID:26880942

  4. Exosomal Signaling during Hypoxia Mediates Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration and Vasculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Carlos; Ryan, Jennifer; Sobrevia, Luis; Kobayashi, Miharu; Ashman, Keith; Mitchell, Murray; Rice, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are critical processes in fetal circulation and placental vasculature development. Placental mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) are known to release paracrine factors (some of which are contained within exosomes) that promote angiogenesis and cell migration. The aims of this study were: to determine the effects of oxygen tension on the release of exosomes from pMSC; and to establish the effects of pMSC-derived exosomes on the migration and angiogenic tube formation of placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMEC). pMSC were isolated from placental villi (8–12 weeks of gestation, n = 6) and cultured under an atmosphere of 1%, 3% or 8% O2. Cell-conditioned media were collected and exosomes (exo-pMSC) isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The dose effect (5–20 µg exosomal protein/ml) of pMSC-derived exosomes on hPMEC migration and tube formation were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte™). The exosome pellet was resuspended in PBS and protein content was established by mass spectrometry (MS). Protein function and canonical pathways were identified using the PANTHER program and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, respectively. Exo-pMSC were identified, by electron microscopy, as spherical vesicles, with a typical cup-shape and diameters around of 100 nm and positive for exosome markers: CD63, CD9 and CD81. Under hypoxic conditions (1% and 3% O2) exo-pMSC released increased by 3.3 and 6.7 folds, respectively, when compared to the controls (8% O2; p<0.01). Exo-pMSC increased hPMEC migration by 1.6 fold compared to the control (p<0.05) and increased hPMEC tube formation by 7.2 fold (p<0.05). MS analysis identified 390 different proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization, development, immunomodulatory, and cell-to-cell communication. The data obtained support the hypothesis that pMSC-derived exosomes may contribute to placental vascular adaptation to low oxygen tension under both

  5. Class IIb HDAC6 regulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis by deacetylation of cortactin

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, David; Kroll, Jens; Gesierich, Sabine; Yao, Tso-Pang; Boon, Reinier A; Hergenreider, Eduard; Tjwa, Marc; Rössig, Lothar; Seto, Edward; Augustin, Hellmut G; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Urbich, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) deacetylate histones and non-histone proteins, thereby affecting protein activity and gene expression. The regulation and function of the cytoplasmic class IIb HDAC6 in endothelial cells (ECs) is largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC6 is upregulated by hypoxia and is essential for angiogenesis. Silencing of HDAC6 in ECs decreases sprouting and migration in vitro and formation of functional vascular networks in matrigel plugs in vivo. HDAC6 regulates zebrafish vessel formation, and HDAC6-deficient mice showed a reduced formation of perfused vessels in matrigel plugs. Consistently, overexpression of wild-type HDAC6 increases sprouting from spheroids. HDAC6 function requires the catalytic activity but is independent of ubiquitin binding and deacetylation of α-tubulin. Instead, we found that HDAC6 interacts with and deacetylates the actin-remodelling protein cortactin in ECs, which is essential for zebrafish vessel formation and which mediates the angiogenic effect of HDAC6. In summary, we show that HDAC6 is necessary for angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, involving the interaction and deacetylation of cortactin that regulates EC migration and sprouting. PMID:21847094

  6. Ras, Rac1, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in nitric oxide induced endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Eller-Borges, Roberta; Batista, Wagner L; da Costa, Paulo E; Tokikawa, Rita; Curcio, Marli F; Strumillo, Scheilla T; Sartori, Adriano; Moraes, Miriam S; de Oliveira, Graciele A; Taha, Murched O; Fonseca, Fábio V; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P

    2015-05-01

    The small GTP-binding proteins Ras and Rac1 are molecular switches exchanging GDP for GTP and converting external signals in response to a variety of stimuli. Ras and Rac1 play an important role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell migration. Rac1 is directly involved in the reorganization and changes in the cytoskeleton during cell motility. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the Ras - ERK1/2 MAP kinases signaling pathway and is involved in the interaction between Ras and the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 Kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and cell migration. This study utilizes bradykinin (BK), which promotes endogenous production of NO, in an investigation of the role of NO in the activation of Rac1 in rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAEC). NO-derived from BK stimulation of RAEC and incubation of the cells with the s-nitrosothiol S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) activated Rac1. NO-derived from BK stimulation promoted RAEC migration over a period of 12 h. The use of RAEC permanently transfected with the dominant negative mutant of Ras (Ras(N17)) or with the non-nitrosatable mutant of Ras (Ras(C118S)); and the use of specific inhibitors of: Ras, PI3K, and Rac1 resulted in inhibition of NO-mediated Rac1 activation. BK-stimulated s-nitrosylation of Ras in RAEC mediates Rac1 activation and cell migration. Inhibition of NO-mediated Rac1 activation resulted in inhibition of endothelial cell migration. In conclusion, the NO indirect activation of Rac1 involves the direct participation of Ras and PI3K in the migration of endothelial cells stimulated with BK. PMID:25819133

  7. Comparison of Artery Organ Culture and Co-Culture Models for Studying Endothelial Cell Migration and Its Effect on Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Ung; Luo, Jian; Sprague, Eugene; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Arterial restenosis associated with intimal hyperplasia is the major cause of long-term failure of vascular interventions. Endothelium injury and the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) are key events in the development of intimal hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to develop an ex vivo artery injury model for studying endothelial cell (EC) migration and to compare it with an in vitro co-culture arterial wall injury model in terms of the effect of flow on EC migration and its effect on SMC migration and proliferation. Our results demonstrated that shear flow improves reendothelialization in the injured area by promoting EC migration. The migration distance of ECs is much smaller in the arteries than in an in vitro cell culture model (3.57 ± 1.29 mm vs. 5.2 ± 1.4 cm, p< 0.001). SMC proliferation was significantly less in the EC intact and reendothelialization areas than in the EC denuded areas indicating that reendothelialization suppresses SMC proliferation. Our models provide a new approach to study techniques to enhance endothelium healing. PMID:20033777

  8. G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 35 Mediates Human Saphenous Vein Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Endothelial Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Jennifer E.; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Divorty, Nina; Clarke, Carolyn; Delles, Christian; Milligan, Graeme; Nicklin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation is central to neointima formation in vein graft failure following coronary artery bypass. However, there are currently no pharmacological interventions that prevent vein graft failure through intimal occlusion. It is hence a therapeutic target. Here, we investigated the contribution of GPR35 to human VSMC and endothelial cell (EC) migration, using a scratch-wound assay, and also the contribution to proliferation, using MTS and BrdU assays, in in vitro models using recently characterized human GPR35 ortholog-selective small-molecule agonists and antagonists. Real-time PCR studies showed GPR35 to be robustly expressed in human VSMCs and ECs. Stimulation of GPR35, with either the human-selective agonist pamoic acid or the reference agonist zaprinast, promoted VSMC migration in the scratch-wound assay. These effects were blocked by coincubation with either of the human GPR35-specific antagonists, CID-2745687 or ML-145. These GPR35-mediated effects were produced by inducing alterations in the actin cytoskeleton via the Rho A/Rho kinase signaling axis. Additionally, the agonist ligands stimulated a proliferative response in ECs. These studies highlight the potential that small molecules that stimulate or block GPR35 activity can modulate vascular proliferation and migration. These data propose GPR35 as a translational therapeutic target in vascular remodeling. PMID:27064272

  9. p73 is required for endothelial cell differentiation, migration and the formation of vascular networks regulating VEGF and TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, R; Martin-Lopez, M; Gonzalez-Cano, L; Garcia, S; Castrillo, F; Diez-Prieto, I; Fernandez-Corona, A; Lorenzo-Marcos, M E; Li, X; Claesson-Welsh, L; Marques, M M; Marin, M C

    2015-08-01

    Vasculogenesis, the establishment of the vascular plexus and angiogenesis, branching of new vessels from the preexisting vasculature, involves coordinated endothelial differentiation, proliferation and migration. Disturbances in these coordinated processes may accompany diseases such as cancer. We hypothesized that the p53 family member p73, which regulates cell differentiation in several contexts, may be important in vascular development. We demonstrate that p73 deficiency perturbed vascular development in the mouse retina, decreasing vascular branching, density and stability. Furthermore, p73 deficiency could affect non endothelial cells (ECs) resulting in reduced in vivo proangiogenic milieu. Moreover, p73 functional inhibition, as well as p73 deficiency, hindered vessel sprouting, tubulogenesis and the assembly of vascular structures in mouse embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell cultures. Therefore, p73 is necessary for EC biology and vasculogenesis and, in particular, that DNp73 regulates EC migration and tube formation capacity by regulation of expression of pro-angiogenic factors such as transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factors. DNp73 expression is upregulated in the tumor environment, resulting in enhanced angiogenic potential of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results demonstrate, by the first time, that differential p73-isoform regulation is necessary for physiological vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and DNp73 overexpression becomes a positive advantage for tumor progression due to its pro-angiogenic capacity. PMID:25571973

  10. Silencing stromal interaction molecule 1 by RNA interference inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Guo, Rui-wei; Qian, De-hui; Wang, Kui; Den, Meng-yang; Shi, Yan-kun; Huang, Lan

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} STIM1 and TRPC1 are expressed in EPCs. {yields} Knockdown of STIM1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and SOCE of EPCs. {yields} TRPC1-SOC cooperates with STIM1 to mediate the SOCE of EPCs. -- Abstract: Knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) significantly suppresses neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the major source of cells that respond to endothelium repair and contribute to re-endothelialization by reducing neointima formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that the effect of STIM1 on neointima hyperplasia inhibition is mediated through its effect on the biological properties of EPCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of STIM1 on the proliferation and migration of EPCs and examined the effect of STIM1 knockdown using cultured rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. STIM1 was expressed in EPCs, and knockdown of STIM1 by adenoviral delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Furthermore, STIM1 knockdown decreased store-operated channel entry 48 h after transfection. Replenishment with recombinant human STIM1 reversed the effects of STIM1 knockdown. Our data suggest that the store-operated transient receptor potential canonical 1 channel is involved in regulating the biological properties of EPCs through STIM1. STIM1 is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and migration in rat EPCs and may play an important role in the biological properties of EPCs.

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ichihara, Gaku; Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora; Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO2 particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. PMID:24746987

  12. VEGF189 stimulates endothelial cells proliferation and migration in vitro and up-regulates the expression of Flk-1/KDR mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Herve, Marie-Astrid . E-mail: applanat@chu-stlouis.fr

    2005-09-10

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical factor for development of the vascular system in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. This growth factor exists under at least three isoforms, VEGF120/121, VEGF164/165 and VEGF188/189 which are generated by alternative splicing. VEGF isoforms have different affinities for heparan sulphate as well as for VEGF receptors, and may play distinct roles in vascular development. The role of VEGF189 as an endothelial mitogen, however, remains controversial. VEGF189 is almost entirely bound to the cell surface or extracellular matrix, and is considered active after its cleavage and release from its extracellular binding site. In the present study, we demonstrate that VEGF189 induces endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The 30-60% increase observed with VEGF189 (10 ng/ml) in HUVEC proliferation was similar to that observed with VEGF165. However, the proliferative effect observed with VEGF189 appeared dependent on the origin of the endothelial cell, since the proliferation was clearly observed with HUVEC but not with BAEC or capillary endothelial cells from dermis (HMEC). The effect of VEGF189 on endothelial cell migration was also analyzed using the wound healing and the Boyden chamber assays. The migration effect was observed with BAEC which do not proliferate with VEGF189, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in proliferation and migration. In addition, VEGF189 as well as VEGF165 induced a 2-fold increase of Flk-1/KDR expression in HUVEC, the receptor involved in proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. In the Matrigel plug assay in vivo, both VEGF189 and 165 (100 ng/ml) increased the infiltration of endothelial cells. These data suggest that VEGF189 induced endothelial cell migration and proliferation under certain circumstances.

  13. Notch regulation of myogenic versus endothelial fates of cells that migrate from the somite to the limb

    PubMed Central

    Mayeuf-Louchart, Alicia; Lagha, Mounia; Danckaert, Anne; Rocancourt, Didier; Relaix, Frederic; Vincent, Stéphane D.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent Pax3-positive (Pax3+) cells in the somites give rise to skeletal muscle and to cells of the vasculature. We had previously proposed that this cell-fate choice depends on the equilibrium between Pax3 and Foxc2 expression. In this study, we report that the Notch pathway promotes vascular versus skeletal muscle cell fates. Overactivating the Notch pathway specifically in Pax3+ progenitors, via a conditional Pax3NICD allele, results in an increase of the number of smooth muscle and endothelial cells contributing to the aorta. At limb level, Pax3+ cells in the somite give rise to skeletal muscles and to a subpopulation of endothelial cells in blood vessels of the limb. We now demonstrate that in addition to the inhibitory role of Notch signaling on skeletal muscle cell differentiation, the Notch pathway affects the Pax3:Foxc2 balance and promotes the endothelial versus myogenic cell fate, before migration to the limb, in multipotent Pax3+ cells in the somite of the mouse embryo. PMID:24927569

  14. Cell Permeability, Migration, and Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, M; Qian, Y; Fu, W; Schwegler-Berry, D; Ding, M; Castranova, V; Guo, NL

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have elicited great interest in biomedical applications due to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and optical properties. Intravenous administration of MWCNT-based medical imaging agents and drugs in animal models was utilized. However, the potential harmful health effects of MWCNT administration in humans have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, to date, there are no apparent reports regarding the precise mechanisms of translocation of MWCNT into target tissues and organs from blood circulation. This study demonstrates that exposure to MWCNT leads to an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). The results obtained from this study also showed that the MWCNT-induced rise in endothelial permeability is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and actin filament remodeling. In addition, it was found that MWCNT promoted cell migration in HMVEC. Mechanistically, MWCNT exposure elevated the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in HMVEC. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of MWCNT, which may have implications in the biomedical application of MWCNT in vascular targeting, imaging, and drug delivery. The results generated from this study also elucidate the potential adverse effects of MWCNT exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:22129238

  15. Cyclic thrombospondin-1 mimetics: grafting of a thrombospondin sequence into circular disulfide-rich frameworks to inhibit endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour formation is dependent on nutrient and oxygen supply from adjacent blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors can play a vital role in controlling blood vessel formation and consequently tumour progression by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and migration. The primary aim of the present study was to design cyclic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mimetics using disulfide-rich frameworks for anti-angiogenesis therapies and to determine whether these peptides have better potency than the linear parent peptide. A short anti-angiogenic heptapeptide fragment from TSP-1 (GVITRIR) was incorporated into two cyclic disulfide-rich frameworks, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II) and SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1). The cyclic peptides were chemically synthesized and folded in oxidation buffers, before being tested in a series of in vitro evaluations. Incorporation of the bioactive heptapeptide fragment into the cyclic frameworks resulted in peptides that inhibited microvascular endothelial cell migration, and had no toxicity against normal primary human endothelial cells or cancer cells. Importantly, all of the designed cyclic TSP-1 mimetics were far more stable than the linear heptapeptide in human serum. The present study has demonstrated a novel approach to stabilize the active region of TSP-1. The anti-angiogenic activity of the native TSP-1 active fragment was maintained in the new TSP-1 mimetics and the results provide a new chemical approach for the design of TSP-1 mimetics. PMID:26464514

  16. Cyclic thrombospondin-1 mimetics: grafting of a thrombospondin sequence into circular disulfide-rich frameworks to inhibit endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J; Daly, Norelle L

    2015-01-01

    Tumour formation is dependent on nutrient and oxygen supply from adjacent blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors can play a vital role in controlling blood vessel formation and consequently tumour progression by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and migration. The primary aim of the present study was to design cyclic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mimetics using disulfide-rich frameworks for anti-angiogenesis therapies and to determine whether these peptides have better potency than the linear parent peptide. A short anti-angiogenic heptapeptide fragment from TSP-1 (GVITRIR) was incorporated into two cyclic disulfide-rich frameworks, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II) and SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1). The cyclic peptides were chemically synthesized and folded in oxidation buffers, before being tested in a series of in vitro evaluations. Incorporation of the bioactive heptapeptide fragment into the cyclic frameworks resulted in peptides that inhibited microvascular endothelial cell migration, and had no toxicity against normal primary human endothelial cells or cancer cells. Importantly, all of the designed cyclic TSP-1 mimetics were far more stable than the linear heptapeptide in human serum. The present study has demonstrated a novel approach to stabilize the active region of TSP-1. The anti-angiogenic activity of the native TSP-1 active fragment was maintained in the new TSP-1 mimetics and the results provide a new chemical approach for the design of TSP-1 mimetics. PMID:26464514

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor α Regulates Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration via CADM1 and NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Anthony R; Hoffmann, Brian R; Kaczorowski, Catherine C; McDermott-Roe, Chris; Stodola, Timothy J; Exner, Eric C; Greene, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    Shortly after the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in 1997, many clinical trials were conducted using EPCs as a cellular based therapy with the goal of restoring damaged organ function by inducing growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Results were disappointing, largely because the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EPC-induced angiogenesis were not clearly understood. Following injection, EPCs must migrate to the target tissue and engraft prior to induction of angiogenesis. In this study EPC migration was investigated in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, to test the hypothesis that organ damage observed in ischemic diseases induces an inflammatory signal that is important for EPC homing. In this study, EPC migration and incorporation were modeled in vitro using a coculture assay where TNFα treated EPCs were tracked while migrating toward vessel-like structures. It was found that TNFα treatment of EPCs increased migration and incorporation into vessel-like structures. Using a combination of genomic and proteomic approaches, NF-kB mediated upregulation of CADM1 was identified as a mechanism of TNFα induced migration. Inhibition of NF-kB or CADM1 significantly decreased migration of EPCs in vitro suggesting a role for TNFα signaling in EPC homing during tissue repair. Stem Cells 2016;34:1922-1933. PMID:26867147

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ichihara, Gaku; Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora; Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  19. MRP4 knockdown enhances migration, suppresses apoptosis, and produces aggregated morphology in human retinal vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, Mizuki; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Imai, Hisanori; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Honda, Shigeru; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Negi, Akira

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous VEGF decreases MRP4 expression in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} MRP4 knockdown leads to enhanced cell migration. {yields} MRP4 knockdown suppresses caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis. {yields} MRP4 knockdown produces cell assembly and cell aggregation. -- Abstract: The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) MRP4/ABCC4 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that actively effluxes endogenous and xenobiotic substrates out of cells. In the rodent retina, Mrp4 mRNA and protein are exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but the angiogenic properties of Mrp4 are poorly understood so far. This study aims to explore the angiogenic properties of MRP4 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. MRP4 expression was decreased at the mRNA and protein levels after stimulation with exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in a dose-dependent manner. RNAi-mediated MRP4 knockdown in HRECs do not affect cell proliferation but enhances cell migration. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by serum starvation was less prominent in MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs as compared to control siRNA-treated HRECs. In a Matrigel-based tube-formation assay, although MRP4 knockdown did not lead to a significant change in the total tube length, MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs assembled and aggregated into a massive tube-like structure, which was not observed in control siRNA-treated HRECs. These results suggest that MRP4 is uniquely involved in retinal angiogenesis.

  20. The matrix protein CCN1 (CYR61) promotes proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yang; Gao Yu; Wang, Hong; Huang Lan Qin Jun; Guo Ruiwei; Song Mingbao; Yu Shiyong; Chen Jianfei; Cui Bin; Gao Pan

    2008-10-15

    Neovascularization and re-endothelialization relies on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), but their recruitment and angiogenic roles are subjected to regulation by the vascular microenvironment, which remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of mature ECs and matrix protein CCN1 on the properties of EPCs. In a coculture system, effects of ECs on proliferation, migration and participation in tube-like formation of EPCs were evaluated, and functional assays were employed to identify the exact role of CCN1 in EPCs vitality and function. We demonstrated that ECs, as an indispensable part of the cellular milieu, significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and tube formation activities of EPCs, and more importantly, CCN1 was potentially involved in such effects of ECs. Expression of CCN1 in EPCs was significantly increased by serum, VEGF, ECs-cocultivation and ECs conditioned medium. Moreover, Ad-CCN1-mediated overexpression of CCN1 directly enhanced migration and tube formation of EPCs, whereas silencing of endogenous CCN1 in EPCs inhibits cell functions. Furthermore, CCN1 induced the expressions of chemokines and growth factors, such as MCP-1 and VEGF, suggesting a complex interaction between those proangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that matrix protein CCN1 may play an important role in microenvironment-mediated biological properties of EPCs.

  1. Galectin-1 Controls the Proliferation and Migration of Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells and Their Interaction With Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Malena; Bacigalupo, María L; Carabias, Pablo; Elola, María T; Wolfenstein-Todel, Carlota; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Espelt, María V; Troncoso, María F

    2016-07-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal1), a β-galactoside-binding protein elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its expression correlates with HCC growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. During the early stages of HCC, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 ) acts as a tumor suppressor; however in advanced stages, HCC cells lose their cytostatic response to TGF-β1 and undergo EMT. Here, we investigated the role of Gal1 on liver endothelial cell biology, and the interplay between Gal1 and TGF-β1 in HCC progression. By Western blot and immunofluorescence, we analyzed Gal1 expression, secretion and localization in HepG2 and HuH-7 human HCC cells, and in SK-HEP-1 human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). We used loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments to down- or up-regulate Gal1 expression, respectively, in HepG2 cells. We cultured SK-HEP-1 cells with conditioned media from HCC cells secreting different levels of Gal1, and demonstrated that Gal1 derived from tumor hepatocytes induced its own expression in SECs. Colorimetric and scratch-wound assays revealed that secretion of Gal1 by HCC cells induced SEC proliferation and migration. Moreover, by fluorescence microscopy we demonstrated that Gal1 promoted glycan-dependent heterotypic adhesion of HepG2 cells to SK-HEP-1 SECs. Furthermore, TGF-β1 induced Gal1 expression and secretion by HCC cells, and promoted HepG2 cell adhesion to SK-HEP-1 SECs through a Gal1-dependent mechanism. Finally, Gal1 modulated HepG2 cell proliferation and sensitivity to TGF-β1 -induced growth inhibition. Our results suggest that Gal1 and TGF-β1 might function coordinately within the HCC microenvironment to regulate tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1522-1533, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26551914

  2. Interplay between αvβ3 integrin and nucleolin regulates human endothelial and glioma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Koutsioumpa, Marina; Polytarchou, Christos; Courty, José; Zhang, Yue; Kieffer, Nelly; Mikelis, Constantinos; Skandalis, Spyros S; Hellman, Ulf; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional protein nucleolin (NCL) is overexpressed on the surface of activated endothelial and tumor cells and mediates the stimulatory actions of several angiogenic growth factors, such as pleiotrophin (PTN). Because α(v)β(3) integrin is also required for PTN-induced cell migration, the aim of the present work was to study the interplay between NCL and α(v)β(3) by using biochemical, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assays in cells with genetically altered expression of the studied molecules. Interestingly, cell surface NCL localization was detected only in cells expressing α(v)β(3) and depended on the phosphorylation of β(3) at Tyr(773) through receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase β/ζ (RPTPβ/ζ) and c-Src activation. Downstream of α(v)β(3,) PI3K activity mediated this phenomenon and cell surface NCL was found to interact with both α(v)β(3) and RPTPβ/ζ. Positive correlation of cell surface NCL and α(v)β(3) expression was also observed in human glioblastoma tissue arrays, and inhibition of cell migration by cell surface NCL antagonists was observed only in cells expressing α(v)β(3). Collectively, these data suggest that both expression and β(3) integrin phosphorylation at Tyr(773) determine the cell surface localization of NCL downstream of the RPTPβ/ζ/c-Src signaling cascade and can be used as a biomarker for the use of cell surface NCL antagonists as anticancer agents. PMID:23161541

  3. Silencing heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaomei; Lu, Hong; Matsukura, Makoto; Zhao, Jien; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HO-1 is highly induced in RPE cells by hypoxia. •Inhibition of HO-1 activity and knockdown of HO-1 expression inhibit VEGF expression in RPE cells under hypoxia. •Knockdown of HO-1 in RPE cells inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the vasculature and in the angiogenesis of tumors, wounds and other environments. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) are the main cells involved in choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a process in which hypoxia plays an important role. Our aim was to evaluate the role of human RPE-cell HO-1 in the angiogenic activities of cocultured endothelial cells under hypoxia. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for HO-1 was transfected into human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) was used to inhibit HO-1 activity. Knockdown of HO-1 expression and inhibition of HO-1 activity resulted in potent reduction of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of HO-1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells. These findings indicated that HO-1 might have an angiogenic effect in CNV through modulation of VEGF expression and might be a potential target for treating CNV.

