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Sample records for endurance training reduces

  1. Endurance training at altitude.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training. PMID:19519223

  2. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:26921802

  3. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low‐grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high‐fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow‐fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT‐PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow‐fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune‐metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity‐related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075

  4. Aerobic endurance training reduces bubble formation and increases survival in rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O

    2001-01-01

    The formation of bubbles is the basis for injury to divers after decompression, a condition known as decompression illness. In the present study we investigated the effect of endurance training in the rat on decompression-induced bubble formation. A total of 52 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (300-370 g) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: training or sedentary control. Trained rats exercised on a treadmill for 1.5 h per day for 1 day, or for 2 or 6 weeks (5 days per week) at exercise intervals that alternated between 8 min at 85-90 % of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2,max) and 2 min at 50-60 % of V̇O2,max. Rats were compressed (simulated dive) in a decompression chamber in pairs, one sedentary and one trained, at a rate of 200 kPa min−1 to a pressure of 700 kPa, and maintained for 45 min breathing air. At the end of the exposure period, rats were decompressed linearly to the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) at a rate of 50 kPa min−1. Immediately after reaching the ‘surface’ (100 kPa) the animals were anaesthetized and the right ventricle was insonated using Doppler ultrasound. Intensity-controlled interval training significantly increased V̇O2,max by 12 and 60 % after 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. At 6 weeks, left and right ventricular weights were 14 and 17 % higher, respectively, in trained compared to control rats. No effect of training was observed on skeletal muscle weight. Bubble formation was significantly reduced in trained rats after both 2 and 6 weeks. However, the same effect was seen after a single bout of aerobic exercise lasting 1.5 h on the day prior to decompression. All of the rats that exercised for 1.5 h and 2 weeks, and most of those that trained for 6 weeks, survived the protocol, whereas most sedentary rats died within 60 min post-decompression. This study shows that aerobic exercise protects rats from severe decompression and death. This may be a result of less bubbling in the trained animals. The data showed that the

  5. Muscle uncoupling protein 3 overexpression mimics endurance training and reduces circulating biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Aguer, Céline; Fiehn, Oliver; Seifert, Erin L.; Bézaire, Véronic; Meissen, John K.; Daniels, Amanda; Scott, Kyle; Renaud, Jean-Marc; Padilla, Marta; Bickel, David R.; Dysart, Michael; Adams, Sean H.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Exercise substantially improves metabolic health, making the elicited mechanisms important targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle. Here we report that moderate UCP3 overexpression (roughly 3-fold) in muscles of UCP3 transgenic (UCP3 Tg) mice acts as an exercise mimetic in many ways. UCP3 overexpression increased spontaneous activity (∼40%) and energy expenditure (∼5–10%) and decreased oxidative stress (∼15–20%), similar to exercise training in wild-type (WT) mice. The increase in complete fatty acid oxidation (FAO; ∼30% for WT and ∼70% for UCP3 Tg) and energy expenditure (∼8% for WT and 15% for UCP3 Tg) in response to endurance training was higher in UCP3 Tg than in WT mice, showing an additive effect of UCP3 and endurance training on these two parameters. Moreover, increases in circulating short-chain acylcarnitines in response to acute exercise in untrained WT mice were absent with training or in UCP3 Tg mice. UCP3 overexpression had the same effect as training in decreasing long-chain acylcarnitines. Outcomes coincided with a reduction in muscle carnitine acetyltransferase activity that catalyzes the formation of acylcarnitines. Overall, results are consistent with the conclusions that circulating acylcarnitines could be used as a marker of incomplete muscle FAO and that UCP3 is a potential target for the treatment of prevalent metabolic diseases in which muscle FAO is affected.—Aguer, C., Fiehn, O., Seifert, E. L., Bézaire, V., Meissen, J. K., Daniels, A., Scott, K., Renaud, J.-M., Padilla, M., Bickel, D. R., Dysart, M., Adams, S. H., Harper, M.-E. Muscle uncoupling protein 3 overexpression mimics endurance training and reduces circulating biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation. PMID:23825224

  6. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  7. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate.

    PubMed

    Shahandeh, Mohammad; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Sarkisian, Vaginak

    2013-03-15

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15-22 m/min, 25-64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects. PMID:25206718

  8. Chronic exercise training versus acute endurance exercise in reducing neurotoxicity in rats exposed to lead acetate☆

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Mohammad; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Sarkisian, Vaginak

    2013-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lead acetate, rats received 8 weeks of treadmill exercise (15–22 m/min, 25–64 minutes) and/or treadmill exercise at 1.6 km/h until exhaustion. The markers related to neurotoxicity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. 8 weeks of treadmill exercise significantly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.04) and plasma level of total antioxidant capacity of rats exposed to lead acetate (P < 0.001), and significantly decreased plasma level of malondialdehyde (P < 0.001). Acute exercise only decreased the hippocampal malondialdehyde level (P = 0.09) and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the hippocampus (P = 0.66). Acute exercise also enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in rats exposed to lead acetate, insignificantly (P = 0.99). These findings suggest that chronic treadmill exercise can significantly decrease neurotoxicity and alleviate oxidative stress in rats exposed to lead acetate. However, acute endurance exercise was not associated with these beneficial effects. PMID:25206718

  9. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  10. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  11. Endurance training: is it bad for you?

    PubMed Central

    Gruttad’Auria, Claudia I.; Baiamonte, Pierpaolo; Mazzuca, Emilia; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Bonsignore, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health. To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity. To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol­ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of “sports asthma” has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume. PMID:27408632

  12. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  13. 12 Weeks of Combined Endurance and Resistance Training Reduces Innate Markers of Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wens, Inez; Nuyts, Amber H.; Hens, Niel; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Koppen, Gudrun; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N.; Eijnde, Bert O.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrate improved muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and lean tissue mass following a combined endurance and resistance exercise program. However, the effect of exercise on the underlying disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Since recent evidence supports a crucial role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of a 12-week combined exercise program in MS patients on the number and function of DC. We demonstrate an increased number of plasmacytoid DC (pDC) following the exercise program. These pDC display an activated phenotype, as evidenced by increased numbers of circulating CD62L+ and CD80+ pDC. Interestingly, the number of CD80+ pDC positively correlates with the presence of IL-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1), an important cell type for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, decreased production of the inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MMP-9, upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation was found at the end of the exercise program. Overall, our findings suggest that the 12-week exercise program reduces the secretion of inflammatory mediators upon TLR stimulation and promotes the immunoregulatory function of circulating pDC, suggestive for a favorable impact of exercise on the underlying immunopathogenesis of MS. PMID:26903712

  14. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S. PMID:25494869

  15. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts. PMID:26595137

  16. Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key points Two weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  17. Physiological Adaptations to Chronic Endurance Exercise Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)

  18. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, S; Keast, D; Goodman, C; Bhagat, C I; Joske, D J L; Dawson, B; Morton, A R

    2007-03-01

    The distinction between positive and negative training adaptation is an important prerequisite in the identification of any marker for monitoring training in athletes. To investigate the glutamine responses to progressive endurance training, twenty healthy males were randomly assigned to a training group or a non-exercising control group. The training group performed a progressive (3 to 6 x 90 minute sessions per week at 70 % V.O (2max)) six-week endurance training programme on a cycle ergometer, while the control group did not participate in any exercise during this period. Performance assessments (V.O (2max) and time to exhaustion) and resting blood samples (for haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, cortisol, ferritin, creatine kinase, glutamine, uric acid and urea analysis) were obtained prior to the commencement of training (Pre) and at the end of week 2, week 4 and week 6. The training group showed significant improvements in time to exhaustion (p < 0.01), and V.O (2max) (p < 0.05) at all time points (except week 2 for V.O (2max)), while the control group performance measures did not change. In the training group, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than pretraining values at week 2 and 4, as percentage changes in plasma volume indicated a significant (p < 0.01) haemodilution (+ 6 - 9 %) was present at week 2, 4 and 6. No changes were seen in the control group. In the training group, plasma glutamine (week 2, 4 and 6), creatine kinase (week 2 and 4), uric acid (week 2 and 4) and urea (week 2 and 4) all increased significantly from pretraining levels. No changes in cortisol or ferritin were found in the training group and no changes in any blood variables were present in the control group. Plasma glutamine was the only blood variable to remain significantly above pretraining (966 +/- 32 micromol . 1 (-1)) levels at week 6 (1176 +/- 24 micromol . 1 (-1); p < 0.05) The elevation seen here in glutamine levels, after 6

  19. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. PMID:26541835

  20. Altitude Training and its Influence on Physical Endurance in Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Strzała, Marek; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Szyguła, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    It is possible to plan an altitude training (AT) period in such a way that the enhanced physical endurance obtained as a result of adaptation to hypoxia will appear and can be used to improve performance in competition. Yet finding rationales for usage of AT in highly trained swimmers is problematic. In practice AT, in its various forms, is still controversial, and an objective review of research concentrating on the advantages and disadvantages of AT has been presented in several scientific publications, including in no small part the observations of swimmers. The aim of this article is to review the various methods and present both the advantageous and unfavourable physiological changes that occur in athletes as a result of AT. Moreover, AT results in the sport of swimming have been collected. They include an approach towards primary models of altitude/hypoxic training: live high + train high, live high + train low, live low + train high, as well as subsequent methods: Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE) and Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT). Apnoea training, which is descended from freediving, is also mentioned, and which can be used with, or as a substitute for, the well-known IHE or IHT methods. In conclusion, swimmers who train using hypoxia may be among the best-trained athletes, and that even a slight improvement in physical endurance might result in the shortening of a swimming time in a given competition, and the achievement of a personal best, which is hard to obtain by normal training methods, when the personal results of the swimmer have reached a plateau. PMID:23486564

  1. Altitude training and its influence on physical endurance in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Strzała, Marek; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Szyguła, Zbigniew

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to plan an altitude training (AT) period in such a way that the enhanced physical endurance obtained as a result of adaptation to hypoxia will appear and can be used to improve performance in competition. Yet finding rationales for usage of AT in highly trained swimmers is problematic. In practice AT, in its various forms, is still controversial, and an objective review of research concentrating on the advantages and disadvantages of AT has been presented in several scientific publications, including in no small part the observations of swimmers. The aim of this article is to review the various methods and present both the advantageous and unfavourable physiological changes that occur in athletes as a result of AT. Moreover, AT results in the sport of swimming have been collected. They include an approach towards primary models of altitude/hypoxic training: live high + train high, live high + train low, live low + train high, as well as subsequent methods: Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure (IHE) and Intermittent Hypoxic Training (IHT). Apnoea training, which is descended from freediving, is also mentioned, and which can be used with, or as a substitute for, the well-known IHE or IHT methods. In conclusion, swimmers who train using hypoxia may be among the best-trained athletes, and that even a slight improvement in physical endurance might result in the shortening of a swimming time in a given competition, and the achievement of a personal best, which is hard to obtain by normal training methods, when the personal results of the swimmer have reached a plateau. PMID:23486564

  2. Total haemoglobin mass and red blood cell profile in endurance-trained and non-endurance-trained adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Gert; Bärtsch, Peter; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate differences in total haemoglobin mass (tHb mass) and in red blood cell profile between elite endurance-trained (END) and non-endurance-trained (nEND) male and female adolescent athletes, tHb mass (CO rebreathing) and specific variables of red blood cell profile (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices) were determined in 59 elite junior athletes (29 END, 30 nEND). We hypothesized that at the age of 15-17 years, regular endurance training might induce a significant increase in tHb mass and changes in red blood cell profile. Therefore, all parameters were again determined after 6, 12 and 18 months in a subset of 27 subjects (17 END, 10 nEND). In END, tHb mass related to body weight was ~15% greater than in nEND (11.2 ± 1.6  vs. 9.7 ± 1.3 g kg(-1), P < 0.001), whereas no significant differences were observed for the red blood cell profile. In both groups, tHb mass related to body weight and the variables of red blood cell profile had not changed significantly after 6, 12 and 18 months of regular training. In conclusion, in elite junior athletes, differences in tHb mass between END and nEND were similar, however, smaller compared with previously in adult athletes reported values. At the age of 15-17 years, 18 months of regular training did not induce significant changes in tHb mass beyond alterations explained by physical growth and also variables of red blood cell profile did not change significantly. PMID:21431423

  3. The effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by explosive strength training on performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, J J; van Diemen, A B; Veneberg, T; Jeukendrup, A E

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the effects of replacing a portion of endurance training by strength training on exercise performance, 14 competitive cyclists were divided into an experimental (E; n = 6) and a control (C; n = 8) group. Both groups received a training program of 9 weeks. The total training volume for both groups was the same [E: 8.8 (1.1) h/week; C: 8.9 (1.7) h/week], but 37% of training for E consisted of explosive-type strength training, whilst C received endurance training only. Simulated time trial performance (TT), short-term performance (STP), maximal workload (Wmax) and gross (GE) and delta efficiency (DE) were measured before, after 4 weeks and at the end of the training program (9 weeks). No significant group-by-training effects for the markers of endurance performance (TT and Wmax) were found after 9 weeks, although after 4 weeks, these markers had only increased (P < 0.05) in E. STP decreased (P < 0.05) in C, whereas no changes were observed in E. For DE, a significant group-by-training interaction (P < 0.05) was found, and for GE the group-by-training interaction was not significant. It is concluded that replacing a portion of endurance training by explosive strength training prevents a decrease in STP without compromising gains in endurance performance of trained cyclists. PMID:11820327

  4. Endurance training enhances LXRα gene expression in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Kazeminasab, Fatemeh; Marandi, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esfarjani, Fahimeh; Moshtaghian, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Liver X receptor α (LXRα) is a member of the ligand-activated transcription factor of nuclear hormonal receptor superfamily, whose activation leads to modulation in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which plays a crucial role in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endurance training enhanced the expression level of liver LXRα gene. Twelve adult male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into control and training groups. Training group received exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 28 m/min (0 % grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were killed and blood was taken from the right ventricle of each rat. Plasma was collected for HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC and TG measurements. Furthermore, a portion of the liver of each rat was excised and washed in ice-cold saline and frozen in liquid nitrogen for assessment of LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels. Data indicated significant increase in both LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels in trained rats, compared to control rats. Plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in trained rats at the end of treadmill exercise. However, there was a significant decrease in LDL-C (P < 0.003), TG, TC concentration, TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratios in trained rats compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that endurance training induced significant elevation in LXRα gene expression, which correlated with enhanced levels of ABCA1 mRNA and plasma HDL-C concentration. PMID:23674092

  5. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P < 0.001), no significant changes occurred in HVT (RSpeak : 0.5 ± 1.9%). However, large individual variation was found in the changes of RSpeak in both groups (HVT: -2.8 to 4.1%; HIT: 0-10.2%). A negative relationship was observed between baseline high-frequency power of HRV (HFPnight ) and the individual changes of RSpeak (r = -0.74, P = 0.006) in HVT and a positive relationship (r = 0.63, P = 0.039) in HIT. Individuals with lower HFP showed greater change of RSpeak in HVT, while individuals with higher HFP responded well in HIT. It is concluded that nocturnal HRV can be used to individualize endurance training in recreational runners. PMID:26247789

  6. Effects of endurance training in the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S J; Dickson, K A

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of endurance training in an elasmobranch fish. Twenty-four leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) were divided randomly into three groups. Eight sharks were killed immediately, eight were forced to swim continuously for 6 wk against a current of 35 cm s-1 (60%-65% of maximal sustainable swimming speed), and eight were held for 6 wk in a tank without induced current. There were no changes due to training in maximal sustainable speed, oxygen consumption rates, percentage of the myotome composed of red and white muscle fibers, blood oxygen-carrying capacity, liver mass, liver lipid, glycogen, and protein concentrations, white muscle protein content, heart ventricle mass, or the specific activities of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the heart ventricle. In red myotomal muscle, citrate synthase activity increased 17% as a result of training, but there was no change in muscle fiber diameter. The greatest effects occurred in white myotomal muscle, in which a 34% increase in fiber diameter and a 36% increase in the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase occurred as a result of training. The conditioned fish also had significantly higher growth rates. The observed effects within the myotomal muscle may reflect the higher growth rates of the trained leopard sharks, or they may be a specific response to the increased energetic demands of the training activity, indicating characteristics that limit swimming performance in leopard sharks. PMID:9237309

  7. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on skeletal muscle after endurance exercise training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Livia; Yamashita, Fernanda; Magri, Angela M. P.; Fernandes, Kelly R.; Yamauchi, Liria; Renno, Ana C. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in optimizing skeletal muscle performance in animal experiments and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle recovery after endurance training. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied after an endurance training protocol on biochemical markers and morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. METHOD: Wistar rats were divided into control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser irradiated group (TLG). The endurance training was performed on a treadmill, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk at 60% of the maximal speed reached during the maximal effort test (Tmax) and laser irradiation was applied after training. RESULTS: Both trained groups showed significant increase in speed compared to the CG. The TLG demonstrated a significantly reduced lactate level, increased tibialis anterior (TA) fiber cross-section area, and decreased TA fiber density. Myogenin expression was higher in soleus and TA muscles in both trained groups. In addition, LLLT produced myogenin downregulation in the TA muscle of trained animals. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach for stimulating recovery during an endurance exercise protocol. PMID:26647747

  8. Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in women undergoing endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Boyden, T.W.; Pamenter, R.W.; Stanforth, P.; Rotkis, T.; Wilmore, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on body composition and the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in 29 healthy, young (mean age, 28.7 yr), regularly menstruating women. Women who were initially jogging a mean of 13.5 miles/week were selected for this study to minimize dropouts. Body composition, measured by hydrostatic weighing, and nonfasting plasma concentrations of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, TSH, and TRH-stimulated TSH, measured by RIA, were examined initially and after each subject's weekly mileage had increased to 30 miles (..delta..30, mean total body weight did not change, mean fat weight decreased (-1.02 kg/ P<0.005), and mean lean weight increased (+0.75 kg; P<0.05). T/sub 4/ and unstimulated TSH did not change. However, mean (+/- SE) T/sub 3/ decreased from 107.2 +/- 4.4 to 97.9 +/- 3.4 ng/dl (P<0.025), and mean rT/sub 3/ decreased from 170.9 +/- 13.9 to 154.6 +/- 13.2 pg/ml (P<0.025). The decrease in T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ were accompanied by significantly greater TSH responses to TRH stimulation (mean (+/- SE) area under TSH curve, 1381.4 +/- 123 vs. 1712.8 +/- 202 ..mu..IU/ml-min; P < 0.01). These results indicate that physically active women who undergo additional endurance training 1) become more lean without a change in total body weight, and 2) have changes in T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TRH-stimulated TSH indicative of mild thyroidal impairment.

  9. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  10. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting. PMID:22549084

  11. A thermophysiological rationale for endurance training for racquet games

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three male athletes performed incremental work: Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), 100 W and 150 W in two levels of controlled environmental heat. Conditions inside an environmental chamber were preset at 25°C 40% RH and 30°C 50% RH being 22°C and 29°C on the Effective Temperature Scale. Expired air and six body temperatures—two invasive and four skin sites—were monitored. Core and mean body temperatures, calculated from these figures, correlated highly with expired air values for all the anthropometrically homogeneous group. Results were in agreement with unpublished data of Bundgaard, i.e. the higher the V̇O2 max of the subject the smaller the range of expired air values and the smaller the increase in both mean and core body temperature during heat stress. Such thermophysiological reaction helps the athlete to prevent the onset of mild hyperthermia and the accompanying fatigue, independent of mitigating behavioural support. The intermittent bursts of heavy physical activity required of the racquet athlete argue for a similar cardio-vascular training regimen. Data from this study suggest that such athletes would be wise to augment training schedules with prolonged cardio-vascular endurance work especially when the possibility of competing in high ambient temperature is foreseen. Imagesp234-a PMID:7317719

  12. Concurrent strength and endurance training improves physical capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Mosti, M P; Wang, E; Wiggen, Ø N; Helgerud, J; Hoff, J

    2011-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients suffer from reduced blood flow to the lower extremities, which causes impaired walking ability. Plantar flexion (PF) endurance training and maximal strength training (MST) induce distinct types of improvements in walking ability in PAD. However, the combined effects of both exercises are still not explored in these patients. This study examined whether concurrent MST and PF training would induce similar training responses as each training mode alone. Ten patients with PAD underwent 8 weeks of concurrent leg press MST and PF training, three times a week. The reference group (n=10) received recommended exercise guidelines. The training group improved treadmill peak oxygen consumption and incremental protocol time to exhaustion with 12.7 ± 7.7% and 12.6 ± 13.2%. Leg press maximal strength and rate of force development improved with 38.3 ± 3.1% and 140.1 ± 40.3%, respectively, along with a 5.2 ± 6.2% within group work economy improvement. No changes appeared in the reference group. Compared with previous studies, concurrent MST and PF training appear to induce similar training responses in PAD patients as when each training mode is executed alone, and without any adverse effects. PMID:21410546

  13. Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench press strength in men of different training levels.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Prinster, J L; Ware, J S; Zimmer, D L; Arabas, J R; Bemben, M G

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicting maximal bench press (BP) strength (1-RM) from relative endurance performance in various groups of men. The subjects included untrained students (n = 35), resistance trained students (n = 28), college wrestlers (n = 21), soccer players (n = 22), football players (n = 51), high school students (n = 35), and resistance-trained middle-aged men (n = 24). Each subject performed a 1-RM test according to the same standard procedure. Within 4-10 days, the subject selected a weight to perform as many repetitions as possible to failure. Six relative endurance prediction equations produced validity coefficients of r = 0.86 to 0.98 in each group and r = 0.82 to 0.98 in the composite group (n = 220). In subjects completing < or = 10 repetitions-to-failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and two significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. The Brzycki equation was the most accurate. In subjects completing > 10 repetitions to failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and three significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. While caution should be used when employing relative muscular endurance performance to estimate 1-RM strength in the bench press, the average of two equations may reduce the error. PMID:7500624

  14. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  15. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests. PMID:23287831

  16. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  17. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients in response to endurance and strength training

    PubMed Central

    Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Frøsig, Christian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindegaard, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims to identify the molecular pathways involved in the beneficial effects of training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients. Eighteen sedentary male HIV-infected patients underwent a 16 week supervised training intervention, either resistance or strength training. Euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well as glycogen synthase (GS) activity were analyzed in skeletal muscle biopsies in relation to insulin stimulation before and after training. HIV-infected patients had reduced basal and insulin-stimulated GS activity (%fractional velocity, [FV]) as well as impaired insulin-stimulated Aktthr308 phosphorylation. Despite improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, neither endurance nor strength training changed the phosphorylation status of insulin signaling proteins or affected GS activity. However; endurance training markedly increased the total Akt protein expression, and both training modalities increased hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Aktthr308. Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients, and the muscular training adaptation is associated with improved capacity for phosphorylation of glucose by HKII, rather than changes in markers of insulin signaling to glucose uptake or

  18. Effects of short-term endurance exercise training on vascular function in young males.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M

    2009-09-01

    We investigated effects of 6 days of endurance exercise training [cycling at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) for 2 h a day on six consecutive days] on vascular function in young males. Measures of VO(2peak), arterial stiffness, calf vascular conductance and heart rate variability were obtained pre- and post-training. Indices of arterial stiffness were obtained by applanation tonometry to determine aortic augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AI(x) at 75 bpm), and central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (CPWV, PPWV). Resting and maximal calf vascular conductances were calculated from concurrent measures of blood pressure and calf blood flow using venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability were obtained from recording R-R intervals during supine and standing conditions. Both CPWV (5.9 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.8 m/s) and PPWV (9.7 +/- 0.8 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.3 m/s) were reduced following the training program. No significant changes were observed in AI(x) at 75 bpm, vascular conductance, heart rate variability or VO(2peak). These data indicate that changes in arterial stiffness independent of changes in heart rate variability or vascular conductance can be achieved in healthy young males following only 6 days of intense endurance exercise. PMID:19554346

  19. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    PubMed

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses. PMID:24149345

  20. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6-8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young

  1. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  2. Effects of a Circuit Training Program on Muscular and Cardiovascular Endurance and their Maintenance in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús; Cocca, Armando

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a circuit training program along with a maintenance program on muscular and cardiovascular endurance in children in a physical education setting. Seventy two children 10–12 years old from four different classes were randomly grouped into either an experimental group (n = 35) or a control group (n = 37) (two classes for each group). After an eight-week development program carried out twice a week and a four-week detraining period, the experimental group performed a four-week maintenance program once a week. The program included one circuit of eight stations of 15/45 to 35/25 seconds of work/rest performed twice. Abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 seconds test), upper-limbs muscular endurance (bent arm hang test), and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the development program, and at the end of the maintenance program. After the development program, muscular and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The gains obtained remained after the maintenance program. The respective values did not change in the control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the circuit training program was effective to increase and maintain both muscular and cardiovascular endurance among schoolchildren. This could help physical education teachers design programs that permit students to maintain fit muscular and cardiovascular endurance levels. PMID:24146716

  3. Endurance training improves the resistance of rat diaphragm to exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oh-ishi, S; Kizaki, T; Ookawara, T; Sakurai, T; Izawa, T; Nagata, N; Ohno, H

    1997-11-01

    The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that endurance training improves the ability of the diaphragm muscle to resist exercise-induced oxidative stress. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned to either untrained or trained groups. Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 9 wk. Each group was subdivided into acutely exercised or nonexercised groups. Diaphragm muscle from each rat was analyzed to determine the levels of certain antioxidant enzymes: Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. In addition, interleukin-1 and myeloperoxidase levels were determined. Endurance training upregulated all of the antioxidant enzymes. Conversely, acute exercise increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase in untrained rats, while it had no overt effect on any antioxidant enzymes in trained rats. Both Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD contents and activities were increased with endurance training. However, the mRNA expressions of both forms of SOD did not show any significant change with endurance training. Acute exercise also increased the levels of interleukin-1 and myeloperoxidase in untrained rats but not in trained rats. Moreover, acute exercise significantly increased the ability of neutrophils to produce superoxide, especially in untrained rats. The results from this study demonstrate that endurance training can upregulate certain antioxidant enzyme activities in rat diaphragm muscle, indicating the potential for improvement of the resistance to intracellular reactive oxygen species. The results of this study also suggest that acute exercise may cause oxidative damage in rat diaphragm through the activation of the inflammatory pathway and that endurance training may minimize such an extracellular oxidative stress by acute exercise. PMID:9372679

  4. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Martin; Weippert, Matthias; Wassermann, Franziska; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC) and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after 8 weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0–100, 100–200 ms) and iMVC of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave), peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that cycling endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue resistance. PMID:26029114

  5. Adipose tissue depot specific differences of PLIN protein content in endurance trained rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sofhia V; Turnbull, Patrick C; MacPherson, Rebecca E K

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is classified as either white (WAT) or brown (BAT) and differs not only by anatomical location but also in function. WAT is the main source of stored energy and releases fatty acids in times of energy demand, whereas BAT plays a role in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis and oxidizes fatty acids released from the lipid droplet. The PLIN family of proteins has recently emerged as being integral in the regulation of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that PLIN protein content varies among adipose tissue depots, however an examination of endurance training-induced depot specific changes in PLIN protein expression has yet to be done. Male Sprague-dawley rats (n = 10) underwent 8-weeks of progressive treadmill training (18-25 m/min for 30-60 min at 10% incline) or remained sedentary as control. Following training, under isoflurane induced anesthesia epidydmal (eWAT), inguinal subcutaneous (iWAT) and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) was excised, and plasma was collected. Endurance training resulted in an increase in BAT PLIN5 and iWAT PLIN3 content, while there was no difference in PLIN protein content in endurance trained eWAT. Interestingly, endurance training resulted in a robust increase in ATGL and CGI-58 in eWAT alone. Together these results suggest the potential of a depot specific function of PLIN3 and PLIN5 in adipose tissue in response to endurance training. PMID:27386161

  6. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  7. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training. PMID:26985128

  8. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training. PMID:26985128

  9. Autophagy plays a role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in an endurance exercise-trained condition.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jeong-Sun; Jeon, Sei-Il; Park, Je-Young; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Cho, Ki-Jung; Jeong, Jong-Moon

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is tightly regulated by two major processes: mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial degradation by autophagy (mitophagy). Research in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training has been well established, while the mechanisms regulating mitophagy and the interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation following endurance exercise training are not yet well defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term inhibition of autophagy in response to acute endurance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in an exercise-trained condition. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice performed five daily bouts of 1-h swimming per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure autophagy flux in mouse skeletal muscle, mice were treated with or without 2 days of 0.4 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal colchicine (blocking the degradation of autophagosomes) following swimming exercise training. The autophagic flux assay demonstrated that swimming training resulted in an increase in the autophagic flux (~100 % increase in LC3-II) in mouse skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial fusion proteins, Opa1 and MFN2, were significantly elevated, and mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, was also increased in trained mouse skeletal muscle, suggesting that endurance exercise training promotes both mitochondrial fusion and fission processes. A mitochondrial receptor, Bnip3, was further increased in exercised muscle when treated with colchicine while Pink/Parkin protein levels were unchanged. The endurance exercise training induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis marker proteins, SDH, COX IV, and a mitochondrial biogenesis promoting factor, PGC-1α but this effect was abolished in colchicine-treated mouse skeletal muscle. This suggests that autophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial biogenesis and this coordination between these opposing processes is involved in the cellular

  10. Glutamine and carbohydrate supplements reduce ammonemia increase during endurance field exercise.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Alves, Robson Cardilo; Cameron, Luiz-Claudio

    2007-12-01

    Blood ammonia concentration increases during endurance exercise and has been proposed as a cause for both peripheral and central fatigue. We examined the impact of glutamine and (or) carbohydrate supplementation on ammonemia in high-level runners. Fifteen men in pre-competitive training ran 120 min (approximately 34 km) outdoors on 4 occasions. On the first day, the 15 athletes ran without the use of supplements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. After that, each day for 4 d before the next 3 exercise trials, we supplemented the athletes' normal diets in bolus with carbohydrate (1 g.kg(-1).d(-1)), glutamine (70 mg.kg(-1).d(-1)), or a combination of both in a double-blind study. Blood ammonia level was determined before the run and every 30 min during the run. During the control trial ammonia increased progressively to approximately 70% above rest concentration. Following supplementation, independent of treatment, ammonia was not different (p>0.05) for the first 60 min, but for the second hour it was lower than in the control (p<0.05). Supplementation in high-level, endurance athletes reduced the accumulation of blood ammonia during prolonged, strenuous exercise in a field situation. PMID:18059593

  11. AmIRTEM: a functional model for training of aerobic endurance for health improvement.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Eugenio; Cea, Gloria; Arredondo, Maria T; Leuteritz, Jan P

    2012-11-01

    In a nonstrenuous exercise, the heart rate (HR) shows a linear relationship with the maximum volume of oxygen consumption VO(2Max) and serves as an indicator of performance of the cardiovascular system. The HR replaces the %VO(2Max) in exercise program prescription to improve aerobic endurance. In order to achieve an optimal effect in an endurance training, the athlete needs to work out at an HR high enough to trigger the aerobic metabolism, while avoiding the very high HRs that bring along significant risks of myocardial infarction. The minimal and optimal base training programs, followed by stretching exercises to prevent injuries, are adequate programs to maximize benefits and minimize health risks for the cardiovascular system during single session training. In this paper, we have defined a functional model for an ambient intelligence system that monitors, evaluates, and trains the aerobic endurance. It is based on the Android operating system and the Gow Running smart shirt. The system has been evaluated during functional assessment stress testing of aerobic endurance in the Stress Physiology Laboratory (SPL) of the Technical University of Madrid. Furthermore, a voice system designed to guide the user through minimal and optimal base training programs has been evaluated. The results obtained fully confirm the model with a high correlation between the data collected by the system and the by SPL. There is also a high hit rate between training sessions of the users and the objective training functions defined in the training programs. PMID:22801486

  12. Effects of Three Resistance Training Programs on Muscular Strength and Absolute and Relative Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim; Kearney, Jay T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of three resistance training programs on male college students' muscular strength and absolute and relative muscular endurance were investigated. Results show that human skeletal muscle makes both general and specific adaptations to a training stimulus, and that the balance of these adaptations is to some extent dependent upon the…

  13. Females have a blunted cardiovascular response to one year of intensive supervised endurance training.

    PubMed

    Howden, Erin J; Perhonen, Merja; Peshock, Ronald M; Zhang, Rong; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies in athletes suggest that endurance training augments cardiovascular structure and function with apparently different phenotypes in athletic males and females. It is unclear whether the longitudinal response to endurance training leads to similar cardiovascular adaptations between sexes. We sought to determine whether males and females demonstrate similar cardiovascular adaptations to 1 yr of endurance training, matched for training volume and intensity. Twelve previously sedentary males (26 ± 7, n = 7) and females (31 ± 6, n = 5) completed 1 yr of progressive endurance training. All participants underwent a battery of tests every 3 mo to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and left ventricle (LV) function and morphology (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Pulmonary artery catheterization was performed before and after 1 yr of training, and pressure-volume and Starling curves were constructed during decreases (lower-body negative pressure) and increases (saline infusion) in cardiac volume. Males progressively increased V̇o2max, LV mass, and mean wall thickness, before reaching a plateau from month 9 to 12 of training. In contrast, despite exactly the same training, the response in females was markedly blunted, with V̇o2max, LV mass, and mean wall thickness plateauing after only 3 mo of training. The response of LV end-diastolic volume was not influenced by sex (males +20% and females +18%). After training Starling curves were shifted upward and left, but the effect was greatest in males (interaction P = 0.06). We demonstrate for the first time clear sex differences in response to 1 yr of matched endurance training, such that the development of ventricular hypertrophy and increase in V̇o2max in females is markedly blunted compared with males. PMID:25930024

  14. Effect of endurance training on lung function: a one year study

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, P; Caillaud, C; Robert, E; Connes, P; Godard, P; Prefaut, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. Methods: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and during recovery through respiratory manoeuvres (spirometry and closing volume tests). The exercise test was conducted on three different occasions: during basic endurance training and then during the precompetition and competitive periods. Results: During the competitive period, a slight but non-clinically significant decrease was found in forced vital capacity (–3.5%, p = 0.0001) and an increase in slope of phase III (+25%, p = 0.0029), both at rest and after exercise. No concomitant reduction in expiratory flow rates was noticed. During maximal exercise there was a tachypnoeic shift over the course of the year (mean (SEM) breathing frequency and tidal volume were respectively 50 (2) cycles/min and 3.13 (0.09) litres during basic endurance training v 55 (3) cycles/min and 2.98 (0.10) litres during the competitive period; p<0.05). Conclusions: This study does not provide significant evidence of lung function impairment in healthy Mediterranean athletes after one year of endurance training. PMID:16118298

  15. Human torque velocity adaptations to sprint, endurance, or combined modes of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, M. J.; Callister, R.; Dudley, G. A.; Fleck, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    We had groups of athletes perform sprint and endurance run training independently or concurrently for 8 weeks to examine the voluntary in vivo mechanical responses to each type of training. Pre- and posttraining angle-specific peak torque during knee extension and flexion were determined at 0, 0.84, 1.65, 2.51, 3.35, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1 and normalized for lean body mass. Knee extension torque in the sprint-trained group increased across all test velocities, the endurance-trained group increased at 2.51, 3.34, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1, and the group performing the combined training showed no change at any velocity. Knee flexion torque of the sprint and combined groups decreased at 0.84, 1.65, and 2.51 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the sprint-trained group also decreased at 0 radian.sec-1 and in the combined group at 3.34 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the endurance-trained group showed no change at any velocity of contraction. Mean knee flexion:extension ratios across the test velocities significantly decreased in the sprint-trained group. Knee extension endurance during 30 seconds of maximal contractions significantly increased in all groups. Only the sprint-trained group showed a significant increase in endurance of the knee flexors. These data suggest that changes in the voluntary in vivo mechanical characteristics of knee extensor and flexor skeletal muscles are specific to the type of run training performed.

  16. Effect of Sequencing Strength and Endurance Training in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player. PMID:26332782

  17. Dose-response relationship of the cardiovascular adaptation to endurance training in healthy adults: how much training for what benefit?

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ken-Ichi; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Levine, Benjamin D

    2003-10-01

    Occupational or recreational exercise reduces mortality from cardiovascular disease. The potential mechanisms for this reduction may include changes in blood pressure (BP) and autonomic control of the circulation. Therefore, we conducted the present long-term longitudinal study to quantify the dose-response relationship between the volume and intensity of exercise training, and regulation of heart rate (HR) and BP. We measured steady-state hemodynamics and analyzed dynamic cardiovascular regulation by spectral and transfer function analysis of cardiovascular variability in 11 initially sedentary subjects during 1 yr of progressive endurance training sufficient to allow them to complete a marathon. From this, we found that 1) moderate exercise training for 3 mo decreased BP, HR, and total peripheral resistance, and increased cardiovascular variability and arterial baroreflex sensitivity; 2) more prolonged and intense training did not augment these changes further; and 3) most of these changes returned to control values at 12 mo despite markedly increased training duration and intensity equivalent to that routinely observed in competitive athletes. In conclusion, increases in R-wave-R-wave interval and cardiovascular variability indexes are consistent with an augmentation of vagal modulation of HR after exercise training. It appears that moderate doses of training for 3 mo are sufficient to achieve this response as well as a modest hypotensive effect from decreasing vascular resistance. However, more prolonged and intense training does not necessarily lead to greater enhancement of circulatory control and, therefore, may not provide an added protective benefit via autonomic mechanisms against death by cardiovascular disease. PMID:12832429

  18. Effects of endurance training on brain structures in chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Berend; Keeser, Daniel; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Kimura, Hiroshi; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Honer, William G; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Schmitt, Andrea; Wobrock, Thomas; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to examine the effects of endurance training on hippocampal and grey matter volumes in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 20 chronic schizophrenia patients and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3months of endurance training (30min, 3 times per week). 19 additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer ("foosball" in the USA) over the same period. MR imaging with 3D-volumetric T1-weighted sequences was performed on a 3T MR scanner at baseline, after 6weeks and after the 3-month intervention and 3 additional training-free months. In addition to voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we performed manual and automatic delineation of the hippocampus and its substructures. Endurance capacity and psychopathological symptoms were measured as secondary endpoints. No significant increases in the volumes of the hippocampus or hippocampal substructures were observed in schizophrenia patients or healthy controls. However, VBM analyses displayed an increased volume of the left superior, middle and inferior anterior temporal gyri compared to baseline in schizophrenia patients after the endurance training, whereas patients playing table soccer showed increased volumes in the motor and anterior cingulate cortices. After the additional training-free period, the differences were no longer present. While endurance capacity improved in exercising patients and healthy controls, psychopathological symptoms did not significantly change. The subtle changes in the left temporal cortex indicate an impact of exercise on brain volumes in schizophrenia. Subsequent studies in larger cohorts are warranted to address the question of response variability of endurance training. PMID:25623601

  19. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the mO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster O2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  20. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  1. Effects of endurance training and heat acclimation on psychological strain in exercising men wearing protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1998-03-01

    Two experiments examined the influences of endurance training and heat acclimation on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal discomfort (RTD) during exercise in the heat while wearing two types of clothing. In experiment 1, young men underwent 8 weeks of physical training [60-80% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) for 30-45 min day-1, 3-4 days week-1 at 20-22 degrees C dry bulb (db) temperature] followed by 6 days of heat acclimation [45-55% VO2max for 60 min day-1 at 40 degrees C db, 30% relative humidity (rh)] (n = 7) or corresponding periods of control observation followed by heat acclimation (n = 9). In experiment 2, young men were heat-acclimated for 6 or 12 days (n = 8 each). Before and after each treatment, subjects completed bouts of treadmill exercise (1.34 m s-1, 2% grade in experiment 1 and 0% grade in experiment 2) in a climatic chamber (40 degrees C db, 30% rh), wearing in turn normal light clothing (continuous exercise at 37-45% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 116-120 min in experiment 1 and at 31-34% VO2max for 146-150 min in experiment 2) or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents (continuous exercise at 42-51% VO2max for a tolerated exposure of 47-52 min in experiment 1 and intermittent exercise at 23% VO2max for 97-120 min in experiment 2). In experiment 1, when wearing normal clothing, endurance training and/or heat acclimation significantly decreased RPE and/or RTD at a fixed power output. There were concomitant reductions in relative work intensity (% VO2max) [an unchanged oxygen consumption (VO2) but an increased VO2max, or a reduced VO2 with no change of VO2max], rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), and/or heart rate (HR). When wearing protective clothing, in contrast, there were no significant changes in RPE or RTD. Although training and/or acclimation reduced %VO2max or Tre, any added sweat that was secreted did not evaporate through the protective clothing, thus increasing

  2. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  3. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (-20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (-17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  4. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  5. Aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migraine is one of the most frequent headache diseases and impairs patients’ quality of life. Up to now, many randomized studies reported efficacy of prophylactic therapy with medications such as beta-blockers or anti-epileptic drugs. Non-medical treatment, like aerobic endurance training, is considered to be an encouraging alternative in migraine prophylaxis. However, there is still a lack of prospective, high-quality randomized trials. We therefore designed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic endurance training versus relaxation training in patients with migraine (ARMIG). Methods This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized trial. Sixty participants with migraine are randomly allocated to either endurance training or a relaxation group. After baseline headache diary documentation over at least 4 weeks, participants in the exercise group will start moderate aerobic endurance training under a sport therapist’s supervision at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. The second group will perform Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation training guided by a trained relaxation therapist, also at least 3 times a week over a 12-week period. Both study arms will train in groups of up to 10 participants. More frequent individual training is possible. The follow-up period will be 12 weeks after the training period. The general state of health, possible state of anxiety or depression, impairments due to the headache disorder, pain-related disabilities, the headache-specific locus of control, and the motor fitness status are measured with standardized questionnaires. Discussion The study design is adequate to generate meaningful results. The trial will be helpful in gaining important data on exercise training for non-medical migraine prophylaxis. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01407861. PMID:22540391

  6. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  7. Effects of fatigue and chewing training on maximal bite force and endurance.

    PubMed

    Kiliaridis, S; Tzakis, M G; Carlsson, G E

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of chewing training on the strength and resistance to fatigue of the masticatory muscles. Twenty-five healthy adults were divided into an experimental group (7 men, 10 women) and a control group (4 men, 4 women). The experimental group chewed a special hard chewing gum one hour daily for 28 days. Maximal bite force and endurance were measured. The maximal bite force already showed a significant increase in the experimental group by the middle of the experimental period (p < 0.05), reached the highest values by the end of the training period (p < 0.001), and also remained at high levels 2 weeks after (p < 0.001). Subjects with weak initial maximal bite force values showed the highest increase in their strength after training (r = -0.66, p < 0.01). This type of training did not influence the endurance time during maximal clenching or the reduction in this endurance time after a dynamic fatigue test. No significant differences were found between the maximal bite force before and that after the fatigue test under either untrained or trained conditions. In the control group no significant differences were found between the recording sessions. In conclusion, 4 weeks training with a hard chewing gum seems to influence the functional capacity of the masticatory muscles and increase their strength. PMID:7709901

  8. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Marius; Eichner, Gerrit; Beiter, Thomas; Zügel, Martina; Krumholz-Wagner, Ilke; Hudemann, Jens; Pilat, Christian; Krüger, Karsten; Niess, Andreas M.; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Mooren, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n = 19) and untrained (SED, n = 17) individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring. PMID:27239103

  9. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key pointsIn addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  10. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    PubMed Central

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  11. A prospective randomised longitudinal MRI study of left ventricular adaptation to endurance and resistance exercise training in humans.