  4. Everolimus inhibits anti-HLA I antibody-mediated endothelial cell signaling, migration and proliferation more potently than sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y-P; Valenzuela, N M; Ziegler, M E; Rozengurt, E; Reed, E F

    2014-04-01

    Antibody (Ab) crosslinking of HLA I molecules on the surface of endothelial cells triggers proliferative and pro-survival intracellular signaling, which is implicated in the process of chronic allograft rejection, also known as transplant vasculopathy (TV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in HLA I Ab-induced signaling cascades. Everolimus provides a tool to establish how the mTOR signal network regulates HLA I-mediated migration, proliferation and survival. We found that everolimus inhibits mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by disassociating Raptor from mTOR, thereby preventing class I-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, S6RP and 4E-BP1, and resultant class I-stimulated cell migration and proliferation. Furthermore, we found that everolimus inhibits class I-mediated mTORC2 activation (1) by disassociating Rictor and Sin1 from mTOR; (2) by preventing class I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and (3) by preventing class I-mediated ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that everolimus is more effective than sirolimus at antagonizing both mTORC1 and mTORC2, the latter of which is critical in endothelial cell functional changes leading to TV in solid organ transplantation after HLA I crosslinking. Our findings point to a potential therapeutic effect of everolimus in prevention of chronic Ab-mediated rejection. PMID:24580843

  5. TM4SF1: a tetraspanin-like protein necessary for nanopodia formation and endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Andrew; Merley, Anne; Li, Dan; Ang, Lay-Hong; Sciuto, Tracey E; Salman, Samantha; Dvorak, Ann M; Dvorak, Harold F; Jaminet, Shou-Ching Shih

    2011-09-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1 (TM4SF1) is a tetraspanin-like membrane protein that is highly and selectively expressed by cultured endothelial cells (EC) and, in vivo, by EC lining angiogenic tumor blood vessels. TM4SF1 is necessary for the formation of unusually long (up to a 50 μm), thin (~100-300 nm wide), F-actin-poor EC cell projections that we term 'nanopodia'. Immunostaining of nanopodia at both the light and electron microsopic levels localized TM4SF1 in a regularly spaced, banded pattern, forming TM4FS1-enriched domains. Live cell imaging of GFP-transduced HUVEC demonstrated that EC project nanopodia as they migrate and interact with neighboring cells. When TM4SF1 mRNA levels in EC were increased from the normal ~90 mRNA copies/cell to ~400 copies/cell through adenoviral transduction, EC projected more and longer nanopodia from the entire cell circumference but were unable to polarize or migrate effectively. When fibroblasts, which normally express TM4SF1 at ~5 copies/cell, were transduced to express TM4SF1 at EC-like levels, they formed typical TM4SF1-banded nanopodia, and broadened, EC-like lamellipodia. Mass-spectrometry demonstrated that TM4SF1 interacted with myosin-10 and β-actin, proteins involved in filopodia formation and cell migration. In summary, TM4SF1, like genuine tetraspanins, serves as a molecular organizer that interacts with membrane and cytoskeleton-associated proteins and uniquely initiates the formation of nanopodia and facilitates cell polarization and migration. PMID:21626280

  6. TM4SF1: A tetraspanin-like protein necessary for nanopodia formation and endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zukauskas, Andrew; Merley, Anne; Li, Dan; Ang, Lay-Hong; Sciuto, Tracey E.; Salman, Samantha; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2012-01-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1 (TM4SF1) is a tetraspanin-like membrane protein that is highly and selectively expressed by cultured endothelial cells (EC) and, in vivo, by EC lining angiogenic tumor blood vessels. TM4SF1 is necessary for the formation of unusually long (up to a 50 µm), thin (~ 100–300 nm wide), F-actin-poor EC cell projections that we term ‘nanopodia’. Immunostaining of nanopodia at both the light and electron microsopic levels localized TM4SF1 in a regularly spaced, banded pattern, forming TM4FS1-enriched domains (TMED). Live cell imaging of GFP-transduced HUVEC demonstrated that EC project nanopodia as they migrate and interact with neighboring cells. When TM4SF1 mRNA levels in EC were increased from the normal ~90 mRNA copies/cell to ~400 copies/cell through adenoviral transduction, EC projected more and longer nanopodia from the entire cell circumference but were unable to polarize or migrate effectively. When fibroblasts, which normally express TM4SF1 at ~5 copies/cell, were transduced to express TM4SF1 at EC-like levels, they formed typical TM4SF1-banded nanopodia, and broadened, EC-like lamellipodia. Mass-spectrophotometry demonstrated that TM4SF1 interacted with myosin-10 and β-actin, proteins involved in filopodia formation and cell migration. In summary, TM4SF1, like genuine tetraspanins, serves as a molecular organizer that interacts with membrane and cytoskeleton-associated proteins and uniquely initiates the formation of nanopodia and facilitates cell polarization and migration. PMID:21626280

  7. Increase of migration of cultured endothelial cells by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor derived from tuna muscle.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Y; Oka, H; Murayama, N; Iida, K; Itoh, M; Itoh, M; Ying, X; Mimura, T

    1992-05-01

    The influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory octapeptide derived from tuna muscle (tuna AI) on the bovine aorta endothelial cell (BAEC) migration was investigated, as compared with captopril. BAEC migration was quantitated 6 d after release from contact inhibition by a teflon fence assay. The culture grown in the presence of tuna AI (1 and 10 microM) clearly exhibited an increase in migration, compared with the control. The media collected from tuna AI (1 and 10 microM)-stimulated BAECs significantly exhibited the interleukin (IL) -1 activity that was detected by the thymocyte costimulation assay with phytohemagglutinin. Although tuna AI was a weaker ACE inhibitor than captopril, the increasing effect of tuna AI on the migration and the IL-1 generation in BAECs was slightly greater than that of captopril. In quiescent BAECs, tuna AI (1 microM) apparently induced c-myc and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) A-chain messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions within 30 min, which persisted for 6 h. In contrast, captopril induced a very low expression of c-myc mRNA, and had no relation to PDGF A-chain mRNA expression. These results suggest that the increase of BAEC migration by tuna AI, unlike captopril, is likely related to the induction or activation of IL-1, and c-myc and PDGF mRNAs, in addition to the inhibition of the conversion of endogenous angiotensin I to angiotensin II. PMID:1527698

  8. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Many of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during space flight may originate from the dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. The weightlessness affects the system when blood and other fluids move to the upper body causing the heart to enlarge to handle the increased blood flow to the upper extremities and decrease circulating volume. Increase arterial pressure triggers baroreceptors which signal the brain to adjust heart rate. Hemodynarnic studies indicate that the microgravity-induced headward fluid redistribution results in various cardiovascular changes such as; alteration of vascular permeability resulting in lipid accumulation in the lumen of the vasculature and degeneration of the the vascular wall, capillary alteration with extensive endothelial invagination. Achieving a true microgravity environment in ground based studies for prolonged periods is virtually impossible. The application of vector-averaged gravity to mammalian cells using horizontal clinostat produces alterations of cellular behavior similar to those observed in microgravity. Similarly, the low shear, horizontally rotating bioreactor (originally designed by NASA) also duplicates several properties of microgravity. Additionally, increasing gravity, i.e., hypcrgravity is easily achieved. Hypergravity has been found to increase the proliferation of several different cell lines (e.g., chick embryo fibroblasts) while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. The effect of altered gravity on cells maybe similar to those of other physical forces, i.e. shear stress. Previous studies examining laminar flow and shear stress on endothelial cells found that the cells elongate, orient with the direction of flow, and reorganize their F-actin structure, with concomitant increase in cell stiffness. These studies suggest that alterations in the gravity environment will change the behavior of most cells, including

  9. p53 mediates cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells: inhibitory effects of macrophage migration inhibitor factor.

    PubMed

    Damico, Rachel; Simms, Tiffany; Kim, Bo S; Tekeste, Zenar; Amankwan, Henry; Damarla, Mahendra; Hassoun, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the most common cause of emphysema, a debilitating pulmonary disease histopathologically characterized by the irreversible destruction of lung architecture. Mounting evidence links enhanced endothelial apoptosis causally to the development of emphysema. However, the molecular determinants of human endothelial cell apoptosis and survival in response to CS are not fully defined. Such determinants could represent clinically relevant targets for intervention. We show here that CS extract (CSE) triggers the death of human pulmonary macrovascular endothelial cells (HPAECs) through a caspase 9-dependent apoptotic pathway. Exposure to CSE results in the increased expression of p53 in HPAECs. Using the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT-α), and RNA interference (RNAi) directed at p53, we demonstrate that p53 function and expression are required for CSE-mediated apoptosis. The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an antiapoptotic cytokine produced by HPAECs, also increases in response to CSE exposure. The addition of recombinant human MIF prevents cell death from exposure to CSE. Further, the suppression of MIF or its receptor/binding partner, Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab-1), with RNAi enhances the sensitivity of human pulmonary endothelial cells to CSE via a p53-dependent (PFT-α-inhibitable) pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that MIF is a negative regulator of p53 expression in response to CSE, placing MIF upstream of p53 as an antagonist of CSE-induced apoptosis. We conclude that MIF can protect human vascular endothelium from the toxic effects of CSE via the antagonism of p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20448056

  10. The RhoA GEF, LARG, mediates ICAM-1-dependent mechanotransduction in endothelial cells to stimulate transendothelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth C.; Osborne, Lukas D.; Monaghan-Benson, Elizabeth; Guilluy, Christophe; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Superfine, Richard; Burridge, Keith

    2014-01-01

    RhoA-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements in endothelial cells (ECs) play an active role in leukocyte transendothelial cell migration (TEM), a normal physiological process in which leukocytes cross the endothelium to enter the underlying tissue. While much has been learned about RhoA signaling pathways downstream from ICAM-1 in ECs, little is known about the consequences of the tractional forces that leukocytes generate on ECs as they migrate over the surface before TEM. We have found that after applying mechanical forces to ICAM-1 clusters, there is an increase in cellular stiffening and enhanced RhoA signaling compared to ICAM-1 clustering alone. We have identified that the RhoA GEF LARG/ARHGEF12 acts downstream of clustered ICAM-1 to increase RhoA activity and that this pathway is further enhanced by mechanical force on ICAM-1. Depletion of LARG decreases leukocyte crawling and inhibits TEM. This is the first report of endothelial LARG regulating leukocyte behavior and EC stiffening in response to tractional forces generated by leukocytes. PMID:24585879

  11. Overexpression of CD44 in Neural Precursor Cells Improves Trans- Endothelial Migration and Facilitates Their Invasion of Perivascular Tissues In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Deboux, Cyrille; Ladraa, Sophia; Cazaubon, Sylvie; Ghribi-Mallah, Siham; Weiss, Nicolas; Chaverot, Nathalie; Couraud, Pierre Olivier; Evercooren, Anne Baron-Van

    2013-01-01

    Neural precursor (NPC) based therapies are used to restore neurons or oligodendrocytes and/or provide neuroprotection in a large variety of neurological diseases. In multiple sclerosis models, intravenously (i.v) -delivered NPCs reduced clinical signs via immunomodulation. We demonstrated recently that NPCs were able to cross cerebral endothelial cells in vitro and that the multifunctional signalling molecule, CD44 involved in trans-endothelial migration of lymphocytes to sites of inflammation, plays a crucial role in extravasation of syngeneic NPCs. In view of the role of CD44 in NPCs trans-endothelial migration in vitro, we questioned presently the benefit of CD44 overexpression by NPCs in vitro and in vivo, in EAE mice. We show that overexpression of CD44 by NPCs enhanced over 2 folds their trans-endothelial migration in vitro, without impinging on the proliferation or differentiation potential of the transduced cells. Moreover, CD44 overexpression by NPCs improved significantly their elongation, spreading and number of filopodia over the extracellular matrix protein laminin in vitro. We then tested the effect of CD44 overexpression after i.v. delivery in the tail vein of EAE mice. CD44 overexpression was functional in vivo as it accelerated trans-endothelial migration and facilitated invasion of HA expressing perivascular sites. These in vitro and in vivo data suggest that CD44 may be crucial not only for NPC crossing the endothelial layer but also for facilitating invasion of extravascular tissues. PMID:23468987

  12. Effects of a novel cyclic RGD peptidomimetic on cell proliferation, migration and angiogenic activity in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclic RGD peptidomimetics containing a bifunctional diketopiperazine scaffold are a novel class of high-affinity ligands for the integrins αVβ3 and αVβ5. Since integrins are a promising target for the modulation of normal and pathological angiogenesis, the present study aimed at characterizing the ability of the RGD peptidomimetic cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 proliferation, migration and network formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry and annexin V (ANX)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the ELISA measurement of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Network formation by HUVEC cultured in Matrigel-coated plates was evaluated by optical microscopy and image analysis. Integrin subunit mRNA expression was assessed by real time-PCR and Akt phosphorylation by western blot analysis. Results Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 does not affect cell viability and proliferation either in resting conditions or in the presence of the pro-angiogenic growth factors VEGF, EGF, FGF, and IGF-I. Addition of cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 however significantly decreased network formation induced by pro-angiogenic growth factors or by IL-8. Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 did not affect mRNA levels of αV, β3 or β5 integrin subunits, however it significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusions Cyclo[DKP-RGD] 1 can be a potential modulator of angiogenesis induced by different growth factors, possibly devoid of the adverse effects of cytotoxic RGD peptidomimetic analogues. PMID:25053992

  13. Surface wettability of plasma SiOx:H nanocoating-induced endothelial cells' migration and the associated FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xianliang; Zhang, Qin; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Chaojun; Yu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-02-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials. There is no clear relationship and mechanism between EC adhesion and migration behaviour on surfaces with varying wettabilities. As model substrates, plasma SiO(x):H nanocoatings with well-controlled surface wettability (with water contact angles in the range of 98.5 ± 2.3° to 26.3 ± 4.0°) were used in this study to investigate the effects of surface wettability on cell adhesion/migration and associated protein expressions in FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways. It was found that EC adhesion/migration showed opposite behaviour on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces promoted EC migration but were anti-adhesions). The number of adherent ECs showed a maximum on hydrophilic surfaces, while cells adhered to hydrophobic surfaces exhibited a tendency for cell migration. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor targeting the Y-397 site of FAK could significantly inhibit cell adhesion/migration, suggesting that EC adhesion and migration on surfaces with different wettabilities involve (p)FAK and its downstream signalling pathways. Western blot results suggested that the FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways were correlative to EC migration on hydrophobic plasma SiO(x):H surfaces, but uncertain to hydrophilic surfaces. This work demonstrated that surface wettability could induce cellular behaviours that were associated with different cellular signalling events. PMID:21715399

  14. Both actin and polyproline interactions of Profilin-1 are required for migration, invasion and capillary morphogenesis of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhijie; Gau, David; Deasy, Bridget; Wells, Alan; Roy, Partha

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate how different ligand interactions of profilin-1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein that is upregulated during capillary morphogenesis of vascular endothelial cells (VEC), contribute to migration and capillary forming ability of VEC. We adopted a knockdown-knockin experimental system to stably express either fully-functional or mutants of Pfn1 that are impaired in binding to two of its major ligands, actin (H119E mutant) and proteins containing polyproline domains (H133S mutant), in a human dermal microvascular cell line (HmVEC) against near-null endogenous Pfn1 background. We found that silencing endogenous Pfn1 expression in HmVEC leads to slower random migration, reduced velocity of membrane protrusion and a significant impairment in matrigel-induced cord formation. Only re-expression of fully-functional but not any of the two ligand-binding deficient mutants of Pfn1 rescues the above defects. We further show that loss of Pfn1 expression in VEC inhibits three-dimensional capillary morphogenesis, MMP2 secretion and ECM invasion. VEC invasion through ECM is also inhibited when actin and polyproline interactions of Pfn1 are disrupted. Together, these experimental data demonstrate that Pfn1 regulates VEC migration, invasion and capillary morphogenesis through its interaction with both actin and proline-rich ligands. PMID:19607826

  15. MicroRNA-101 suppresses migration and invasion via targeting vascular endothelial growth factor-C in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHENYU; WANG, JINGJIE; MAO, YUQING; ZOU, BING; FAN, XIAOMING

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs 18–25 nucleotides in length, which play important roles in the regulation of cancer progression through gene silencing. miRNA (miR)-101 has been suggested to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the detailed role of miR-101 in HCC metastasis and the underlying mechanism remain largely unclear. The present study demonstrated that the expression of miR-101 was significantly reduced in HCC tissues compared with that in matched normal adjacent tissues. miR-101 was also found to be downregulated in four HCC cell lines compared with its expression in a normal liver cell line. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C was further identified as a direct target of miR-101, and the protein expression of VEGF-C was downregulated by miR-101 in HepG2 HCC cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-101 and the knockdown of VEGF-C significantly inhibited HepG2 cell migration and invasion, while restoration of VEGF-C reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-101 overexpression on HepG2 cell migration and invasion. Finally, the expression of VEGF-C was notably increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. These findings suggest that miR-101 exerts a suppressive effect on HCC cell migration and invasion, at least in part through the direct inhibition of VEGF-C protein expression. Therefore, the miR-101/VEGF-C axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target for HCC metastasis. PMID:26870229

  16. Increases in reactive oxygen species enhance vascular endothelial cell migration through a mechanism dependent on the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Daniela; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cerda, Oscar; Cáceres, Mónica; Becerra, Alvaro; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Riedel, Claudia; Tapia, Pablo; Velásquez, Luis A; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of severe inflammation is reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction induced by increased inflammatory mediators secretion. During systemic inflammation, inflammation mediators circulating in the bloodstream interact with endothelial cells (ECs) raising intracellular oxidative stress at the endothelial monolayer. Oxidative stress mediates several pathological functions, including an exacerbated EC migration. Because cell migration critically depends on calcium channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx, the molecular identification of the calcium channel involved in oxidative stress-modulated EC migration has been the subject of intense investigation. The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) protein is a ROS-modulated non-selective cationic channel that performs several cell functions, including regulating intracellular Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) oscillation. This channel is expressed in multiple tissues, including ECs, and contributes to the migration of certain immune cells. However, whether the TRPM4 ion channel participates in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration is not known. Herein, we investigate whether oxidative stress initiates or enhances EC migration and study the role played by the ROS-modulated TRPM4 ion channel in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration. We demonstrate that oxidative stress enhances, but does not initiate, EC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, we demonstrate that the TRPM4 ion channel is critical in promoting H2O2-enhanced EC migration. These results show that TRPM4 is a novel pharmacological target for the possible treatment of severe inflammation and other oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24518820

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 16 and 18 are expressed in human cardiovascular tissues and induce on endothelial cells migration but not proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, M.; Wirz, W.; Tag, C.G.; Gressner, A.M.; Wycislo, M.; Mueller, R.; Kiefer, P. . E-mail: pkiefer@ukaachen.de

    2006-07-21

    Endothelial cells line the blood vessel and precursor endothelial cells appear to have a pivotal effect on the organ formation of the heart, the embryonic development of the kidney, and the liver. Several growth factors including the fibroblast growth factors (FGF) seem to be involved in these processes. Ligands such as basic FGF produced and secreted by endothelial cells may also coordinate cellular migration, differentiation, and proliferation under pathological conditions including wound healing, tumorgenesis, and fibrogenesis in the adult. Recently we demonstrated the expression of two secreted FGFs, FGF16, and FGF18, in HUVEC and in rat aortic tissue. In the present report, we confirmed by RT-PCR analysis that FGF18 is wildly expressed in the cardiovascular tissue, while FGF16 showed a more restricted expression pattern. HUVEC clearly demonstrated chemotaxis towards FGF16 and FGF18. Both FGFs also enhanced cell migration in response to mechanical damage. However, recombinant FGF16 and FGF18 failed to induce endothelial cell proliferation or sprouting in a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay. Fgf18 expression was earlier reported in the liver, and we detected FGF18 expression in liver vascular and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), but not in hepatic parenchymal cells. Recombinant FGF18 stimulated DNA synthesis in primary hepatocytes, suggesting, that endothelial FGF18 might have a paracrine function in promoting growth of the parenchymal tissue. Interestingly, FGF2, which is mitogenic on endothelial cells and hepatocytes stimulates a sustained MAPK activation in both cell types, while FGF18 causes a short transient activation of the MAPK pathway in endothelial cells but a sustained activation in hepatocytes. Therefore, the difference in the time course of MAPK activation by the different FGFs appears to be the cause for the different cellular responses.

  18. Immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells maintain the properties of primary cells in an in vitro model of immune migration across the blood brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Brian P.; Cruz-Orengo, Lillian; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Cooper, John A.; Doering, Tamara L.; Klein, Robyn S.

    2012-01-01

    The immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line HCMEC/D3 presents a less expensive and more logistically feasible alternative to primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC’s) for use in constructing in vitro models of the blood brain barrier (BBB). However, the fidelity of the HCMEC/D3 cell line to primary HBMEC’s in studies of immune transmigration has yet to be established. Flow cytometric analysis of primary human leukocyte migration across in vitro BBB’s generated with either HCMEC/D3 or primary HBMEC’s revealed that HCMEC/D3 maintains the immune barrier properties of primary HBMEC’s. Leukocyte migration responses and inflammatory cytokine production were statistically indistinguishable between both endothelial cell types, and both cell types responded similarly to astrocyte coculture, stimulation of leukocytes with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, and inflammatory cytokine treatment. This report is the first to validate the HCMEC/D3 cell line in a neuroimmunological experimental system via direct comparison to primary HBMEC’s, demonstrating remarkable fidelity in terms of barrier resistance, immune migration profiles, and responsiveness to inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, we report novel findings demonstrating that interaction effects between immune cells and resident CNS cells are preserved in HCMEC/D3, suggesting that important characteristics of neuroimmune interactions during CNS inflammation are preserved in systems utilizing this cell line. Together, these findings demonstrate that HCMEC/D3 is a valid and powerful tool for less expensive and higher throughput in vitro investigations of immune migration at the BBB. PMID:23068604

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells stimulate EaHy926 endothelial cell migration: combined proteomic and in vitro analysis of the influence of donor-donor variability

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Merlin N.M.; Kohli, Nupur; Khan, Neelam; Major, Triin; Fuller, Heidi; Wright, Karina T.; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Johnson, William E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulate angiogenesis within a wound environment and this effect is mediated through paracrine interactions with the endothelial cells present. Here we report that human MSC-conditioned medium (n=3 donors) significantly increased EaHy-926 endothelial cell adhesion and cell migration, but that this stimulatory effect was markedly donor-dependent. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that whilst collagen type I and fibronectin were secreted by all of the MSC cultures, the small leucine rich proteoglycan, decorin was secreted only by the MSC culture that was least effective upon EaHy-926 cells. These individual extracellular matrix components were then tested as culture substrata. EaHy-926 cell adherence was greatest on fibronectin-coated surfaces with least adherence on decorin-coated surfaces. Scratch wound assays were used to examine cell migration. EaHy-926 cell scratch wound closure was quickest on substrates of fibronectin and slowest on decorin. However, EaHy-926 cell migration was stimulated by the addition of MSC-conditioned medium irrespective of the types of culture substrates. These data suggest that whilst the MSC secretome may generally be considered angiogenic, the composition of the secretome is variable and this variation probably contributes to donor-donor differences in activity. Hence, screening and optimizing MSC secretomes will improve the clinical effectiveness of pro-angiogenic MSC-based therapies. PMID:26195891

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells stimulate EaHy926 endothelial cell migration: combined proteomic and in vitro analysis of the influence of donor-donor variability.

    PubMed

    Walter, Merlin N M; Kohli, Nupur; Khan, Neelam; Major, Triin; Fuller, Heidi; Wright, Karina T; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Johnson, William E B

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulate angiogenesis within a wound environment and this effect is mediated through paracrine interactions with the endothelial cells present. Here we report that human MSC-conditioned medium (n=3 donors) significantly increased EaHy-926 endothelial cell adhesion and cell migration, but that this stimulatory effect was markedly donor-dependent. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that whilst collagen type I and fibronectin were secreted by all of the MSC cultures, the small leucine rich proteoglycan, decorin was secreted only by the MSC culture that was least effective upon EaHy-926 cells. These individual extracellular matrix components were then tested as culture substrata. EaHy-926 cell adherence was greatest on fibronectin-coated surfaces with least adherence on decorin-coated surfaces. Scratch wound assays were used to examine cell migration. EaHy-926 cell scratch wound closure was quickest on substrates of fibronectin and slowest on decorin. However, EaHy-926 cell migration was stimulated by the addition of MSC-conditioned medium irrespective of the types of culture substrates. These data suggest that whilst the MSC secretome may generally be considered angiogenic, the composition of the secretome is variable and this variation probably contributes to donor-donor differences in activity. Hence, screening and optimizing MSC secretomes will improve the clinical effectiveness of pro-angiogenic MSC-based therapies. PMID:26195891

  1. Egr-1 Activation by Cancer-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promotes Endothelial Cell Migration via ERK1/2 and JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yae Jin; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Yoon, Chang Min; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Roh, Tae-Young; Gho, Yong Song

    2014-01-01

    Various mammalian cells, including cancer cells, shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as exosomes and microvesicles, into surrounding tissues. These EVs play roles in tumor growth and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how cancer-derived EVs elicit endothelial cell activation remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that early growth response-1 (Egr-1) activation in endothelial cells is involved in the angiogenic activity of colorectal cancer cell-derived EVs. Both RNA interference–mediated downregulation of Egr-1 and ERK1/2 or JNK inhibitor significantly blocked EV-mediated Egr-1 activation and endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, lipid raft-mediated endocytosis inhibitor effectively blocked endothelial Egr-1 activation and migration induced by cancer-derived EVs. Our results suggest that Egr-1 activation in endothelial cells may be a key mechanism involved in the angiogenic activity of cancer-derived EVs. These findings will improve our understanding regarding the proangiogenic activities of EVs in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25502753

  2. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  3. Cell migration.