    PubMed

    Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard H; Buck, Christopher L; Dembo, Lawrence; Murray, Conor P; Watson, Philip; Oxborough, David; George, Keith P; Green, Daniel J

    2011-11-15

    The principle that 'concentric' cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to strength training, whilst 'eccentric' hypertrophy results from endurance exercise has been a fundamental tenet of exercise science. This notion is largely based on cross-sectional comparisons of athletes using echocardiography. In this study, young (27.4 ± 1.1 years) untrained subjects were randomly assigned to supervised, intensive, endurance (END, n = 10) or resistance (RES, n = 13) exercise and cardiac MRI scans and myocardial speckle tracking echocardiography were performed at baseline, after 6 months of training and after a subsequent 6 weeks of detraining. Aerobic fitness increased significantly in END (3.5 to 3.8 l min(-1), P < 0.05) but was unchanged in RES. Muscular strength significantly improved compared to baseline in both RES and END ( = 53.0 ± 1.1 versus 36.4 ± 4.5 kg, both P < 0.001) as did lean body mass (2.3 ± 0.4 kg, P < 0.001 versus 1.4 ± 0.6 kg P < 0.05). MRI derived left ventricular (LV) mass increased significantly following END (112.5 ± 7.3 to 121.8 ± 6.6 g, P < 0.01) but not RES, whilst training increased end-diastolic volume (LVEDV, END: +9.0 ± 5.0 versus RES +3.1 ± 3.6 ml, P = 0.05). Interventricular wall thickness significantly increased with training in END (1.06 ± 0.0 to 1.14 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not RES. Longitudinal strain and strain rates did not change following exercise training. Detraining reduced aerobic fitness, LV mass and wall thickness in END (P < 0.05), whereas LVEDV remained elevated. This study is the first to use MRI to compare LV adaptation in response to intensive supervised endurance and resistance training. Our findings provide some support for the 'Morganroth hypothesis', as it pertains to LV remodelling in response to endurance training, but cast some doubt over the proposal that remodelling occurs in response to resistance training. PMID:21969450

  12. Similar Health Benefits of Endurance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Corte de Araujo, Ana Carolina; Roschel, Hamilton; Picanço, Andreia Rossi; do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT]) on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. Methods Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR). The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ∼70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. Results Both the absolute (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0%) and the relative VO2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6%) were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4%) and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4%) were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5%) and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0%) were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%), but not in the ET group (1.2%). A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%). The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. Conclusion HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth. PMID:22880097

  13. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  14. Effects of endurance, circuit, and relaxing training on cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Schena, Federico; Caimi, Barbara; Carugo, Stefano; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors among older adults highlighted the importance of exercise-based interventions, including endurance training (ET). However, the evidence of efficacy of other interventions based on short-bouts of exercise (circuit training, CT), and the practice of breath-control and meditation (relaxing training, RT) is growing. The aim of this study was to elucidate if CT or RT are equally effective in CVD risk factors reduction compared to ET. To this purpose, in 40 elderly participants, with clinically diagnosed grade 1 hypertension, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol levels, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), mechanical efficiency and quality of life were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ET, CT, and RT treatments. Resting blood pressure reduced significantly in all groups by ∼11 %. In ET, blood cholesterol levels (-18 %), [Formula: see text] (+8 %), mechanical efficiency (+9 %), and quality of life scores (+36 %) ameliorated. In CT blood glucose levels (-11 %), [Formula: see text] (+7 %) and quality of life scores (+35 %) were bettered. Conversely, in RT, the lower blood pressure went along only with an improvement in the mental component of quality of life (+42 %). ET and CT were both appropriate interventions to reduce CVDs risk factors, because blood pressure reduction was accompanied by decreases in blood glucose and cholesterol levels, increases in [Formula: see text], mechanical efficiency, and quality of life. Although RT influenced only blood pressure and quality of life, this approach would be an attractive alternative for old individuals unable or reluctant to carry out ET or CT. PMID:26381921

  15. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mardare, Cornelia; Krüger, Karsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Seimetz, Michael; Couturier, Aline; Ringseis, Robert; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weissmann, Norbert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p < 0.05). Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p < 0.05) and reduced serum ceramides (p < 0.005). While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT) expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p < 0.001), respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26788518

  16. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  17. A multidisciplinary approach to overreaching detection in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Yann; Hausswirth, Christophe; Natta, Françoise; Couturier, Antoine; Bignet, Frank; Vidal, Pierre Paul

    2013-02-01

    In sport, high training load required to reach peak performance pushes human adaptation to their limits. In that process, athletes may experience general fatigue, impaired performance, and may be identified as overreached (OR). When this state lasts for several months, an overtraining syndrome is diagnosed (OT). Until now, no variable per se can detect OR, a requirement to prevent the transition from OR to OT. It encouraged us to further investigate OR using a multivariate approach, including physiological, biomechanical, cognitive, and perceptive monitoring. Twenty-four highly trained triathletes were separated into an overload group and a normo-trained group (NT) during 3 wk of training. Given the decrement of their running performance, 11 triathletes were diagnosed as OR after this period. A discriminant analysis showed that the changes of eight parameters measured during a maximal incremental test could explain 98.2% of the OR state (lactatemia, heart rate, biomechanical parameters and effort perception). Variations in heart rate and lactatemia were the two most discriminating factors. When the multifactorial analysis was restricted to these variables, the classification score reached 89.5%. Catecholamines and creatine kinase concentrations at rest did not change significantly in both groups. Running pattern was preserved and cognitive performance decrement was observed only at exhaustion in OR subjects. This study showed that monitoring various variables is required to prevent the transition between NT and OR. It emphasized that an OR index, which combines heart rate and blood lactate concentration changes after a strenuous training period, could be helpful to routinely detect OR. PMID:23195630

  18. Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D M; Davies, B

    1997-01-01

    Acclimatisation to environmental hypoxia initiates a series of metabolic and musculocardio-respiratory adaptations that influence oxygen transport and utilisation, or better still, being born and raised at altitude, is necessary to achieve optimal physical performance at altitude, scientific evidence to support the potentiating effects after return to sea level is at present equivocal. Despite this, elite athletes continue to spend considerable time and resources training at altitude, misled by subjective coaching opinion and the inconclusive findings of a large number of uncontrolled studies. Scientific investigation has focused on the optimisation of the theoretically beneficial aspects of altitude acclimatisation, which include increases in blood haemoglobin concentration, elevated buffering capacity, and improvements in the structural and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. However, not all aspects of altitude acclimatisation are beneficial; cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscles decrease, and preliminary evidence has shown that hypoxia in itself is responsible for a depression of immune function and increased tissue damage mediated by oxidative stress. Future research needs to focus on these less beneficial aspects of altitude training, the implications of which pose a threat to both the fitness and the health of the elite competitor. Paul Bert was the first investigator to show that acclimatisation to a chronically reduced inspiratory partial pressure of oxygen (P1O2) invoked a series of central and peripheral adaptations that served to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation in healthy skeletal muscle, physiological adaptations that have been subsequently implicated in the improvement in exercise performance during altitude acclimatisation. However, it was not until half a century later that scientists suggested that the additive stimulus of environmental hypoxia could potentially compound the normal physiological adaptations to endurance

  19. Plasma glutamine responses to high-intensity exercise before and after endurance training.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, Stephen; Goodman, Carmél; Dawson, Brian; Morton, Alan R; Keast, David; Joske, David J L

    2005-01-01

    Glutamine responses to strenuous interval exercise were examined before and after 6 weeks of endurance training. Glutamine measures were obtained before and after the interval exercise sessions and training in untrained males assigned to training (T; n = 10) or control (C; n = 10) groups. Before training, C and T group glutamine progressively decreased (p < 0.05) by 18% and 16%, respectively, by 150-min postinterval exercise. Over the training period C group glutamine did not change, while T group values increased (p < 0.05) by 14%. After training, glutamine again decreased (p < 0.05) by similar percentages (C = 16% and T = 15%) by 150-min postinterval exercise, but the T group recorded higher (p < 0.05) resting and postexercise glutamine concentrations than the C group. Training induced increases in glutamine may prevent the decline in glutamine levels following strenuous exercise falling below a threshold where immune function might be acutely compromised. PMID:16440504

  20. Blood volume, heart rate, and left ventricular ejection fraction changes in dogs before and after exercise during endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Mackintosh, I.C.; Dormehl, I.C.; van Gelder, A.L.; du Plessis, M.

    1983-10-01

    In Beagles after 7 weeks' endurance training, resting blood volume increased by an average of 13.1%. Resting heart rates were not significantly affected, but heart rates measured 2 minutes after exercise were significantly lower after the endurance training than before. Left ventricular ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography from 2 minutes after exercise showed no significant changes in response to a single exercise period or over the 50 days' training.

  1. Changes in Endurance Performance in Young Athletes During Two Training Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Łukasz; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Pokora, Ilona; Cempla, Jerzy; Pilch, Wanda; Pałka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15–17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects. PMID:26839615

  2. Cardiovascular Benefits of Endurance Training in Seniors: 40 is not too Late to Start.

    PubMed

    Matelot, D; Schnell, F; Kervio, G; Ridard, C; Thillaye du Boullay, N; Wilson, M; Carre, F

    2016-07-01

    It is unknown whether commencing structured endurance training after 40 years of age is powerful enough to induce beneficial cardiovascular adaptations in later life. 34 men between the ages of 55 and 75 were included: 10 life-long sedentary seniors (SED), 13 endurance master athletes who commenced training≤30 years of age (ET30), and 11 endurance master athletes who commenced training≥40 years of age with no prior physical training (ET40). All performed resting 5-min spectral heart rate (HR) variability analysis, resting and submaximal-exercise echocardiography, and a maximal exercise test. Maximal oxygen uptake was higher and resting HR was lower in both trained groups vs. SED, without difference between ET30 and ET40. Atrial and left ventricle dimensions were greater in ET30 and ET40 vs. SED, without difference between both athletes groups. At rest, total arterial compliance was improved in both ET30 and ET40 compared to SED. During submaximal exercise, improvement in global LV afterload was only observed in ET30 vs. SED. Two powerful markers of health, maximal oxygen uptake and resting HR, did not differ between athletes who commenced training before 30 or after 40 years of age, but were significantly improved compared to their life-long sedentary counterparts. PMID:27116349

  3. Endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hvid, Thine; Winding, Kamilla; Rinnov, Anders; Dejgaard, Thomas; Thomsen, Carsten; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Mikines, Kari J; van Hall, Gerrit; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Solomon, Thomas P J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-10-01

    Insulin resistance and changes in body composition are side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to prostate cancer patients. The present study investigated whether endurance training improves insulin sensitivity and body composition in ADT-treated prostate cancer patients. Nine men undergoing ADT for prostate cancer and ten healthy men with normal testosterone levels underwent 12 weeks of endurance training. Primary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with concomitant glucose-tracer infusion) and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary endpoint was systemic inflammation. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA. Endurance training increased VO2max (ml(O2)/min per kg) by 11 and 13% in the patients and controls respectively (P<0.0001). The patients and controls demonstrated an increase in peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity of 14 and 11% respectively (P<0.05), with no effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity (P=0.32). Muscle protein content of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) and total AKT (AKT1) was also increased in response to the training (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively). Body weight (P<0.0001) and whole-body fat mass (FM) (P<0.01) were reduced, while lean body mass (P=0.99) was unchanged. Additionally, reductions were observed in abdominal (P<0.01), subcutaneous (P<0.05), and visceral (P<0.01) FM amounts. The concentrations of plasma markers of systemic inflammation were unchanged in response to the training. No group × time interactions were observed, except for thigh intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) (P=0.01), reflecting a significant reduction in the amount of IMAT in the controls (P<0.05) not observed in the patients (P=0.64). In response to endurance training, ADT-treated prostate cancer patients exhibited improved insulin sensitivity and body composition to a similar degree as eugonadal men. PMID:23744766

  4. Effect of endurance exercise training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, A; Han, D H; Hansen, P A; Nolte, L A; Host, H H; Hickner, R C; Holloszy, J O

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate and extent of glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle are increased by endurance exercise training. Rats were trained by using a 5-wk-long swimming program in which the duration of swimming was gradually increased to 6 h/day over 3 wk and then maintained at 6 h/day for an additional 2 wk. Glycogen repletion was measured in trained and untrained rats after a glycogen-depleting bout of exercise. The rats were given a rodent chow diet plus 5% sucrose in their drinking water and libitum during the recovery period. There were remarkable differences in both the rates of glycogen accumulation and the glycogen concentrations attained in the two groups. The concentration of glycogen in epitrochlearis muscle averaged 13.1 +/- 0.9 mg/g wet wt in the untrained group and 31.7 +/- 2.7 mg/g in the trained group (P < 0.001) 24 h after the exercise. This difference could not be explained by a training effect on glycogen synthase. The training induced approximately 50% increases in muscle GLUT-4 glucose transporter protein and in hexokinase activity in epitrochlearis muscles. We conclude that endurance exercise training results in increases in both the rate and magnitude of muscle glycogen supercompensation in rats. PMID:9049757

  5. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  6. Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects. PMID:22242733

  7. Endurance training in Wistar rats decreases receptor sensitivity to a serotonin agonist.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, D; Browning, J

    2000-11-01

    There is mounting evidence that increased brain serotonin during exercise is associated with the onset of CNS-mediated fatigue. Serotonin receptor sensitivity is likely to be an important determinant of this fatigue. Alterations in brain serotonin receptor sensitivity were examined in Wistar rats throughout 6 weeks of endurance training, running on a treadmill four times a week with two exercise tests per week to exhaustion. Receptor sensitivity was determined indirectly as the reduction in exercise time in response to a dose of a serotonin (1A) agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). The two groups of controls were used to examine (i) the effect of the injection per se on exercise performance and (ii) changes in serotonin receptor sensitivity associated with maturation. In the test group, undrugged exercise performance significantly improved by 47% after 6 weeks of training (4518 +/- 729 to 6640 +/- 903 s, P=0.01). Drugged exercise performance also increased significantly from week 1 to week 6 (306 +/- 69-712 +/- 192 s, P = 0.04). Control group results indicated that the dose of m-CPP alone caused fatigue during exercise tests and that maturation was not responsible for any decrease in receptor sensitivity. Improved resistance to the fatiguing effects of the serotonin agonist suggests desensitization of central serotonin receptors, probably the 5-HT1A receptors. Endurance training appears to stimulate an adaptive response to the fatiguing effects of increased brain serotonin, which may enhance endurance exercise performance. PMID:11167306

  8. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Scheele, Camilla; Pedersen, Bente K.; Laye, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establish the miRNA signature in human plasma in response to acute exercise and chronic endurance training by utilizing a novel methodological approach. RNA was isolated from human plasma collected from young healthy men before and after an acute endurance exercise bout and following 12 weeks of endurance training. Global miRNA (742 miRNAs) measurements were performed as a screening to identify detectable miRNAs in plasma. Using customized qPCR panels we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs detected in the screening procedure (188 miRNAs). We demonstrate a dynamic regulation of circulating miRNA (ci-miRNA) levels following 0 hour (miR-106a, miR-221, miR-30b, miR-151-5p, let-7i, miR-146, miR-652 and miR-151-3p), 1 hour (miR-338-3p, miR-330-3p, miR-223, miR-139-5p and miR-143) and 3 hours (miR-1) after an acute exercise bout (P<0.00032). Where ci-miRNAs were all downregulated immediately after an acute exercise bout (0 hour) the 1 and 3 hour post exercise timepoints were followed by upregulations. In response to chronic training, we identified seven ci-miRNAs with decreased levels in plasma (miR-342-3p, let-7d, miR-766, miR-25, miR-148a, miR-185 and miR-21) and two miRNAs that were present at higher levels after the training period (miR-103 and miR-107) (P<0.00032). In conclusion, acute exercise and chronic endurance training, likely through specific mechanisms unique to each stimulus, robustly modify the miRNA signature of human plasma. PMID:24586268

  9. The effect of training during treatment with chemotherapy on muscle strength and endurance capacity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Moll, Christel C A; Schep, Goof; Vreugdenhil, Art; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Husson, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Background Treatment of cancer with chemotherapy decreases endurance capacity and muscle strength. Training during chemotherapy might prevent this. There are no clear guidelines concerning which type of training and which training dose are effective. This review aims to gain insight into the different training modalities during chemotherapy and the effects of such training to improve endurance capacity and muscle strength in order to obtain the knowledge to compose a future training program which trains cancer patients in the most effective way. Material and methods A systematic search of PubMed was carried out. In total, 809 studies of randomized controlled trials studying the effects of training during chemotherapy on endurance capacity and muscle strength were considered. Only 14 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed on methodological quality by using Cochrane criteria for randomized controlled trials. Results The quality of the studies was generally poor and the study populations varied considerably as the training programs were very heterogeneous. Variables of endurance capacity reported beneficial effects in 10 groups (59%). Increases due to training ranged from 8% to 31%. Endurance capacity decreased in nine of 13 control groups (69%), which ranged from 1% to 32%. Muscle strength improved significantly in 17 of 18 intervention groups (94%), ranging from 2% to 38%. Muscle strength also improved in 11 of 14 control groups (79%), but this increase was only minimal, ranging from 1.3% to 6.5%. Conclusions This review indicates that training during chemotherapy may help in preventing the decrease in muscle strength and endurance capacity. It is important to know which training intensity and duration is the most effective in training cancer patients, to provide a training program suitable for every cancer patient. Training should be based on good research and should be implemented into international guidelines and daily practice. More

  10. The influence of central arterial compliance on cerebrovascular hemodynamics: insights from endurance training intervention.

    PubMed

    Tomoto, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Jun; Nogami, Yoshie; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Maeda, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    Normally, central elastic arteries (e.g., aorta and common carotid artery) effectively buffer cardiac pulsation-induced flow/pressure fluctuations. With advancing age, arterial stiffening deteriorates this function and produces the greater cerebral hemodynamic pulsatility that impacts vulnerable brain tissue. It is well known that the buffering function of the central artery is improved by regular aerobic exercise, but the influence of endurance training on the pulsatile component of cerebral hemodynamics remains poorly understood. To characterize the functional role of the central artery at the heart-brain hemodynamic connection comprehensively, we assessed relations among the endurance training-induced changes in the left ventricle (LV), carotid arterial compliance, and cerebral hemodynamics. Thirteen collegiate tennis players (20 ± 1 yr) underwent a 16-wk endurance training intervention designed for improving cardiovascular function. Expectedly, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak), LV ejection velocity (via Doppler ultrasound), and the maximal rate of pressure increase of estimated aortic pressure waveform (via general transfer function) improved after the training intervention, whereas middle cerebral arterial (MCA) hemodynamics (via transcranial Doppler), such as mean and pulsatile flow velocities, remained unchanged. Carotid arterial compliance (via ultrasound and applanation tonometry) increased after the training intervention, and a larger increase in carotid arterial compliance was significantly associated with the greater attenuations of pulsatile MCA velocity (r = -0.621) normalized by mean MCA velocity. These results suggest that the training-induced improvement of carotid artery Windkessel function might offset the expected increase in the pulsatile component of cerebral perfusion induced by the enhanced LV systolic function. PMID:26139214

  11. Plasma triglyceride concentrations are rapidly reduced following individual bouts of endurance exercise in women.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gregory C; Krauss, Ronald M; Fattor, Jill A; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Luke-Zeitoun, Mona; Brooks, George A

    2010-07-01

    It is known that chronic endurance training leads to improvements in the lipoprotein profile, but less is known about changes that occur during postexercise recovery acutely. We analyzed triglyceride (TG), cholesterol classes and apolipoproteins in samples collected before, during and after individual moderate- and hard-intensity exercise sessions in men and women that were isoenergetic between intensities. Young healthy men (n = 9) and young healthy women (n = 9) were studied under three different conditions with diet unchanged between trials: (1) before, during and 3 h after 90 min of exercise at 45% VO(2)peak (E45); (2) before, during and 3 h after 60 min of exercise at 65% VO(2)peak (E65), and (3) in a time-matched sedentary control trial (C). At baseline, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in women than men (P < 0.05). In men and in women, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL peak particle size were unaltered by exercise either during exertion or after 3 h of recovery. In women, but not in men, average plasma TG was significantly reduced below C at 3 h postexercise by approximately 15% in E45 and 25% in E65 (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between exercise intensities. In summary, plasma TG concentration rapidly declines following exercise in women, but not in men. These results demonstrate an important mechanism by which each individual exercise session may incrementally reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. PMID:20217117

  12. Endurance training prevents negative effects of the hypoxia mimetic dimethyloxalylglycine on cardiac and skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Favier, Francois B; Britto, Florian A; Ponçon, Benjamin; Begue, Gwenaelle; Chabi, Beatrice; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Gregory; Py, Guillaume