    PubMed

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  4. Aquaporins and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, M C; Saadoun, S; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration. PMID:17968585

  5. Autocrine EGF receptor activation mediates endothelial cell migration and vascular morphogenesis induced by VEGF under interstitial flow

    SciTech Connect

    Semino, Carlos E. . E-mail: semino@mit.edu; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2006-02-01

    We show here that autocrine ligand activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in combination with interstitial flow is critically involved in the morphogenetic response of endothelial cells to VEGF stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers cultured on a collagen gel and exposed to low interstitial flow in the absence of EGF and VEGF remained viable and mitotic but exhibited little evidence of vascular morphogenesis. Addition of VEGF produced a flow-dependent morphogenetic response within 48 to 72 h, characterized by branched capillary-like structures. The response was substantially abolished by inhibitors related to the autocrine EGF receptor pathway including Galardin, AG1478, PD98059, and an EGF receptor-blocking antibody, indicating that regulation of the morphogenetic process operates via autocrine EGF receptor activation. Moreover, we observed that in our system the EGF receptor was always activated independently of the interstitial flow, and, in addition, the EGF receptor inhibitors used above reduced the phosphorylation state of the receptor, correlating with inhibition of capillary morphogenesis. Finally, 5'bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling identified dividing cells at the monolayer but not in the extending capillary-like structures. EGF pathway inhibitors Galardin and AG1478 did not reduce BrdU incorporation in the monolayer, indicating that the EGF-receptor-mediated morphogenetic behavior is mainly due to cell migration rather than proliferation. Based on these results, we propose a two-step model for in vitro capillary morphogenesis in response to VEGF stimulation with interstitial fluid flow: monolayer maintenance by mitotic activity independent of EGF receptors and a migratory response mediated by autocrine EGF receptor activation wherein cells establish capillary-like structures.

  6. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  7. Interleukin-6 triggers human cerebral endothelial cells proliferation and migration: The role for KDR and MMP-9

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jianhua S.; Zhai Wenwu; Young, William L.; Yang Guoyuan . E-mail: gyyang@anesthesia.ucsf.edu

    2006-04-21

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Using human cerebral endothelial cell (HCEC), we report for First time that IL-6 triggers HCEC proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner, specifically associated with enhancement of VEGF expression, up-regulated and phosphorylated VEGF receptor-2 (KDR), and stimulated MMP-9 secretion. We investigated the signal pathway of IL-6/IL-6R responsible for KDR's regulation. Pharmacological inhibitor of PI3K failed to inhibit IL-6-mediated VEGF overexpression, while blocking ERK1/2 with PD98059 could abolish IL-6-induced KDR overexpression. Further, neutralizing endogenous VEGF attenuated KDR expression and phosphorylation, suggesting that IL-6-induced KDR activation is independent of VEGF stimulation. MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly decreases HCEC proliferation and migration (p < 0.05), indicating the crucial function of MMP-9 in promoting angiogenic changes in HCECs. We conclude that IL-6 triggers VEGF-induced angiogenic activity through increasing VEGF release, up-regulates KDR expression and phosphorylation through activating ERK1/2 signaling, and stimulates MMP-9 overexpression.

  8. Mosquito Saliva Increases Endothelial Permeability in the Skin, Immune Cell Migration, and Dengue Pathogenesis during Antibody-Dependent Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael A.; Glasner, Dustin R.; Shah, Sanjana; Michlmayr, Daniela; Kramer, Laura D.; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Dengue remains the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. While probing for blood vessels, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) by injecting virus-containing saliva into the skin. Even though arthropod saliva is known to facilitate transmission and modulate host responses to other pathogens, the full impact of mosquito saliva on dengue pathogenesis is still not well understood. Inoculating mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor intradermally with DENV revealed that mosquito salivary gland extract (SGE) exacerbates dengue pathogenesis specifically in the presence of enhancing serotype-cross-reactive antibodies—when individuals already carry an increased risk for severe disease. We further establish that SGE increases viral titers in the skin, boosts antibody-enhanced DENV infection of dendritic cells and macrophages in the dermis, and amplifies dendritic cell migration to skin-draining lymph nodes. We demonstrate that SGE directly disrupts endothelial barrier function in vitro and induces endothelial permeability in vivo in the skin. Finally, we show that surgically removing the site of DENV transmission in the skin after 4 hours rescued mice from disease in the absence of SGE, but no longer prevented lethal antibody-enhanced disease when SGE was present. These results indicate that SGE accelerates the dynamics of dengue pathogenesis after virus transmission in the skin and induces severe antibody-enhanced disease systemically. Our study reveals novel aspects of dengue pathogenesis and suggests that animal models of dengue and pre-clinical testing of dengue vaccines should consider mosquito-derived factors as well as enhancing antibodies. PMID:27310141

  9. Mosquito Saliva Increases Endothelial Permeability in the Skin, Immune Cell Migration, and Dengue Pathogenesis during Antibody-Dependent Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shah, Sanjana; Michlmayr, Daniela; Kramer, Laura D; Harris, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Dengue remains the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. While probing for blood vessels, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes transmit the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) by injecting virus-containing saliva into the skin. Even though arthropod saliva is known to facilitate transmission and modulate host responses to other pathogens, the full impact of mosquito saliva on dengue pathogenesis is still not well understood. Inoculating mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor intradermally with DENV revealed that mosquito salivary gland extract (SGE) exacerbates dengue pathogenesis specifically in the presence of enhancing serotype-cross-reactive antibodies-when individuals already carry an increased risk for severe disease. We further establish that SGE increases viral titers in the skin, boosts antibody-enhanced DENV infection of dendritic cells and macrophages in the dermis, and amplifies dendritic cell migration to skin-draining lymph nodes. We demonstrate that SGE directly disrupts endothelial barrier function in vitro and induces endothelial permeability in vivo in the skin. Finally, we show that surgically removing the site of DENV transmission in the skin after 4 hours rescued mice from disease in the absence of SGE, but no longer prevented lethal antibody-enhanced disease when SGE was present. These results indicate that SGE accelerates the dynamics of dengue pathogenesis after virus transmission in the skin and induces severe antibody-enhanced disease systemically. Our study reveals novel aspects of dengue pathogenesis and suggests that animal models of dengue and pre-clinical testing of dengue vaccines should consider mosquito-derived factors as well as enhancing antibodies. PMID:27310141

  10. A novel and critical role for tyrosine 663 in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 trafficking and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Dufour, Eric; Mamdouh, Zahra; Muller, William A

    2009-04-15

    PECAM-1/CD31 is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. A critical pool of PECAM-1 resides in the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC). During TEM, membrane from the LBRC is redirected to surround the leukocyte, and this targeted recycling per se is required for TEM. The cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1 contains two tyrosine residues that have been implicated in PECAM-1 signaling in other cells but never examined in the context of TEM. We found that expression of PECAM-1 imparts on cells the ability to support TEM and that tyrosine 663 (but not tyrosine 686) is required. Furthermore, tyrosine 663 is required for PECAM-1 to efficiently enter and exit the LBRC. Most important, mutation of tyrosine 663 abolishes the ability of the endothelial cells to support targeted recycling of the LBRC. These data define a novel role for tyrosine 663 and suggest that it is part of a recognition motif for trafficking to and/or from the LBRC. PMID:19342684

  11. Nitric oxide induces polarization of actin in encephalitogenic T cells and inhibits their in vitro trans-endothelial migration in a p70S6 kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Staykova, Maria A; Berven, Leise A; Cowden, William B; Willenborg, David O; Crouch, Michael F

    2003-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits both actively induced and transferred autoimmune encephalomyelitis. To explore potential mechanisms, we examined the ability of NO to inhibit migration of T lymphoblasts through both collagen matrices and monolayers of rat brain endothelial cells. The NO donor 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3, 3-bis (2-aminoethyl)-1-triazene (HOBAT) inhibited migration in a concentration-dependent manner. NO pretreatment of T cells inhibited migration through untreated endothelial cells, but NO pretreatment of endothelial cells had no inhibitory effect on untreated T cells. Therefore NO's migration inhibitory action was mediated through its effect on T cells and not endothelial cells. HOBAT did not inhibit migration by inducing T-cell death but rather by polarizing the T cells, resulting in a morphology suggestive of migrating cells. P70S6 kinase, shown to have a role in NO-induced migration inhibition in fibroblasts, had no role in the inhibitory effect of NO on T-cell migration. Thus, HOBAT did not alter p70S6K activity nor did rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of p70S6K, inhibit HOBAT-induced T-cell morphological changes or T-cell migration. We suggest that NO-induced morphological changes result in T cells with predefined migratory directionality, thus limiting the ability of these cells to respond to other migratory signals. PMID:12759332

  12. Albendazole inhibits endothelial cell migration, tube formation, vasopermeability, VEGF receptor-2 expression and suppresses retinal neovascularization in ROP model of angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pourgholami, Mohammad H.; Khachigian, Levon M.; Fahmy, Roger G.; Badar, Samina; Wang, Lisa; Chu, Stephanie Wai Ling; Morris, David Lawson

    2010-07-09

    The angiogenic process begins with the cell proliferation and migration into the primary vascular network, and leads to vascularization of previously avascular tissues and organs as well to growth and remodeling of the initially homogeneous capillary plexus to form a new microcirculation. Additionally, an increase in microvascular permeability is a crucial step in angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. We have previously reported that albendazole suppresses VEGF levels and inhibits malignant ascites formation, suggesting a possible effect on angiogenesis. This study was therefore designed to investigate the antiangiogenic effect of albendazole in non-cancerous models of angiogenesis. In vitro, treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with albendazole led to inhibition of tube formation, migration, permeability and down-regulation of the VEGF type 2 receptor (VEGFR-2). In vivo albendazole profoundly inhibited hyperoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis in mice. These results provide new insights into the antiangiogenic effects of albendazole.

  13. Ablation of SGK1 Impairs Endothelial Cell Migration and Tube Formation Leading to Decreased Neo-Angiogenesis Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Poggioli, Tommaso; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Lexow, Jonas; Monassier, Laurent; Terracciano, Cesare; Lang, Florian; Damilano, Federico; Zhou, Jessica Q.; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Rosenthal, Nadia; Santini, Maria Paola

    2013-01-01

    Serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) plays a pivotal role in early angiogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, we sought to define the SGK1 downstream signalling pathways in the adult heart and to elucidate their role in cardiac neo-angiogenesis and wound healing after myocardial ischemia. To this end, we employed a viable SGK1 knockout mouse model generated in a 129/SvJ background. Ablation of SGK1 in these mice caused a significant decrease in phosphorylation of SGK1 target protein NDRG1, which correlated with alterations in NF-κB signalling and expression of its downstream target protein, VEGF-A. Disruption of these signalling pathways was accompanied by smaller heart and body size. Moreover, the lack of SGK1 led to defective endothelial cell (ECs) migration and tube formation in vitro, and increased scarring with decreased angiogenesis in vivo after myocardial infarct. This study underscores the importance of SGK1 signalling in cardiac neo-angiogenesis and wound healing after an ischemic insult in vivo. PMID:24265802

  14. Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan Induces Endothelial Cell Migration via the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Modulates the Transcription of Genes Involved in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bouvard, Claire; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Grelac, Françoise; Carpentier, Wassila; Lokajczyk, Anna; Gandrille, Sophie; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Helley, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed that presents antithrombotic and pro-angiogenic properties. However, its mechanism of action is not well-characterized. Here, we studied the effects of LMWF on cell signaling and whole genome expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. We observed that LMWF and vascular endothelial growth factor had synergistic effects on cell signaling, and more interestingly that LMWF by itself, in the absence of other growth factors, was able to trigger the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, which plays a crucial role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We also observed that the effects of LMWF on cell migration were PI3K/AKT-dependent and that LMWF modulated the expression of genes involved at different levels of the neovessel formation process, such as cell migration and cytoskeleton organization, cell mobilization and homing. This provides a better understanding of LMWF’s mechanism of action and confirms that it could be an interesting therapeutic approach for vascular repair. PMID:26694425

  15. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor in the reciprocal regulation of bovine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cell migration by TGF-beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Petzelbauer, E.; Springhorn, J. P.; Tucker, A. M.; Madri, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells exhibit reciprocal migratory responses after transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 treatment. Endothelial cells exhibit a decreased migratory rate and smooth muscle cells exhibit an increased migratory rate. Previous studies have demonstrated increases in extracellular matrix and integrin synthesis and expression in response to TGF-beta 1. In this report, we illustrate the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor in modulating the migratory rates in these two cell types. Endothelial cells appear to require a proteolytic phenotype for rapid migration, whereas vascular smooth muscle cells appear to require an anti-proteolytic phenotype. Modulation of proteinase/anti-proteinase activity ratios was accomplished via TGF-beta 1 induction, addition of exogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor, addition of anti-catalytic antibodies directed against urokinase plasminogen activator, overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor utilizing stable transfectants, and the use of vitronectin as a substratum. The reciprocal migratory behaviors exhibited by these two vascular cell types in response to TGF-beta 1 is discussed in the context that these two vascular cell types utilize distinct adhesive and signaling pathways in their interactions with extracellular matrix components and responsiveness to proteolytic activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8780396

  16. Targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and -3 with cediranib (AZD2171): effects on migration and invasion of gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, M. Pia; Brown, Amy M.; Pitts, Todd M.; Tentler, John J.; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Ryan, Anderson; Jürgensmeier, Juliane M.; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2010-01-01

    The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligands and cediranib on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was determined. It has recently been suggested that autocrine signaling through the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway may play a role in tumor cell survival, invasion, and migration. The purpose of the present study was to determine the expression of VEGFRs and VEGFR ligands in a panel of gastrointestinal carcinoma cells. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of VEGF autocrine signaling on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion utilizing cediranib (AZD2171), a pan-VEGFR inhibitor. Five colorectal, three pancreatic, and two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were screened for VEGFR and VEGF expression by several methods. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-3 was cell line–dependent, whereas VEGFR-2 was not detected. Secretion of VEGF-A was detected in the supernatants of all cell lines whereas VEGF-C secretion was detected in the Panc-1,MiaPaca2, and Hep1 cells only. Tumor cells showed increased migratory activity, but not proliferation, when stimulated with VEGFs. The pan-VEGFR inhibitor cediranib (100 nmol/L) inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion, with no effects on proliferation. Cediranib decreased VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-3 phosphorylation as well as activation of downstream effectors. VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-3 expression was detected in all the gastrointestinal carcinoma cells evaluated. Although activation of the VEGF pathway did not affect cell proliferation, our data indicate that this pathway seems to play a role in tumor cell migration and invasion in these cell lines. Therefore, inhibition of VEGFR by cediranib may represent a clinically relevant treatment option for gastrointestinal tumors. PMID:19755510

  17. Endothelial cell micropatterning: Methods, effects, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hinds, Monica T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow on endothelial cells have been widely examined for the ability of fluid shear stress to alter cell morphology and function; however, the effects of endothelial cell morphology without flow have only recently been observed. An increase in lithographic techniques in cell culture spurred a corresponding increase in research aiming to confine cell morphology. These studies lead to a better understanding of how morphology and cytoskeletal configuration affect the structure and function of the cells. This review examines endothelial cell micropatterning research by exploring both the many alternative methods used to alter endothelial cell morphology and the resulting changes in cellular shape and phenotype. Micropatterning induced changes in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, mechanical properties, and cell functionality. Finally, the ways these cellular manipulation techniques have been applied to biomedical engineering research, including angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue engineering, is discussed. PMID:21761242

  18. Spliced stromal cell-derived factor-1α analog stimulates endothelial progenitor cell migration and improves cardiac function in a dose-dependent manner after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hiesinger, William; Frederick, John R.; Atluri, Pavan; McCormick, Ryan C.; Marotta, Nicole; Muenzer, Jeffrey R.; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α is a potent endogenous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) chemokine and key angiogenic precursor. Recombinant SDF-1α has been demonstrated to improve neovasculogenesis and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) but SDF-1α is a bulky protein with a short half-life. Small peptide analogs might provide translational advantages, including ease of synthesis, low manufacturing costs, and the potential to control delivery within tissues using engineered biomaterials. We hypothesized that a minimized peptide analog of SDF-1α, designed by splicing the N-terminus (activation and binding) and C-terminus (extracellular stabilization) with a truncated amino acid linker, would induce EPC migration and preserve ventricular function after MI. Methods EPC migration was first determined in vitro using a Boyden chamber assay. For in vivo analysis, male rats (n=48) underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. At infarction, the rats were randomized into 4 groups and received peri-infarct intramyocardial injections of saline, 3 μg/kg of SDF-1α, 3 μg/kg of spliced SDF analog, or 6 μg/kg spliced SDF analog. After 4 weeks, the rats underwent closed chest pressure volume conductance catheter analysis. Results EPCs showed significantly increased migration when placed in both a recombinant SDF-1α and spliced SDF analog gradient. The rats treated with spliced SDF analog at MI demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in end-diastolic pressure, stroke volume, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke work compared with the control rats. Conclusions A spliced peptide analog of SDF-1α containing both the N- and C- termini of the native protein induced EPC migration, improved ventricular function after acute MI, and provided translational advantages compared with recombinant human SDF-1α. PMID:20951261

  19. Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta That Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, David; Presta, Marco; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    1986-04-01

    A protein that stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells has been purified 106-fold from term human placenta by using a combination of heparin affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The purified molecule has a molecular weight of 18,700 as determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The purified molecule stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in a dose-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng of protein/ml. The purified protein also stimulates DNA synthesis and chemotaxis in capillary endothelial cells in the same concentration range. Thus, this molecule has all of the properties predicted for an angiogenic factor.

  20. Transendothelial migration: unifying principles from the endothelial perspective.

    PubMed

    Muller, William A

    2016-09-01

    Transendothelial migration (TEM) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) involves a carefully orchestrated dialog of adhesion and signaling events between leukocyte and endothelial cell. This article focuses on the contribution of endothelial cells to transmigration. The initiation of TEM itself generally requires interaction of PECAM on the leukocyte with PECAM at the endothelial cell border. This is responsible for the transient elevation of cytosolic-free calcium ions in endothelium that is required for TEM and for recruitment of membrane from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC). TEM requires LBRC to move to the site at which TEM will take place and for VE-cadherin to move away. Targeting of the LBRC to this site likely precedes movement of VE-cadherin and may play a role in clearing VE-cadherin from the site of TEM. The process of TEM can be dissected into steps mediated by distinct pairs of PMN/endothelial interacting molecules. CD99 regulates a step at or close to the end of TEM. CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase to activate PKA to trigger ongoing targeted recycling of the LBRC. Paracellular transmigration predominates (≥90% of events) in the cremaster muscle circulation, but transcellular migration may be more important at sites such as the blood-brain barrier. Both processes involve many of the same molecules and recruitment of the LBRC. PMID:27558328

  1. miR-29b induces SOCS-1 expression by promoter demethylation and negatively regulates migration of multiple myeloma and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Nicola; Bellizzi, Dina; Leotta, Marzia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Biamonte, Lavinia; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Calimeri, Teresa; Rossi, Marco; Lionetti, Marta; Leone, Emanuela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2013-12-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes frequently occurs and may account for their inactivation in cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that miR-29b is a tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) that targets de novo DNA methyltransferases and reduces the global DNA methylation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic activity of miR-29b leads to promoter demethylation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a hypermethylated tumor suppressor gene. Enforced expression of synthetic miR-29b mimics in MM cell lines resulted in SOCS-1 gene promoter demethylation, as assessed by Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER analysis, and SOCS-1 protein upregulation. miR-29b-induced SOCS-1 demethylation was associated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and impaired NFκB activity. Downregulation of VEGF-A and IL-8 mRNAs could be detected in MM cells transfected with miR-29b mimics as well as in endothelial (HUVEC) or stromal (HS-5) cells treated with conditioned medium from miR-29b-transfected MM cells. Notably, enforced expression of miR-29b mimics increased adhesion of MM cells to HS-5 and reduced migration of both MM and HUVEC cells. These findings suggest that miR-29b is a negative regulator of either MM or endothelial cell migration. Finally, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which induces the expression of miR-29b, decreased global DNA methylation by a miR-29b-dependent mechanism and induced SOCS-1 promoter demethylation and protein upregulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-29b is endowed with epigenetic activity and mediates previously unknown functions of bortezomib in MM cells. PMID:24091729

  2. miR-29b induces SOCS-1 expression by promoter demethylation and negatively regulates migration of multiple myeloma and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Nicola; Bellizzi, Dina; Leotta, Marzia; Raimondi, Lavinia; Biamonte, Lavinia; D’Aquila, Patrizia; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Calimeri, Teresa; Rossi, Marco; Lionetti, Marta; Leone, Emanuela; Passarino, Giuseppe; Neri, Antonino; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes frequently occurs and may account for their inactivation in cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that miR-29b is a tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) that targets de novo DNA methyltransferases and reduces the global DNA methylation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we provide evidence that epigenetic activity of miR-29b leads to promoter demethylation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a hypermethylated tumor suppressor gene. Enforced expression of synthetic miR-29b mimics in MM cell lines resulted in SOCS-1 gene promoter demethylation, as assessed by Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER analysis, and SOCS-1 protein upregulation. miR-29b-induced SOCS-1 demethylation was associated with reduced STAT3 phosphorylation and impaired NFκB activity. Downregulation of VEGF-A and IL-8 mRNAs could be detected in MM cells transfected with miR-29b mimics as well as in endothelial (HUVEC) or stromal (HS-5) cells treated with conditioned medium from miR-29b-transfected MM cells. Notably, enforced expression of miR-29b mimics increased adhesion of MM cells to HS-5 and reduced migration of both MM and HUVEC cells. These findings suggest that miR-29b is a negative regulator of either MM or endothelial cell migration. Finally, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which induces the expression of miR-29b, decreased global DNA methylation by a miR-29b-dependent mechanism and induced SOCS-1 promoter demethylation and protein upregulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-29b is endowed with epigenetic activity and mediates previously unknown functions of bortezomib in MM cells. PMID:24091729

  3. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi . E-mail: ygong@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-08-18

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the {alpha}{sub v}-containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism.

  4. Inducing the migration behavior of endothelial cells by tuning the ligand density on a density-gradient poly(ethylene glycol) surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiantian; Xu, Kui; Fu, Ya; Cai, Kaiyong

    2016-07-01

    The migration of endothelial cells (ECs) is crucially important for many biological processes, including early embryonic vasculogenesis, wound healing and angiogenesis. To investigate the effect of the surface poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-CHO) density on the migration of ECs, we developed a convenient and effective method to fabricate a series of silicon slides with graded PEG densities on their surfaces based on gradual treatment with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), backfilling with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and subsequent conjugation of m-PEG. The PEG gradient was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), contact angle measurement and spectroscopic ellipsometry and determined to range from 0.56 to 0.75chains/nm(2). The impact of the PEG gradient on the EC migration was evaluated by real-time observation via a time-lapse phase-contrast microscope. ECs adhered to the silicon surfaces with high and modest PEG densities displayed a higher tendency of migration than those on corresponding non-graded samples. The results suggest that the motility of ECs could be modulated by the PEG gradient. This study would be helpful for understanding cell-substrate interactions. PMID:27058513

  5. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide D-4F promotes human endothelial progenitor cell proliferation, migration, adhesion though eNOS/NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengang; Qun, Jianhua; Cao, Chunmei; Wang, Jun; Li, Wei; Wu, Yong; Du, Lin; Zhao, Pei; Gong, Kaizheng

    2012-04-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have a critical role in endothelial maintenance and repair. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide D-4F has been shown to posses anti-atherogenic properties via sequestration of oxidized phospholipids, induction of remodeling of high density lipoprotein and promotion of cholesterol efflux from macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, we test the effects of D-4F on EPC biology. EPCs were isolated from the peripheral venous blood of healthy male volunteers and characterized by 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL uptake and ulex europaeus agglutinin binding and flow cytometry. Cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, nitric oxide production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the absence and presence of D-4F or simvastatin (as a positive control), were assayed. We demonstrated that D-4F significantly enhanced EPC proliferation, migration and adhesion in a dose-dependent manner compared with vehicle. However, all of the favorable effects of D-4F on EPCs were dramatically attenuated by preincubation with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. Further, D-4F also increased nitric oxide production in culture supernatant and the levels of eNOS expression and phosphorylation. The stimulatory effects of D-4F (10 μg/ml) on EPC biology were comparable to 0.5 μM simvastatin. These results suggest that eNOS/NO pathway mediates the functional modulation of EPC biology in response to D-4F treatment and support the notion that the beneficial role of D-4F on EPCs may be one of the important components of its anti-atherogenic potential. PMID:21947883

  6. Apoptotic Cells Initiate Endothelial Cell Sprouting via Electrostatic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weihua, Zhang; Tsan, Rachel; Schroit, Alan J.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels, is crucial to tissue growth, repair, and maintenance. This process begins with the formation of endothelial cell sprouts followed by the proliferation and migration of neighboring endothelial cells along the pre-formed extensions. The initiating event and mechanism of sprouting is not known. We demonstrate that the phenotypic expression of negative-charged membrane surface in apoptotic cells initiates the formation of directional endothelial cell sprouts that extend toward the dying cells by a mechanism that involves endothelial cell membrane hyperpolarization and cytoskeleton reorganization but is independent of diffusible molecules. PMID:16357162

  7. Memory T Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is a key feature of adaptive immunity. It provides the organism with long-lived and robust protection against infection. In organ transplantation, memory T cells pose a significant threat by causing allograft rejection that is generally resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of memory T cell biology is needed to improve the survival of transplanted organs without compromising the host’s ability to fight infections. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to the site where their target antigen is present, with particular emphasis on their migration to transplanted organs. First, we will define the known subsets of memory T cells (central, effector, and tissue resident) and their circulation patterns. Second, we will review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which memory T cells migrate to inflamed and non-inflamed tissues and highlight the emerging paradigm of antigen-driven, trans-endothelial migration. Third, we will discuss the relevance of this knowledge to organ transplantation and the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection. PMID:26483794

  8. A Heterodimeric Cytokine, Consisting of IL-17A and IL-17F, Promotes Migration and Capillary-Like Tube Formation of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Numasaki, Muneo; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Ohrui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17 family, consisting of six homodimeric cytokines IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E/IL-25, and IL-17F, mediates a variety of biological activities including regulation of chemokine secretion and angiogenesis. Among the IL-17 family members, IL-17A and IL-17E/IL-25 are angiogenesis stimulators, while IL-17B and IL-17F are angiogenesis inhibitors. Recently, IL-17A/F heterodimer, comprised of the IL-17A and IL-17F subunits, was found as another member of the IL-17 cytokine family. However, to date, it has been unknown whether IL-17A/F has biological actions to affect the angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial functions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the biological effects of IL-17A/F on the growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. Recombinant IL-17A/F protein had no direct effects on the growth of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), whereas, after 4-hour incubation in a modified Boyden Chemotaxicell chamber, IL-17A/F significantly induced migration of HMVECs over a wide range of doses via the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. We further investigated the biological effect of IL-17A/F on capillary-like tube formation using a co-culture system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), which mimicked the in vivo microenvironment. In this co-culture system, IL-17A/F significantly promoted capillary-like endothelial tube formation in a dose-dependent fashion via the PI3K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Additionally, IL-17A/F up-regulated secretion of angiogenic growth factors such as IL-8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α by HDFs. These findings identify a novel biological function for IL-17A/F as an indirect angiogenic agent. PMID:27594509

  9. Hypoxia induces tumor and endothelial cell migration in a semaphorin 3F- and VEGF-dependent manner via transcriptional repression of their common receptor neuropilin 2.