    2016-02-15

    Hypoxic preconditioning is a promising strategy to prevent hypoxia-induced damages to several tissues. This effect is related to prior stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via inhibition of the prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), which are responsible for its degradation under normoxia. Although PHD inhibition has been shown to increase endurance performance in rodents, potential side effects of such a therapy have not been explored. Here, we investigated the effects of 1 wk of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) treatment (150 mg/kg) on exercise capacity, as well as on cardiac and skeletal muscle function in sedentary and endurance-trained rats. DMOG improved maximal aerobic velocity and endurance in both sedentary and trained rats. This effect was associated with an increase in red blood cells without significant alteration of skeletal muscle contractile properties. In sedentary rats, DMOG treatment resulted in enhanced left ventricle (LV) weight together with impairment in diastolic function, LV relaxation, and pulse pressure. Moreover, DMOG decreased maximal oxygen uptake (state 3) of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle. Importantly, endurance training reversed the negative effects of DMOG treatment on cardiac function and restored maximal mitochondrial oxygen uptake to the level of sedentary placebo-treated rats. In conclusion, we provide here evidence that the PHD inhibitor DMOG has detrimental influence on myocardial and mitochondrial function in healthy rats. However, one may suppose that the deleterious influence of PHD inhibition would be potentiated in patients with already poor physical condition. Therefore, the present results prompt us to take into consideration the potential side effects of PHD inhibitors when administrated to patients. PMID:26679609

  13. Fingerboard in Competitive Bouldering: Training Effects on Grip Strength and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Medernach, Jerry P J; Kleinöder, Heinz; Lötzerich, Helmut H H

    2015-08-01

    Bouldering (BL) is an independent discipline of sport climbing, with grip strength and endurance as key factors. Although the sport has grown increasingly popular and competitive, limited research has been conducted on commonly used training methods to maximize BL performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of 4 weeks of fingerboarding (FB) on grip strength and endurance in competitive BL. Twenty-three highly advanced male boulderers (25.6 ± 4.4 y; 1.78 ± 0.05 m; 70.1 ± 5.4 kg; 6.2 ± 2.8 y climbing; 7b+ Fb mean ability) were randomly allocated to a 4-week FB (n = 11) or BL (n = 12) training regimen. Pretests and posttests (50-min duration) involved (a) handheld dynamometry (GS) to assess grip strength, (b) dead hangs (DH), and (c) intermittent finger hangs (IFH) to assess grip endurance. After the 4-week regimen, GS increased significantly in the FB group (2.5 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.001) but not in the BL group (1.4 ± 2.8 kg, p = 0.109). The mean increase in DH ranged from 5.4 to 6.7 seconds in the FB group and was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than that in the BL group (3.0-3.9 seconds). Finally, significantly higher IFH gains were observed in the FB group (p = 0.004), with a mean gain of 26 seconds, but not in the BL group (p = 0.168). These results suggest that FB is highly effective in increasing grip strength and endurance in competitive BL. PMID:26203738

  14. Diversity of endurance training effects on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in different brain regions of adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J

    2015-08-01

    Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal

  15. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. PMID:27040934

  16. Grasping in absence of feedback: systematic biases endure extensive training.

    PubMed

    Bozzacchi, Chiara; Volcic, Robert; Domini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Reach-to-grasp movements performed without visual and haptic feedback of the hand are subject to systematic inaccuracies. Grasps directed at an object specified by binocular information usually end at the wrong distance with an incorrect final grip aperture. More specifically, moving the target object away from the observer leads to increasingly larger undershoots and smaller grip apertures. These systematic biases suggest that the visuomotor mapping is based on inaccurate estimates of an object's egocentric distance and 3D structure that compress the visual space. Here we ask whether the appropriate visuomotor mapping can be learned through an extensive exposure to trials where haptic and visual feedback of the hand is provided. By intermixing feedback trials with test trials without feedback, we aimed at maximizing the likelihood that the motor execution of test trials is positively influenced by that of preceding feedback trials. We found that the intermittent presence of feedback trials both (1) largely reduced the positioning error of the hand with respect to the object and (2) affected the shaping of the hand before the final grasp, leading to an overall more accurate performance. While this demonstrates an effective transfer of information from feedback trials to test trials, the remaining biases indicate that a compression of visual space is still taking place. The correct visuomotor mapping, therefore, could not be learned. We speculate that an accurate reconstruction of the scene at movement onset may not actually be needed. Instead, the online monitoring of the hand position relative to the object and the final contact with the object are sufficient for a successful execution of a grasp. PMID:26449965

  17. Metabolomic investigation into variation of endogenous metabolites in professional athletes subject to strength-endurance training.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bei; A, Jiye; Wang, Guangji; Lu, Huali; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi; Zha, Weibin; Hao, Haiping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Linsheng; Gu, Shenghua; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Yuanting; Sun, Jianguo

    2009-02-01

    Strength-endurance type of sport can lead to modification of human beings' physiological status. The present study aimed to investigate the alteration of metabolic phenotype or biochemical compositions in professional athletes induced by long-term training by means of a novel systematic tool, metabolomics. Resting venous blood samples of junior and senior male rowers were obtained before and after 1-wk and 2-wk training. Venous blood from healthy male volunteers as control was also sampled at rest. Endogenous metabolites in serum were profiled by GC/TOF-MS and multivariate statistical technique, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares projection to latent structures and discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to process the data. Significant metabolomic difference was observed between the professional athletes and control subjects. Long-term strength and endurance training induced distinct separation between athletes of different exercise seniority, and training stage-related trajectory of the two groups of athletes was clearly shown along with training time. However, most of these variations were not observed by common biochemical parameters, such as hemoglobin, testosterone, and creatine kinase. The identified metabolites contributing to the classification included alanine, lactate, beta-d-methylglucopyranoside, pyroglutamic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, citric acid, free fatty acids, valine, glutamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and so on, which were involved in glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a promising and potential tool to profile serum of professional athletes, make a deep insight into physiological states, and clarify the disorders induced by strength-endurance physical exercise. PMID:19036890

  18. Monitoring high-intensity endurance training using neuromuscular excitability to recognize overtraining.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Baur, S; Netzer, N; Gastmann, U

    1997-01-01

    The minimal rectangular current pulse that produces a single contraction of reference muscles at different pulse durations has been recommended as a marker of the neuromuscular excitability (NME) of skeletal muscles. NME is improved in well-trained, non-fatigued endurance athletes and deteriorates after prolonged heavy exercise and high-volume overtraining. The hypothesis was tested that a deterioration in NME also indicates an early stage in the overtraining process during high-intensity endurance training. Six subjects participated for 40-60 min per day in a 6-week, 6-days-per-week, intensive, steady-state and interval training program using a cycle ergometer. Training was stopped each day on volitional exhaustion. On day 7 of each week training was of low intensity for about 30-40 min. Submaximum and maximum power output were significantly increased after 3 weeks, but there was no further improvement, rather a deterioration after week 6 compared to week 3. Even after 2 weeks of regeneration no supercompensation was evident, rather a decrease in maximum power output. NME was slightly improved after 3 weeks, but deteriorated after 6 weeks, and was again normalized after 2 weeks of regeneration. The discrepancy between normalization of NME and still-deteriorated performance ability after 2 weeks of regeneration reflects additional significant, and probably central mechanisms that explain persistent performance incompetence. Deterioration in NME may indicate an early stage in the overtraining process during high-volume as well as high-intensity endurance overtraining, but normalization does not necessarily indicate sufficient regeneration. PMID:9272779

  19. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Stangier, C, Abel, T, Hesse, C, Claßen, S, Mierau, J, Hollmann, W, and Strüder, HK. Effects of cycling vs. running training on endurance performance in preparation for inline speed skating. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1597-1606, 2016-Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed

  20. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  1. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters.

  2. No effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on endurance training in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Puype, J; Ramaekers, M; Van Thienen, R; Deldicque, L; Hespel, P

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation enhances the effect of training in hypoxia on endurance performance at sea level. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers performed high-intensity endurance training on a cycle ergometer (6 weeks, 5×30 min/week at 4-6 mmol/L blood lactate) in normobaric hypoxia (12.5% FiO(2)), while ingesting either beetroot juice [0.07 mmol NO(3)(-) /kg body weight (bw)/day; BR, n = 11] or a control drink (CON, n = 11). During the pretest and the posttest, the subjects performed a 30-min simulated time trial (TT) and an incremental VO(2max) test. Furthermore, a biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis before and after the TT. Power output during the training sessions in both groups increased by ∼6% from week 1 to week 6 (P < 0.05). Compared with the pretest, VO(2max) in the posttest was increased (P < 0.05) in CON (5%) and BR (9%). Power output corresponding with the 4 mmol/L blood lactate threshold, as well as mean power output during TT increased by ∼16% in both groups (P < 0.05). Muscle phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, hypoxia inducible factor-1α mRNA content, and glycogen breakdown during the TT were similar between the groups in both the pretest and the posttest. In conclusion, low-dose dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation does not enhance the effects of intermittent hypoxic training on endurance exercise performance at sea level. PMID:24646076

  3. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    PubMed

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  4. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  5. HIF1A P582S gene association with endurance training responses in young women.

    PubMed

    McPhee, J S; Perez-Schindler, J; Degens, H; Tomlinson, D; Hennis, P; Baar, K; Williams, A G

    2011-09-01

    Sequence variations in the gene encoding the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, HIF1A, have been associated with physiologic function and could be associated with exercise responses. In the HIF1A P582S gene polymorphism (C1772T; rs 11549465 C/T), a single nucleotide transition from C → T alters the codon sequence from the usual amino acid; proline (C-allele), to serine (T-allele). This polymorphism was examined for association with endurance training responses in 58 untrained young women who completed a 6-week laboratory-based endurance training programme. Participant groups were defined as CC homozygotes versus carriers of a T-allele (CC vs. CT genotypes). Adaptations were examined at the systemic-level, by measuring [Formula: see text] and the molecular-level by measuring enzymes determined from vastus lateralis (n = 20): 3-hydroacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), which regulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; cytochrome C oxidase (COX-1), a marker of mitochondrial density; and phosphofructokinase (PFK), a marker of glycolytic capacity. CT genotypes showed 45% higher training-induced gains in [Formula: see text] compared with CC genotypes (P < 0.05). At the molecular level, CT increased the ratios PFK/HAD and PFK/COX-1 (47 and 3%, respectively), while in the CC genotypes these ratios were decreased (-26 and -54%, respectively). In conclusion, the T-allele of HIF1A P582S was associated with greater gains in [Formula: see text] following endurance training in young women. In a sub-group we also provide preliminary evidence of differential muscle metabolic adaptations between genotypes. PMID:21344271

  6. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest. PMID:15240416

  7. Impact of eight weeks endurance training on biochemical parameters and obesity-induced oxidative stress in high fat diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Seyed Reza; Jafari, Mahvash; Haghshenas, Rouhollah; Ravasi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] High-fat diets (HFD) feeding is an important risk factor for obesity that is accompanied with metabolic syndrome. Appropriate exercise is recommended for obesity prevention. The molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways activated in response to HFD and exercise are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks endurance training on some plasma biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in HFD induced obese rats. [Methods] Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the standard diet (SD) group, endurance training group with a standard diet (ESD), HFD group, and endurance training group with high-fat diet (EHFD). After 8 weeks, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture and plasma were used for determination of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. [Results] HFD significantly increased malondialdehyde level and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase and the content of glutathione in the plasma. HFD also increased activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, endurance training showed protective effect on changes in these parameters. [Conclusion] These findings suggested that HFD alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance, as evidenced by reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Endurance training can be beneficial for the suppression of obesity-induced oxidative stress in HFD rats through modulating antioxidant defense system and reduces the risk of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:27298810

  8. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  9. Endurance training ameliorates complex 3 deficiency in a mouse model of Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soustek, Meghan S; Baligand, Celine; Falk, Darin J; Walter, Glenn A; Lewin, Alfred S; Byrne, Barry J

    2015-09-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked metabolic disorder that causes cardiomyopathy in infancy and is linked to mutations within the Tafazzin (TAZ) gene. The first mouse model, a TAZ knockdown model (TAZKD), has been generated to further understand the bioenergetics leading to cardiomyopathy. However, the TAZKD model does not show early signs of cardiomyopathy, and cardiac pathophysiology has not been documented until 7-8 months of age. Here we sought to determine the impact of endurance training on the cardiac and skeletal muscle phenotype in young TAZKD mice. TAZKD exercise trained (TAZKD-ET) and control exercise trained (CON-ET) mice underwent a 35-day swimming protocol. Non-trained aged matched TAZKD and CON mice were used as controls. At the end of the protocol, cardiac MRI was used to assess cardiac parameters. Cardiac MRI showed that training resulted in cardiac hypertrophy within both groups and did not result in a decline of ejection fraction. TAZKD mice exhibited a decrease in respiratory complex I, III, and IV enzymatic activity in cardiac tissue compared to control mice; however, training led to an increase in complex III activity in TAZKD-ET mice resulting in similar levels to those of CON-ET mice. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the gastrocnemius showed a significantly lowered pH in TAZKD-ET mice post electrical-stimulation compared to CON-ET mice. Endurance training does not accelerate cardiac dysfunction in young TAZKD mice, but results in beneficial physiological effects. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant drop in intracellular pH levels may contribute to oxidative phosphorylation defects during exercise. PMID:25860817

  10. Effect of endurance training on excessive CO2 expiration due to lactate production in exercise.

    PubMed

    Hirakoba, K; Maruyama, A; Inaki, M; Misaka, K

    1992-01-01

    We attempted to determine the change in total excess volume of CO2 output (CO2 excess) due to bicarbonate buffering of lactic acid produced in exercise due to endurance training for approximately 2 months and to assess the relationship between the changes of CO2 excess and distance-running performance. Six male endurance runners, aged 19-22 years, were subjects. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), oxygen uptake (VO2) at anaerobic threshold (AT), CO2 excess and blood lactate concentration were measured during incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer and 12-min exhausting running performance (12-min ERP) was also measured on the track before and after endurance training. The absolute magnitudes in the improvement due to training for CO2 excess per unit of body mass per unit of blood lactate accumulation (delta la-) in exercise (CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la-), 12-min ERP, VO2 at AT (AT-VO2) and VO2max on average were 0.8 ml.kg-1.l-1.mmol-1, 97.8 m, 4.4 ml.kg-1. min-1 and 7.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. The percentage change in CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la- (15.7%) was almost same as those of VO2max (13.7%) and AT-VO2 (13.2%). It was found to be a high correlation between the absolute amount of change in CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la-, and the absolute amount of change in AT-VO2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1735416

  11. Leucine supplementation does not affect protein turnover and impairs the beneficial effects of endurance training on glucose homeostasis in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Costa Júnior, José M; Rosa, Morgana R; Protzek, André O; de Paula, Flávia M; Ferreira, Sandra M; Rezende, Luiz F; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Zoppi, Cláudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Boschero, Antonio C; de Oliveira, Camila A M; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-04-01

    Endurance exercise training as well as leucine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and protein turnover in mammals. Here, we analyze whether leucine supplementation alters the effects of endurance exercise on these parameters in healthy mice. Mice were distributed into sedentary (C) and exercise (T) groups. The exercise group performed a 12-week swimming protocol. Half of the C and T mice, designated as the CL and TL groups, were supplemented with leucine (1.5 % dissolved in the drinking water) throughout the experiment. As well known, endurance exercise training reduced body weight and the retroperitoneal fat pad, increased soleus mass, increased VO2max, decreased muscle proteolysis, and ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity. Leucine supplementation had no effect on any of these parameters and worsened glucose tolerance in both CL and TL mice. In the soleus muscle of the T group, AS-160(Thr-642) (AKT substrate of 160 kDa) and AMPK(Thr-172) (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, but it was reduced in TL mice with insulin stimulation compared with the T group. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by exercise but was lower in the CL group compared with the other groups. Leucine supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation at basal conditions, whereas exercise reduced it in the presence of insulin, despite no alterations in protein synthesis. In trained groups, the total FoxO3a protein content and the mRNA for the specific isoforms E2 and E3 ligases were reduced. In conclusion, leucine supplementation did not potentiate the effects of endurance training on protein turnover, and it also reduced its positive effects on glucose homeostasis. PMID:25575490

  12. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo; Koch, Lauren G.; Sarzynski, Mark; Jensen, Thomas; Keller, Pernille; Scheele, Camilla; Vollaard, Niels B. J.; Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Jansson, Eva; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Pedersen, Bente K.; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wahlestedt, Claes; Britton, Steven L.; Bouchard, Claude

    2010-01-01

    A low maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases V̇o2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial sample sizes. In the present study, we first use RNA expression profiling to produce a molecular classifier that predicts V̇o2max training response. We then hypothesized that the classifier genes would harbor DNA variants that contributed to the heterogeneous V̇o2max response. Two independent preintervention RNA expression data sets were generated (n = 41 gene chips) from subjects that underwent supervised endurance training: one identified and the second blindly validated an RNA expression signature that predicted change in V̇o2max (“predictor” genes). The HERITAGE Family Study (n = 473) was used for genotyping. We discovered a 29-RNA signature that predicted V̇o2max training response on a continuous scale; these genes contained ∼6 new single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with gains in V̇o2max in the HERITAGE Family Study. Three of four novel candidate genes from the HERITAGE Family Study were confirmed as RNA predictor genes (i.e., “reciprocal” RNA validation of a quantitative trait locus genotype), enhancing the performance of the 29-RNA-based predictor. Notably, RNA abundance for the predictor genes was unchanged by exercise training, supporting the idea that expression was preset by genetic variation. Regression analysis yielded a model where 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms explained 23% of the variance in gains in V̇o2max, corresponding to ∼50% of the estimated genetic variance for V̇o2max. In conclusion, combining RNA profiling with single-gene DNA marker association analysis yields a strongly validated molecular predictor with meaningful explanatory power. V̇o2max responses to endurance training can be predicted by measuring a ∼30

  13. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:27351384

  14. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  15. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4–6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30–50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  16. Effect of triiodothyronine (T3) excess on fatty acid metabolism in the soleus muscle from endurance-trained rats.

    PubMed

    Górecka, M; Synak, M; Brzezińska, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Żernicka, E

    2016-04-01

    We studied whether short-term administration of triiodothyronine (T3) for the last 3 days of endurance training would influence the rate of uptake of palmitic acid (PA) as well as metabolism in rat soleus muscle, in vitro. Training per se did not affect the rate of PA uptake by the soleus; however, an excess of T3 increased the rate of this process at 1.5 mmol/L PA, as well as the rate that at which PA was incorporated into intramuscular triacylglycerols (TG). The rate of TG synthesis in trained euthyroid rats was reduced after exercise (1.5 mmol/L PA). The rate of PA oxidation in all of the trained rats immediately after exercise was enhanced by comparison with the sedentary values. Hyperthyroidism additionally increased the rate of this process at 1.5 mmol/L PA. After a recovery period, the rate of PA oxidation returned to the control values in both the euthyroid and the hyperthyroid groups. Examination of the high-energy phosphate levels indicated that elevated PA oxidation after exercise-training in euthyroid rats was associated with stable ATP levels and increased ADP and AMP levels, thus reducing energy cellular potential (ECP). In the hyperthyroid rats, levels of ADP and AMP were increased in the sedentary as well as the exercise-trained rats. ECP levels were high as a result of high levels of ATP and decreased levels of ADP and AMP in hyperthyroid rats after the recovery period. In conclusion, short-term hyperthyroidism accelerates PA utilization in well-trained soleus muscle. PMID:26651412

  17. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race. PMID:23838975

  18. Inspiratory muscle performance in endurance-trained elderly males during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Keochkerian, David; Temfemo, Abdou; Choquet, Dominique; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inspiratory muscle performance during an incremental exercise of twelve fit old endurance-trained athletes (OT) with that of fit young athletes (YT) and healthy age-matched controls (OC). The tension-time index (TT0.1) was determined according to the equation TT0.1=P0.1/PImax×ti/ttot, where P0.1 is the mouth occlusion pressure, PImax the maximal inspiratory pressure and ti/ttot the duty cycle. For a given VCO2, OT group displayed P0.1, P0.1/PImax ratio, TT0.1 and effective impedance of the respiratory muscle values which were lower than OC group and higher than YT group. At maximal exercise, P0.1/PImax ratio and TT0.1 was still lower in the OT group than OC group and higher than YT group. This study showed lower inspiratory muscle performance attested by a higher (TT0.1) during exercise in the OT group than YT group, but appeared to be less marked in elderly men having performed lifelong endurance training compared with sedentary elderly subjects. PMID:26994757

  19. Endurance training prevents TWEAK but not myostatin-mediated cardiac remodelling in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Oliveira, Paula A; Teixeira, Catarina; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Helguero, Luísa; Vitorino, Rui; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ferreira, Rita

    2015-02-01

    Strategies to prevent tumour burden-induced cardiac remodelling that might progress to heart failure are necessary to improve patients' health outcomes and tolerability to cancer therapies. Exercise has been suggested as a measure to prevent cardiac damage; however, its effectiveness on regulating cardiac remodelling secondary to cancer was never addressed. Using an animal model of mammary tumorigenesis, we studied the impact of 35weeks of endurance training on heart, focusing on the signalling pathways modulated by pro-inflammatory and wasting cytokines. The cardiac fibrosis and myofiber disorganization induced by tumour burden was paralleled by the increase of myostatin and TWEAK with the activation of signalling pathways involving Smad-3, NF-κB, TRAF-6 and atrogin-1. The activation of Akt/mTOR was observed in heart from rats with tumours, for which contributed the extracellular matrix. Endurance training prevented the increase of serum and cardiac TWEAK promoted by cancer, as well as the activation of NF-κB, TRAF6, atrogin-1 and p70S6K in heart. Data highlight the impact of exercise in the modulation of signalling pathways activated by wasting cytokines and the resulting outcomes on heart adaptation. Future studies focused on the cellular pathways underlying cardiac remodelling will assist in the development of exercise programs targeting cancer-related cardiac alterations. PMID:25575785