    PubMed

    Coma, Silvia; Shimizu, Akio; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a receptor expressed by tumor cells and endothelial cells (EC) that binds both semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F), a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator of tumor angiogenesis. It was found that glioblastoma and melanoma cells repressed NRP2 expression when maintained under hypoxic conditions and after treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic agent desferrioxamine (DFO), at both the mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of HIF1-α, the hypoxia-induced subunit of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), abrogated DFO-induced NRP2 repression. Conversely, ectopic expression of HIF1-α directly repressed NRP2 promoter activity and expression. NRP2 is the sole receptor for SEMA3F. Loss of NRP2 expression in tumor cells inhibited SEMA3F-dependent activities, such as inactivation of RhoA, depolymerization of F-actin, and inhibition of tumor cell migration. On the other hand, loss of NRP2 expression in tumor cells increased VEGF protein levels in conditioned media, with no effects on VEGF mRNA levels. This increase in VEGF protein levels promoted paracrine activation of EC, including VEGF receptor-2 phosphorylation, and activation of downstream signaling proteins such as p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. In addition, the elevated VEGF levels induced EC migration and sprouting, two key steps of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. It was concluded that hypoxia regulates VEGF and SEMA3F activities through transcriptional repression of their common receptor NRP2, providing a novel mechanism by which hypoxia induces tumor angiogenesis, growth and metastasis. PMID:21610314

  10. Activation of P2X7 and P2Y11 purinergic receptors inhibits migration and normalizes tumor-derived endothelial cells via cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Avanzato, D.; Genova, T.; Fiorio Pla, A.; Bernardini, M.; Bianco, S.; Bussolati, B.; Mancardi, D.; Giraudo, E.; Maione, F.; Cassoni, P.; Castellano, I.; Munaron, L.

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is involved in inflammation and cancer. Extracellular ATP accumulates in tumor interstitium, reaching hundreds micromolar concentrations, but its functional role on tumor vasculature and endothelium is unknown. Here we show that high ATP doses (>20 μM) strongly inhibit migration of endothelial cells from human breast carcinoma (BTEC), but not of normal human microvascular EC. Lower doses (1–10 mm result ineffective. The anti-migratory activity is associated with cytoskeleton remodeling and is significantly prevented by hypoxia. Pharmacological and molecular evidences suggest a major role for P2X7R and P2Y11R in ATP-mediated inhibition of TEC migration: selective activation of these purinergic receptors by BzATP mimics the anti-migratory effect of ATP, which is in turn impaired by their pharmacological or molecular silencing. Downstream pathway includes calcium-dependent Adenilyl Cyclase 10 (AC10) recruitment, cAMP release and EPAC-1 activation. Notably, high ATP enhances TEC-mediated attraction of human pericytes, leading to a decrease of endothelial permeability, a hallmark of vessel normalization. Finally, we provide the first evidence of in vivo P2X7R expression in blood vessels of murine and human breast carcinoma. In conclusion, we have identified a purinergic pathway selectively acting as an antiangiogenic and normalizing signal for human tumor-derived vascular endothelium. PMID:27586846

  11. Activation of P2X7 and P2Y11 purinergic receptors inhibits migration and normalizes tumor-derived endothelial cells via cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Avanzato, D; Genova, T; Fiorio Pla, A; Bernardini, M; Bianco, S; Bussolati, B; Mancardi, D; Giraudo, E; Maione, F; Cassoni, P; Castellano, I; Munaron, L

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is involved in inflammation and cancer. Extracellular ATP accumulates in tumor interstitium, reaching hundreds micromolar concentrations, but its functional role on tumor vasculature and endothelium is unknown. Here we show that high ATP doses (>20 μM) strongly inhibit migration of endothelial cells from human breast carcinoma (BTEC), but not of normal human microvascular EC. Lower doses (1-10 mm result ineffective. The anti-migratory activity is associated with cytoskeleton remodeling and is significantly prevented by hypoxia. Pharmacological and molecular evidences suggest a major role for P2X7R and P2Y11R in ATP-mediated inhibition of TEC migration: selective activation of these purinergic receptors by BzATP mimics the anti-migratory effect of ATP, which is in turn impaired by their pharmacological or molecular silencing. Downstream pathway includes calcium-dependent Adenilyl Cyclase 10 (AC10) recruitment, cAMP release and EPAC-1 activation. Notably, high ATP enhances TEC-mediated attraction of human pericytes, leading to a decrease of endothelial permeability, a hallmark of vessel normalization. Finally, we provide the first evidence of in vivo P2X7R expression in blood vessels of murine and human breast carcinoma. In conclusion, we have identified a purinergic pathway selectively acting as an antiangiogenic and normalizing signal for human tumor-derived vascular endothelium. PMID:27586846

  12. Temsirolimus inhibits proliferation and migration in retinal pigment epithelial and endothelial cells via mTOR inhibition and decreases VEGF and PDGF expression.

    PubMed

    Liegl, Raffael; Koenig, Susanna; Siedlecki, Jakob; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Kernt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high prevalence, retinal vascular diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vein occlusions (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema have been major therapeutic targets over the last years. The pathogenesis of these diseases is complex and yet not fully understood. However, increased proliferation, migration and angiogenesis are characteristic cellular features in almost every retinal vascular disease. The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding intravitreal treatment strategies has led to great advances in the therapy of these diseases. While the predominant part of affected patients benefits from the specific binding of VEGF by administering an anti-VEGF antibody into the vitreous cavity, a small number of non-responders exist and alternative or additional therapeutic strategies should therefore be evaluated. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central signaling pathway that eventually triggers up-regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and survival and has been identified to play a key role in angiogenesis. In the present study we were able to show that both retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as wells as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are inhibited in proliferating and migrating after treatment with temsirolimus in non-toxic concentrations. Previous studies suggest that the production of VEGF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and other important cytokines is not only triggered by hypoxia but also by mTOR itself. Our results indicate that temsirolimus decreases VEGF and PDGF expression on RNA and protein levels significantly. We therefore believe that the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus might be a promising drug in the future and it seems worthwhile to evaluate complementary therapeutic effects with anti-VEGF drugs for patients not profiting from mono anti-VEGF therapy alone. PMID:24586308

  13. MicroRNA-101 inhibits the migration and invasion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells via direct suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gang; Teng, Yinglu; Huang, Feizhou; Nie, Wanpin; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hongbo

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have important roles in the pathogenesis of human malignancy. It has previously been suggested that deregulation of miR‑101 is associated with the progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); however, the exact role of miR‑101 in the regulation of ICC metastasis remains largely unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression levels of miR‑101 were significantly decreased in ICC tissue, as compared with matched adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, miR‑101 was downregulated in the ICC‑9810 human ICC cell line, as compared with in the normal human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell (HIBEC) line. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)‑C was identified as a target gene of miR‑101 in ICC‑9810 cells. The expression of VEGF‑C was negatively regulated by miR‑101 at the post‑transcriptional level in ICC‑9810 cells. Further investigation demonstrated that overexpression of miR‑101 markedly suppressed the migration and invasion of ICC‑9810 cells, and these effects were similar to those observed following VEGF‑C knockdown. Conversely, restoration of VEGF‑C reversed the inhibitory effects of miR‑101 overexpression on ICC‑9810 cell migration and invasion, thus suggesting that miR‑101 may suppress ICC‑9810 cell migration and invasion, at least partly via inhibition of VEGF‑C. It was also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF‑C were frequently upregulated in ICC tissue and cells, and its expression level was inversely correlated with that of miR‑101 in ICC tissue. In conclusion, the present study identified important roles for miR‑101 and VEGF‑C in ICC, suggesting that miR‑101/VEGF‑C signaling may be a promising diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for ICC. PMID:26299768

  14. The role of FGF2 in migration and tubulogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells in relation to pro-angiogenic growth factor production.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Monika; Radwańska, Agata; Paprocka, Maria; Kieda, Claudine; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Baczyńska, Dagmara

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to finding new pro-angiogenic factors which could be used in gene therapy of vascular diseases such as critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a complex process dependent on different cytokines, matrix proteins, growth factors and other pro- or anti-angiogenic stimuli. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that key mediators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) together with fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2) are involved in regulation of the normal and pathological process of angiogenesis. However, less information is available on the complex interactions between these and other angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to characterise the effect of fibroblast growth factor2 on biological properties of human endothelial progenitor cells with respect to the expression level of other regulatory cytokines. Ectopic expression of FGF2 in EP cells stimulates their pro-angiogenic behaviour, leading to increased proliferation, migration and tube formation abilities. Moreover, we show that the expression profile of VEGF and other pro-angiogenic cytokines, such as HGF, MCP2, and interleukins, is affected differently by FGF2 in EPC. In conclusion, we provide evidence that FGF2 directly affects not only the biological properties of EP cells but also the expression pattern and secretion of numerous chemocytokines. Our results suggest that FGF2 could be applied in therapeutic approaches for CLI and other ischaemic diseases of the vascular system in vivo. PMID:26314253

  15. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 356–365, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal

  16. Essential Role of Class II Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-C2α in Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor-1-mediated Signaling and Migration in Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Kuntal; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Asanuma, Ken; Okamoto, Yasuo; Takuwa, Noriko; Sasaki, Takehiko; Takuwa, Yoh

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase (PI3K) family regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, and vesicular trafficking, through catalyzing 3′-phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. In contrast to class I PI3Ks, including p110α and p110β, functional roles of class II PI3Ks, comprising PI3K-C2α, PI3K-C2β, and PI3K-C2γ, are little understood. The lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays the important roles in regulating vascular functions, including vascular formation and barrier integrity, via the G-protein-coupled receptors S1P1–3. We studied the roles of PI3K-C2α in S1P-induced endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation. S1P stimulated cell migration and activation of Akt, ERK, and Rac1, the latter of which acts as a signaling molecule essential for cell migration and tube formation, via S1P1 in ECs. Knockdown of either PI3K-C2α or class I p110β markedly inhibited S1P-induced migration, lamellipodium formation, and tube formation, whereas that of p110α or Vps34 did not. Only p110β was necessary for S1P-iduced Akt activation, but both PI3K-C2α and p110β were required for Rac1 activation. FRET imaging showed that S1P induced Rac1 activation in both the plasma membrane and PtdIns 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P)-enriched endosomes. Knockdown of PI3K-C2α but not p110β markedly reduced PtdIns(3)P-enriched endosomes and suppressed endosomal Rac1 activation. Also, knockdown of PI3K-C2α but not p110β suppressed S1P-induced S1P1 internalization into PtdIns(3)P-enriched endosomes. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of endocytosis suppressed S1P-induced S1P1 internalization, Rac1 activation, migration, and tube formation. These observations indicate that PI3K-C2α plays the crucial role in S1P1 internalization into the intracellular vesicular compartment, Rac1 activation on endosomes, and thereby migration through regulating vesicular trafficking in ECs. PMID:23192342

  17. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cardiac stem cell proliferation and endothelial differentiation through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and AMPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    CUI, JINJIN; ZHANG, FENGYUN; WANG, YONGSHUN; LIU, JINGJIN; MING, XING; HOU, JINGBO; LV, BO; FANG, SHAOHONG; YU, BO

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has pleiotropic immune functions in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence from expression and functional studies has indicated that MIF is involved in various aspects of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to determine whether MIF supports in vitro c-kit+CD45− cardiac stem cell (CSC) survival, proliferation and differentiation into endothelial cells, as well as the possible mechanisms involved. We observed MIF receptor (CD74) expression in mouse CSCs (mCSCs) using PCR and immunofluorescence staining, and MIF secretion by mCSCs using PCR and ELISA in vitro. Increasing amounts of exogenous MIF did not affect CD74 expression, but promoted mCSC survival, proliferation and endothelial differentiation. By contrast, treatment with an MIF inhibitor (ISO-1) or siRNA targeting CD74 (CD74-siRNA) suppressed the biological changes induced by MIF in the mCSCs. Increasing amounts of MIF increased the phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which are known to support cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. These effects of MIF on the mCSCs were abolished by LY294002 [a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor] and MK-2206 (an Akt inhibitor). Moreover, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation increased following treatment with MIF. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, partly blocked the pro-proliferative effects of MIF on the mCSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that MIF promotes mCSC survival, proliferation and endothelial differentiation through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways. Thus, MIF may prove to be a potential therapeutic factor in the treatment of heart failure and myocardial infarction by activating CSCs. PMID:27035848

  18. Hesperetin and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites inhibit TNF-α induced human aortic endothelial cell migration and decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Vallejo, Fernando; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies have reported the protection offered by citrus consumption, mainly orange, against cardiovascular diseases, which is primarily mediated by the antiatherogenic and vasculoprotective effects of the flavanone hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside (hesperidin). However, flavanone aglycones or glycosides are not present in the bloodstream but their derived phase-II metabolites could be the actual bioactive molecules. To date, only a few studies have explored the effects of circulating hesperetin-derived metabolites (glucuronides and sulfates) on endothelial cells. Herein, we describe for the first time the effects of hesperetin 3'-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 7-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate, hesperetin 7-O-sulfate and hesperetin on human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) migration upon pro-inflammatory stimuli as an essential step to angiogenesis. Hesperetin and its derived metabolites, at physiologically relevant concentrations (1-10 μM), significantly attenuated cell migration in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1)), which was accompanied and perhaps mediated by a significant decrease in the levels of the thrombogenic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). However, hesperetin metabolites did not counteract the TNF-α-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. We also study here for the first time, the metabolism of hesperetin and its derived metabolites by HAEC with and without a pro-inflammatory stimulus. All these results reinforce the concept according to which circulating phase-II hesperetin metabolites are critical molecules contributing to the cardioprotective effects upon consumption of citrus fruits such as orange. PMID:26456097

  19. In vivo time-lapse imaging reveals extensive neural crest and endothelial cell interactions during neural crest migration and formation of the dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    George, Lynn; Dunkel, Haley; Hunnicutt, Barbara J; Filla, Michael; Little, Charles; Lansford, Rusty; Lefcort, Frances

    2016-05-01

    During amniote embryogenesis the nervous and vascular systems interact in a process that significantly affects the respective morphogenesis of each network by forming a "neurovascular" link. The importance of neurovascular cross-talk in the central nervous system has recently come into focus with the growing awareness that these two systems interact extensively both during development, in the stem-cell niche, and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. With respect to the peripheral nervous system, however, there have been no live, real-time investigations of the potential relationship between these two developing systems. To address this deficit, we used multispectral 4D time-lapse imaging in a transgenic quail model in which endothelial cells (ECs) express a yellow fluorescent marker, while neural crest cells (NCCs) express an electroporated red fluorescent marker. We monitored EC and NCC migration in real-time during formation of the peripheral nervous system. Our time-lapse recordings indicate that NCCs and ECs are physically juxtaposed and dynamically interact at multiple locations along their trajectories. These interactions are stereotypical and occur at precise anatomical locations along the NCC migratory pathway. NCCs migrate alongside the posterior surface of developing intersomitic vessels, but fail to cross these continuous streams of motile ECs. NCCs change their morphology and migration trajectory when they encounter gaps in the developing vasculature. Within the nascent dorsal root ganglion, proximity to ECs causes filopodial retraction which curtails forward persistence of NCC motility. Overall, our time-lapse recordings support the conclusion that primary vascular networks substantially influence the distribution and migratory behavior of NCCs and the patterned formation of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia. PMID:26988118

  20. NAMPT regulates senescence, proliferation, and migration of endothelial progenitor cells through the SIRT1 AS lncRNA/miR-22/SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ming, Guang-Feng; Wu, Kai; Hu, Kai; Chen, Yao; Xiao, Jian

    2016-09-23

    The importance of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated by numerous studies. Previous studies have shown that Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays a role in EPC development by regulating Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), but the specific mechanism has not yet been elucidated. After stimulating EPCs with NAMPT, expression of SIRT1 and SIRT1 antisense long non-coding RNA (AS lncRNA) was upregulated. Upon transfection of an SIRT1 AS lncRNA overexpression vector into EPCs, SIRT1 expression was upregulated. Upon transfection of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets SIRT1 AS lncRNA along with NAMPT, SIRT1 AS lncRNA was downregulated and NAMPT-induced SIRT1 expression was reduced. We used software analyses and a dual-luciferase reporter assay to demonstrate that microRNA (miR)-22 regulated SIRT1 and SIRT1 AS lncRNA. Our data suggest that SIRT1 AS lncRNA relieves miR-22-induced SIRT1 downregulation by competitively sponging miR-22. By measuring EPC senescence, proliferation, and migration, we found that NAMPT inhibited EPC senescence through an SIRT1 AS lncRNA/miR-22/SIRT1 pathway and promoted EPC proliferation and migration. These findings provide a new theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27569277

  1. A KSHV microRNA Directly Targets G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 to Promote the Migration and Invasion of Endothelial Cells by Inducing CXCR2 and Activating AKT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhiqiang; Qin, Di; Yan, Qin; Zhu, Jianzhong; Krueger, Brian J.; Renne, Rolf; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a highly disseminated angiogenic tumor of endothelial cells linked to infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV encodes more than two dozens of miRNAs but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and metastasis remain unknown. Here, we found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-3 (miR-K3) promoted endothelial cell migration and invasion. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter analyses showed that miR-K3 directly targeted G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2, official gene symbol ADRBK1). Importantly, overexpression of GRK2 reversed miR-K3 induction of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the chemokine receptor CXCR2, which was negatively regulated by GRK2, was upregulated in miR-K3-transduced endothelial cells. Knock down of CXCR2 abolished miR-K3-induced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, miR-K3 downregulation of GRK2 relieved its direct inhibitory effect on AKT. Both CXCR2 induction and the release of AKT from GRK2 were required for miR-K3 maximum activation of AKT and induction of cell migration and invasion. Finally, deletion of miR-K3 from the KSHV genome abrogated its effect on the GRK2/CXCR2/AKT pathway and KSHV-induced migration and invasion. Our data provide the first-line evidence that, by repressing GRK2, miR-K3 facilitates cell migration and invasion via activation of CXCR2/AKT signaling, which likely contribute to the dissemination of KSHV-induced tumors. PMID:26402907

  2. TRPC6 is the endothelial calcium channel that regulates leukocyte transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Evan W.; Han, Fei; Tauseef, Mohammad; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Mehta, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is a tightly regulated, multistep process that is critical to the inflammatory response. A transient increase in endothelial cytosolic free calcium ion concentration (↑[Ca2+]i) is required for TEM. However, the mechanism by which endothelial ↑[Ca2+]i regulates TEM and the channels mediating this ↑[Ca2+]i are unknown. Buffering ↑[Ca2+]i in endothelial cells does not affect leukocyte adhesion or locomotion but selectively blocks TEM, suggesting a role for ↑[Ca2+]i specifically for this step. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6), a Ca2+ channel expressed in endothelial cells, colocalizes with platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM) to surround leukocytes during TEM and clusters when endothelial PECAM is engaged. Expression of dominant-negative TRPC6 or shRNA knockdown in endothelial cells arrests neutrophils apically over the junction, similar to when PECAM is blocked. Selectively activating endothelial TRPC6 rescues TEM during an ongoing PECAM blockade, indicating that TRPC6 functions downstream of PECAM. Furthermore, endothelial TRPC6 is required for trafficking of lateral border recycling compartment membrane, which facilitates TEM. Finally, mice lacking TRPC6 in the nonmyeloid compartment (i.e., endothelium) exhibit a profound defect in neutrophil TEM with no effect on leukocyte trafficking. Our findings identify endothelial TRPC6 as the calcium channel mediating the ↑[Ca2+]i required for TEM at a step downstream of PECAM homophilic interactions. PMID:26392222

  3. TRPC6 is the endothelial calcium channel that regulates leukocyte transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Weber, Evan W; Han, Fei; Tauseef, Mohammad; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Mehta, Dolly; Muller, William A

    2015-10-19

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is a tightly regulated, multistep process that is critical to the inflammatory response. A transient increase in endothelial cytosolic free calcium ion concentration (↑[Ca(2+)]i) is required for TEM. However, the mechanism by which endothelial ↑[Ca(2+)]i regulates TEM and the channels mediating this ↑[Ca(2+)]i are unknown. Buffering ↑[Ca(2+)]i in endothelial cells does not affect leukocyte adhesion or locomotion but selectively blocks TEM, suggesting a role for ↑[Ca(2+)]i specifically for this step. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6), a Ca(2+) channel expressed in endothelial cells, colocalizes with platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM) to surround leukocytes during TEM and clusters when endothelial PECAM is engaged. Expression of dominant-negative TRPC6 or shRNA knockdown in endothelial cells arrests neutrophils apically over the junction, similar to when PECAM is blocked. Selectively activating endothelial TRPC6 rescues TEM during an ongoing PECAM blockade, indicating that TRPC6 functions downstream of PECAM. Furthermore, endothelial TRPC6 is required for trafficking of lateral border recycling compartment membrane, which facilitates TEM. Finally, mice lacking TRPC6 in the nonmyeloid compartment (i.e., endothelium) exhibit a profound defect in neutrophil TEM with no effect on leukocyte trafficking. Our findings identify endothelial TRPC6 as the calcium channel mediating the ↑[Ca(2+)]i required for TEM at a step downstream of PECAM homophilic interactions. PMID:26392222

  4. Cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for the human beta-migrating endothelial-cell-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Ny, T; Sawdey, M; Lawrence, D; Millan, J L; Loskutoff, D J

    1986-01-01

    A lambda gt11 expression library containing cDNA inserts prepared from human placental mRNA was screened immunologically using an antibody probe developed against the beta-migrating plasminogen activator inhibitor (beta-PAI) purified from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Thirty-four positive clones were isolated after screening 7 X 10(5) phages. Three clones (lambda 1.2, lambda 3, and lambda 9.2) were randomly picked and further characterized. These contained inserts 1.9, 3.0, and 1.9 kilobases (kb) long, respectively. Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda 9.2, but not for lambda gt11, produced a fusion protein of 180 kDa that was recognized by affinity-purified antibodies against the bovine aortic endothelial cell beta-PAI and had beta-PAI activity when analyzed by reverse fibrin autography. The largest cDNA insert was sequenced and shown to be 2944 base pairs (bp) long. It has a large 3' untranslated region [1788 bp, excluding the poly(A) tail] and contains the entire coding region of the mature protein but lacks the initiation codon and part of the signal peptide coding region at the 5' terminus. The two clones carrying the 1.9-kb cDNA inserts were partially sequenced and shown to be identical to the 3.0-kb cDNA except that they were truncated, lacking much of the 3' untranslated region. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080 was performed using the 3.0-kb cDNA as hybridization probe. Two distinct transcripts, 2.2 and 3.0 kb, were detected, suggesting that the 1.9-kb cDNA may have been copied from the shorter RNA transcript. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was aligned with the NH2-terminal sequence of the human beta-PAI. Based on this alignment, the mature human beta-PAI is 379 amino acids long and contains an NH2-terminal valine. The deduced amino acid sequence has extensive (30%) homology with alpha 1-antitrypsin and antithrombin III, indicating that the beta

  5. M-sec regulates polarized secretion of inflammatory endothelial chemokines and facilitates CCL2-mediated lymphocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, Sagi; Blecher-Gonen, Ronnie; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Zauberman, Ayelet; Lebel-Haziv, Yaeli; Amit, Ido; Alon, Ronen

    2016-06-01

    Activation of endothelial cells by IL-1β triggers the expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-attracting chemokines. The machineries involved in the secretion of these inducible proteins are poorly understood. With the use of genome-wide transcriptional analysis of inflamed human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, we identified several IL-1β-induced candidate regulators of these machineries and chose to focus our study on TNF-α-induced protein 2 (myeloid-secretory). The silencing of myeloid-secretory did not affect the ability of inflamed endothelial cells to support the adhesion and crawling of effector T lymphocytes. However, the ability of these lymphocytes to complete transendothelial migration across myeloid-secretory-silenced human dermal microvascular endothelial cells was inhibited significantly. These observed effects on lymphocyte transendothelial migration were recovered completely when exogenous promigratory chemokine CXCL12 was overlaid on the endothelial barrier. A polarized secretion assay suggested that the silencing of endothelial myeloid-secretory impairs T effector transendothelial migration by reducing the preferential secretion of endothelial-produced CCL2, a key transendothelial migration-promoting chemokine for these lymphocytes, into the basolateral endothelial compartment. Myeloid-secretory silencing also impaired the preferential secretion of other endothelial-produced inflammatory chemokines, as well as cytokines, such as IL-6 and GM-CSF, into the basolateral endothelial compartment. This is the first evidence of a novel inflammation-inducible machinery that regulates polarized secretion of endothelial CCL2 and other inflammatory chemokines and cytokines into basolateral endothelial compartments and facilitates the ability of endothelial CCL2 to promote T cell transendothelial migration. PMID:26701136

  6. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 modulates endothelial cell motility through the small G-protein Rho.