  20. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train. PMID:25435787

  1. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  2. Irisin in Blood Increases Transiently after Single Sessions of Intense Endurance Exercise and Heavy Strength Training

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Håvard; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Vegge, Geir; Hollan, Ivana; Whist, Jon Elling; Strand, Tor; Rønnestad, Bent R.; Ellefsen, Stian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Irisin increases acutely in blood after singular sessions of intense endurance exercise (END) and heavy strength training (STR). Secondary, we wanted to explore the relationship between body composition and exercise-induced effects on irisin, and the effect of END and STR on muscular expression of the irisin gene FNDC5. Methods Nine moderately trained healthy subjects performed three test days using a randomized and standardized crossover design: one day with 60 minutes of END, one day with 60 minutes of STR, and one day without exercise (CON). Venous blood was sampled over a period of 24h on the exercise days. Results Both END and STR led to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood, peaking immediately after END and one hour after STR, before gradually returning to baseline. Irisin responses to STR, but not END, showed a consistently strong negative correlation with proportions of lean body mass. Neither END nor STR affected expression of FNDC5, measured 4h after training sessions, though both protocols led to pronounced increases in PGC-1α expression, which is involved in transcriptional control of FNDC5. Conclusion The results strongly suggest that single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training lead to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood. This was not accompanied by increased FNDC5 expression, measured 4h post-exercise. The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass. PMID:25781950

  3. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1(st) microcycle, 35-min in 2(nd) microcycle and 40-min in 3(rd) microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max,VO2LT, WRmax, WRLT and change in lactate concentration (∆LA) during incremental test in H group. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in time of the time trial was seen, associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in average generated power (Pavg) and average speed (Vavg) during the time trial. The intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p < 0.05) were only observed in MCV in H group. This data suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium

  4. Neural mechanisms of feature conjunction learning: enduring changes in occipital cortex after a week of training.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sebastian M; Reavis, Eric A; Tse, Peter U; Greenlee, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Most visual activities, whether reading, driving, or playing video games, require rapid detection and identification of learned patterns defined by arbitrary conjunctions of visual features. Initially, such detection is slow and inefficient, but it can become fast and efficient with training. To determine how the brain learns to process conjunctions of visual features efficiently, we trained participants over eight consecutive days to search for a target defined by an arbitrary conjunction of color and location among distractors with a different conjunction of the same features. During each training session, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The speed of visual search for feature conjunctions improved dramatically within just a few days. These behavioral improvements were correlated with increased neural responses to the stimuli in visual cortex. This suggests that changes in neural processing in visual cortex contribute to the speeding up of visual feature conjunction search. We find evidence that this effect is driven by an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the BOLD signal for search targets over distractors. In a control condition where target and distractor identities were exchanged after training, learned search efficiency was abolished, suggesting that the primary improvement was perceptual learning for the search stimuli, not task-learning. Moreover, when participants were retested on the original task after nine months without further training, the acquired changes in behavior and brain activity were still present, showing that this can be an enduring form of learning and neural reorganization. PMID:23418123

  5. Attenuated increase in maximal force of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after concurrent peak power and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Regula; Jaspers, Richard T; Baggerman, Hein L; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Lips, Paul; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control), peak power training (PT), or both peak power and endurance training (PET), which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training. PMID:23509812

  6. Acclimation Training Improves Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat without Inducing Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Joshua H.; Pyne, David B.; Deakin, Glen B.; Miller, Catherine M.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-actively males (n = 24) were allocated randomly to either HOT (n = 8, 35°C, and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n = 8, 20°C, and 45% RH); or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n = 8). Over the 18 day study HOT and NEUTRAL performed seven training sessions (40 min cycling at 55 of VO2 max) and all participants completed three heat stress tests (HST) at 35°C and 70% RH. The HST protocol comprised three × sub-maximal intervals followed by a 5 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. Serum samples were collected before and after each HST and analyzed for interleukin-6, immunoglobulin M and lipopolysaccharide. Results: Both HOT and NEUTRAL groups experienced substantial improvement to 5 km time trial performance (HOT −33 ± 20 s, p = 0.02, NEUTRAL −39 ± 18 s, p = 0.01) but only HOT were faster (−45 ± 25 s, and −12 s ± 7 s, p = 0.01) in HST3 compared to baseline and HST2. Interleukin-6 was elevated after exercise for all groups however there were no significant changes for immunoglobulin M or lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: Short-term heat training enhances 5 km cycling time trial performance in moderately-fit subjects by ~6%, similar in magnitude to exercise training in neutral conditions.Three top-up training sessions yielded a further 3% improvement in performance for the HOT group. Furthermore, the heat training did not pose a substantial challenge to the immune system. PMID:27524970

  7. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Methods Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; V˙O2max: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2–4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Results Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). Conclusions The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions. PMID:27532605

  8. Effects of Oral Sodium Supplementation on Indices of Thermoregulation in Trained, Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Earhart, Elizabeth L.; Weiss, Edward P.; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V.

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  9. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  10. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to different endurance training protocols.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Köhler, K; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, mainly 2 high-intensity-training (HIT) protocols became common: first, a Wingate-based "all-out" protocol and second, a 4×4 min protocol. However, no direct comparison between these protocols exists, and also a comparison with high-volume-training (HVT) is missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare these 3 endurance training protocols on metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses. Twelve subjects performed: 1) HVT [130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO)]; 2) 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3) 4×30 s all-out. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone, and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 180' after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO₃⁻, pO₂, PCO₂), and spirometric analysis. Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. The 4×30 s training caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by 4 × 4 min and HVT. Testosterone levels were significantly increased by all 3 exercise protocols. Metabolic stress was highest during and after 4×30 s, followed by 4×4 min and HVT. The 4×30 s training was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. In conclusion, the results suggest that 4×30 s and 4×4 min promote anabolic processes more than HVT, due to higher increases of hGH, testosterone, and the T/C ratio. It can be speculated that the acute hormonal increase and the metabolic perturbations might play a positive role in optimizing training adaptation and in eliciting health benefits as it has been shown by previous long term training studies using similar exercise protocols. PMID:23794400

  11. Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Kadi, Fawzi; Saafi, Mohamed A; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Denis, Christian

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of combined lower body (LB) endurance and upper body (UB) resistance training on endurance, strength, blood lipid profile and body composition in active older men. Ten healthy still active men (73+/-4 years, V(O2) peak: 36 (31-41) ml min-1 kg-1) were tested before and after 14 weeks of combined training (3 times week-1). Training consisted of 3x12 min of high intensity interval training on a bicycle for endurance interspersed by 3x12 min of UB resistance exercises. V(O2) peak during leg cycling and arm cranking, isokinetic torque of knee extensor and shoulder abductor and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of several muscles from UB and LB were measured. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and abdominal fat area were measured on MRI scans. Total body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Blood lipid profile was assessed before and after training. By the end of the training period, V(O2) peak (l min-1) increased significantly by 9 and 16% in leg cycling and arm cranking tests, respectively. Maximal isokinetic torque increased both for the knee extensor and shoulder abductor muscle groups. CSA increased significantly in deltoid muscle. Percentage of body fat decreased by 1.3% (P<0.05) and abdominal fat and SAD decreased by 12 and 6%, respectively (P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Thus, combined LB endurance and UB resistance training can improve endurance, strength, body composition and blood lipid profile even in healthy active elderly. PMID:16770464

  12. Glucose transporters and maximal transport are increased in endurance-trained rat soleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slentz, C. A.; Gulve, E. A.; Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; Youn, J. H.; Holloszy, J. O.

    1992-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the concentration of the regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). Wheel running also causes hypertrophy of the soleus in rats. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether endurance training that induces enzymatic adaptations but no hypertrophy results in an increase in the concentration of GLUT4 protein in rat soleus (slow-twitch red) muscle and, if it does, to determine whether there is a concomitant increase in maximal glucose transport activity. Female rats were trained by treadmill running at 25 m/min up a 15% grade, 90 min/day, 6 days/wk for 3 wk. This training program induced increases of 52% in citrate synthase activity, 66% in hexokinase activity, and 47% in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration in soleus muscles without causing hypertrophy. Glucose transport activity stimulated maximally with insulin plus contractile activity was increased to roughly the same extent (44%) as GLUT4 protein content in soleus muscle by the treadmill exercise training. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether a swim-training program increases glucose transport activity in the soleus in the presence of a maximally effective concentration of insulin. The swimming program induced a 44% increase in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration. Glucose transport activity maximally stimulated with insulin was 62% greater in soleus muscle of the swimmers than in untrained controls. Training did not alter the basal rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Effects of Endurance Training Combined With Cognitive Remediation on Everyday Functioning, Symptoms, and Cognition in Multiepisode Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Berend; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Dörfler, Sebastian; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Honer, William G; Schulze, Thomas G; Niklas, Andree; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve symptoms in multiepisode schizophrenia, including cognitive impairments, but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an enriched environment paradigm consisting of bicycle ergometer training and add-on computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) training. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate such an enriched environment paradigm in multiepisode schizophrenia. Twenty-two multiepisode schizophrenia patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of endurance training (30min, 3 times/wk); CACR training (30min, 2 times/wk) was added from week 6. Twenty-one additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer (known as "foosball" in the United States) over the same period and also received the same CACR training. At baseline and after 6 weeks and 3 months, we measured the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive domains (Verbal Learning Memory Test [VLMT], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], and Trail Making Test). After 3 months, we observed a significant improvement in GAF and in SAS-II social/leisure activities and household functioning adaptation in the endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation, but not in the table soccer augmented with cognitive remediation group. The severity of negative symptoms and performance in the VLMT and WCST improved significantly in the schizophrenia endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation group from week 6 to the end of the 3-month training period. Future studies should investigate longer intervention periods to show whether endurance training induces stable improvements in everyday functioning. PMID:25782770

  14. Effects of Endurance Training Combined With Cognitive Remediation on Everyday Functioning, Symptoms, and Cognition in Multiepisode Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Malchow, Berend; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Dörfler, Sebastian; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Honer, William G.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Niklas, Andree; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve symptoms in multiepisode schizophrenia, including cognitive impairments, but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an enriched environment paradigm consisting of bicycle ergometer training and add-on computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) training. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate such an enriched environment paradigm in multiepisode schizophrenia. Twenty-two multiepisode schizophrenia patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of endurance training (30min, 3 times/wk); CACR training (30min, 2 times/wk) was added from week 6. Twenty-one additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer (known as “foosball” in the United States) over the same period and also received the same CACR training. At baseline and after 6 weeks and 3 months, we measured the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive domains (Verbal Learning Memory Test [VLMT], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], and Trail Making Test). After 3 months, we observed a significant improvement in GAF and in SAS-II social/leisure activities and household functioning adaptation in the endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation, but not in the table soccer augmented with cognitive remediation group. The severity of negative symptoms and performance in the VLMT and WCST improved significantly in the schizophrenia endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation group from week 6 to the end of the 3-month training period. Future studies should investigate longer intervention periods to show whether endurance training induces stable improvements in everyday functioning. PMID:25782770

  15. Enhanced Fatty Acid Oxidation and FATP4 Protein Expression after Endurance Exercise Training in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Jordy, Andreas B.; Sjøberg, Kim A.; Füllekrug, Joachim; Stahl, Andreas; Nybo, Lars; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    FATP1 and FATP4 appear to be important for the cellular uptake and handling of long chain fatty acids (LCFA). These findings were obtained from loss- or gain of function models. However, reports on FATP1 and FATP4 in human skeletal muscle are limited. Aerobic training enhances lipid oxidation; however, it is not known whether this involves up-regulation of FATP1 and FATP4 protein. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression in the vastus lateralis muscle from healthy human individuals and to what extent FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression were affected by an increased fuel demand induced by exercise training. Eight young healthy males were recruited to the study. All subjects were non smokers and did not participate in regular physical activity (<1 time per week for the past 6 months, VO2peak 3.4±0.1 l O2 min−1). Subjects underwent an 8 week supervised aerobic training program. Training induced an increase in VO2peak from 3.4±0.1 to 3.9±0.1 l min−1 and citrate synthase activity was increased from 53.7±2.5 to 80.8±3.7 µmol g−1 min−1. The protein content of FATP4 was increased by 33%, whereas FATP1 protein content was reduced by 20%. Interestingly, at the end of the training intervention a significant association (r2 = 0.74) between the observed increase in skeletal muscle FATP4 protein expression and lipid oxidation during a 120 min endurance exercise test was observed. In conclusion, based on the present findings it is suggested that FATP1 and FATP4 proteins perform different functional roles in handling LCFA in skeletal muscle with FATP4 apparently more important as a lipid transport protein directing lipids for lipid oxidation. PMID:22235293

  16. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women. PMID:26197721

  17. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  18. Effect of Slow and Fast Pranayama Training on Handgrip Strength and Endurance in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Dinesh; Gaur, Girwar Singh; Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Syam, Sunder A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pranayama has been assigned very important role in yogic system of exercises and is said to be much more important than yogasanas for keeping sound health. Also different pranayamas produce divergent physiological effects. Aim: To study the effect of 12 weeks training of slow and fast pranayama on handgrip strength and endurance in young, healthy volunteers of JIPMER population. Settings and Design: Present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, JIPMER in 2011-12 (1.06.11 to 1.04.12). Materials and Methods: Total of 91 volunteer subjects were randomised into slow pranayama (SPG) (n=29), fast pranayama (FPG) (n=32) and control groups (CG) (n=30). Supervised pranayama training (SPG - Nadisodhana, Pranav pranayama and Savitri pranayama; FPG - Kapalabhati, Bhastrika and Kukkuriya pranayama) was given for 30 minutes thrice a week for 12 weeks to both slow and fast pranayama groups by certified yoga trainer. Hand grip strength (HGS) and endurance (HGE) parameters were recorded using handgrip dynamometer (Rolex, India) at baseline and after 12 weeks of pranayama training. Statistical Analysis Used: Longitudinal changes in each group were compared by using Student’s paired t-test. Delta changes in each group were analysed by ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc analysis. Results: In SPG significant improvement occurred only in HGE parameter from 83.95±45.06 to 101.62±53.87 (seconds) (p<0.001) whereas in FPG, significant improvement was observed in HGS from 33.31±9.83 to 37.9±9.41 (Kilograms) (p=0.01) as well as in HGE from 92.78±41.37 to 116.56±58.54 (seconds) (p=0.004). Using Students unpaired t-test difference between the groups in HGS is found to be 1.17±5.485 in SPG and in FPG is 4.59±7.26 (p=0.39); HGE difference in SPG is 1.77±21.17 and in FPG is 2.38±43.27 (p>0.05). Conclusion: Pranayama training decreases sympathetic activity, resulting in mental relaxation and decreased autonomic arousal thereby, decreasing force fluctuations during

  19. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  20. Inter-individual variability in adaptation of the leg muscles following a standardised endurance training programme in young women.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Williams, Alun G; Degens, Hans; Jones, David A

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable inter-individual variability in adaptations to endurance training. We hypothesised that those individuals with a low local leg-muscle peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) relative to their whole-body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) would experience greater muscle training adaptations compared to those with a relatively high VO2peak. 53 untrained young women completed one-leg cycling to measure VO2peak and two-leg cycling to measure VO2max. The one-leg VO2peak was expressed as a ratio of the two-leg VO2max (Ratio(1:2)). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to indicate quadriceps muscle volume. Measurements were taken before and after completion of 6 weeks of supervised endurance training. There was large inter-individual variability in the pre-training Ratio(1:2) and large variability in the magnitude of training adaptations. The pre-training Ratio(1:2) was not related to training-induced changes in VO2max (P = 0.441) but was inversely correlated with changes in one-leg VO2peak and muscle volume (P < 0.05). No relationship was found between the training-induced changes in two-leg VO2max and one-leg VO2peak (r = 0.21; P = 0.129). It is concluded that the local leg-muscle aerobic capacity and Ratio(1:2) vary from person to person and this influences the extent of muscle adaptations following standardised endurance training. These results help to explain why muscle adaptations vary between people and suggest that setting the training stimulus at a fixed percentage of VO2max might not be a good way to standardise the training stimulus to the leg muscles of different people. PMID:20369366

  1. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  2. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  3. Echinochrome A Improves Exercise Capacity during Short-Term Endurance Training in Rats.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; McGregor, Robin A; Noh, Su Jin; Choi, Seung Jun; Mishchenko, Natalia P; Fedoreyev, Sergey A; Stonik, Valentin A; Han, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Echinochrome A (Echi A) improves mitochondrial function in the heart; however, its effects on skeletal muscle are still unclear. We hypothesized that Echi A administration during short-term exercise may improve exercise capacity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group (CG), Echi A-treated group (EG), aerobic exercise group (AG), and aerobic exercise treated with Echi A group (AEG) (n = 6 per group). Echi A was administered intra-peritoneally (0.1 mg/kg of Echi A in 300 µL phosphate-buffered saline) daily 30 min before each exercise training. The AG and AEG groups performed treadmill running (20 m/min, 60 min/day) five days/week for two weeks. The exercise capacity was significantly higher in the AG and AEG groups compared to other groups. Interestingly, the exercise capacity increased more effectively in the AEG group. The body weight in the EG tended to be slightly lower than that in the other groups. There were no significant changes in the plasma lipids among the groups. However, the gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria content was greater in the EG and AEG groups. These findings show that Echi A administration after short-term endurance training enhances exercise capacity, which was associated with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. PMID:26371013

  4. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. PMID:25293598

  5. Could Low-Frequency Electromyostimulation Training be an Effective Alternative to Endurance Training? An Overview in One Adult

    PubMed Central

    Deley, Gaëlle; Babault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week low-frequency electromyostimulation training (10Hz) on the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. To that purpose, aerobic capacity, knee extensor muscles strength and architecture, muscle sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure and heart rate have been evaluated in one healthy male subject (33 year-old, 1.73 m, 73 kg). Results showed improvement of aerobic capacity (+4.5% and +11.5% for maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold) and muscle strength (+11% and +16% for voluntary and evoked force). Moreover, for the first time, this study demonstrated low-frequency training effects on muscle architecture (+3%, +12% and -11% for muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) and cardiovascular parameters (-22%, -18% and -21% for resting muscle sympathetic nervous activity, heart rate and mean blood pressure). Interestingly, these results suggest that this method may have beneficial effects on all systems of the body. The investigation of training effects on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters should therefore be pursued since highly deconditioned subjects are likely to fully benefit from these adaptations. Key points These results confirmed that 5 weeks of low-frequency electrical stimulation have beneficial effects on aerobic capacity and muscle strength. This study demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation applied for as short as 5 weeks have a great impact on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters and control. This type of training might therefore be interesting for rehabilitation of patients who are unable to perform endurance exercises. PMID:24790503

  6. Hemorheologic effects of low intensity endurance training in type 2 diabetic patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Fedou, Christine; Pollatz, Marion

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that low intensity endurance training in sedentary patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome improves blood rheology, mostly due to a decrease in plasma viscosity correlated with an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness. We investigated whether these findings can be extended to type-2 diabetics. 22 diabetics (11 women and 10 men, age: 52.00 ± 2.9 yr, BMI: 32.47 ± 1.17 kg/m(2)) were tested before and after 2 months. Eight of them were trained (2 to 3×45 min/wk) at the power intensity where lipid oxidation reaches a maximum (LIPOX max) and thirteen served as controls. Over this period the only significant hemorheological effect of training was a decrease in RBC aggregation "M" (-1.25 ± 0.357 p = 0.01) in the trained group. Subjects who lost weight exhibited a decrease in plasma viscosity (from 1.46 ± 0.013 to 1.38 ± 0.02 p <  0.01). Changes in waist circumference are associated with changes in hematocrit (r =-0.952 p = 0.01); plasma viscosity (r =-0.91; p = 0.03); RBC aggregation ("M" r = 0.940; p = 0.02). Subjects can also be divided into those who improved their aerobic capacity VO(2max) and those whose VO(2max) decreased or remained unchanged. An increase in VO(2max) is associated with a decrease in whole blood viscosity (r =-0.79 p = 0.06) explained by an improvement in RBC rigidity "Tk" (r =-0.963 p = 0.002). This study suggests that in Type 2 diabetic patients: (a) viscosity factors might be less responsive to training than in non diabetic individuals; (b) visceral fat loss is the main determinant of changes in hematocrit, plasma viscosity and RBC aggregation; PMID:25536915

  7. Combined effects of endurance training and dietary unsaturated fatty acids on physical performance, fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Boss, Andreas; Lecoultre, Virgile; Ruffieux, Christiane; Tappy, Luc; Schneiter, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Endurance training improves exercise performance and insulin sensitivity, and these effects may be in part mediated by an enhanced fat oxidation. Since n-3 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids may also increase fat oxidation, we hypothesised that a diet enriched in these fatty acids may enhance the effects of endurance training on exercise performance, insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. To assess this hypothesis, sixteen normal-weight sedentary male subjects were randomly assigned to an isoenergetic diet enriched with fish and olive oils (unsaturated fatty acid group (UFA): 52 % carbohydrates, 34 % fat (12 % SFA, 12 % MUFA, 5 % PUFA), 14 % protein), or a control diet (control group (CON): 62 % carbohydrates, 24 % fat (12 % SFA, 6 % MUFA, 2 % PUFA), 14 % protein) and underwent a 10 d gradual endurance training protocol. Exercise performance was evaluated by measuring VO2max and the time to exhaustion during a cycling exercise at 80 % VO2max; glucose homeostasis was assessed after ingestion of a test meal. Fat oxidation was assessed by indirect calorimetry at rest and during an exercise at 50 % VO2max. Training significantly increased time to exhaustion, but not VO2max, and lowered incremental insulin area under the curve after the test meal, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Those effects were, however, of similar magnitude in UFA and CON. Fat oxidation tended to increase in UFA, but not in CON. This difference was, however, not significant. It is concluded that a diet enriched with fish- and olive oil does not substantially enhance the effects of a short-term endurance training protocol in healthy young subjects. PMID:19948079

  8. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

  9. Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR.

    PubMed

    Kazior, Zuzanna; Willis, Sarah J; Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Calbet, José A L; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P<0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P<0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P<0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55-0.61, P<0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P<0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes. PMID:26885978

  10. Endurance Exercise Enhances the Effect of Strength Training on Muscle Fiber Size and Protein Expression of Akt and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Kazior, Zuzanna; Willis, Sarah J.; Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Calbet, José A. L.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Reports concerning the effect of endurance exercise on the anabolic response to strength training have been contradictory. This study re-investigated this issue, focusing on training effects on indicators of protein synthesis and degradation. Two groups of male subjects performed 7 weeks of resistance exercise alone (R; n = 7) or in combination with preceding endurance exercise, including both continuous and interval cycling (ER; n = 9). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after the training period. Similar increases in leg-press 1 repetition maximum (30%; P<0.05) were observed in both groups, whereas maximal oxygen uptake was elevated (8%; P<0.05) only in the ER group. The ER training enlarged the areas of both type I and type II fibers, whereas the R protocol increased only the type II fibers. The mean fiber area increased by 28% (P<0.05) in the ER group, whereas no significant increase was observed in the R group. Moreover, expression of Akt and mTOR protein was enhanced in the ER group, whereas only the level of mTOR was elevated following R training. Training-induced alterations in the levels of both Akt and mTOR protein were correlated to changes in type I fiber area (r = 0.55–0.61, P<0.05), as well as mean fiber area (r = 0.55–0.61, P<0.05), reflecting the important role played by these proteins in connection with muscle hypertrophy. Both training regimes reduced the level of MAFbx protein (P<0.05) and tended to elevate that of MuRF-1. The present findings indicate that the larger hypertrophy observed in the ER group is due more to pronounced stimulation of anabolic rather than inhibition of catabolic processes. PMID:26885978

  11. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology. PMID:25128327

  12. The effects of postexercise consumption of a kefir beverage on performance and recovery during intensive endurance training.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K V; Stewart, L K; Forney, L A; Aryana, K J; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Boeneke, C A

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether kefir accentuates the positive health benefits assessed by measures in fitness, body composition, or both, as a measure of cardiovascular disease risk as well as the biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty-seven adult males and females aged 18 to 24 yr were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) endurance training + control beverage, (2) endurance training +kefir beverage,(3) active control + control beverage, or (4) active control + kefir beverage. The exercise groups completed 15 wk of structured endurancetraining while the active control groups maintained their usual exercise routine. Additionally, each group was assigned to either a kefir or a calorie/macronutrient matched placebo beverage that was consumed twice per week. No significant interactions were found among groups with respect to outcome variables with the exception of serum CRP. The endurance training was effective in improving 1.5-mile (2.41 km) times and kefir supplementation may have been a factor in attenuating the increase in CRP that was observed over the course of the intervention period. This preliminary study suggests that kefir may be involved in improving the risk profile for cardiovascular disease as defined by CRP. PMID:26298752

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS PERFORMED AT GIVEN INTENSITIES IS DIFFERENT IN ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINED ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Richens, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete's training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum) and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) of their one repetition maximum but not at 90% (10.8 ± 3.9 versus 7.0 ± 2.1; p > 0.05) of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes. PMID:24899782

  14. Differentiated mTOR but not AMPK signaling after strength vs endurance exercise in training-accustomed individuals.

    PubMed

    Vissing, K; McGee, S L; Farup, J; Kjølhede, T; Vendelbo, M H; Jessen, N

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adenosine mono phosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) vs Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin C1 (mTORC1) protein signaling mechanisms on converting differentiated exercise into training specific adaptations is not well-established. To investigate this, human subjects were divided into endurance, strength, and non-exercise control groups. Data were obtained before and during post-exercise recovery from single-bout exercise, conducted with an exercise mode to which the exercise subjects were accustomed through 10 weeks of prior training. Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for plasma substrates and hormones and for muscle markers of AMPK and Akt-mTORC1 protein signaling. Increases in plasma glucose, insulin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and in phosphorylated muscle phospho-Akt substrate (PAS) of 160 kDa, mTOR, 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and glycogen synthase kinase 3a were observed after strength exercise. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK, histone deacetylase5 (HDAC5), cAMP response element-binding protein, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was observed after endurance exercise, but not differently from after strength exercise. No changes in protein phosphorylation were observed in non-exercise controls. Endurance training produced an increase in maximal oxygen uptake and a decrease in submaximal exercise heart rate, while strength training produced increases in muscle cross-sectional area and strength. No changes in basal levels of signaling proteins were observed in response to training. The results support that in training-accustomed individuals, mTORC1 signaling is preferentially activated after hypertrophy-inducing exercise, while AMPK signaling is less specific for differentiated exercise. PMID:23802289

  15. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  16. Physiological effects of acute and ordinary bed rest conditions on endurance trained volunteers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Y. G.; Ivanov, A. A.; Madvedev, S. N.; Kakurin, A. G.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative study of water balance and water protein composition of the blood during exposure to acute (abrupt restriction of motor activity) and ordinary rigorous bed rest of 7 days. The studies were performed on 30 long distance runners aged 22-25 years old who had a VO 2 max of 66 ml kg -1·min -1 on the average. The volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the volunteers in the 1st group were under a normal ambulatory life conditions (control subjects), the volunteers of the 2nd group subjected to an acute bed rest (abrupt restriction of motor activity) regime (acute bed rested subjects) and the volunteers of the 3rd group were submitted to ordinary and rigorous bed rest (rigorous bed rested subjects). All volunteers were on an average of 13.8 km/day before taking part in this investigation. The 2nd and 3rd groups of volunteers were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 7 days. During the prebed rest period and actual bed rest period plasma volume (PV), total protein and protein fractions (albumins and globulins) and hematocrit were measured. Exposure to acute bed rest conditions induced a significant increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, protein fractions and marked decrease in (PV) and water balance which were significantly more pronounced than during exposure to ordinary rigorous bed rest. It was concluded that exposure to acute bed rest conditions induces significantly greater changes in water balance and water-protein concentration of the blood of endurance trained volunteers than exposure to ordinary rigorous bed rest conditions.

  17. Muscle-specific VEGF deficiency greatly reduces exercise endurance in mice.

    PubMed

    Olfert, I Mark; Howlett, Richard A; Tang, Kechun; Dalton, Nancy D; Gu, Yusu; Peterson, Kirk L; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2009-04-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is required for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during embryonic and early postnatal life. However the organ-specific functional role of VEGF in adult life, particularly in skeletal muscle, is less clear. To explore this issue, we engineered skeletal muscle-targeted VEGF deficient mice (mVEGF-/-) by crossbreeding mice that selectively express Cre recombinase in skeletal muscle under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter (MCKcre mice) with mice having a floxed VEGF gene (VEGFLoxP mice). We hypothesized that VEGF is necessary for regulating both cardiac and skeletal muscle capillarity, and that a reduced number of VEGF-dependent muscle capillaries would limit aerobic exercise capacity. In adult mVEGF-/- mice, VEGF protein levels were reduced by 90 and 80% in skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) and cardiac muscle, respectively, compared to control mice (P < 0.01). This was accompanied by a 48% (P < 0.05) and 39% (P < 0.05) decreases in the capillary-to-fibre ratio and capillary density, respectively, in the gastrocnemius and a 61% decrease in cardiac muscle capillary density (P < 0.05). Hindlimb muscle oxidative (citrate synthase, 21%; beta-HAD, 32%) and glycolytic (PFK, 18%) regulatory enzymes were also increased in mVEGF-/- mice. However, this limited adaptation to reduced muscle VEGF was insufficient to maintain aerobic exercise capacity, and maximal running speed and endurance running capacity were reduced by 34% and 81%, respectively, in mVEGF-/- mice compared to control mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, basal and dobutamine-stimulated cardiac function, measured by transthoracic echocardiography and left ventricular micromanomtery, showed only a minimal reduction of contractility (peak +dP/dt) and relaxation (peak -dP/dt, tau(E)). Collectively these data suggests adequate locomotor muscle capillary number is important for achieving full exercise capacity. Furthermore, VEGF is essential in regulating postnatal muscle

  18. Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-07-01

    Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart. PMID:24866583

  19. Fibre-Specific Responses to Endurance and Low Volume High Intensity Interval Training: Striking Similarities in Acute and Chronic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Scribbans, Trisha D.; Edgett, Brittany A.; Vorobej, Kira; Mitchell, Andrew S.; Joanisse, Sophie D.; Matusiak, Jennifer B. L.; Parise, Gianni; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END) in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week), on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7±3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9±5.1 mL/kg/min) reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼65% of VO2peak), immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (p<0.05) reduced, while p-ACC was significantly increased (p<0.05) following both protocols. Nineteen recreationally active males (n = 16) and females (n = 3) were VO2peak-matched and assigned to either the LV-HIT (n = 10; 21±2 yrs) or END (n = 9; 20.7±3.8 yrs) group for experiment 2. After 6 weeks, both training protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3±6.0, Mid: 51.8±6.0, Post: 55.0±6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9±8.1, Mid: 50.4±7.4, Post: 54.7±7.6 mL/kg/min), fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation); correspondingly, training

  20. ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINING OUTCOMES ON COGNITIVELY IMPAIRED AND COGNITIVELY INTACT OLDER ADULTS: A META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    HEYN, P.C.; JOHNSON, K.E.; KRAMER, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dementia is a common syndrome in the geriatric population. Subsequent impairment of cognitive functioning impacts the patient’s mobility, ADLs, and IADLs. It is suggested that older persons with lower levels of cognition are less likely to achieve independence in ADLs and ambulation (1–2). Frequently, nursing home residents are viewed as too frail or cognitively impaired to benefit from exercise rehabilitation. Often, persons with Mini Mental State Score (MMSE) score below 25 are excluded from physical rehabilitation programs. However, Diamond (3) and Goldstein (4) concluded that geriatric patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment were just as likely as cognitively intact patients to improve in functional abilities as a result of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs. Purpose The objective of this study is to compare, through a meta-analysis endurance and strength outcomes of Cognitively Impaired (MMSE <23) and Cognitively Intact (MMSE >24) older adults who participate in similar exercise programs. Methods Published articles were identified by using electronic and manual searches. Key search words included exercise, training, strength, endurance, rehabilitation, cognitive impairment, cognition, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), older adult, aged, and geriatrics. Articles were included if the were from RCTs or well-designed control studies. Results A total of 41 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. We examined 21 exercise trials with cognitively impaired individuals (CI=1411) and 20 exercise trials with cognitively intact individuals (IN=1510). Degree of cognitive impairment is based on the reported MMSE score. Moderate to large effect sizes (ES = dwi, Hedges gi) were found for strength and endurance outcomes for the CI groups (dwi = .51, 95% CI=. 42–.60), and for the IN groups (dwi =. 49, 95% CI=. 40 –.58). No statistically significant difference in ES was found between the CI and IN studies on strength (t=1.675, DF= 8, P

  1. Effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in the hepatic tissue of trained rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qi; Miao, Xinfang; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue. PMID:24116026

  2. Effects of individualized versus group task-oriented circuit training on balance ability and gait endurance in chronic stroke inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bonggil; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Lee, Haelim; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of task-oriented circuit training on the balance ability and gait endurance of chronic stroke inpatients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 30 patients who had stroke >6 months previously, resulting in a disability such as hemiparesis. The participants were randomly divided into the group task-oriented circuit training group and the individual task-oriented circuit-training group. They performed eight types of modified task-oriented training. Balance ability and gait endurance were measured by using the Berg balance scale questionnaire and the 6-min walk test, respectively, before and after the experiment. [Results] Significant differences were observed between before and after the intervention in all variables. There was a significant difference between groups in Berg balance scale scores; however, no significant differences were seen in the timed up and go test and the 6-min walk test. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that group exercise can better improve the balance ability of chronic stroke inpatients after stroke than can individualized exercise intervention. PMID:27390437

  3. Relationship between muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake during exercise in endurance-trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2005-01-01

    A recent study showed good correlation between regional blood flow (BF) and oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) 30 min after exhaustive exercise. The question that remains open is whether there is similar good correlation between BF and Vo(2) also during exercise. We reanalyzed our previous data from a study in which BF and Vo(2) was measured in different quadriceps femoris muscles in seven healthy endurance-trained and seven healthy untrained men at rest and during low-intensity intermittent static knee-extension exercise (Kalliokoski KK, Oikonen V, Takala TO, Sipila H, Knuuti J, and Nuutila P. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280: E1015-E1021, 2001). When the mean values of each muscle were considered, there was good correlation between BF and Vo(2) during exercise in both groups (r(2) = 0.82 in untrained and 0.97 in trained). However, when calculated individually, the correlations were poorer, and the mean correlation coefficient (r(2)) was significantly higher in the trained men (0.71 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.11, P = 0.03). These results suggest that there is large individual variation in matching BF to Vo(2) in human skeletal muscles during exercise, ranging from very poor to excellent. Furthermore, this matching seems to be better in the endurance-trained than in untrained men. PMID:15347632

  4. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements. PMID:25559905

  5. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  6. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  7. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  8. Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter Isoforms in Rat Skeletal Muscle Under Hypoxic Preconditioning and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    Previously, we have reported the regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT)1 and MCT4 by physiological stimuli such as hypoxia and exercise. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of hypoxic preconditioning and training on expression of different MCT isoforms in muscles. We found the increased mRNA expression of MCT1, MCT11, and MCT12 after hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt chloride and training. However, the expression of other MCT isoforms increased marginally or even reduced after hypoxic preconditioning. Only the protein expression of MCT1 increased after hypoxia preconditioning. MCT2 protein expression increased after training only and MCT4 protein expression decreased both in preconditioning and hypoxic training. Furthermore, we found decreased plasma lactate level during hypoxia preconditioning (0.74-fold), exercise (0.78-fold), and hypoxia preconditioning along with exercise (0.67-fold), which indicates increased lactate uptake by skeletal muscle. The protein-protein interactions with hypoxia inducible factor-1 and MCT isoforms were also evaluated, but no interaction was found. In conclusion, we say that almost all MCTs are expressed in red gastrocnemius muscle at the mRNA level and their expression is regulated differently under hypoxia preconditioning and exercise condition. PMID:26716978

  9. Effect of short-term endurance training on exercise capacity, haemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Geny, B; Saini, J; Mettauer, B; Lampert, E; Piquard, F; Follenius, M; Epailly, E; Schnedecker, B; Eisenmann, B; Haberey, P; Lonsdorfer, J

    1996-01-01

    Exercise tolerance of heart transplant patients is often limited. Central and peripheral factors have been proposed to explain such exercise limitation but, to date, the leading factors remain to be determined. We examined how a short-term endurance exercise training programme may improve exercise capacity after heart transplantation, and whether atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise training by minimizing ischaemia and/or cardiac and circulatory congestion through its vasodilatation and haemoconcentration properties. Seven heart transplant recipients performed a square-wave endurance exercise test before and after 6 weeks of supervised training, while monitoring haemodynamic parameters, ANP and catecholamine concentrations. After training, the maximal tolerated power and the total mechanical work load increased from 130.4 (SEM 6.5) to 150.0 (SEM 6.0) W (P < 0.05) and from 2.05 (SEM 0.1) to 3.58 (SEM 0.14) kJ.kg-1 (P < 0.001). Resting heart rate decreased from 100.0 (SEM 3.4) to 92.4 (SEM 3.5) beats.min-1 (P < 0.05) but resting and exercise induced increases in cardiac output, stroke volume, right atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, systemic and pulmonary artery pressures were not significantly changed by training. Exercise-induced decrease of systemic vascular resistance was similar before and after training. After training arterio-venous differences in oxygen content were similar but maximal lactate concentrations decreased from 6.20 (SEM 0.55) to 4.88 (SEM 0.6) mmol.l-1 (P < 0.05) during exercise. Similarly, maximal exercise noradrenaline concentration tended to decrease from 2060 (SEM 327) to 1168 (SEM 227) pg.ml-1. A significant correlation was observed between lactate and catecholamines concentrations. The ANP concentration at rest and the exercise-induced ANP concentration did not change throughout the experiment [104.8 (SEM 13.1) pg.ml-1 vs 116.0 (SEM 13.5) pg.ml-1 and 200.0 (SEM 23.0) pg.ml-1 vs 206

  10. Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, J D; Abbott, M J; Brinkworth, G D; Whyte, P B D

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the effect of supplementation with concentrated bovine colostrum protein powder (intact) on plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations, endurance running performance and recovery. Thirty physically active males completed 8 weeks of running training whilst consuming 60 g x day(-1) of intact powder (n=17) or a concentrated whey protein powder placebo (n=13) in a randomised, double-blind, parallel design. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were measured prior to subjects performing two (approximately 30 min) incremental treadmill running tests to exhaustion (RUN1 and RUN2) separated by 20 min of passive recovery at Weeks 0. 4 and 8. Plasma IGF-I concentrations showed little change in either group (p=0.83). Effective peak running speed (PRSE; i.e. equivalent of peak power) during RUN1 was not different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99), and had increased by a similar amount in both groups by Week 4 (mean+/-SD, intact 2.2+/-4.0%, placebo 3.2+/-3.3%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI 15.7 to -13.7%; p=0.89) and Week 8 (intact 3.6+/-5.6%, placebo 3.4+/-4.4 %; 95% CI -100.0 to 100.0%; p>0.99). PRSE was less in both groups during RUN2 (p<0.05), but was not significantly different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99). PRSE during RUN2 tended to have increased more in the placebo group by Week 4 (intact 1.8+/-4.8%, placebo 4.2+/-3.9%; 95% CI 0.2 to -5 0%; p=0.07), but the intact group had increased PRSE significantly more by Week 8 (intact 4.6+/-6.1%, placebo 2.0+/-4.5%; 95% Cl 0.0 to 5.2%; p=0.05). resulting in a significantly faster PRSE (p=0.003). We conclude that supplementation with intact powder did not increase plasma IGF-I concentrations or improve performance during an initial bout of incremental running to exhaustion in our sample. However, performance during a second bout of exercise may be improved by as much as 5.2% in the average subject after 8 weeks of supplementation, possibly due to an enhancement of recovery. PMID:12188088

  11. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements. PMID:25559903

  12. Effect of unilateral, bilateral, and combined plyometric training on explosive and endurance performance of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Burgos, Carlos H; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance, and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 years) were divided into control group (CG; n = 14), bilateral group (BG; n = 12), unilateral group (UG; n = 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B + UG; n = 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test, 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index, maximal kicking velocity, sprint and agility test time, endurance, and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2,160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B + UG showed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, whereas the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral, and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements. PMID:25474338

  13. Comparison of Two Kinds of Endurance Training Programs on the Effects of the Ability to Recover in Amateur Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intensity intermittent aerobic exercise is an elementary endurance training exercise to build soccer endurance. Many studies exist with professional soccer players. But limited research has been conducted with amateur soccer players. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the effects of the shuttle-run method and the Hoff-track method on the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within three weeks. Patients and Methods: Two amateur soccer teams were randomly assigned to shuttle-run group (n = 24; SRG) (SRG: shuttle-run group) or Hoff-track group (n = 18; HTG) (HTG: hoff-track group). They performed 2 times/week over three weeks their program. SRG performed a 20 m high speed shuttle-run until exhaustion and HTG covered at their highest speed level an obstacle track. Before and after training the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) was conducted. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.05) and between the groups (P = 0.06; ES = 0.50) in distance covering during YYIRTL2. Conclusions: Both training methods seem to improve the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within a short time period during the competition season. PMID:26448831

  14. Decrease in rat cardiac beta sub 1 - and beta sub 2 - adrenoceptors by training and endurance exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Werle, E.O.; Strobel, G.; Weicker, H. )

    1990-01-01

    The cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptor adaptation to physical activity was investigated in rats which were subjected to a six-week endurance swimming training (ET; n=7) and a training of high intensity (MT; n=7). In addition, the effect of a single bout of endurance exercise without preceding training (EE; n=7) was evaluated. These groups were compared with a sedentary control group (C; n=9). Beta-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardial membranes were labelled using the high affinity antagonist radioligand (-){sup 125}iodocyanopindolol (ICYP). Computer modelling techniques provided estimates of the maximal binding capacity (B{sub max}) and the dissociation constants (K{sub D}). Tissue was constantly kept at temperatures of {le}4{degrees}C and incubated at 4{degrees}C for 18 h in buffer containing 100 {mu}M GTP so as to prevent masking of {beta}-adrenoceptors by endogenous norepinephrine. In comparison with the C group computerized coanalyses of saturation binding data of ET, MT, and EE revealed a 13.0%, 25.5%, and 16.6% decrease in B{sub max}, respectively, without significantly differing K{sub D} values. We provide the first evidence that acute exercise lowers the sarcolemmal {beta}-adrenoceptor number in the rat heart. In the competition radioligand binding, CGP20712A and ICI118.551 were employed as subtype-selective antagonists of {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors, respectively, to determine the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes.