    PubMed

    Gratzinger, Dita; Canosa, Sandra; Engelhardt, Britta; Madri, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), an immunoglobulin family vascular adhesion molecule, is involved in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis (1, 2). We found that endothelial cells lacking PECAM-1 exhibit increased single cell motility and extension formation but poor wound healing migration, reminiscent of cells in which Rho activity has been suppressed by overexpressing a GTPase-activating protein (3). The ability of PECAM-1 to restore wound healing migration to PECAM-1-deficient cells was independent of its extracellular domain or signaling via its immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. PECAM-1-deficient endothelial cells had a selective defect in RhoGTP loading, and inhibition of Rho activity mimicked the PECAM-1-deficient phenotype of increased chemokinetic single cell motility at the expense of coordinated wound healing migration. The wound healing advantage of PECAM-1-positive endothelial cells was not only Rho mediated but pertussis toxin inhibitable, characteristic of migration mediated by heterotrimeric G-protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor signaling such as signaling in response to the serum sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) (4, 5). Indeed, we found that the wound healing defect of PECAM-1 null endothelial cells is minimized in sphingolipid-depleted media; moreover, PECAM-1 null endothelial cells fail to increase their migration in response to S1P. We have also found that PECAM-1 localizes to rafts and that in its absence heterotrimeric G-protein components are differentially recruited to rafts, providing a potential mechanism for PECAM-1-mediated coordination of S1P signaling. PECAM-1 may thus support the effective S1P/RhoGTP signaling required for wound healing endothelial migration by allowing for the spatially directed, coordinated activation of Galpha signaling pathways. PMID:12890700

  7. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  8. Temporal studies into attachment, VE-cadherin perturbation, and paracellular migration of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells across umbilical vein endothelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Neven A; Leach, Lopa

    2015-02-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cords (WJ-MSC) are a valuable alternate source of stem cells. Their role in situ and whether they can interact and cross intact endothelial monolayers requires elucidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between WJ-MSC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), including attachment, transit times, extravasation pathway, and the effects of WJ-MSC on junctional vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. HUVEC were grown to near confluence in endothelial media and to full confluence in mixed media before the addition of PKH26-labelled WJ-MSC. Time lapse fluorescence microscopy showed stem cells undergoing membrane blebbing followed by amoeboid movement on HUVEC monolayers before rounding up and changing shape toward the spindle-shaped morphology during/after transmigration to subendothelial positions. Cells demonstrated a time lag of 60 min before paracellular extravasation, confirmed by confocal microscopy. Forty-six percent of attached cells crossed in the first 2 h. By 16 h, a majority of cells had transmigrated with >96% of cells crossing by 22 h. There were concomitant changes in endothelial junctional VE-cadherin with statistically significant increases in discontinuous staining at 2 h, return to control values at 16 h, even as from 22 h onward HUVEC displayed increased percentage of junctions with continuous staining and upregulation of protein. Our data suggests that WJ-MSC crosses the endothelial barrier through the paracellular pathway and can influence junctional organization of HUVEC with discreet perturbation of VE-cadherin preceding transmigration followed by upregulation once the adluminal side is reached. The latter may reflect a perivascular support function of WJ-MSC in the umbilical cord. PMID:25317631

  9. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulates alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa.

    PubMed

    Bondza, Patrick Kibangou; Metz, Christine N; Akoum, Ali

    2008-04-01

    Human endometrium undergoes a series of dynamic physiological changes during the menstrual cycle of reproductive age women. Many factors, including hormones, cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and integrins, are essential for the success of embryonic implantation into endometrial tissue. Herein, we used a well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, to investigate in vitro the role played by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the regulation of endometrial receptivity markers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that MIF induced a slight increase in alpha(v) (alphav) mRNA integrin subunit expression during the first 12h, but reached a significant difference after 24h MIF treatment compared to control, whereas beta(3) (beta3) integrin subunit displayed significant increase in mRNA 2h following treatment. Immunocytofluorescence showed strong alphav and beta3 immunostaining at 25 ng/ml MIF, and Western blotting clearly indicated increased alphav and beta3 protein expression. MIF treatment significantly stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner after 24 h treatment. Moreover, immunocytofluorescence revealed positive VEGF immunostaining compared to control, and analysis by ELISA of VEGF release in culture supernatants demonstrated that MIF (25 ng/ml) significantly induced VEGF secretion at 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that MIF directly up-regulates alphavbeta3 integrin and VEGF expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells and may advance our understanding of factors involved in the establishment of endometrial receptivity and successful implantation. PMID:17854909

  10. Nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin(+) cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin(+) cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin(+) cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin(+) stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin(+) cells-but not in endothelial cells only- increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  11. Collective cell migration during inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Wound scratch healing assays of endothelial cell monolayers is a simple model to study collective cell migration as a function of biological signals. A signal of particular interest is the immune response, which after initial wounding in vivo causes the release of various inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α is an innate inflammatory cytokine that can induce cell growth, cell necrosis, and change cell morphology. We studied the effects of TNF-α on collective cell migration using the wound healing assays and measured several migration metrics, such as rate of scratch closure, velocities of leading edge and bulk cells, closure index, and velocity correlation functions between migrating cells. We observed that TNF-α alters all migratory metrics as a function of the size of the scratch and TNF-α content. The changes observed in migration correlate with actin reorganization upon TNF-α exposure.

  12. Expression of angiopoietin-1 in hypoxic pericytes: Regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor-2α and participation in endothelial cell migration and tube formation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Shin; Kim, Gyungah; Jin, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jee Young; Shin, Jong Wook; Jo, Inho

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that hypoxia increases angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), but not Ang2, mRNA expression in bovine retinal pericytes (BRP). However, the mechanism underlying Ang1 expression is unknown. Here, we report that Ang1 protein expression increased in hypoxic BRP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This increase was accompanied by an increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF2α) expression. Transfection with an antisense oligonucleotide for HIF2α partially inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in Ang1 expression. HIF2α overexpression further potentiated hypoxia-stimulated Ang1 expression, suggesting that HIF2α plays an important role in Ang1 regulation in BRP. When fused the Ang1 promoter (-3040 to +199) with the luciferase reporter gene, we found that hypoxia significantly increased promoter activity by 4.02 ± 1.68 fold. However, progressive 5'-deletions from -3040 to -1799, which deleted two putative hypoxia response elements (HRE), abolished the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that HIF2α was predominantly bound to a HRE site, located specifically at nucleotides -2715 to -2712. Finally, treatment with conditioned medium obtained from hypoxic pericytes stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation, which was completely blocked by co-treatment with anti-Ang1 antibody. This study is the first to demonstrate that hypoxia upregulates Ang1 expression via HIF2α-mediated transcriptional activation in pericytes, which plays a key role in angiogenesis. PMID:26655815

  13. GDF11/BMP11 activates both smad1/5/8 and smad2/3 signals but shows no significant effect on proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Cheng, Feng; Du, Xue-Ting; Gao, Jin-Lai; Xiao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Na; Li, Shan-Liang; Dong, De-Li

    2016-01-01

    GDF11/BMP11, a member of TGF-β superfamily, was reported to rejuvenate heart, skeletal muscle and blood vessel architecture in aged mice. However, the rejuvenative effects of GDF11 were questioned recently. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF11 on smad and non-smad signals in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the effects of GDF11 on proliferation and migration of HUVECs and primary rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). GDF11 factor purchased from two different companies (PeproTech and R&D Systems) was comparatively studied. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions. The cell viability and migration were examined by using MTT and wound healing assays. Results showed that GDF11 activated both smad1/5/8 and smad2/3 signals in HUVECs. GDF11 increased protein expression of NADPH oxidase 4(NOX4) in HUVECs. GDF11 showed no significant effect on the protein level of p38, p-p38, ERK, p-ERK, Akt, p-Akt (Ser473) and p-Akt(Thr308), but increased the protein level of p-JNK and p-AMPK in HUVECs, and these increases were inhibited by antioxidant mitoTEMPO treatment. GDF11 slightly increased cell viability after short-term treatment and slightly decreased cell viability after long-term treatment. GDF11 showed no significant effect on cell proliferation and migration. These data indicated that the notion of GDF11 as a rejuvenation-related factor for endothelial cells needs to be cautious. PMID:26919250

  14. Gradients in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in migrating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by shear-stress.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, N; Ariyoshi, H; Aono, Y; Sakon, M; Kawasaki, T; Monden, M

    1999-01-01

    Using a parallel-plate flow-chamber and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we studied the distribution and temporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in migrating HUVECs stimulated by shear-stress. In the presence or absence of ATP, shear-stress (10 dyne/cm2) caused morphological change and migration of individual HUVECs in the random direction. After 120 minute exposure to shear-stress, 70% of the cells migrated in the direction of flow, whereas, as many as 30% of the cells migrated to the upstream against flow. A nonspecific plasma membrane Ca2+ channel blocker, Ni2+, abolished such responses markedly, suggesting that Ca2+ influx may be essential for shear-stress dependent morphological change and migration of HUVECs. Analysis of [Ca2+]i distribution revealed the appearance of localized [Ca2+]i elevation inside lamellipodium formed in the direction of cell migration. The localized rise in [Ca2+]i might be closely related with morphological change to regulate the direction of cell migration induced by shear-stress. PMID:10619372

  15. KRIT1 Protein Depletion Modifies Endothelial Cell Behavior via Increased Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Peter V.; Kuebel, Julia M.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.; Glading, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of endothelial cell-cell contact is a key event in many cardiovascular diseases and a characteristic of pathologically activated vascular endothelium. The CCM (cerebral cavernous malformation) family of proteins (KRIT1 (Krev-interaction trapped 1), PDCD10, and CCM2) are critical regulators of endothelial cell-cell contact and vascular homeostasis. Here we show novel regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in KRIT1-depleted endothelial cells. Loss of KRIT1 and PDCD10, but not CCM2, increases nuclear β-catenin signaling and up-regulates VEGF-A protein expression. In KRIT1-depleted cells, increased VEGF-A levels led to increased VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and subsequent alteration of cytoskeletal organization, migration, and barrier function and to in vivo endothelial permeability in KRIT1-deficient animals. VEGFR2 activation also increases β-catenin phosphorylation but is only partially responsible for KRIT1 depletion-dependent disruption of cell-cell contacts. Thus, VEGF signaling contributes to modifying endothelial function in KRIT1-deficient cells and microvessel permeability in Krit1+/− mice; however, VEGF signaling is likely not the only contributor to disrupted endothelial cell-cell contacts in the absence of KRIT1. PMID:25320085

  16. Endothelial Cell Integrin Laminin Receptor Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Raymond A.; Hinojoza, Julian R.; Maeda, Atsuko; Chen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Laminin, a major glycoprotein component of vessel basement membranes, is recognized by β1- and β3-integrins expressed on endothelial cells. To determine how endothelial cell integrins might function in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, integrin laminin receptors and laminin were analyzed in central nervous system samples from MS patients and controls by immunohistochemistry. In active MS lesions, endothelial cell VLA-6 and β1 subunits were decreased compared to controls whereas αv subunit and VLA-1 were increased. In chronic inactive lesions β1, VLA-6 and αv were the same as controls but VLA-1 remained increased. α3 subunit was constant in all samples. By immunoelectron microscopy VLA-1, VLA-6, β1, and laminin were distributed throughout endothelial cells; αv was adjacent to and on luminal surfaces; αv and VLA-1 were on intercellular junctions. These results indicate distinct regulation and functions of these integrins in different lesion stages. In active lesions decreased endothelial cell β1/VLA-6 could result in their detachment from laminin thereby facilitating leukocyte transvascular migration and blood-brain barrier breakdown. αv and VLA-1 on intercellular junctions may participate in re-establishing vessel integrity after leukocyte migration. Luminal surface αv also likely binds intraluminal ligands and cells. In chronic inactive plaques persistently elevated endothelial cell VLA-1 correlates with longstanding endothelial cell and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. PMID:9708801

  17. Involvement of marrow-derived endothelial cells in vascularization.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, B; Karsan, A

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, the adult neovasculature was thought to arise only through angiogenesis, the mechanism by which new blood vessels form from preexisting vessels through endothelial cell migration and proliferation. However, recent studies have provided evidence that postnatal neovasculature can also arise though vasculogenesis, a process by which endothelial progenitor cells are recruited and differentiate into mature endothelial cells to form new blood vessels. Evidence for the existence of endothelial progenitors has come from studies demonstrating the ability of bone marrow-derived cells to incorporate into adult vasculature. However, the exact nature of endothelial progenitor cells remains controversial. Because of the lack of definitive markers of endothelial progenitors, the in vivo contribution of progenitor cells to physiological and pathological neovascularization remains unclear. Early studies reported that endothelial progenitor cells actively integrate into the adult vasculature and are critical in the development of many types of vascular-dependent disorders such as neoplastic progression. Moreover, it has been suggested that endothelial progenitor cells can be used as a therapeutic strategy aimed at promoting vascular growth in a variety of ischemic diseases. However, increasing numbers of studies have reported no clear contribution of endothelial progenitors in physiological or pathological angiogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss the origin of the endothelial progenitor cell in the embryo and adult, and we discuss the cell's link to the primitive hematopoietic stem cell. We also review the potential significance of endothelial progenitor cells in the formation of a postnatal vascular network and discuss the factors that may account for the current lack of consensus of the scientific community on this important issue. PMID:17554506

  18. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Ken; Hiruma, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Yoji; Tanaka, Masaru; Sawada, Rumi; Niimi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs) can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials. PMID:27348615

  19. Endothelial Src kinase regulates membrane recycling from the lateral border recycling compartment during leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bidisha; Muller, William A

    2008-12-01

    When leukocytes cross endothelial cells during the inflammatory response, membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is selectively targeted around diapedesing leukocytes. This "targeted recycling" is critical for leukocyte transendothelial migration. Blocking homophilic PECAM interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells blocks targeted recycling from the LBRC and blocks diapedesis. However, the cellular signaling pathways that trigger targeted recycling are not known. We show that targeted recycling from the LBRC is dependent on Src kinase. The selective Src kinase inhibitor PP2 blocked targeted recycling and blocked diapedesis by over 70%. However, Src kinase inhibition did not affect the structure or normal constitutive recycling of membrane from the LBRC in the absence of leukocytes. PECAM, a Src kinase substrate, traffics between the LBRC and the endothelial surface at the cell border. However, virtually all of the PECAM in the cell that was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues was found in the LBRC. These findings demonstrate that Src kinase activity is critical for the targeted recycling of membrane from the LBRC to the site of transendothelial migration and that the PECAM in the LBRC is qualitatively different from the PECAM on the surface of endothelial cells. PMID:18991269

  20. Endothelial cell migration during murine yolk sac vascular remodeling occurs by means of a Rac1 and FAK activation pathway in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanism(s) controlling cell migration during vascular morphogenesis in vivo remain largely undefined. To address this within a physiological context, we used retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Raldh2) null mouse embryos and demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) deficiency results in abnorm...

  1. Retinal Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Stimulates Recruitment of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhatwadekar, Ashay D.; Glenn, Josephine V.; Curtis, Tim M.; Grant, Maria B.; Stitt, Alan W.; Gardiner, Tom A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair although it is uncertain how local endothelial cell apoptosis influences their reparative function. This study was conducted to determine how the presence of apoptotic bodies at sites of endothelial damage may influence participation of EPCs in retinal microvascular repair. Methods Microlesions of apoptotic cell death were created in monolayers of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) by using the photodynamic drug verteporfin. The adhesion of early-EPCs to these lesions was studied before detachment of the apoptotic cells or after their removal from the wound site. Apoptotic bodies were fed to normal RMECs and mRNA levels for adhesion molecules were analyzed. Results Endothelial lesions where apoptotic bodies were left attached at the wound site showed a fivefold enhancement in EPC recruitment (P < 0.05) compared with lesions where the apoptotic cells had been removed. In intact RMEC monolayers exposed to apoptotic bodies, expression of ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin was upregulated by 5- to 15-fold (P < 0.05– 0.001). EPCs showed a characteristic chemotactic response (P < 0.05) to conditioned medium obtained from apoptotic bodies, whereas analysis of the medium showed significantly increased levels of VEGF, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α when compared to control medium; SDF-1 remained unchanged. Conclusions The data indicate that apoptotic bodies derived from retinal capillary endothelium mediate release of proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines and induce adhesion molecule expression in a manner that facilitates EPC recruitment. PMID:19474402

  2. Tipping off endothelial tubes: nitric oxide drives tip cells.

    PubMed

    Priya, Mani Krishna; Sahu, Giriraj; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Goldy, Naga; Sundaresan, Abaya Meenakshi; Jadhav, Vivek; Barathkumar, T R; Saran, Uttara; Jaffar Ali, B M; Roberts, David D; Bera, Amal Kanti; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2015-04-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is a complex process that warrants cell migration, proliferation, tip cell formation, ring formation, and finally tube formation. Angiogenesis is initiated by a single leader endothelial cell called "tip cell," followed by vessel elongation by "stalk cells." Tip cells are characterized by their long filopodial extensions and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endocan. Although nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, its role in angiogenic sprouting and specifically in tip cell formation is poorly understood. The present study tested the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling in tip cell formation. In primary endothelial cell culture, about 40% of the tip cells showed characteristic sub-cellular localization of eNOS toward the anterior progressive end of the tip cells, and eNOS became phosphorylated at serine 1177. Loss of eNOS suppressed tip cell formation. Live cell NO imaging demonstrated approximately 35% more NO in tip cells compared with stalk cells. Tip cells showed increased level of cGMP relative to stalk cells. Further, the dissection of NO downstream signaling using pharmacological inhibitors and inducers indicates that NO uses the sGC/cGMP pathway in tip cells to lead angiogenesis. Taken together, the present study confirms that eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling defines the direction of tip cell migration and thereby initiates new blood vessel formation. PMID:25510468

  3. Development of Endothelial-Specific Single Inducible Lentiviral Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guanghua; Kramer, M. Gabriela; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Kawa, Milosz P.; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhongmin; Prieto, Jesus; Qian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are able to migrate to tumor vasculature. These cells, if genetically modified, can be used as vehicles to deliver toxic material to, or express anticancer proteins in tumor. To test this hypothesis, we developed several single, endothelial-specific, and doxycycline-inducible self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors. Two distinct expression cassettes were inserted into a SIN-vector: one controlled by an endothelial lineage-specific, murine vascular endothelial cadherin (mVEcad) promoter for the expression of a transactivator, rtTA2S-M2; and the other driven by an inducible promoter, TREalb, for a firefly luciferase reporter gene. We compared the expression levels of luciferase in different vector constructs, containing either the same or opposite orientation with respect to the vector sequence. The results showed that the vector with these two expression cassettes placed in opposite directions was optimal, characterized by a robust induction of the transgene expression (17.7- to 73-fold) in the presence of doxycycline in several endothelial cell lines, but without leakiness when uninduced. In conclusion, an endothelial lineage-specific single inducible SIN lentiviral vector has been developed. Such a lentiviral vector can be used to endow endothelial progenitor cells with anti-tumor properties. PMID:26612671

  4. Development of Endothelial-Specific Single Inducible Lentiviral Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanghua; Kramer, M Gabriela; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Kawa, Milosz P; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhongmin; Prieto, Jesus; Qian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are able to migrate to tumor vasculature. These cells, if genetically modified, can be used as vehicles to deliver toxic material to, or express anticancer proteins in tumor. To test this hypothesis, we developed several single, endothelial-specific, and doxycycline-inducible self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors. Two distinct expression cassettes were inserted into a SIN-vector: one controlled by an endothelial lineage-specific, murine vascular endothelial cadherin (mVEcad) promoter for the expression of a transactivator, rtTA2S-M2; and the other driven by an inducible promoter, TREalb, for a firefly luciferase reporter gene. We compared the expression levels of luciferase in different vector constructs, containing either the same or opposite orientation with respect to the vector sequence. The results showed that the vector with these two expression cassettes placed in opposite directions was optimal, characterized by a robust induction of the transgene expression (17.7- to 73-fold) in the presence of doxycycline in several endothelial cell lines, but without leakiness when uninduced. In conclusion, an endothelial lineage-specific single inducible SIN lentiviral vector has been developed. Such a lentiviral vector can be used to endow endothelial progenitor cells with anti-tumor properties. PMID:26612671

  5. Micropatterned Structural Control Suppresses Mechanotaxis of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiefan; Helmke, Brian P.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell migration is critical in many physiological processes including wound healing and stent endothelialization. To determine how preexisting cell morphology influences cell migration under fluid shear stress, endothelial cells were preset in an elongated morphology on micropatterned substrates, and unidirectional shear stress was applied either parallel or perpendicular to the cell elongation axis. On micropatterned 20-μm lines, cells exhibited an elongated morphology with stress fibers and focal adhesion sites aligned parallel to the lines. On 115-μm lines, cell morphology varied as a function of distance from the line edge. Unidirectional shear stress caused unpatterned cells in a confluent monolayer to exhibit triphasic mechanotaxis behavior. During the first 3 h, cell migration speed increased in a direction antiparallel to the shear stress direction. Migration speed then slowed and direction became spatially heterogeneous. Starting 11–12 h after the onset of shear stress, the unpatterned cells migrated primarily in the downstream direction, and migration speed increased significantly. In contrast, mechanotaxis was suppressed after the onset of shear stress in cells on micropatterned lines during the same time period, for the cases of both parallel and perpendicular flow. The directional persistence time was much longer for cells on the micropatterned lines, and it decreased significantly after flow onset. Migration trajectories were highly correlated among micropatterned cells within a three-cell neighborhood, and shear stress disrupted this spatially correlated migration behavior. Thus, presetting structural morphology may interfere with mechanisms of sensing local physical cues, which are critical for establishing mechanotaxis in response to hemodynamic shear stress. PMID:18586851

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells: identity defined?

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Frank; Plum, Jean; Yöder, Mervin C; Ingram, David A; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Case, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In the past decade, researchers have gained important insights on the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in adult neovascularization. A subset of BM-derived cells, called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), has been of particular interest, as these cells were suggested to home to sites of neovascularization and neoendothelialization and differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs) in situ, a process referred to as postnatal vasculogenesis. Therefore, EPCs were proposed as a potential regenerative tool for treating human vascular disease and a possible target to restrict vessel growth in tumour pathology. However, conflicting results have been reported in the field, and the identification, characterization, and exact role of EPCs in vascular biology is still a subject of much discussion. The focus of this review is on the controversial issues in the field of EPCs which are related to the lack of a unique EPC marker, identification challenges related to the paucity of EPCs in the circulation, and the important phenotypical and functional overlap between EPCs, haematopoietic cells and mature ECs. We also discuss our recent findings on the origin of endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs), showing that this in vitro defined EC population does not originate from circulating CD133+ cells or CD45+ haematopoietic cells. PMID:19067770

  7. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells’ Migration

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Monica; Carfì Pavia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a “resting” phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4) and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs) or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs) caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process. PMID:27152413

  8. Dynamic Endothelial Cell Rearrangements Drive Developmental Vessel Regression

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Claudio A.; Jones, Martin L.; Bernabeu, Miguel O.; Geudens, Ilse; Mathivet, Thomas; Rosa, Andre; Lopes, Felicia M.; Lima, Aida P.; Ragab, Anan; Collins, Russell T.; Phng, Li-Kun; Coveney, Peter V.; Gerhardt, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Patterning of functional blood vessel networks is achieved by pruning of superfluous connections. The cellular and molecular principles of vessel regression are poorly understood. Here we show that regression is mediated by dynamic and polarized migration of endothelial cells, representing anastomosis in reverse. Establishing and analyzing the first axial polarity map of all endothelial cells in a remodeling vascular network, we propose that balanced movement of cells maintains the primitive plexus under low shear conditions in a metastable dynamic state. We predict that flow-induced polarized migration of endothelial cells breaks symmetry and leads to stabilization of high flow/shear segments and regression of adjacent low flow/shear segments. PMID:25884288

  9. Tumour-cell-induced endothelial cell necroptosis via death receptor 6 promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Strilic, Boris; Yang, Lida; Albarrán-Juárez, Julián; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Han, Kang; Müller, Ulrike C; Pasparakis, Manolis; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-08-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. It is a complex multistep process during which individual tumour cells spread primarily through the circulatory system to colonize distant organs. Once in the circulation, tumour cells remain vulnerable, and their metastatic potential largely depends on a rapid and efficient way to escape from the blood stream by passing the endothelial barrier. Evidence has been provided that tumour cell extravasation resembles leukocyte transendothelial migration. However, it remains unclear how tumour cells interact with endothelial cells during extravasation and how these processes are regulated on a molecular level. Here we show that human and murine tumour cells induce programmed necrosis (necroptosis) of endothelial cells, which promotes tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. Treatment of mice with the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor necrostatin-1 or endothelial-cell-specific deletion of RIPK3 reduced tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis, tumour cell extravasation and metastasis. In contrast, pharmacological caspase inhibition or endothelial-cell-specific loss of caspase-8 promoted these processes. We furthermore show in vitro and in vivo that tumour-cell-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to extravasation and metastasis requires amyloid precursor protein expressed by tumour cells and its receptor, death receptor 6 (DR6), on endothelial cells as the primary mediators of these effects. Our data identify a new mechanism underlying tumour cell extravasation and metastasis, and suggest endothelial DR6-mediated necroptotic signalling pathways as targets for anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:27487218

  10. Modulation of Human Vascular Endothelial Cell Behaviors by Nanotopographic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liliensiek, S.J.; Wood, J.A.; Yong, J.; Auerbach, R.; Nealey, P.F.; Murphy, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Basement membranes possess a complex three dimensional topography in the nanoscale and submicron range which have been shown to profoundly modulate a large menu of fundamental cell behaviors. Using the topographic features found in native vascular endothelial basement membranes as a guide, polyurethane substrates were fabricated containing anisotropically ordered ridge and groove structures and isotropically ordered pores from 200 nm to 2000 nm in size. We investigated the impact of biomimetic length-scale topographic cues on orientation/elongation, proliferation and migration on four human vascular endothelial cell-types from large and small diameter vessels. We found that all cell-types exhibited orientation and alignment with the most pronounced response on anisotropically ordered ridges ≥ 800 nm. HUVEC cells were the only cell-type examined to demonstrate a decrease in proliferation in response to the smallest topographic features regardless of surface order. On anisotropically ordered surfaces all cell types migrated preferentially parallel to the long axis of the ridges, with the greatest increase in cell migration being observed on the 1200 nm pitch. In contrast, cells did not exhibit any preference in direction or increase in migration speed on isotropically ordered surfaces. Overall, our data demonstrate that surface topographic features impact vascular endothelial cell behavior and that the impact of features varies with the cell behavior being considered, topographic feature scale, surface order, and the anatomic origin of the cell being investigated. PMID:20400175

  11. Modulation of human vascular endothelial cell behaviors by nanotopographic cues.

    PubMed

    Liliensiek, Sara J; Wood, Joshua A; Yong, Jiang; Auerbach, Robert; Nealey, Paul F; Murphy, Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Basement membranes possess a complex three-dimensional topography in the nanoscale and submicron range which have been shown to profoundly modulate a large menu of fundamental cell behaviors. Using the topographic features found in native vascular endothelial basement membranes as a guide, polyurethane substrates were fabricated containing anisotropically ordered ridge and groove structures and isotropically ordered pores from 200 nm to 2000 nm in size. We investigated the impact of biomimetic length-scale topographic cues on orientation/elongation, proliferation and migration on four human vascular endothelial cell-types from large and small diameter vessels. We found that all cell-types exhibited orientation and alignment with the most pronounced response on anisotropically ordered ridges > or =800 nm. HUVEC cells were the only cell-type examined to demonstrate a decrease in proliferation in response to the smallest topographic features regardless of surface order. On anisotropically ordered surfaces all cell-types migrated preferentially parallel to the long axis of the ridges, with the greatest increase in cell migration being observed on the 1200 nm pitch. In contrast, cells did not exhibit any preference in direction or increase in migration speed on isotropically ordered surfaces. Overall, our data demonstrate that surface topographic features impact vascular endothelial cell behavior and that the impact of features varies with the cell behavior being considered, topographic feature scale, surface order, and the anatomic origin of the cell being investigated. PMID:20400175

  12. Imaging of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Dormann, Dirk; Weijer, Cornelis J

    2006-01-01

    Cell migration is an essential process during many phases of development and adult life. Cells can either migrate as individuals or move in the context of tissues. Movement is controlled by internal and external signals, which activate complex signal transduction cascades resulting in highly dynamic and localised remodelling of the cytoskeleton, cell–cell and cell–substrate interactions. To understand these processes, it will be necessary to identify the critical structural cytoskeletal components, their spatio-temporal dynamics as well as those of the signalling pathways that control them. Imaging plays an increasingly important and powerful role in the analysis of these spatio-temporal dynamics. We will highlight a variety of imaging techniques and their use in the investigation of various aspects of cell motility, and illustrate their role in the characterisation of chemotaxis in Dictyostelium and cell movement during gastrulation in chick embryos in more detail. PMID:16900100

  13. New thiazolidinediones affect endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Martina; Tripodi, Gustavo L; Ferrer, Renila; Boscá, Lisardo; Pitta, Marina G R; Pitta, Ivan R; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P

    2016-07-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists used in treating type 2 diabetes that may exhibit beneficial pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we characterized the effects of three new TZDs [GQ-32 (3-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-5-(4-nitro-benzylidene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), GQ-169 (5-(4-chloro-benzylidene)-3-(2,6-dichloro-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione), and LYSO-7 (5-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione)] on endothelial cells. The effects of the new TZDs were evaluated on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell migration, tube formation and the gene expression of adhesion molecules and angiogenic mediators in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PPARγ activation by new TZDs was addressed with a reporter gene assay. The three new TZDs activated PPARγ and suppressed the tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. GQ-169 and LYSO-7 also inhibited the glucose-induced ROS production. Although NO production assessed with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein-FM probe indicated that all tested TZDs enhanced intracellular levels of NO, only LYSO-7 treatment significantly increased the release of NO from HUVEC measured by chemiluminescence analysis of culture media. Additionally, GQ-32 and GQ-169 induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation by the up-regulation of angiogenic molecules expression, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and interleukin 8. GQ-169 also increased the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, and GQ-32 enhanced transforming growth factor-β expression. Together, the results of this study reveal that these new TZDs act as partial agonists of PPARγ and modulate endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction besides to stimulate migration and tube formation. PMID:27108791

  14. Endothelial Cells Derived From Nuclear Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wing Tak; Huang, Ngan F.; Botham, Crystal M.; Sayed, Nazish; Cooke, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, regulating the tone of the vascular wall, and its interaction with circulating blood elements. Alterations in endothelial functions facilitate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and permit vascular smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction is an early event in disease processes including atherosclerosis, and because of its critical role in vascular health the endothelium is worthy of the intense focus it has received. However, there are limitations to studying human endothelial function in vivo, or human vascular segments ex vivo. Thus, methods for endothelial cell culture have been developed and refined. More recently, methods to derive endothelial cells from pluripotent cells have extended the scientific range of human endothelial cell studies. Pluripotent stem cells may be generated, expanded and then differentiated into endothelial cells for in vitro studies. Constructs for molecular imaging can also be employed to facilitate tracking these cells in vivo. Furthermore, one can generate patient-specific endothelial cells to study the effects of genetic or epigenetic alterations on endothelial behavior. Finally, there is the opportunity to apply these cells for vascular therapy. This review focuses on the generation of endothelial cells from stem cells; their characterization by genetic, histological and functional studies; and their translational applications. PMID:23104878

  15. Endothelial Cell Dynamics during Anastomosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Santana, Anthony; Shan, Mengrou; Stroock, Abraham D.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anastomosis –the fusion of vessels from two distinct branches of the vascular system – represents a critical step in vascular growth under both healthy and pathological conditions, in vivo, and presents an important target for engineering of vascularized tissues, in vitro. Recent works in animal models have advanced our understanding of the molecular and cellular players in vascular anastomosis, but questions remain related to cellular dynamics and control of this process, in vitro. In this study, we exploited a three-dimensional (3-D) culture platform to examine the dynamics of endothelial cell (EC) during and after vascular anastomosis by allowing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis to proceed in parallel. We show that anastomosis occurs between sprouts formed by angiogenesis from an endothelium and tubes formed by vasculogenesis in the bulk of a 3-D matrix. This fusion leads to highly connected vessels that span from the surface of the matrix into the bulk in a manner that depends on cell density and identity. Further, we observe and analyze intermixing of endothelial cells of distinct origin (surface versus bulk) within the vessels structures that are formed; we provide evidence that the cells migrate along pre-existing vessels segments as part of this intermixing process. We conclude that anastomosis can occur between vessels emerging by angiogenesis and vasculogenesis and that this process may play an important role in contexts such as wound healing. PMID:25790315

  16. Influence of bacterial endotoxin on radiation-induced activation of human endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo: interleukin-10 protects against transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Lindner, H; Holler, E; Gerbitz, A; Johnson, J P; Bornkamm, G W; Eissner, G

    1997-11-15

    To extend previous studies on the anti-inflammatory role of interleukin (IL)-10 in vivo, mice pretreated with IL-10 were subjected to ionizing radiation (IR), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or both and assessed for the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in immunohistochemical analyses. IL-10 was able to almost fully protect LPS+IR-treated animals against ICAM-1 up-regulation. Because LPS and IR also increased adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, transendothelial migration assays were performed to investigate the functional significance of these findings. IR was found to induce transendothelial migration, and this effect could be enhanced by cotreatment with LPS, in the same fashion as peripheral blood mononuclear cell adhesion. Also in this system, IL-10 proved to act as a potent LPS antagonist. Finally, in vivo immunohistochemical analyses revealed an infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocytes into organs that were the target of transplant-related complications after LPS+IR treatment. This infiltration could also be completely reversed by IL-10 pretreatment. PMID:9371683

  17. Endothelial cells in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Kelley, James F

    2014-09-01

    Therapies to prevent or reverse endothelial dysfunction and vascular leak found in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have not been identified. In this review we summarize dengue viruses and the spectrum of human disease and highlight evidence of endothelial cell dysfunction in DHF based on studies in patients and mouse and tissue culture models. Evidence suggests that both virus antigen and host immune response, can cause endothelial cell dysfunction and weaken endothelial barrier integrity. We suggest possible therapeutic interventions and highlight how therapies targeting altered endothelial function might be evaluated in animal models and in patients with DHF. PMID:25025934

  18. Progenitor endothelial cell involvement in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-05-01

    There is compelling evidence that endothelial cells of the brain and periphery are dysfunctional in Alzheimer's Disease. There is evidence for a fundamental defect in, or abnormal aging of, endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis. The possibility that endothelial cell defects are a primary cause for Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias can be researched by molecular and cell biology studies as well as cell trafficking studies using recently demonstrated molecular imaging methods. The evidence for abnormal endothelial function and the methods to explore this hypothesis are presented.

  19. When the endothelium scores an own goal: endothelial cells actively augment metastatic extravasation through endothelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Gasparics, Ákos; Rosivall, László; Krizbai, István A; Sebe, Attila

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an important mechanism during organ development and in certain pathological conditions. For example, EndMT contributes to myofibroblast formation during organ fibrosis, and it has been identified as an important source of cancer-associated fibroblasts, facilitating tumor progression. Recently, EndMT was proposed to modulate endothelial function during intravasation and extravasation of metastatic tumor cells. Evidence suggests that endothelial cells are not passive actors during transendothelial migration (TEM) of cancer cells, as there are profound changes in endothelial junctional protein expression, signaling, permeability, and contractility. This review describes these alterations in endothelial characteristics during TEM of metastatic tumor cells and discusses them in the context of EndMT. EndMT could play an important role during metastatic intravasation and extravasation, a novel hypothesis that may lead to new therapeutic approaches to tackle metastatic disease. PMID:26993222

  20. Replication of human endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L J; Hoak, J C; Maca, R D; Fry, G L

    1973-08-01

    Investigative studies dealing with the properties and functions of endothelial cells have been hampered because there has been little or no success in the isolation, growth, and passage of individual cells in large numbers. We have developed a system whereby pure cultures of endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins can be subcultured for at least five serial passages. Many facets of endothelial function and interaction can be evaluated with the use of this new adaptive system of isolation and culture. PMID:4718112

  1. [Transplantation of corneal endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Amano, Shiro

    2002-12-01

    Though conventional corneal transplantation has achieved great success, it still has several drawbacks including limited availability of donor corneas, recurrent allograft rejection, and subsequent graft failure in certain cases. Reconstructing clinically usable corneas by applying the technology of regenerative medicine can offer a solution to these problems, as well as making corneal transplantation a non-emergency surgery and enabling the usage of banked corneal cells. In the present study, we focused on corneal endothelium that is critical for corneal transparency and investigated the reconstruction of cornea utilizing cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). We succeeded in steadily culturing HCECs by using culture dishes pre-coated with extracellular matrix produced by calf corneal endothelial cells and culture media that contained basic fibroblast growth factor and fetal bovine serum. We performed the following analysis utilizing these cultured HCECs. The older the donor was, the more frequently large senescent cells appeared in the passaged HCECs. The telomeres of HCECs were measured as terminal restriction fragments (TRF) by Southern blotting. HCECs, in vivo from donors in their seventies had a long TRFs of over 12 kilobases. Passaging shortened the TRFs but there was no difference in TRFs among donors of various ages. These results indicated that shortening of telomere length is not related to senescence of HCECs. We investigated the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the senescence of in vivo HCECs. The results indicated that AGE-protein in the aqueous humor is endocytosed into HCECs via AGE receptors expressed on the surface of HCECs and damages HCECs by producing reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that AGEs, at least partly, cause the senescence of HECEs. HCECs were cultured using adult human serum instead of bovine serum to get rid of bovine material that can be infected with prions. Primary and passage

  2. Human liver endothelial cells, but not macrovascular or microvascular endothelial cells, engraft in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Filali, Ebtisam El; Hiralall, Johan K; van Veen, Henk A; Stolz, Donna B; Seppen, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation has had limited clinical success so far, partly due to poor engraftment of hepatocytes. Instead of hepatocytes. other cell types, such as endothelial cells, could be used in ex vivo liver gene therapy. The goal of the present study was to compare the grafting and repopulation capacity of human endothelial cells derived from various tissues. Human endothelial cells were isolated from adult and fetal livers using anti-human CD31 antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Human macrovascular endothelial cells were obtained from umbilical vein. Human microvascular endothelial cells were isolated from adipose tissue. Cells were characterized using flow cytometry. Liver engraftment and repopulation of endothelial cells was studied after intrasplenic transplantation in monocrotaline-treated immunodeficient mice. Following transplantation, human liver endothelial cells engrafted throughout the mouse liver. With immunoscanning electron microscopy, fenestrae in engrafted human liver endothelial cells were identified, a characteristic feature of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, CD31-negative liver cells, human macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells were not capable of repopulating mouse liver. Characterization of human liver, macrovascular, and microvascular endothelial cells demonstrated expression of CD31, CD34, and CD146 but not CD45. Our study shows that only human liver endothelial cells, but not macro- and microvascular endothelial cells, have the unique capacity to engraft and repopulate the mouse liver. These results indicate that mature endothelial cells cannot transdifferentiate in vivo and thus do not exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results have set a basis for further research to the potential of human liver endothelial cells in liver-directed cell and gene therapy. PMID:23044355

  3. Quantitation of Endothelial Cell Adhesiveness In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Donna J.; Raj, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    One of the cardinal processes of inflammation is the infiltration of immune cells from the lumen of the blood vessel to the surrounding tissue. This occurs when endothelial cells, which line blood vessels, become adhesive to circulating immune cells such as monocytes. In vitro measurement of this adhesiveness has until now been done by quantifying the total number of monocytes that adhere to an endothelial layer either as a direct count or by indirect measurement of the fluorescence of adherent monocytes. While such measurements do indicate the average adhesiveness of the endothelial cell population, they are confounded by a number of factors, such as cell number, and do not reveal the proportion of endothelial cells that are actually adhesive. Here we describe and demonstrate a method which allows the enumeration of adhesive cells within a tested population of endothelial monolayer. Endothelial cells are grown on glass coverslips and following desired treatment are challenged with monocytes (that may be fluorescently labeled). After incubation, a rinsing procedure, involving multiple rounds of immersion and draining, the cells are fixed. Adhesive endothelial cells, which are surrounded by monocytes are readily identified and enumerated, giving an adhesion index that reveals the actual proportion of endothelial cells within the population that are adhesive. PMID:26132714

  4. Phosphorylation of murine double minute-2 on Ser166 is downstream of VEGF-A in exercised skeletal muscle and regulates primary endothelial cell migration and FoxO gene expression.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Julian; Roudier, Emilie; Ciccone, Joseph; Drouin, Genevieve; Stromberg, Anna; Vojnovic, Jovana; Olfert, I Mark; Haas, Tara; Gustafsson, Thomas; Grenier, Guillaume; Birot, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated in a previous study that murine double minute (Mdm)-2 is essential for exercise-induced skeletal muscle angiogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the mechanisms that regulate Mdm2 activity in response to acute exercise and identified VEGF-A as a key stimulator of Mdm2 phosphorylation on Ser(166) (p-Ser166-Mdm2). VEGF-A and p-Ser166-Mdm2 protein levels were measured in human and rodent muscle biopsy specimens after 1 bout of exercise. VEGF-A-dependent Mdm2 phosphorylation was demonstrated in vivo in mice harboring myofiber-specific deletion of VEGF-A (mVEGF(-/-)) and in vitro in primary human and rodent endothelial cells (ECs). Exercise increased VEGF-A and p-Ser166-Mdm2 protein levels respectively by 157 and 68% in human muscle vs. pre-exercise levels. Similar results were observed in exercised rodent muscles compared to sedentary controls; however, exercise-induced Mdm2 phosphorylation was significantly attenuated in mVEGF(-/-) mice. Recombinant VEGF-A elevated p-Ser166-Mdm2 by 50-125% and stimulated migration by 33% in ECs when compared to untreated cells, whereas the Mdm2 antagonist Nutlin-3a abrogated VEGF-driven EC migration. Finally, overexpression of a Ser166-Mdm2 phosphorylation mimetic increased EC migration, increased Mdm2 to FoxO1 binding (+55%), and decreased FoxO1-dependent gene expression compared with ECs overexpressing WT-Mdm2. Our results suggest that VEGF-mediated Mdm2 phosphorylation on Ser(166) is a novel proangiogenic pathway within the skeletal muscle. PMID:26578686

  5. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  6. Tp17 membrane protein of Treponema pallidum activates endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Li; Wang, Qian-Qiu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yang, Li-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Tp17, a membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, was initially recognized as an inflammatory mediator of syphilis. Because the histopathology of syphilis is characterized by endothelial cell abnormalities, we investigated the effects of recombinant Tp17 (rTp17) on endothelial cell activation in vitro. Using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and whole-cell ELISA, we found that rTp17 activated endothelial cells, as demonstrated by the up-regulated expression and increased gene transcription of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). rTp17 also enhanced the migration and subsequent adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells as well as increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. These data suggest that the ability of Tp17 to activate endothelial cells may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:25744604

  7. Photodynamic effect of hypericin in primary cultures of human umbilical endothelial cells and glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stupáková, Viktória; Varinská, Lenka; Mirossay, Andrej; Sarisský, Marek; Mojzis, Ján; Dankovcík, Róbert; Urdzík, Peter; Ostró, Alexander; Mirossay, Ladislav

    2009-06-01

    Hypericin is the most powerful naturally occurring photosensitizer and as such there is renaissant interest in the potentials of this compound for anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy effects on normal human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) in comparison with cancer human glioma cell lines U-87 MG and U-373 MG, in in vitro conditions. The data suggest that endothelial cells as well as glioma cell lines are sensitive only to photoactivated hypericin. The inhibitory effects of photoactivated hypericin did not differ in endothelial compared with tumor cells in cytotoxicity MTT and DNA fragmentation assays. However, an important difference in sensitivity was found between the above mentioned cell types in migration and metalloproteinases inhibition assays performed as cell function tests. The findings in both function tests were supported by the high sensitivity of endothelial cells in an additional angiogenesis test of tubular formation in vitro. PMID:19173218

  8. Collective cell migration in development

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, tissues undergo major rearrangements that lead to germ layer positioning, patterning, and organ morphogenesis. Often these morphogenetic movements are accomplished by the coordinated and cooperative migration of the constituent cells, referred to as collective cell migration. The molecular and biomechanical mechanisms underlying collective migration of developing tissues have been investigated in a variety of models, including border cell migration, tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, and the migration of the lateral line primordium, neural crest cells, or head mesendoderm. Here we review recent advances in understanding collective migration in these developmental models, focusing on the interaction between cells and guidance cues presented by the microenvironment and on the role of cell–cell adhesion in mechanical and behavioral coupling of cells within the collective. PMID:26783298

  9. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus K3 and K5 Proteins Block Distinct Steps in Transendothelial Migration of Effector Memory CD4+ T cells by Targeting Different Endothelial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Manes, Thomas D.; Hoer, Simon; Muller, William A.; Lehner, Paul J.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2010-01-01

    K3 and K5 are Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases that differentially reduce surface expression of various proteins in infected cells. Here we describe their effects on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), a natural target of KSHV infection. TNF-treated HDMEC transduced to express K5 show reduced capacity to capture effector memory (EM) CD4+ T cells under conditions of venular shear stress. K5 but not K3 transduction significantly reduces ICAM-1 expression and the inhibition of T cell capture was phenocopied by siRNA knockdown of ICAM-1 and by anti-ICAM-1 Ab blocking. Co-transduction with an ICAM-1 truncated construct not subject to K5 ubiquitylation restored EM CD4+ T cell capture. K3 transductants effectively capture EM CD4+ T cells, but fail to support their transendothelial migration (TEM) in response to TCR engagement by superantigen presented by the EC, leaving intact chemokine-dependent TEM. K3 but not K5 transduction significantly reduces PECAM-1 expression and the effect on TCR-induced TEM is phenocopied by siRNA knockdown of PECAM-1 and by anti-PECAM-1 Ab blocking. TCR-dependent TEM was restored in K3 transductants co-transduced to express a mutant of PECAM-1 not subject to K3-induced ubiquitylation. EM CD4+ T cells lack any known PECAM-1 counter receptor, but heterophilic engagement of PECAM-1 may involve glycosaminoglycans, and TCR-induced TEM, but not chemokine-induced TEM, appears to involve a heparan- or chondroitin-like molecule on T cells. These results both identify specific roles of K5 and K3 in immune evasion and further differentiate the processes of inflammatory chemokine- versus TCR-dependent recruitment of human EM CD4+ T cells. PMID:20357254

  10. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  11. Biomechanical changes in endothelial cells result from an inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkus, Janina; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    During periods of infection and disease, the immune system induces the release of TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine, from a variety of cell types, such as macrophages. TNF-α, while circulating in the vasculature, binds to the apical surface of endothelial cells and causes a wide range of biological and mechanical changes to the endothelium. While the biological changes have been widely studied, the biomechanical aspects have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the biomechanical changes of the endothelium as a function of TNF-α treatment. First, we studied the traction forces applied by the endothelium, an effect that is much less studied than others. Through the use of traction force microscopy, we found that TNF-α causes an increase in traction forces applied by the endothelial cells as compared to non-treated cells. Then, we investigated cell morphology, cell mechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics. We found that in addition to increasing applied traction forces, TNF-α causes an increase in cell area and aspect ratio on average, as well as a shift in the organization of F-actin filaments within the cell. Combining these findings together, our results show that an inflammatory response heavily impacts the morphology, cell mechanics, migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, and applied traction forces of endothelial cells.

  12. Endothelial cells regulate neural crest and second heart field morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom-Hoffman, Michal; Michailovici, Inbal; Ferrara, Napoleone; Zelzer, Elazar; Tzahor, Eldad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiac and craniofacial developmental programs are intricately linked during early embryogenesis, which is also reflected by a high frequency of birth defects affecting both regions. The molecular nature of the crosstalk between mesoderm and neural crest progenitors and the involvement of endothelial cells within the cardio–craniofacial field are largely unclear. Here we show in the mouse that genetic ablation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Flk1) in the mesoderm results in early embryonic lethality, severe deformation of the cardio–craniofacial field, lack of endothelial cells and a poorly formed vascular system. We provide evidence that endothelial cells are required for migration and survival of cranial neural crest cells and consequently for the deployment of second heart field progenitors into the cardiac outflow tract. Insights into the molecular mechanisms reveal marked reduction in Transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgfb1) along with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Our collective findings in both mouse and avian models suggest that endothelial cells coordinate cardio–craniofacial morphogenesis, in part via a conserved signaling circuit regulating ECM remodeling by Tgfb1. PMID:24996922

  13. Effects of shear stress on endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Obi, Syotaro; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ando, Joji

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are adult stem cells that play a central role in neovascularization. EPCs are mobilized from bone marrow into peripheral blood, attach to existing endothelial cells, and then transmigrate across the endothelium into tissues, where they proliferate, differentiate, and form new blood vessels. In the process, EPCs are exposed to shear stress, a biomechanical force generated by flowing blood and tissue fluid flow. When cultured EPCs are exposed to controlled levels of shear stress in a flow-loading device, their bioactivities in terms of proliferation, anti-apoptosis, migration, production of bioactive substances, anti-thrombosis, and tube formation increase markedly. Expression of endothelial marker genes and proteins by EPCs also increases in response to shear stress, and they differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Great advances have been made in elucidating the mechanisms by which mature endothelial cells sense and respond to shear stress, but not in EPCs. Further study of EPC responses to shear stress will be necessary to better understand the physiological and pathophysiological roles of EPCs and to apply EPCs to new therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:25992410

  14. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-05-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of /sup 51/Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of /sup 51/Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers.