  15. Vitamin C and E supplementation hampers cellular adaptation to endurance training in humans: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Holden, Geir; Hallén, Jostein; Rønnestad, Bent Ronny; Sveen, Ole; Skaug, Arne; Paur, Ingvild; Bastani, Nasser E; Østgaard, Hege Nymo; Buer, Charlotte; Midttun, Magnus; Freuchen, Fredrik; Wiig, Håvard; Ulseth, Elisabeth Tallaksen; Garthe, Ina; Blomhoff, Rune; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2014-01-01

    In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endurance training adaptations in humans. Fifty-four young men and women were randomly allocated to receive either 1000 mg of vitamin C and 235 mg of vitamin E or a placebo daily for 11 weeks. During supplementation, the participants completed an endurance training programme consisting of three to four sessions per week (primarily of running), divided into high-intensity interval sessions [4–6 × 4–6 min; >90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] and steady state continuous sessions (30–60 min; 70–90% of HRmax). Maximal oxygen uptake (), submaximal running and a 20 m shuttle run test were assessed and blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected, before and after the intervention. Participants in the vitamin C and E group increased their (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5%) and performance in the 20 m shuttle test (10 ± 11%) to the same degree as those in the placebo group (mean ± s.d.: 8 ± 5% and 14 ± 17%, respectively). However, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX4) and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) increased in the m. vastus lateralis in the placebo group by 59 ± 97% and 19 ± 51%, respectively, but not in the vitamin C and E group (COX4: −13 ± 54%; PGC-1α: −13 ± 29%; P ≤ 0.03, between groups). Furthermore, mRNA levels of CDC42 and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) in the trained muscle were lower in the vitamin C and E group than in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Daily vitamin C and E supplementation attenuated increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance training. However, no clear interactions were detected for improvements in and running performance. Consequently, vitamin C and E supplementation hampered cellular adaptations in the exercised muscles, and although this did not translate to

  16. Influence of arterial wave reflection on carotid blood pressure and intima-media thickness in older endurance trained men and women with pre-hypertension.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Tomayko, Emily; Ishaque, Muhammad R; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2009-05-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) with aging is a significant predictor of mortality. Older endurance trained (ET) individuals have lower carotid artery stiffness but similar carotid IMT when compared to sedentary (SED) age-matched peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of arterial wave reflections to carotid hemodynamics and IMT in older ET and SED with pre-hypertension. Subjects consisted of endurance-trained master athletes and age-matched sedentary controls (mean age 67 years). Carotid artery Beta-stiffness index and IMT was assessed with ultrasonography. Carotid pressure and augmented pressure from wave reflections (obtained from pulse contour analysis) was measured with applanation tonometry. Carotid systolic blood pressure (SBP) and IMT were not different between groups (P>0.05). Carotid stiffness was significantly lower in ET versus SED (7.3 +/- 0.8 versus 9.9 +/- 0.6, P<0.05). Augmented pressure was significantly greater in ET versus SED (17.7 +/- 1.6 versus 13.3 +/- 1.5 mmHg, P<0.05). When adjusting for differences in resting heart rate, there were no group differences in augmented pressure. In conclusion, older ET persons with pre-hypertension have reduced carotid artery stiffness, but similar carotid SBP and carotid IMT when compared to SED. The lack of change in carotid SBP and IMT in older ET may be related to the inability of chronic exercise training to reduce bradycardia-related augmented pressure from wave reflections with aging. PMID:19236433

  17. Isokinetic strength and endurance during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bulbulian, R.; Bond, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle ergometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  18. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance During 30-day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bond, M.; Bulbulian, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle orgometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  19. The effect of low- vs high-cadence interval training on the freely chosen cadence and performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Anthony G; Murphy, Aron J; Coutts, Aaron J; Watsford, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high- and low-cadence interval training on the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and performance in endurance-trained cyclists. Sixteen male endurance-trained cyclists completed a series of submaximal rides at 60% maximal power (Wmax) at cadences of 50, 70, 90, and 110 r·min(-1), and their FCC to determine their preferred cadence, gross efficiency (GE), rating of perceived exertion, and crank torque profile. Performance was measured via a 15-min time trial, which was preloaded with a cycle at 60% Wmax. Following the testing, the participants were randomly assigned to a high-cadence (HC) (20% above FCC) or a low-cadence (LC) (20% below FCC) group for 18 interval-based training sessions over 6 weeks. The HC group increased their FCC from 92 to 101 r·min(-1) after the intervention (p = 0.01), whereas the LC group remained unchanged (93 r·min(-1)). GE increased from 22.7% to 23.6% in the HC group at 90 r·min(-1) (p = 0.05), from 20.0% to 20.9% at 110 r·min(-1) (p = 0.05), and from 22.8% to 23.2% at their FCC. Both groups significantly increased their total distance and average power output following training, with the LC group recording a superior performance measure. There were minimal changes to the crank torque profile in both groups following training. This study demonstrated that the FCC can be altered with HC interval training and that the determinants of the optimal cycling cadence are multifactorial and not completely understood. Furthermore, LC interval training may significantly improve time-trial results of short duration as a result of an increase in strength development or possible neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:27175601

  20. Square-wave endurance exercise test (SWEET) for training and assessment in trained and untrained subjects. II. Blood gases and acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, M; Servera, E; Saunier, C; Lacoste, J

    1982-01-01

    In order to obtain information about physiological and homeostasic responses at the maximal Intensity of Endurance of the 45 min "Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test" (MIE45), three arterial blood samples were taken: (a) at rest; (b) at the 45th min of the SWEET; (c) after 15 min of recovery, to measure paO2, paCO2, [H+], [Hb], and [lactate] in 14 normal male subjects: four trained (T) six well trained (WT) and four others untrained (U). Total mechanical work (TMW) corresponding to MIE45 was significantly higher (mean +/- SEM) respectively in WT (9.22 +/- 0.65 kJ . kg-1, p less than 0.001), than in T (7.17 +/- 0.18 kJ . kg-1, p less than 0.01) and U subjects (4.44 +/- 0.36, p less than 0.001). Because of this the lactate level, which rose significantly during exercise, differed between U and WT subjects (p less than 0.05). In spite of the exhaustive character of the MIE45, [H+] and paO2 remained within the range of normal values. These results suggest that trained and untrained subjects can be trained with the exhausting MIE45 exercise while maintaining a constant [H+] and paO2 at the 45th min of exercise. PMID:6814907

  1. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Katelyn N; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40-70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  2. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  3. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals.

    PubMed

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Clasen, Berthil Forrest; Schjerling, Peter; Vissing, Kristian; Jessen, Niels

    2013-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is considered an important role in the muscular adaptations to exercise. It has been proposed that exercise-induced signaling to mTORC1 do not require classic growth factor PI3K/Akt signaling. Activation of IKKβ and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Erk1/2 and p38 has been suggested to link inflammation and cellular stress to activation of mTORC1 through the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1)/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) complex. Consequently, activation of these proteins constitutes potential alternative mechanisms of mTORC1 activation following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK), TSC1, MAPK, and upstream Akt activators, along with gene expression of selected cytokines, in skeletal muscles from these subjects. Biopsies were sampled prior to, immediately after, and in the recovery period following resistance exercise, endurance exercise, and control interventions. The major finding was that IKKβ phosphorylation increased exclusively after resistance exercise. No changes in TSC1, Erk1/2, insulin receptor, or insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation were observed in any of the groups, while p38 phosphorylation was higher in the resistance exercise group compared to both other groups immediately after the intervention. Resistance and endurance exercise increased IL6, IL8, and TNFα gene expression immediately after exercise. The non-exercise control group demonstrated that cytokine gene expression is also sensitive to repeated biopsy sampling, whereas no effect of repeated biopsy sampling on protein expression and phosphorylation was observed. In conclusion, resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, increases IKKβ phosphorylation in trained

  4. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training increase net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown and expression of perilipin 2 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, S O; Cocks, M; Tipton, K D; Ranasinghe, A M; Barker, T A; Burniston, J G; Wagenmakers, A J M; Shaw, C S

    2013-01-01

    Intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) utilization is enhanced by endurance training (ET) and is linked to improved insulin sensitivity. This study first investigated the hypothesis that ET-induced increases in net IMTG breakdown and insulin sensitivity are related to increased expression of perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and perilipin 5 (PLIN5). Second, we hypothesized that sprint interval training (SIT) also promotes increases in IMTG utilization and insulin sensitivity. Sixteen sedentary males performed 6 weeks of either SIT (4–6, 30 s Wingate tests per session, 3 days week−1) or ET (40–60 min moderate-intensity cycling, 5 days week−1). Training increased resting IMTG content (SIT 1.7-fold, ET 2.4-fold; P < 0.05), concomitant with parallel increases in PLIN2 (SIT 2.3-fold, ET 2.8-fold; P < 0.01) and PLIN5 expression (SIT 2.2-fold, ET 3.1-fold; P < 0.01). Pre-training, 60 min cycling at ∼65% pre-training decreased IMTG content in type I fibres (SIT 17 ± 10%, ET 15 ± 12%; P < 0.05). Following training, a significantly greater breakdown of IMTG in type I fibres occurred during exercise (SIT 27 ± 13%, ET 43 ± 6%; P < 0.05), with preferential breakdown of PLIN2- and particularly PLIN5-associated lipid droplets. Training increased the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (SIT 56 ± 15%, ET 29 ± 12%; main effect P < 0.05). No training × group interactions were observed for any variables. In conclusion, SIT and ET both increase net IMTG breakdown during exercise and increase in PLIN2 and PLIN5 protein expression. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that increases in PLIN2 and PLIN5 are related to the mechanisms that promote increased IMTG utilization during exercise and improve insulin sensitivity following 6 weeks of SIT and ET. PMID:23129790

  5. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and pine needle group; HCPE: high-cholesterol and pine needle diet with exercise training group, respectively. Each group consisted of seven Sprague-Dawley male rats. The swim-training groups, EX, HCE, and HCPE swam in the swim pool 60 min/d and 5 d/week for 5 weeks. During the rearing periods, freeze-dried pine needle powder mix with 5% of the high cholesterol diet was supplied to the HCP and HCPE groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was used as the skeletal muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacities. Finally, p53, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), caspase-3 protein expression was analyzed to determine antiapoptotic ability. [Results] MDA showed low content in HCPE compared to the HC. Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, and GPx protein expression was significantly increased by pine needle ingestion and/or exercise training. In addition, suppression of p53 protein expression resulted in Bcl-2 increase followed by caspase-3 decrease with/without pine needle ingestion and exercise training. [Conclusion] When exercise training in addition to pine needle powder ingestion may be a helpful nutritional regimen to athletes and exercisers. PMID:25566467

  6. "Functional" Respiratory Muscle Training During Endurance Exercise Causes Modest Hypoxemia but Overall is Well Tolerated.

    PubMed

    Granados, Jorge; Gillum, Trevor L; Castillo, Weston; Christmas, Kevin M; Kuennen, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    A novel commercial training mask purportedly allows for combined respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise. We examined the mask's ability to deliver on this claim. Ten men completed three bouts of treadmill exercise at a matched workload (60%VO2peak) in a controlled laboratory environment. During exercise, the mask was worn in 2 manufacturer-defined settings (9,000 ft [9K] and 15,000 ft [15K]) and a Sham configuration (∼3,500 ft). Ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume (V(T)), respiratory rate (R(R)), expired oxygen (F(E)O2) and carbon dioxide (F(E)CO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (S(P)O2), heart rate, and RPE were measured each minute during exercise, and subjects completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) immediately after. The mask caused a reduction in V(E) of ∼20 L/min in both the 9K and 15K configurations (p < 0.001). This was due to a reduction in R(R) of ∼10 b·min, but not V(T), which was elevated by ∼250 ml (p < 0.001). F(E)O2 was reduced and F(E)CO2 was elevated above Sham in both 9K and 15K (p < 0.001). VO2 was not different across conditions (p = 0.210), but VCO2 trended lower at 9K (p = 0.093) and was reduced at 15K (p = 0.016). V(E)/VO2 was 18.3% lower than Sham at 9K and 19.2% lower at 15K. V(E)/VCO2 was 16.2% lower than Sham at 9K and 18.8% lower at 15K (all p < 0.001). Heart rate increased with exercise (p < 0.001) but was not different among conditions (p = 0.285). S(P)O2 averaged 94% in Sham, 91% at 9K, and 89% at 15K (p < 0.001). RPE and BAI were also higher in 9K and 15K (p < 0.010), but there was no difference among mask conditions. The training mask caused inadequate hyperventilation that led to arterial hypoxemia and psychological discomfort, but the magnitude of these responses were small and they did not vary across mask configurations. PMID:26340471

  7. Facilitation of descending excitatory and spinal inhibitory networks from training of endurance and precision walking in participants with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zewdie, Ephrem T; Roy, Francois D; Yang, Jaynie F; Gorassini, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), training of walking function that emphasizes both endurance and speed may produce different changes in spared neural pathways compared to precision training that emphasizes walking over obstacles and precise placement of the foot. To examine this, 16 participants with iSCI received 2 months of endurance or precision training, in random order, with 2 months of rest before crossing-over to the other type of training. Both forms of training increased the maximum motor-evoked potential (MEPmax) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex, but only in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles that had small (<0.5 mV) MEPmax values before training, no matter when the specific type of training was performed. A similar pattern of training-induced increases in maximum voluntary contractions was also observed. Although walking function was improved by both forms of training, a positive correlation between MEPmax and clinical measures of walking function only occurred after endurance training. Endurance and precision training also increased the excitability of inhibitory spinal networks, as demonstrated by an increase in the suppression of TA MEPs by a prior, low-threshold stimulation to the common peroneal nerve and by increases in the inhibitory component of the cutaneomuscular reflex. The increase in the descending excitation of the spinal cord and the increase in excitability of inhibitory spinal networks may mediate the improved volitional control of walking and reduction of involuntary muscle spasticity, respectively, that are observed in response to intensive motor training in participants with incomplete spinal cord injury. PMID:25890135

  8. Mechanisms of Attenuation of Pulmonary V’O2 Slow Component in Humans after Prolonged Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zoladz, Jerzy A.; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V’O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V’O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V’O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V’O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V’O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V’O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V’O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ‘‘additional” ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346

  9. Mechanisms of Attenuation of Pulmonary V'O2 Slow Component in Humans after Prolonged Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V'O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V'O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V'O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V'O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V'O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V'O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V'O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ''additional" ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346

  10. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  11. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  12. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  13. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population. PMID:26565019

  14. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply "more is better." Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and improved

  15. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD. PMID:26579947

  16. Altered response of protein synthesis to nutritional state and endurance training in old rats.

    PubMed

    Mosoni, L; Valluy, M C; Serrurier, B; Prugnaud, J; Obled, C; Guezennec, C Y; Mirand, P P

    1995-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the loss of muscle protein mass during aging could be explained by a reduced sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis to feeding and exercise. Male Wistar rats aged 12 and 24 mo were exercised by treadmill running for 4 mo. Protein synthesis was measured by the flooding dose method in tibialis anterior, soleus, and liver of conscious rested, trained rats and age-matched controls in the postprandial or in the postabsorptive state. No marked change with age could be detected in basal muscle protein synthesis. In contrast, protein synthesis was stimulated in adult but not in old rats by feeding in tibialis anterior and by exercise in soleus. In liver, protein synthesis was not modified by age but was stimulated by feeding and by exercise, which improved the response to feeding. We conclude that the impact of nutrition on muscle protein synthesis is blunted in old age, which could contribute to the age-related loss of nutrition-sensitive muscle proteins. PMID:7864110

  17. The effect of cumulative endurance exercise on leptin and adiponectin and their role as markers to monitor training load.

    PubMed

    Voss, S C; Nikolovski, Z; Bourdon, P C; Alsayrafi, M; Schumacher, Y O

    2016-03-01

    Leptin and adiponectin play an essential role in energy metabolism. Leptin has also been proposed as a marker for monitoring training load. So far, no studies have investigated the variability of these hormones in athletes and how they are regulated during cumulative exercise. This study monitored leptin and adiponectin in 15 endurance athletes twice daily in the days before, during and after a 9-day simulated cycling stage race. Adiponectin significantly increased during the race (p = 0.001) and recovery periods (p = 0.002) when compared to the baseline, while leptin decreased significantly during the race (p < 0.0001) and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period. Intra-individual variability was substantially lower than inter-individual variability for both hormones (leptin 34.1 vs. 53.5%, adiponectin 19% vs. 37.2%). With regards to exercise, this study demonstrated that with sufficient, sustained energy expenditure, leptin concentrations can decrease within the first 24 hours. Under the investigated conditions there also appears to be an optimal leptin concentration which ensures stable energy homeostasis, as there was no significant decrease over the subsequent race days. In healthy endurance athletes the recovery of leptin takes 48-72 hours and may even show a supercompensation-like effect. For adiponectin, significant increases were observed within 5 days of commencing racing, with these elevated values failing to return to baseline levels after 3 days of recovery. Additionally, when using leptin and adiponectin to monitor training loads, establishing individual threshold values improves their sensitivity. PMID:26985130

  18. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Polyviou, Thelma P; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  19. The effect of cumulative endurance exercise on leptin and adiponectin and their role as markers to monitor training load

    PubMed Central

    Nikolovski, Z; Bourdon, PC; Alsayrafi, M; Schumacher, YO

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin play an essential role in energy metabolism. Leptin has also been proposed as a marker for monitoring training load. So far, no studies have investigated the variability of these hormones in athletes and how they are regulated during cumulative exercise. This study monitored leptin and adiponectin in 15 endurance athletes twice daily in the days before, during and after a 9-day simulated cycling stage race. Adiponectin significantly increased during the race (p = 0.001) and recovery periods (p = 0.002) when compared to the baseline, while leptin decreased significantly during the race (p < 0.0001) and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period. Intra-individual variability was substantially lower than inter-individual variability for both hormones (leptin 34.1 vs. 53.5%, adiponectin 19% vs. 37.2%). With regards to exercise, this study demonstrated that with sufficient, sustained energy expenditure, leptin concentrations can decrease within the first 24 hours. Under the investigated conditions there also appears to be an optimal leptin concentration which ensures stable energy homeostasis, as there was no significant decrease over the subsequent race days. In healthy endurance athletes the recovery of leptin takes 48-72 hours and may even show a supercompensation-like effect. For adiponectin, significant increases were observed within 5 days of commencing racing, with these elevated values failing to return to baseline levels after 3 days of recovery. Additionally, when using leptin and adiponectin to monitor training loads, establishing individual threshold values improves their sensitivity. PMID:26985130

  20. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  1. Defining cardiac adaptations and safety of endurance training in patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease☆☆☆☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew G.D.; Newman, Jane H.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.; Hollingsworth, Kieren G.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Zalewski, Pawel; Klawe, Jacek J.; Blamire, Andrew M.; MacGowan, Guy A.; Keavney, Bernard D.; Bourke, John P.; Schaefer, Andrew; McFarland, Robert; Newton, Julia L.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Taylor, Robert W.; Trenell, Michael I.; Gorman, Gráinne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophic remodelling and systolic dysfunction are common in patients with mitochondrial disease and independent predictors of morbidity and early mortality. Endurance exercise training improves symptoms and skeletal muscle function, yet cardiac adaptations are unknown. Methods and results Before and after 16-weeks of training, exercise capacity, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus-31 spectroscopy, disease burden, fatigue, quality of life, heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were assessed in 10 adult patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease, and compared to age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects. At baseline, patients had increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p < 0.05) and LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio, and decreased longitudinal shortening and myocardial phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio (all p < 0.01). Peak arterial–venous oxygen difference (p < 0.05), oxygen uptake (VO2) and power were decreased in patients (both p < 0.01) with no significant difference in cardiac power output. All patients remained stable and completed ≥ 80% sessions. With training, there were similar proportional increases in peak VO2, anaerobic threshold and work capacity in patients and controls. LVMI increased in both groups (p < 0.01), with no significant effect on myocardial function or bioenergetics. Pre- and post-exercise training, HRV and BPV demonstrated increased low frequency and decreased high frequency components in patients compared to controls (all p < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with mitochondrial disease and controls achieved similar proportional benefits of exercise training, without evidence of disease progression, or deleterious effects on cardiac function. Reduced exercise capacity is largely mediated through skeletal muscle dysfunction at baseline and sympathetic over-activation may be important in pathogenesis. PMID:23742928

  2. Deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit is an effective method for maintaining neck mobility and muscular endurance in college students with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Yeon

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of deep cervical flexor training on maintaining forward head posture, muscular endurance, and cervical mobility. It also examined the effectiveness of deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty college students were recruited and randomly assigned to groups that underwent either deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit (experimental group, n=10) or conventional deep cervical flexor training (control group, n=10). The craniovertebral angle of each subject was measured with a lateral-view picture. Neck mobility was assessed using a cervical range of motion device and muscular endurance was measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. Both groups performed conventional deep cervical flexor exercises three times a week for six weeks. The experimental group underwent a pressure biofeedback unit training was 5 to10 minutes/day, thrice a week. [Results] Cervical range of motion in the experimental group increased significantly between the end of training and the end of the four week detraining period, compared to that in control group. [Conclusion] Deep cervical flexor training with a pressure biofeedback unit is a useful method for maintaining neck mobility and muscular endurance in people with forward head posture. PMID:26644676