  15. Micropattern printing of adhesion, spreading, and migration peptides on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) films to promote endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Virginie; Laroche, Gaétan

    2005-01-01

    We report here the development of an original multistep micropatterning technique for printing peptides on surfaces, based on the ink-jet printer technology. Contrary to most micropatterning methods used nowadays, this technique is advantageous because it allows displaying 2D-arrays of multiple biomolecules. Moreover, this low cost procedure allies the advantages of computer-aided design with high flexibility and reproducibility. A Hewlett-Packard printer was modified to print peptide solutions, and Adobe Illustrator was used as the graphic-editing software to design high-resolution checkerboard-like micropatterns. In a first step, PTFE films were treated with ammonia plasma to introduce amino groups on the surface. These chemical functionalities were reacted with heterobifunctional cross-linker sulfo-succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cycloexane-1-carboxylate (S-SMCC) to allow the subsequent surface covalent conjugation of various cysteine-modified peptides to the polymer substrate. These peptidic molecules containing RGD and WQPPRARI sequences were selected for their adhesive, spreading, and migrational properties toward endothelial cells. On one hand, our data demonstrated that the initial cell adhesion does not depend on the chemical structure and combination of the peptides covalently bonded either through conventional conjugation or micropatterning. On the other hand, spreading and migration of endothelial cells is clearly enhanced while coconjugating the GRGDS peptide in conjunction with WQPPRARI. This behavior is further improved by micropatterning these peptides on specific areas of the polymer surface. PMID:16173784

  16. Fibrinogen induces endothelial cell permeability

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Neetu; Roberts, Andrew M.; Dean, William L.; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2010-01-01

    Many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders are accompanied by an increased blood content of fibrinogen (Fg), a high molecular weight plasma adhesion protein. Fg is a biomarker of inflammation and its degradation products have been associated with microvascular leakage. We tested the hypothesis that at pathologically high levels, Fg increases endothelial cell (EC) permeability through extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and by inducing F-actin formation. In cultured ECs, Fg binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and to α5β1 integrin, caused phosphorylation of ERK. Subsequently, F-actin formation increased and coincided with formation of gaps between ECs, which corresponded with increased permeability of ECs to albumin. Our data suggest that formation of F-actin and gaps may be the mechanism for increased albumin leakage through the EC monolayer. The present study indicates that elevated un-degraded Fg may be a factor causing microvascular permeability that typically accompanies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:17849175

  17. A Chemokine Receptor, CXCR4, Which Is Regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α, Is Crucial for Functional Endothelial Progenitor Cells Migration to Ischemic Tissue and Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Tran Cam; Nagano, Masumi; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Hamada, Hiromi; Ohneda, Kinuko; Kimura, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the ability to form new blood vessels and protect ischemic tissues from damage. We previously reported that EPCs with low activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (Alde-Low EPCs) possess the greater ability to treat ischemic tissues compared with Alde-High EPCs. The expression level of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, was found to be greater in Alde-Low EPCs than in Alde-High EPCs. However, the precise role of the HIF factors in the regulation of EPC activity remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrate a critical role of HIF-2α and its target gene CXCR4 for controlling the migratory activity of EPC to ischemic tissue. We found that coculture of Alde-High EPCs with microvesicles derived from Alde-Low EPCs improved their ability to repair an ischemic skin flap, and the expression of CXCR4 and its ligand SDF1 was significantly increased following the coculture. In Alde-Low EPCs, the expression of CXCR4 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, binds to the promoter region of CXCR4 gene. The CXCR4 shRNA treatment in Alde-Low EPCs almost completely abrogated their migratory activity to ischemic tissues, whereas the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed much less effect. The CXCR4 overexpression in Alde-High EPCs resulted in a partial, but significant improvement in their repairing ability in an ischemic skin flap. Collectively, these findings indicate that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis, which is specifically regulated by HIF-2α, plays a crucial role in the regulation of EPC migration to ischemic tissues. PMID:26620723

  18. A Chemokine Receptor, CXCR4, Which Is Regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α, Is Crucial for Functional Endothelial Progenitor Cells Migration to Ischemic Tissue and Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tran Cam; Nagano, Masumi; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Hamada, Hiromi; Ohneda, Kinuko; Kimura, Kenichi; Ohneda, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the ability to form new blood vessels and protect ischemic tissues from damage. We previously reported that EPCs with low activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (Alde-Low EPCs) possess the greater ability to treat ischemic tissues compared with Alde-High EPCs. The expression level of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, was found to be greater in Alde-Low EPCs than in Alde-High EPCs. However, the precise role of the HIF factors in the regulation of EPC activity remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrate a critical role of HIF-2α and its target gene CXCR4 for controlling the migratory activity of EPC to ischemic tissue. We found that coculture of Alde-High EPCs with microvesicles derived from Alde-Low EPCs improved their ability to repair an ischemic skin flap, and the expression of CXCR4 and its ligand SDF1 was significantly increased following the coculture. In Alde-Low EPCs, the expression of CXCR4 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, binds to the promoter region of CXCR4 gene. The CXCR4 shRNA treatment in Alde-Low EPCs almost completely abrogated their migratory activity to ischemic tissues, whereas the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) showed much less effect. The CXCR4 overexpression in Alde-High EPCs resulted in a partial, but significant improvement in their repairing ability in an ischemic skin flap. Collectively, these findings indicate that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis, which is specifically regulated by HIF-2α, plays a crucial role in the regulation of EPC migration to ischemic tissues. PMID:26620723

  19. Apicobasal polarity of brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Worzfeld, Thomas; Schwaninger, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Normal brain homeostasis depends on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier that controls the access of nutrients, humoral factors, and immune cells to the CNS. The blood-brain barrier is composed mainly of brain endothelial cells. Forming the interface between two compartments, they are highly polarized. Apical/luminal and basolateral/abluminal membranes differ in their lipid and (glyco-)protein composition, allowing brain endothelial cells to secrete or transport soluble factors in a polarized manner and to maintain blood flow. Here, we summarize the basic concepts of apicobasal cell polarity in brain endothelial cells. To address potential molecular mechanisms underlying apicobasal polarity in brain endothelial cells, we draw on investigations in epithelial cells and discuss how polarity may go awry in neurological diseases. PMID:26661193

  20. Improved endothelialization of titanium vascular implants by extracellular matrix secreted from endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qiufen; Zhao, Yuancong; Xue, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2010-12-01

    A variety of metals have been widely used in construction of cardiovascular implants (CVIs), such as artificial heart valves, ventricular pumps, and vascular stents. Although great effects have been put into rigorous anticoagulation, late thrombosis still occurred due to inferior blood and cell compatibility. Natural endothelium is popularly regarded as the only substance that has long-term anticoagulant ability. So, establishment of a compact endothelial cell (EC) monolayer on CVIs surface is a guarantee for their long-term potency. In the work described here, titanium (Ti) disks were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) directly secreted by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), so as to help ECs proliferate and migrate and to improve their endothelialization in vivo. Deposition of ECM on Ti disks was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The surface topography and wettability of the Ti disks significantly changed after ECM deposition. Most importantly, it was found that ECM deposition inhibited platelet adhesion, stimulated EC proliferation, increased EC migration speed in vitro, and eventually accelerated the re-cellularization speed of Ti disks in vivo. These important results render it reasonable and feasible to modify CVIs with ECM secreted from ECs for improving their long-term potency. PMID:20666613

  1. Expression and endocytosis of VEGF and its receptors in human colonic vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfang; Lehman, Richard E; Donner, David B; Matli, Mary R; Warren, Robert S; Welton, Mark L

    2002-06-01

    Normal human colonic microvascular endothelial cells (HUCMEC) have been isolated from surgical specimens by their adherence to Ulex europaeus agglutinin bound to magnetic dynabeads that bind alpha-L-fucosyl residues on the endothelial cell membrane. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of a range of endothelial-specific markers on HUCMEC, including the von Willebrand factor, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. The growing cells form monolayers with the characteristic cobblestone morphology of endothelial cells and eventually form tube-like structures. HUCMEC produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and express the receptors, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) and fms-like tyrosine kinase, through which VEGF mediates its actions in the endothelium. VEGF induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR and a proliferative response from HUCMEC comparable to that elicited from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). On binding to HUCMEC or HUVEC, (125)I-labeled VEGF internalizes or dissociates to the medium. Once internalized, (125)I-labeled VEGF is degraded and no evidence of ligand recycling was observed. However, significantly less VEGF is internalized, and more is released to the medium from HUCMEC than HUVEC. Angiogenesis results from the proliferation and migration of microvascular, not large-vessel, endothelial cells. The demonstration that microvascular endothelial cells degrade less and release more VEGF to the medium than large-vessel endothelial cells identifies a mechanism permissive of the role of microvascular cells in angiogenesis. PMID:12016135

  2. An in vitro model for analysing neutrophil migration into and away from the sub-endothelial space: Roles of flow and CD31.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Srabasti J; McGettrick, Helen M; Butler, Lynn M; Buckley, Christopher D; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B

    2006-01-01

    To model the later stages of neutrophil migration into tissue, we developed an assay in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured on porous filters, treated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and then incorporated in a flow chamber. Video-microscopic observations were made of neutrophils as they were perfused over the HUVEC. When 3 microm pore filters were used (as opposed to 0.4 microm pore filters), neutrophils could be observed to migrate not only through the endothelial monolayer but also through the filter within minutes. The proportion of adherent neutrophils migrating through the endothelial monolayer and velocity of migration underneath it, were similar on the different filters, and also when neutrophils were perfused over cultures in glass capillaries, or settled on HUVEC cultured in standard plastic dishes. However, neutrophils migrated through HUVEC/filter constructs more rapidly in the flow chamber than in a standard, static, Transwell system, even though the velocities of migration under HUVEC were similar when directly observed under flow or static conditions. A function-blocking antibody against CD31 did not alter movement through the endothelial monolayer or the filter in the new flow system, but did reduce the migration velocity of neutrophils underneath the HUVEC (by 24%). Thus, we have developed a method for following each stage of neutrophil migration, including exit from the sub-endothelial space, and shown how they may be modified by applied fluid shear stress and blockade of a regulatory adhesion molecule. PMID:16627928

  3. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  4. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  5. Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein (PML) Regulates Endothelial Cell Network Formation and Migration in Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) and Interferon α (IFNα)*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiwen; Liu, Yu; Chu, Hao; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a tumor suppressor that is highly expressed in vascular endothelium and inflamed tissues, yet its role in inflammation-associated cytokine-regulated angiogenesis and underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. We show that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interferon α (IFNα) stimulate PML expression while suppressing EC network formation and migration, two key events during angiogenesis. By a knockdown approach, we demonstrate that PML is indispensable for TNFα- and IFNα-mediated inhibition of EC network formation. We further demonstrate that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) binds PML promoter and that is an important regulator of PML expression. Knockdown of STAT1 reduces endogenous PML and blocks TNFα- and IFNα-induced PML accumulation and relieves TNFα- and IFNα-mediated inhibition of EC network formation. Our data also indicate that PML regulates EC migration, in part, by modulating expression of downstream genes, such as negatively regulating integrin β1 (ITGB1). In addition, knockdown of STAT1 or PML alleviates TNFα- and IFNα-mediated inhibition of ITGB1 expression. Antibody blockade demonstrates that ITGB1 is functionally important for PML- and STAT1-regulated EC migration. Taken together, our data provide novel mechanistic insights that PML functions as a negative regulator in EC network formation and migration. PMID:22589541

  6. Density enhanced phosphatase-1 down-regulates urokinase receptor surface expression in confluent endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Patrick M.; Heier, Patricia C.; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Priglinger, Ute; Binder, Bernd R.

    2011-01-01

    VEGF165, the major angiogenic growth factor, is known to activate various steps in proangiogenic endothelial cell behavior, such as endothelial cell migration and invasion, or endothelial cell survival. Thereby, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system has been shown to play an essential role not only by its proteolytic capacities, but also by induction of intracellular signal transduction. Therefore, expression of its cell surface receptor uPAR is thought to be an essential regulatory mechanism in angiogenesis. We found that uPAR expression on the surface of confluent endothelial cells was down-regulated compared with subconfluent proliferating endothelial cells. Regulation of uPAR expression was most probably affected by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, a downstream signaling event of the VEGF/VEGF-receptor system. Consistently, the receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 (density enhanced phosphatase-1/CD148), which is abundantly expressed in confluent endothelial cells, inhibited the VEGF-dependent activation of ERK1/2, leading to down-regulation of uPAR expression. Overexpression of active ERK1 rescued the DEP-1 effect on uPAR. That DEP-1 plays a biologic role in angiogenic endothelial cell behavior was demonstrated in endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and capillary-like tube formation assays in vitro. PMID:21304107

  7. Human Pulmonary Endothelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alice R.

    1980-01-01

    Endothelial cells were cultured from various different human vessels, including aortas, pulmonary, ovarian, and umbilical arteries, and pulmonary, ovarian, and umbilical veins. The cultured cells were identified as endothelial cells by the presence of Factor VIII antigen and antiotensin I converting enzyme (kininase II). They retained these markers for at least five passages in culture, and some cells had them for seven passages or more. Endothelial cells from the various vessels were compared with respect to their ability to metabolize angiotensins I and II and bradykinin. Cells from arteries had three to five times the angiotensin I converting enzyme activity as cells from veins. The activity of angiotensinase A (aspartyl aminopeptidase) had a similar distribution, and cells from arteries were consistently more active than cells from veins. Cultures of endothelial cells from pulmonary and umbilical vessels formed prostacyclin in response to mechanical stimulation. Media from cell monolayers that were subjected to a change of medium and gentle agitation inhibited aggregation of human platelets. This inhibitory activity was generated within 2-5 min, and it was not formed by cells that were treated with indomethacin or tranylcypromine. Addition of prostaglandin (PG)H2 to indomethacin-treated cells restored the ability to form the inhibitor, but cells treated with tranylcypromine were not responsive to PGH2. In experiments where [14C]arachidonic acid was added to the cells before stimulation, the major metabolite identified by thin-layer chromatography was 6-keto PGF1α. Thus, it appears that pulmonary endothelial cells, as well as umbilical cord cells, can form prostacyclin. In experiments comparing the ability of arterial and venous cells to form prostacyclin, arterial cells were more active than venous cells. These studies of cells from various human vessels suggest that the vascular origin of cultured endothelial cells determines how they metabolize vasoactive

  8. Endothelial Cell Stimulation by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Quynh T.; Filler, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, enters the bloodstream and causes hematogenously disseminated infection in hospitalized patients. During the initiation of a hematogenously disseminated infection, endothelial cells are one of the first host cells to come in contact with C. albicans. Endothelial cells can significantly influence the local host response to C. albicans by expressing leukocyte adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the response of endothelial cells to C. albicans in vitro. We describe the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassays to measure the effects of C. albicans on the endothelial cell production of E-selectin and tumor necrosis factor α in vitro. PMID:19089392

  9. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Schweighofer, Bernhard; Rohringer, Sabrina; Pröll, Johannes; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT) of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510) and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations. PMID:26484194

  10. Recognition of an endothelial determinant for CD 18-dependent human neutrophil adherence and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C W; Rothlein, R; Hughes, B J; Mariscalco, M M; Rudloff, H E; Schmalstieg, F C; Anderson, D C

    1988-01-01

    Human neutrophil (PMN) attachment to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was evaluated in vitro using two MAbs, R6-5-D6 and RR1/1, that recognize intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and one MAb, TS1/18, that recognizes CD18. Pretreatment of the HUVEC with anti-ICAM-1 MAbs produced greater than 50% inhibition of attachment to HUVEC, and IL-1 (0.5 U/ml)- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml)-stimulated HUVEC, and greater than 99% inhibition of f-Met-Leu-Phe (0.5 nM) enhanced adherence. Anti-ICAM-1 MAbs also inhibited by greater than 85% the transendothelial migration induced by 4-h IL-1 (0.5 U/ml) and LPS (10 ng/ml) activation of the HUVEC. That these effects involved a CD18-dependent mechanism is supported by the following results: pretreatment of PMN with TS1/18 produced the same degree of inhibition of attachment and migration as seen with R6-5-D6. In addition, the use of both MAbs together did not further increase the inhibition of cell attachment to stimulated HUVEC. The attachment of PMN from patients with CD18 deficiency to stimulated HUVEC was not reduced by R6-5-D6, and both R6-5-D6 and TS1/18 revealed the same time course for appearance and disappearance of an adherence component on stimulated HUVEC not blocked by either MAb. These results demonstrate that attachment and transendothelial migration of PMN in vitro depend substantially on both CD18 on the PMN and ICAM-1 on the endothelial cell. Images PMID:2903180

  11. WR-1065 and radioprotection of vascular endothelial cells. II. Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Mooteri, S.N.; Podolski, J.L.; Drab, E.A.; Saclarides, T.J.

    1996-02-01

    Although the aminothiol WR-1065 protects normal tissues, its direct effect on the damage and restoration of the vascular endothelium is not clear. In endothelial cells, WR-1065 attenuates both the DNA damage and the G{sub 1}-phase arrest induced by radiation. After the destruction of nearby endothelial cells, the survivors rearrange their cytoskeleton, migrate and replicate. To determine the effect of radiation on morphology and migration, portions of bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures were denuded with a pipette tip and irradiated ({sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays). The following observations were noted after 5 Gy: within 10 min, there was increased formation of protein-mixed disulfides including actin-mixed disulfide; after 30 min, {alpha}{sub 5}{Beta}{sub 1}, the integrin receptor for fibronectin, was up-regulated on the apical membrane surface. Within 5 h, actin-containing stress fibers reorganized, although there was no change in the total filamentous (F-)actin content within the cells. Compared to controls after 24 h, the irradiated cells had migrated 15% farther (P < 0.01), and at the leading edge covered twice the surface area (P < 0.0001). The addition of 2 mM WR-1065 for 2 h before 5 Gy inhibited the increased expression of {alpha}{sub 5}{Beta}{sub 1}, promoted retention of stress fibers and prevented the enhanced cell migration and spreading. These results indicate that WR-1065 prevents radiation-induced morphological responses. This effect appears to be mediated by an impact on both adhesion molecule expression and cytoskeletal reorganization. 61 refs., 6 figs.

  12. A Role for the Long Noncoding RNA SENCR in Commitment and Function of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boulberdaa, Mounia; Scott, Elizabeth; Ballantyne, Margaret; Garcia, Raquel; Descamps, Betty; Angelini, Gianni D; Brittan, Mairi; Hunter, Amanda; McBride, Martin; McClure, John; Miano, Joseph M; Emanueli, Costanza; Mills, Nicholas L; Mountford, Joanne C; Baker, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of long noncoding RNA in physiology and disease, their role in endothelial biology remains poorly understood. Growing evidence has highlighted them to be essential regulators of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. SENCR, a vascular-enriched long noncoding RNA, overlaps the Friend Leukemia Integration virus 1 (FLI1) gene, a regulator of endothelial development. Therefore, we wanted to test the hypothesis that SENCR may contribute to mesodermal and endothelial commitment as well as in endothelial function. We thus developed new differentiation protocols allowing generation of endothelial cells from human embryonic stem cells using both directed and hemogenic routes. The expression of SENCR was markedly regulated during endothelial commitment using both protocols. SENCR did not control the pluripotency of pluripotent cells; however its overexpression significantly potentiated early mesodermal and endothelial commitment. In human umbilical endothelial cell (HUVEC), SENCR induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. SENCR expression was altered in vascular tissue and cells derived from patients with critical limb ischemia and premature coronary artery disease compared to controls. Here, we showed that SENCR contributes to the regulation of endothelial differentiation from pluripotent cells and controls the angiogenic capacity of HUVEC. These data give novel insight into the regulatory processes involved in endothelial development and function. PMID:26898221

  13. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27085002

  14. Endothelial cell Ca2+ increases upon tumor cell contact and modulates cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Pili, R; Corda, S; Passaniti, A; Ziegelstein, R C; Heldman, A W; Capogrossi, M C

    1993-01-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms involved in tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells are still largely undefined. The effect of metastatic murine melanoma cell and human prostate carcinoma cell contact on cytosolic [Ca2+] of bovine artery endothelial cells was examined in indo-1-loaded endothelial cell monolayers. A rapid increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] occurred on contact with tumor cells, but not on contact with 8-microns inert beads. A similar increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was observed with human neutrophils or monocyte-like lymphoma cells, but not with endothelial cells, red blood cells, and melanoma cell-conditioned medium. The increase in endothelial cell [Ca2+] was not inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ removal. In contrast, endothelial cell pretreatment with thapsigargin, which releases endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ into the cytosol and depletes this Ca2+ store site, abolished the cytosolic [Ca2+] rise upon melanoma cell contact. Endothelial cell pretreatment with the membrane-permeant form of the Ca2+ chelator bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocked the increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Under static and dynamic flow conditions (0.46 dyn/cm2) bis-(O-aminophenoxyl)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid pretreatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers inhibited melanoma cell adhesion to the endothelial cells. Thus, tumor cell contact with endothelial cells induces a rapid Ca2+ release from endothelial intracellular stores, which has a functional role in enhancing cell-cell adhesion. Images PMID:8254056

  15. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Adams, Susanne; Eilken, Hanna; Stehling, Martin; Corada, Monica; Dejana, Elisabetta; Zhou, Bin; Adams, Ralf H

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells of the vessel wall, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, are essential for vascular integrity. The developmental sources of these cells and molecular mechanisms controlling their progenitors in the heart are only partially understood. Here we show that endocardial endothelial cells are progenitors of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the murine embryonic heart. Endocardial cells undergo endothelial-mesenchymal transition and convert into primitive mesenchymal progenitors expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. These progenitors migrate into the myocardium, differentiate and assemble the wall of coronary vessels, which requires canonical Wnt signalling involving Frizzled4, β-catenin and endothelial cell-derived Wnt ligands. Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. PMID:27516371

  16. Immobilization of Cell-Adhesive Laminin Peptides in Degradable PEGDA Hydrogels Influences Endothelial Cell Tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saniya; Saik, Jennifer E.; Gould, Dan J.; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Attachment, spreading, and organization of endothelial cells into tubule networks are mediated by interactions between cells in the extracellular microenvironment. Laminins are key extracellular matrix components and regulators of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. In this study, laminin-derived peptides were conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) monoacrylate and covalently incorporated into degradable PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels to investigate the influence of these peptides on endothelial cellular adhesion and function in organizing into tubule networks. Degradable PEGDA hydrogels were synthesized by incorporating a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)–sensitive peptide, GGGPQGIWGQGK (abbreviated PQ), into the polymer backbone. The secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by endothelial cells promotes polymer degradation and consequently cell migration. We demonstrate the formation of extensive networks of tubule-like structures by encapsulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells in hydrogels with immobilized synthetic peptides. The resulting structures were stabilized by pericyte precursor cells (10T1/2s) in vitro. During tubule formation and stabilization, extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen IV and laminin were deposited. Tubules formed in the matrix of metalloproteinase sensitive hydrogels were visualized from 7 days to 4 weeks in response to different combination of peptides. Moreover, hydrogels functionalized with laminin peptides and transplanted in a mouse cornea supported the ingrowth and attachment of endothelial cells to the hydrogel during angiogenesis. Results of this study illustrate the use of laminin-derived peptides as potential candidates for modification of biomaterials to support angiogenesis. PMID:23914330

  17. Syndecan-2 downregulation impairs angiogenesis in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noguer, Oriol Villena, Joan; Lorita, Jordi; Vilaro, Senen; Reina, Manuel

    2009-03-10

    The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a necessary process during development but also for tumour growth and other pathologies. It is promoted by different growth factors that stimulate endothelial cells to proliferate, migrate, and generate new tubular structures. Syndecans, transmembrane heparan sulphate proteoglycans, bind such growth factors through their glycosaminoglycan chains and could transduce the signal to the cytoskeleton, thus regulating cell behaviour. We demonstrated that syndecan-2, the major syndecan expressed by human microvascular endothelial cells, is regulated by growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins, in both bidimensional and tridimensional culture conditions. The role of syndecan-2 in 'in vitro' tumour angiogenesis was also examined by inhibiting its core protein expression with antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Downregulation of syndecan-2 reduces spreading and adhesion of endothelial cells, enhances their migration, but also impairs the formation of capillary-like structures. These results suggest that syndecan-2 has an important function in some of the necessary steps that make up the angiogenic process. We therefore propose a pivotal role of this heparan sulphate proteoglycan in the formation of new blood vessels.

  18. Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, U S

    1984-06-01

    Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan. PMID:6090112

  19. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  20. Suprabasin as a novel tumor endothelial cell marker.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad T; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Ohga, Noritaka; Akiyama, Kosuke; Maishi, Nako; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have reported that stromal cells contribute to tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that tumor endothelial cells (TEC) characteristics were different from those of normal endothelial cells (NEC). Furthermore, we performed gene profile analysis in TEC and NEC, revealing that suprabasin (SBSN) was upregulated in TEC compared with NEC. However, its role in TEC is still unknown. Here we showed that SBSN expression was higher in isolated human and mouse TEC than in NEC. SBSN knockdown inhibited the migration and tube formation ability of TEC. We also showed that the AKT pathway was a downstream factor of SBSN. These findings suggest that SBSN is involved in the angiogenic potential of TEC and may be a novel TEC marker. PMID:25283635

  1. Loss of PPARγ in endothelial cells leads to impaired angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vattulainen-Collanus, Sanna; Akinrinade, Oyediran; Li, Molong; Koskenvuo, Minna; Li, Caiyun Grace; Rao, Shailaja P; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Yuan, Ke; Sawada, Hirofumi; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Alvira, Cristina; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2016-02-15

    Tie2-promoter-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, also known as PPARG) in mice leads to osteopetrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vascular disease is associated with loss of PPARγ in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC); we evaluated the role of PPARγ in PMVEC functions, such as angiogenesis and migration. The role of PPARγ in angiogenesis was evaluated in Tie2CrePPARγ(flox/flox) and wild-type mice, and in mouse and human PMVECs. RNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches were utilized to reveal angiogenesis-associated targets for PPARγ. Tie2CrePPARγ(flox/flox) mice showed an impaired angiogenic capacity. Analysis of endothelial progenitor-like cells using bone marrow transplantation combined with evaluation of isolated PMVECs revealed that loss of PPARγ attenuates the migration and angiogenic capacity of mature PMVECs. PPARγ-deficient human PMVECs showed a similar migration defect in culture. Bioinformatic and experimental analyses newly revealed E2F1 as a target of PPARγ in the regulation of PMVEC migration. Disruption of the PPARγ-E2F1 axis was associated with a dysregulated Wnt pathway related to the GSK3B interacting protein (GSKIP). In conclusion, PPARγ plays an important role in sustaining angiogenic potential in mature PMVECs through E2F1-mediated gene regulation. PMID:26743080

  2. Geometric friction directs cell migration.

    PubMed

    Le Berre, M; Liu, Yan-Jun; Hu, J; Maiuri, Paolo; Bénichou, O; Voituriez, R; Chen, Y; Piel, M

    2013-11-01

    In the absence of environmental cues, a migrating cell performs an isotropic random motion. Recently, the breaking of this isotropy has been observed when cells move in the presence of asymmetric adhesive patterns. However, up to now the mechanisms at work to direct cell migration in such environments remain unknown. Here, we show that a nonadhesive surface with asymmetric microgeometry consisting of dense arrays of tilted micropillars can direct cell motion. Our analysis reveals that most features of cell trajectories, including the bias, can be reproduced by a simple model of active Brownian particle in a ratchet potential, which we suggest originates from a generic elastic interaction of the cell body with the environment. The observed guiding effect, independent of adhesion, is therefore robust and could be used to direct cell migration both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24266490

  3. Cell and tissue mechanics in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lange, Janina R; Fabry, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Migrating cells generate traction forces to counteract the movement-resisting forces arising from cell-internal stresses and matrix adhesions. In the case of collective migration in a cell colony, or in the case of 3-dimensional migration through connective tissue, movement-resisting forces arise also from external stresses. Although the deformation of a stiffer cell or matrix causes larger movement-resisting forces, at the same time a larger stiffness can also promote cell migration due to a feedback between forces, deformations, and deformation speed that is mediated by the acto-myosin contractile machinery of cells. This mechanical feedback is also important for stiffness sensing, durotaxis, plithotaxis, and collective migration in cell colonies. PMID:23664834

  4. Cell and tissue mechanics in cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Janina R.; Fabry, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Migrating cells generate traction forces to counteract the movement-resisting forces arising from cell-internal stresses and matrix adhesions. In the case of collective migration in a cell colony, or in the case of 3-dimensional migration through connective tissue, movement-resisting forces arise also from external stresses. Although the deformation of a stiffer cell or matrix causes larger movement-resisting forces, at the same time a larger stiffness can also promote cell migration due to a feedback between forces, deformations, and deformation speed that is mediated by the acto-myosin contractile machinery of cells. This mechanical feedback is also important for stiffness sensing, durotaxis, plithotaxis, and collective migration in cell colonies. PMID:23664834

  5. Functional analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin {alpha}1 subunit in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abair, Tristin D; Bulus, Nada; Borza, Corina; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-10-15

    Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen type IV receptor, is expressed by endothelial cells and plays a role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Because the molecular mechanisms whereby this collagen IV receptor mediates endothelial cell functions are poorly understood, truncation and point mutants of the integrin alpha1 subunit cytoplasmic tail (amino acids 1137-1151) were generated and expressed into alpha1-null endothelial cells. We show that alpha1-null endothelial cells expressing the alpha1 subunit, which lacks the entire cytoplasmic tail (mutant alpha1-1136) or expresses all the amino acids up to the highly conserved GFFKR motif (mutant alpha1-1143), have a similar phenotype to parental alpha1-null cells. Pro(1144) and Leu(1145) were shown to be necessary for alpha1beta1-mediated endothelial cell proliferation; Lys(1146) for adhesion, migration, and tubulogenesis and Lys(1147) for tubulogenesis. Integrin alpha1beta1-dependent endothelial cell proliferation is primarily mediated by ERK activation, whereas migration and tubulogenesis require both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation. Thus, distinct amino acids distal to the GFFKR motif of the alpha1 integrin cytoplasmic tail mediate activation of selective downstream signaling pathways and specific endothelial cell functions. PMID:18647959

  6. Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer M; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer; Schuger, Lucia A

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

  7. Endothelial Cell Response to Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Reila Tainá; Nguyen, Daniel; Stephens, Danielle; Pamuk, Ferda; Fernandes, Daniel; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2016-07-01

    Vascular response is an essential aspect of an effective immune response to periodontal disease pathogens, as new blood vessel formation contributes to wound healing and inflammation. Gaining a greater understanding of the factors that affect vascular response may then contribute to future breakthroughs in dental medicine. In this study, we have characterized the endothelial cell response to the common bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum, an important bridging species that facilitates the activity of late colonizers of the dental biofilm. Endothelial cells were infected with Fusobacterium nucleatum (strain 25586) for periods of 4, 12, 24, or 48 h. Cell proliferation and tube formation were analyzed, and expression of adhesion molecules (CD31 and CD34) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2 was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Data indicate that F. nucleatum impaired endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. The findings suggest that the modified endothelial cell response acts as a mechanism promoting the pathogenic progression of periodontal diseases and may potentially suggest the involvement of periodontopathogens in systemic diseases associated with periodontal inflammation. PMID:27185790

  8. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  9. Endothelialization of Rationally Microtextured Surfaces with Minimal Cell Seeding Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Stefopoulos, Georgios; Robotti, Francesco; Falk, Volkmar; Poulikakos, Dimos; Ferrari, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a confluent and functional endothelium at the luminal surface of cardiovascular devices represents the ideal solution to avoid contact between blood and synthetic materials thus allowing the long-term body integration of the implants. Due to the foreseen paucity of source cells in cardiovascular patients, surface engineering strategies to achieve full endothelialization, while minimizing the amount of endothelial cells required to seed the surface leading to prompt and full coverage with an endothelium are necessary. A stable endothelialization is the result of the interplay between endothelial cells, the flow-generated walls shear stress and the substrate topography. Here a novel strategy is designed and validated based on the use of engineered surface textures combined with confined islands of seeded endothelial cells. Upon release of the confinement, the cell island populations are able to migrate on the texture and merge under physiological flow conditions to promptly generate a fully connected endothelium. The interaction between endothelial cells and surface textures supports the process of endothelialization through the stabilization of cell-to-substrate adhesions and cell-to-cell junctions. It is shown that with this approach, when ≈50% of a textured surface is initially covered with cell seeding, the time to full endothelialization compared to an untextured surface is almost halved, underpinning the viability and effectiveness of the method for the quick and stable coverage of cardiovascular implants. PMID:27346806

  10. Endothelial CD99 signals through soluble adenylyl cyclase and PKA to regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard L.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Winger, Ryan C.; Wang, Jing; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    CD99 is a critical regulator of leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM). How CD99 signals during this process remains unknown. We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). PKA then stimulates membrane trafficking from the lateral border recycling compartment to sites of TEM, facilitating the passage of leukocytes across the endothelium. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of EC sAC or PKA, like CD99 blockade, arrests neutrophils and monocytes partway through EC junctions, in vitro and in vivo, without affecting leukocyte adhesion or the expression of relevant cellular adhesion molecules. This is the first description of the CD99 signaling pathway in TEM as well as the first demonstration of a role for sAC in leukocyte TEM. PMID:26101266

  11. Endothelial progenitor cells in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Saulle, Ernestina; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Studies carried out in the last years have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling angiogenesis during adult life in normal and pathological conditions. Some of these studies have led to the identification of some progenitor cells that sustain angiogenesis through indirect, paracrine mechanisms (hematopoietic angiogenic cells) and through direct mechanisms, i.e., through their capacity to generate a progeny of phenotypically and functionally competent endothelial cells [endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs)]. The contribution of these progenitors to angiogenetic processes under physiological and pathological conditions is intensively investigated. Angiogenetic mechanisms are stimulated in various hematological malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma, resulting in an increased angiogenesis that contributes to disease progression. In some of these conditions there is preliminary evidence that some endothelial cells could derive from the malignant clone, thus leading to the speculation that the leukemic cell derives from the malignant transformation of a hemangioblastic progenitor, i.e., of a cell capable of differentiation to the hematopoietic and to the endothelial cell lineages. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying increased angiogenesis in these malignancies not only contributed to a better knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for tumor progression, but also offered the way for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27583252

  12. Endothelial progenitor cells in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo; Saulle, Ernestina; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Studies carried out in the last years have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling angiogenesis during adult life in normal and pathological conditions. Some of these studies have led to the identification of some progenitor cells that sustain angiogenesis through indirect, paracrine mechanisms (hematopoietic angiogenic cells) and through direct mechanisms, i.e., through their capacity to generate a progeny of phenotypically and functionally competent endothelial cells [endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs)]. The contribution of these progenitors to angiogenetic processes under physiological and pathological conditions is intensively investigated. Angiogenetic mechanisms are stimulated in various hematological malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma, resulting in an increased angiogenesis that contributes to disease progression. In some of these conditions there is preliminary evidence that some endothelial cells could derive from the malignant clone, thus leading to the speculation that the leukemic cell derives from the malignant transformation of a hemangioblastic progenitor, i.e., of a cell capable of differentiation to the hematopoietic and to the endothelial cell lineages. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying increased angiogenesis in these malignancies not only contributed to a better knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for tumor progression, but also offered the way for the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27583252

  13. Digital imaging of diabetic endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltauf-Doburzynska, Jolanta; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2001-05-01

    Endothelial cells release factors that regulate dilatation and contraction of the vessels. They play an important role in modulating both the inflammatory response and vasomotor abnormalities that occur in coronary artery diseases. This endothelial function is associated with changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. For this study we used spatially and temporally resolved measurements of local Ca2+ concentration in human endothelial cells cultured in high glucose containing medium. Deconvolution techniques procedure allowed determination of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and its distribution into cellular compartments. We also used a confocal microscope for visualization of intracellular compartments (endoplasmatic reticulum, mitochondria) under normal and pathological conditions. We showed that the interrupted connection between superficial compartments and membrane channels is already the beginning of the cell damage in diabetes.

  14. Real-time imaging of endothelial cell-cell junctions during neutrophil transmigration under physiological flow.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Jeffrey; Daniel, Anna E; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van Buul, Jaap D

    2014-01-01

    During inflammation, leukocytes leave the circulation and cross the endothelium to fight invading pathogens in underlying tissues. This process is known as leukocyte transendothelial migration. Two routes for leukocytes to cross the endothelial monolayer have been described: the paracellular route, i.e., through the cell-cell junctions and the transcellular route, i.e., through the endothelial cell body. However, it has been technically difficult to discriminate between the para- and transcellular route. We developed a simple in vitro assay to study the distribution of endogenous VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 during neutrophil transendothelial migration under physiological flow conditions. Prior to neutrophil perfusion, endothelial cells were briefly treated with fluorescently-labeled antibodies against VE-cadherin and PECAM-1. These antibodies did not interfere with the function of both proteins, as was determined by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing and FRAP measurements. Using this assay, we were able to follow the distribution of endogenous VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 during transendothelial migration under flow conditions and discriminate between the para- and transcellular migration routes of the leukocytes across the endothelium. PMID:25146919

  15. Cell Migration in Confined Environments

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol for measuring the speed of human neutrophils migrating through small channels, in conditions of mechanical confinement comparable to those experienced by neutrophils migrating through tissues. In such conditions, we find that neutrophils move persistently, at constant speed for tens of minutes, enabling precise measurements at single cells resolution, for large number of cells. The protocol relies on microfluidic devices with small channels in which a solution of chemoattractant and a suspension of isolated neutrophils are loaded in sequence. The migration of neutrophils can be observed for several hours, starting within minutes after loading the neutrophils in the devices. The protocol is divided into four main steps: the fabrication of the microfluidic devices, the separation of neutrophils from whole blood, the preparation of the assay and cell loading, and the analysis of data. We discuss the practical steps for the implementation of the migration assays in biology labs, the adaptation of the protocols to various cell types, including cancer cells, and the supplementary device features required for precise measurements of directionality and persistence during migration. PMID:24560508

  16. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L.; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies. PMID:26284069

  17. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies. PMID:26284069

  18. Islet Endothelial Cells Derived From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    The islet endothelium comprises a specialized population of islet endothelial cells (IECs) expressing unique markers such as nephrin and α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) that are not found in endothelial cells in surrounding tissues. However, due to difficulties in isolating and maintaining a pure population of these cells, the information on these islet-specific cells is currently very limited. Interestingly, we have identified a large subpopulation of endothelial cells exhibiting IEC phenotype, while deriving insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These cells were identified by the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and were successfully isolated and subsequently expanded in endothelial cell culture medium. Further analysis demonstrated that the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (mESC-ECs) not only express classical endothelial markers, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1), thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but also IEC-specific markers such as nephrin and AAT. Moreover, mESC-ECs secrete basement membrane proteins such as collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin in culture and form tubular networks on a layer of Matrigel, demonstrating angiogenic activity. Further, mESC-ECs not only express eNOS, but also its eNOS expression is glucose dependent, which is another characteristic phenotype of IECs. With the ability to obtain highly purified IECs derived from pluripotent stem cells, it is possible to closely examine the function of these cells and their interaction with pancreatic β-cells during development and maturation in vitro. Further characterization of tissue-specific endothelial cell properties may enhance our ability to formulate new therapeutic angiogenic approaches for diabetes. PMID:25751085

  19. Signal transduction in endothelial cells by the angiogenesis inhibitor histidine-rich glycoprotein targets focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chunsik; Dixelius, Johan; Thulin, Asa; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Claesson-Welsh, Lena; Olsson, Anna-Karin . E-mail: Anna-Karin.Olsson@genpat.uu.se

    2006-08-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) is an abundant heparin-binding plasma protein. We have shown that a fragment released from the central histidine/proline-rich (His/Pro-rich) domain of HRGP blocks endothelial cell migration in vitro and vascularization and growth of murine fibrosarcoma in vivo. The minimal active HRGP domain exerting the anti-angiogenic effect was recently narrowed down to a 35 amino acid peptide, HRGP330, derived from the His/Pro-rich domain of HRGP. By use of a signal transduction antibody array representing 400 different signal transduction molecules, we now show that HRGP and the synthetic peptide HRGP330 specifically induce tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and its downstream substrate paxillin in endothelial cells. HRGP/HRGP330 treatment of endothelial cells induced disruption of actin stress fibers, a process reversed by treatment of cells with the FAK inhibitor geldanamycin. In addition, VEGF-mediated endothelial cell tubular morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen matrix was inhibited by HRGP and HRGP330. In contrast, VEGF-induced proliferation was not affected by HRGP or HRGP330, demonstrating the central role of cell migration during tube formation. In conclusion, our data show that HRGP targets focal adhesions in endothelial cells, thereby disrupting the cytoskeletal organization and the ability of endothelial cells to assemble into vessel structures.

  20. A Discrete Cell Migration Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Kruse, Kara L; Ward, Richard C; O'Quinn, Elizabeth; Woerner, Matthew M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2007-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is a fundamental process in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a precursor to development of cardiovascular disease and a potential response to injury of an arterial wall. Boyden chamber experiments are used to quantify the motion of cell populations in response to a chemoattractant gradient (i.e., cell chemotaxis). We are developing a mathematical model of cell migration within the Boyden chamber, while simultaneously conducting experiments to obtain parameter values for the migration process. In the future, the model and parameters will be used as building blocks for a detailed model of the process that causes intimal hyperplasia. The cell migration model presented in this paper is based on the notion of a cell as a moving sensor that responds to an evolving chemoattractant gradient. We compare the results of our three-dimensional hybrid model with results from a one-dimensional continuum model. Some preliminary experimental data that is being used to refine the model is also presented.

  1. Circulating endothelial cells in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Boos, Christopher J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blann, Andrew D

    2006-10-17

    Quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in peripheral blood is developing as a novel and reproducible method of assessing endothelial damage/dysfunction. The CECs are thought to be mature cells that have detached from the intimal monolayer in response to endothelial injury and are a different cell population to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The EPCs are nonleukocytes derived from the bone marrow that are believed to have proliferative potential and may be important in vascular regeneration. Currently accepted methods of CEC quantification include the use of immunomagnetic bead separation (with cell counting under fluorescence microscopy) and flow cytometry. Several recent studies have shown increased numbers of CECs in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischemia, but no change in stable intermittent claudication, essential hypertension, or atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, CEC quantification at 48 h after acute myocardial infarction has been shown to be an accurate predictor of major adverse coronary events and death at both 1 month and 1 year. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of CECs in the setting of cardiovascular disease and a brief comparison with EPCs. PMID:17045885

  2. Lonidamine Causes Inhibition of Angiogenesis-Related Endothelial Cell Functions1

    PubMed Central

    Del Bufalo, Donatella; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Scarsella, Marco; D'Amati, Giulia; Candiloro, Antonio; Iervolino, Angela; Leonetti, Carlo; Zupi, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess whether lonidamine (LND) interferes with some steps in angiogenesis progression. We report here, for the first time, that LND inhibited angiogenic-related endothelial cell functions in a dose-dependent manner (1–50 µg/ml). In particular, LND decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and morphogenesis on matrigel of different endothelial cell lines. Zymographic and Western blot analysis assays showed that LND treatment produced a reduction in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 and metalloproteinase-9 by endothelial cells. Vessel formation in a matrigel plug was also reduced by LND. The viability, migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase production of different tumor cell lines were not affected by low doses of LND (1–10 µg/ml), whereas 50 µg/ml LND, which corresponds to the dose used in clinical management of tumors, triggered apoptosis both in endothelial and tumor cells. Together, these data demonstrate that LND is a compound that interferes with endothelial cell functions, both at low and high doses. Thus, the effect of LND on endothelial cell functions, previously undescribed, may be a significant contributor to the antitumor effect of LND observed for clinical management of solid tumors. PMID:15548359

  3. Regulation of endothelial cell differentiation and specification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The circulatory system is the first organ system to develop in the vertebrate embryo and is critical throughout gestation for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, as well as removal of metabolic waste products from, growing tissues. Endothelial cells, which constitute the luminal layer of all bl...

  4. [Endothelial cells in the blood in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Sochorova, R; Sinka, L; Svecova, D; Benova, B; Rybarova, L

    2000-01-01

    The authors have examined the changes in the amount of endothelial cells in vascular bed in psoriatic patients, since one of the basic signs of pathogenesis of psoriasis is represented by angiogenesis. The authors have used the method of quantitative evaluation of endothelaemia. PMID:11187061

  5. Proteoglycans from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Griesmacher, A; Hennes, R; Keller, R; Greiling, H

    1987-10-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with [35S]sulphate and investigated for their proteoglycan production. By gel chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and CsCl density-gradient centrifugation we obtained preparative amounts of the endothelial proteoheparan sulphate HSI and of proteochondroitin sulphate from the conditioned medium of mass-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Approximately 90% of the 35S-labeled material in the endothelial cell conditioned medium was proteochondroitin sulphate. This molecule, with a molecular mass of 180-200 kDa, contains four side-chains of 35-40 kDa and a core protein of 35-40 kDa. Two proteoheparan sulphate forms (HSI and HSII) from the conditioned medium were distinguished by molecular mass and transport kinetics from the cell layer to the medium in pulse-chase experiments. One major form (HSI), with an approximate molecular mass of 160-200 kDa a core protein of 55-60 kDa and three to four polysaccharide side-chains of 35 kDa each, was found enriched in the cellular membrane pellet. Another proteoheparan sulphate (HSII), with polysaccharide moieties of 20 kDa, is enriched in the subendothelial matrix (substratum). PMID:2959475

  6. The control of vascular endothelial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Murota, S; Morita, I; Suda, N

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which MCI-186 showed a potent cytoprotective effect on the in vitro endothelial cell injury due to 15-HPETE was studied. Stimulation of human leukocytes with various chemical mediators such as TPA, f-Met-Leu-Phe, LTB4, etc. elicited the production of active oxygens, which could be detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Among the chemical mediators tested, TPA elicited the chemiluminescence the most, and f-Met-Leu-Phe and LTB4 came next. When the leukocytes were directly placed on a monolayer of cultured endothelial cells, followed by stimulating the leukocytes with TPA, severe endothelial cell injury was observed. The effect of TPA was dose dependent. There was good correlation between the active oxygen releasing activity and the cytotoxic activity. When the leukocytes were placed on a filter which was set apart from the monolayer of endothelial cell in a culture dish, and stimulated the leukocytes with TPA, no cytotoxicity was observed. These data strongly suggest that the substance responsible for the cytotoxicity must be a very labile and short-lived substance, presumably active oxygens. On the other hand, MCI-186 was found to have a complete quenching activity to the chemiluminescence due to active oxygens in the TPA-leukocyte system. Taken together, these factors indicate that the potent cytoprotective effect of MCI-186 may be due to its specific radical scavenging activity. PMID:2248437

  7. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and mechanotransduction in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    2006-04-01

    Endothelial cells are known to respond to mechanical forces such as fluid shear stress and cyclic stretch, but elucidating the mechanism for mechanosensing has been difficult. Experimental data indicate that there are probably several sensing mechanisms. We have recently proposed a novel mechanoresponse mechanism that involves platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1). When endothelial cells are stimulated by fluid shear stress, PECAM-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signalling cascade. The same signalling events occurred when we applied pulling force directly on PECAM-1 on the endothelial cell surface using magnetic beads coated with antibodies against the external domain of PECAM-1. These results appear to indicate that PECAM-1 is a mechanotransduction molecule. To our knowledge, this is the first mammalian molecule that is shown to respond to mechanical force directly exerted to it. PMID:16594905

  8. Early responses of vascular endothelial cells to topographic cues

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Britta; Gasiorowski, Joshua Z.; Morgan, Joshua T.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells in vivo are exposed to multiple biophysical cues provided by the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix through which vascular endothelial cells are attached to the underlying stroma. The importance of biophysical cues has been widely reported, but the signaling pathways that mediate cellular recognition and response to these cues remain poorly understood. Anisotropic topographically patterned substrates with nano- through microscale feature dimensions were fabricated to investigate cellular responses to topographic cues. The present study focuses on early events following exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to these patterned substrates. In serum-free medium and on substrates without protein coating, HUVECs oriented parallel to the long axis of underlying ridges in as little as 30 min. Immunocytochemistry showed clear differences in the localization of the focal adhesion proteins Src, p130Cas, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs cultured on topographically patterned surfaces and on planar surfaces, suggesting involvement of these proteins in mediating the response to topographic features. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that FAK was not necessary for HUVEC alignment in response to topographic cues, although FAK knockdown did modulate HUVEC migration. These data identify key events early in the cellular response to biophysical stimuli. PMID:23703527

  9. Endothelial cells are progenitors of cardiac pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Adams, Susanne; Eilken, Hanna; Stehling, Martin; Corada, Monica; Dejana, Elisabetta; Zhou, Bin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Mural cells of the vessel wall, namely pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, are essential for vascular integrity. The developmental sources of these cells and molecular mechanisms controlling their progenitors in the heart are only partially understood. Here we show that endocardial endothelial cells are progenitors of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the murine embryonic heart. Endocardial cells undergo endothelial–mesenchymal transition and convert into primitive mesenchymal progenitors expressing the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ. These progenitors migrate into the myocardium, differentiate and assemble the wall of coronary vessels, which requires canonical Wnt signalling involving Frizzled4, β-catenin and endothelial cell-derived Wnt ligands. Our findings identify a novel and unexpected population of progenitors for coronary mural cells with potential relevance for heart function and disease conditions. PMID:27516371

  10. Response of endothelial cells to decellularized extracellular matrix deposited by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Yan, Mengdie; Gong, Yihong; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the behavior and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods: Prepared through chemical approach, decellularized ECM was characterized by use of immunofluorescence staining. The morphology, attachment, proliferation and migration of HUVECs cultured on six-well tissue culture plastic (TCP) and decellularized ECM were investigated. Results: Decellularized ECM was successfully prepared without three-dimensional architecture disruption. This biological scaffold is similar to nature vascular ECM, preserved various matrix proteins such as type I collagen, type III collagen and fibronection. HUVECs on decellularized ECM showed well attachment and regular arrangement. Decellularized ECM could also significantly enhance the migration and proliferation potential of HUVECs in contrast to TCP. Conclusion: Deposited by BMSCs, ECM can affect the behavior of endothelial cell and could be used as a promising material in tissue engineering. PMID:25663998