  3. Effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate on the Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation and VO2peak in Endurance-Trained Cyclists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovich, Matthew D.; Dreifort, Geri D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) in endurance-trained cyclists. Acute exercise did not affect plasma HMB concentrations. OBLA increased with HMB and leucine, with blood glucose significantly greater during the HMB…

  4. The effect of heart rate controlled low resistance circuit weight training and endurance training on maximal aerobic power in sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, H; Yrjämä, M; Siljander, E; Byman, P; Laukkanen, R

    2000-08-01

    The effects of a 12-week low resistance circuit weight training (CWT) on cardiovascular and muscular fitness were studied in 90 healthy sedentary adults. The subjects were randomized into three equally fit groups: CWT, Endurance (END) and Control (CON) according to their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Both training groups exercised for 12 weeks, 3 days a week in sessions of 40 min, with a heart rate (HR) level of 70-80% HRmax. The CWT group trained with air resistance machines. Heart rate was controlled by setting the speed of movement. The END group walked, jogged, cross-country skied or cycled. The net differences (between pre- and posttraining changes) between the CWT and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.45 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 1.1; 3.8), for abdominal muscles (3.7 reps, CI 0.3; 7.1), for push-ups (1.1 reps, CI 0.2; 2.1), and for kneeling (2.25 reps, CI 0.01; 4.5). The net difference (between pre- and posttraining changes) in the END and CON groups was statistically significant for VO2max (2.75 ml(-1) x min(-1) x kg(-1), 95% CI 0.9; 4.6), and kneeling (3.0 reps, CI 0.7; 5.3). Low resistance CWT with moderately hard HR level has effects comparable to an equal amount of endurance training on the cardiovascular fitness of sedentary adults. The CWT model was benefical also on muscular fitness. Based on the results, this type of exercise can be recommended for beginners because of its multilevel effects. PMID:10898265

  5. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  6. Different effects of strength and endurance exercise training on COX-2 and mPGES expression in mouse brain are independent of peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Krüger, K; Bredehöft, J; Mooren, F C; Rummel, C

    2016-07-01

    Acute endurance exercise has been shown to modulate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, which is suggested to affect neuronal plasticity and learning. Here, we investigated the effect of regular strength and endurance training on cerebral COX-2 expression, inflammatory markers in the brain, and circulating cytokines. Male C57BL/6N mice were assigned to either a sedentary control group (CG), an endurance training group (EG; treadmill running for 30 min/day, 5 times/wk, 10 wk), or a strength training group (SG; strength training by isometric holding, same duration as EG). Four days after the last bout of exercise, blood and brain were collected and analyzed using real-time PCR, Western blot, and a multiplexed immunoassay. In EG, COX-2 mRNA expression in the cortex/hippocampus increased compared with CG. A significant increase of COX-2 protein levels was observed in both cortex/hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice from the SG. Nuclear factor (NF)κB protein levels were significantly increased in mice from both exercise groups (hypothalamus). A significant increase in the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES), an enzyme downstream of COX-2, was found in the hypothalamus of both the EG and SG. While most inflammatory factors, like IL-1α, IL-18, and IL-2, decreased after training, a positive association was found between COX-2 mRNA expression (cortex/hippocampus) and plasma IL-6 in the EG. Taken together, this study demonstrates that both endurance as well as strength training induces COX-2 expression in the cortex/hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice. A potential mediator of COX-2 expression after training might be circulating interleukin (IL)-6. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the role of inflammatory pathways on brain plasticity after training. PMID:27283912

  7. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  8. Chronic endurance exercise training offsets the age-related attenuation in contraction-induced rapid vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with attenuated contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV). We sought to examine whether chronic exercise training would improve ROV in older adults. Additionally, we examined whether a relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and ROV exists in young and older adults. Chronically exercise-trained older adults (n = 16; 66 ± 2 yr, mean ± SE) performed single muscle contractions in the forearm and leg at various intensities. Brachial and femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC) was calculated as the quotient of blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). These data were compared with our previously published work from an identical protocol in 16 older untrained (66 ± 1 yr, mean ± SE) and 14 young (23 ± 1 yr) adults. Peak (ΔVCpeak) and total vasodilator (VCtotal) responses were greater in trained compared with untrained older adults across leg exercise intensities (P < 0.05). There were no differences in responses between trained older and young adults in the arm or leg at any exercise intensity (P > 0.05). Comparison of ΔVCpeak in a subset of subjects at an absolute workload in the leg revealed that trained older adults exhibited augmented responses relative to untrained older adults. Exercise capacity (V̇o2 peak) was associated with ΔVCpeak and VCtotal across arm (r = 0.59-0.64) and leg exercise intensities (r = 0.55-0.68, P < 0.05) in older adults. Our data demonstrate that 1) chronic exercise training improves ROV in the arm and leg of trained older adults, such that age-related differences in ROV are abolished, and 2) VO2peak is associated with ΔVCpeak responses in both limbs of older adults. PMID:27032899

  9. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  10. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  11. Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, J; Kraemer, W J; Sillanpää, E; Karppinen, H; Avela, J; Kauhanen, A; Häkkinen, A; Häkkinen, K

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effects of 21-week twice weekly strength (ST), endurance (ET) and combined (ST + ET 2 + 2 times a week) (SET) training on neuromuscular, endurance and walking performances as well as balance. 108 healthy men (56.3 ± 9.9 years) were divided into three training (ST; n = 30, ET; n = 26, SET; n = 31) groups and controls (C n = 21). Dynamic 1RM and explosive leg presses (1RMleg, 50%1RMleg), peak oxygen uptake using a bicycle ergometer (VO(2peak)), 10 m loaded walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance distance (DYND) were measured. Significant increases were observed in maximal 1RMleg of 21% in ST (p < 0.001) and 22% in SET (p < 0.001) and in explosive 50%1RMleg of 7.5% in ST (p = 0.005) and 10.2% in SET (p < 0.001). VO(2peak) increased by 12.5% in ET (p = 0.001) and 9.8% in SET (p < 0.001). Significant decreases occurred in 10WALK in ST (p < 0.001) and SET (p = 0.003) and also in DYND of -10.3% in ST (p = 0.002) and -8% in SET (p = 0.028). The changes in C remained minor in all variables. In conclusion, ST and SET training produced significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, walking speed and balance without any interference effect in SET. Significant but moderate relationships were observed between strength and dynamic balance and walking speed, while no corresponding correlations were found in the ET group. PMID:21796409

  12. Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement is preserved with lifelong endurance training and is the main determinant of maximal cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A; Åkeson, Per; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2015-12-01

    Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine resting longitudinal and radial pumping in elderly athletes, sedentary elderly and young sedentary subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate determinants of maximal cardiac output in elderly. Eight elderly athletes (63 ± 4 years), seven elderly sedentary (66 ± 4 years) and ten young sedentary subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using a dye dilution technique. Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups (longitudinal left ventricle (LV) 52-65%, P = 0.12, right ventricle (RV) 77-87%, P = 0.16, radial 7.9-8.6%, P = 1.0). Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement (LVAVPD) was higher in elderly athletes and young sedentary compared with elderly sedentary subjects (14 ± 3, 15 ± 2 and 11 ± 1 mm, respectively, P < 0.05). There was no difference between groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01, β = 0.78). Longitudinal and radial contributions to stroke volume did not differ between groups. However, how longitudinal pumping was achieved differed; elderly athletes and young sedentary subjects showed similar AVPD whereas this was significantly lower in elderly sedentary subjects. Elderly sedentary subjects achieved longitudinal pumping through increased short-axis area of the ventricle. Large AVPD was a determinant of maximal cardiac output and exercise capacity. PMID:26496146

  13. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p < 0.0001) with elite players' national single rankings. Test-retest coefficient of variation was 7.9% between the first 2 trials (i.e., without a familiarization trial) but reduced to 2.5% when comparing the second and third trials. In conclusion, the B-ENDURANCE test is relevant for the evaluation of badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects. PMID:26849789

  14. Concurrent Strength and Interval Endurance Training in Elite Water Polo Players.

    PubMed

    Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Platanou, Theodoros I

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervals performed concurrently with strength and specific water polo training on performance indices of elite players. During the precompetition season, 2 water polo clubs were assigned to either HIIT of 4 × 4 minutes (n = 7, HIIT4 × 4) or HIIT of 16 × 100-m swimming efforts (n = 7, HIIT16 × 100). Both clubs applied the swimming (6% above the speed corresponding to blood lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol · L) and strength training (85-90% of 1 repetition maximum, 5 repetitions, 4 sets) twice per week concurrently with specific water polo training. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, maximal bench press strength was measured and a speed-lactate test (5 × 200 m) was performed to determine the speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1). Maximal strength was improved in both groups (HIIT4 × 4: 14 ± 4% vs. HIIT16 × 100: 19 ± 10%). Improvements in speed corresponding to 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1) were shown only after HIIT4 × 4 (9 ± 5, 8 ± 3, 7 ± 2%, respectively; p < 0.01). However, HIIT16 × 100 was more effective in the differential velocity between 10.0 and 5.0 mmol · L(-) development (19 ± 20%, p = 0.03). During the precompetition season, HIIT and strength training together with specific water polo training performed concurrently improves muscle strength and allows specific adaptations enhancing swimming performance of elite water polo players. PMID:26492103

  15. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4-5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = -0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. PMID:26381175

  16. What changes and what endures - The capabilities and limitations of training and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    The contributions of psychology to aviation in the areas of selection, training, and evaluation, and the implementation of new technologies are discussed. The concept of personality traits versus modification of human behavior through principles of learning are analyzed. Particular consideration is given to achievement motivation (defined in terms of mastery, work, and competitiveness) and the differences between traits and attitudes. It is argued that personality traits are important dimensions of the self and are useful measures of individual differences. The selection of individuals with desired personality characteristics and the training of personnel to improve crew coordination, flight-deck management, and interpersonal efficacy are examined.

  17. Acute Endocrine and Force Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Women.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Schumann, Moritz; Kraemer, William J; Izquierdo, Mikel; Taipale, Ritva S; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined acute hormone and force responses and strength and endurance performance and muscle hypertrophy before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined strength and endurance training in previously untrained women. Subjects were assigned 1 of 2 training orders: endurance preceding strength (E + S, n = 15) or vice versa (S + E, n = 14). Acute force and hormone responses to a combined loading (continuous cycling and a leg press protocol in the assigned order) were measured. Additionally, leg press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), maximal workload during cycling (Wmax), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed. Loading-induced decreases in force were significant (p < 0.01-0.001) before (E + S = 20 ± 11%, S + E = 18 ± 5%) and after (E + S = 24 ± 6%, S + E = 22 ± 8%) training. Recovery was completed within 24 hours in both groups. The acute growth hormone (GH) response was significantly (p < 0.001) higher after S + E than E + S at both weeks 0 and 24. Testosterone was significantly (p < 0.001) elevated only after the S + E loading at week 24 but was not significantly different from E + S. Both groups significantly (p < 0.001) improved 1RM (E + S = 13 ± 12%, S + E = 16 ± 10%), Wmax (E + S = 21 ± 10%, S + E = 16 ± 12%), and CSA (E + S = 15 ± 10%, S + E = 11 ± 8%). This study showed that the acute GH response to combined endurance and strength loadings was significantly larger in S + E compared with E + S both before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined training. Strength and endurance performance and CSA increased to similar extents in both groups during 24 weeks despite differences in the kinetics of GH. Previously untrained women can improve performance and increase muscle CSA using either exercise order. PMID:26020708

  18. Endurance training increases brain lactate uptake during hypoglycemia by up regulation of brain lactate transporters.

    PubMed

    Aveseh, Malihe; Nikooie, Rohollah; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-08-25

    The capacity of the brain to metabolize non-glucose substrates under hypoglycemic state maintains its energy requirements. We hypothesized that exercise-induced increase in capacity for brain utilization of lactate by up regulation of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) may contribute metabolic substrates during hypoglycemia in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. The induced diabetes increased MCT1 and MCT2 expression in the cortex and the hippocampus in the sedentary diabetic animals. There were exercise-induced increases in MCT1 in the cortex and the hippocampus and MCT2 expression in the cortex in trained diabetic animals; whereas, no changes were found in the healthy trained animals. Both diabetic and healthy trained animals showed higher values for brain lactate uptake during insulin-induced hypoglycemia when animals were intraperitoneally injected by L(+)-lactic acid. However, the response of counterregulatory hormones during hypoglycemia were blunted in the diabetic trained animals which indicates to carefully monitoring of glycemic targets both during and following prolonged exercise. PMID:25004253

  19. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S.; Worthington, Philip L.; Shepherd, Sam O.; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increases in insulin‐mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4‐containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans‐Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes. PMID:25052490

  20. Biochemical and hormonal changes in endurance trained volunteers during and after exposure to bed rest and chronic hyperhydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Y. G.; Naexu, K. A.; Yaroshenko, Y. N.

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation on biochemical and hormonal changes in endurance trained volunteers aged 19-24 yrs during 30-day bed rest and during 15 days of post bed rest period. The studies were performed on 30 long distance runners aged 19-24 yrs who had a peak oxygen uptake of 66 ml/kg/min and had taken 14.5 km/day on average prior to their participation in the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups: the volunteers in the first group were under normal ambulatory conditions (control subjects); the second group subjected to bed rest alone unsupplemented (bed rested volunteers); the third group was submitted to bed rest and consumed daily 30 ml water/kg bodyweight and 0.1 g of sodium chloride (NaCl)/kg body weight (supplemented bed rested volunteers). The second and third groups of volunteers were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. During the pre bed rest period of 15 days, during the bed rest period of 30 days and during the post bed rest period of 15 days cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, prostaglandins of pressor, prostaglandins depressor groups, renin activity in plasma and aldosterone in plasma and in urine were determined. We found that in bed rested volunteers without fluid and salt supplementation intake plasma renin activity and aldosterone in plasma and urine continued to increase during the bed rest period as plasma volume decreased. Moreover, in this group, cyclic nucleotides measured as an indicator of adrenosympathetic system activity increased and prostaglandins as local vasoactive substances decreased during the bed rest period. These variables returned toward the baselines in the post bed rest period as plasma volume deficit was restituted. On the other hand, the hormonal levels in the other two groups remained rather constant during the experimental period. We concluded that daily intake of fluid and salt

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of 1 Year of Alagebrium and Endurance Exercise Training in Healthy Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Naoki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shafer, Keri M.; Shibata, Shigeki; Bhella, Paul S.; Abdullah, Shuaib M.; Barkley, Kyler W.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Boyd, Kara N.; Livingston, Sheryl A.; Palmer, Dean; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifelong exercise training maintains a youthful compliance of the left ventricle (LV), whereas a year of exercise training started later in life fails to reverse LV stiffening, possibly because of accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end products. Alagebrium breaks advanced glycation end product crosslinks and improves LV stiffness in aged animals. However, it is unclear whether a strategy of exercise combined with alagebrium would improve LV stiffness in sedentary older humans. Methods and Results Sixty-two healthy subjects were randomized into 4 groups: sedentary+placebo; sedentary+alagebrium (200 mg/d); exercise+placebo; and exercise+alagebrium. Subjects underwent right heart catheterization to define LV pressure–volume curves; secondary functional outcomes included cardiopulmonary exercise testing and arterial compliance. A total of 57 of 62 subjects (67±6 years; 37 f/20 m) completed 1 year of intervention followed by repeat measurements. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and LV end-diastolic volume were measured at baseline, during decreased and increased cardiac filling. LV stiffness was assessed by the slope of LV pressure–volume curve. After intervention, LV mass and end-diastolic volume increased and exercise capacity improved (by ≈8%) only in the exercise groups. Neither LV mass nor exercise capacity was affected by alagebrium. Exercise training had little impact on LV stiffness (training×time effect, P=0.46), whereas alagebrium showed a modest improvement in LV stiffness compared with placebo (medication×time effect, P=0.04). Conclusions Alagebrium had no effect on hemodynamics, LV geometry, or exercise capacity in healthy, previously sedentary seniors. However, it did show a modestly favorable effect on age-associated LV stiffening. PMID:24130005

  2. Class@Baikal: the Endurance of the UNESCO Training-Through-Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Khlystov, O.; Tokarev, M.; Korost, D. V.; Poort, J.; Fokina, A.; Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Yurchenko, A.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, by the initiative of the Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, the first Training-through-Research Class@Baikal was launched in Lake Baikal, Russia. The cruise program focused on seafloor sampling and acoustic investigations of gas seeps, flares, mud volcanoes, slumps and debris flows, canyons and channels in the coastal proximity. A comprehensive multidisciplinary program to train students has been developed to cover sedimentology, fluid geochemistry, biology, geophysics and marine geology in general. Daily lectures were conducted on board by academics presenting pertinent research projects, and cruise planning and preliminary results were discussed with all the scientific crew. A daily blog with updates on the expedition activities, images, and ongoing cruise results, was also completed (i.e. visit the cruise blog: http://baikal.festivalnauki.ru/) and gave the opportunity to interact with experts as well as attract the interest also of a broader audience. This project is a follow up to the well-established UNESCO Training-through-Research (TTR) Floating University Programme (http://floatinguniversity.ru/) that covered large areas on the European and arctic margins since 1991 with 18 research cruises attended by about 1000 BSc, MSc and PhD students from Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The crucial goal of both programmes is the training of new generations of scientists through active research directly on the field. Students can access the collected data and samples for their Master and PhD projects. Typically an extensive set of analyses and data processing is completed in-house and the results and interpretations are presented at post cruise meetings and international conferences. The Baikal lake is 25 million years old rift zone and provides a large variety of active geological features that can be easily reached at daily sailing distance. This represents an extraordinary opportunity to switch and focus

  3. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. PMID:25344623

  4. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  5. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  6. Cardiac adaptation to endurance exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Fenning, Andrew; Harrison, Glenn; Dwyer, Dan; Rose'Meyer, Roselyn; Brown, Lindsay

    2003-09-01

    Endurance exercise is widely assumed to improve cardiac function in humans. This project has determined cardiac function following endurance exercise for 6 (n = 30) or 12 (n = 25) weeks in male Wistar rats (8 weeks old). The exercise protocol was 30 min/day at 0.8 km/h for 5 days/week with an endurance test on the 6th day by running at 1.2 km/h until exhaustion. Exercise endurance increased by 318% after 6 weeks and 609% after 12 weeks. Heart weight/kg body weight increased by 10.2% after 6 weeks and 24.1% after 12 weeks. Echocardiography after 12 weeks showed increases in left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (6.39 +/- 0.32 to 7.90 +/- 0.17 mm), systolic volume (49 +/- 7 to 83 +/- 11 miccrol) and cardiac output (75 +/- 3 to 107 +/- 8 ml/min) but not left wall thickness in diastole (1.74 +/- 0.07 to 1.80 +/- 0.06 mm). Isolated Langendorff hearts from trained rats displayed decreased left ventricular myocardial stiffness (22 +/- 1.1 to 19.1 +/- 0.3) and reduced purine efflux during pacing-induced workload increases. 31P-NMR spectroscopy in isolated hearts from trained rats showed decreased PCr and PCr/ATP ratios with increased creatine, AMP and ADP concentrations. Thus, this endurance exercise protocol resulted in physiological hypertrophy while maintaining or improving cardiac function. PMID:14575304

  7. Effect of exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise in muscular glycogen and both Alpha1 and Alpha2 Ampk protein expression in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Tarini, V A F; Carnevali, L C; Arida, R M; Cunha, C A; Alves, E S; Seeleander, M C L; Schmidt, B; Faloppa, F

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen is the main store of readily energy in skeletal muscle and plays a key role in muscle function, demonstrated by the inability to sustain prolonged high-intensity exercise upon depletion of these glycogen stores. With prolonged exercise, glycogen depletion occurs and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a potent regulator of muscle metabolism and gene expression, is activated promoting molecular signalling that increases glucose uptake by muscular skeletal cells. The aim of this study was primarily to determine the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on muscle glycogen reserves and secondly to verify the influence of this type of exercise on AMPK protein expression. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were divided into four experimental groups: sedentary, sedentary exhausted (SE), endurance trained (T) and endurance trained exhausted (TE). The animals ran for 10 to 90 min/day, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks to attain trained status. Rats were killed immediately after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadmill (at approximately 60% Vmax until exhaustion). Optical density of periodic acid-Schiff was detected and glycogen depletion observed predominantly in type I muscle fibres of the TE group and in both type I and II muscle fibres in the SE group. Plasma glucose decreased only in the TE group. Hepatic glycogen was increased in T group and significantly depleted in TE group. AMPK protein expression was significantly elevated in TE and T groups. In conclusion, acute exhaustive ultra-endurance exercise promoted muscle glycogen depletion. It seems that total AMPK protein and gene expression is more influenced by status training. PMID:23184732

  8. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  9. Evaluation of the THRESHOLD trainer for inspiratory muscle endurance training: comparison with the weighted plunger method.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Cowley, A J; Kinnear, W J

    1996-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to enhance exercise performance. The weighted plunger (WP) system of inspiratory threshold loading is the most commonly used method of IMT, but is expensive and cumbersome. We have evaluated a commercially available portable spring-loaded IMT device, the THRESHOLD trainer. The WP and THRESHOLD trainer devices were evaluated with their opening pressures set, in random order, at 10, 20, 30 and 40 cmH2O. Using an airpump, pressure at the valve inlet was recorded at the point at which the valve opened, and at airflow rates of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 L.min-1. Ten THRESHOLD trainers were then compared using the same opening pressures and airflow rates. Finally, 10 patients with stable chronic heart failure (CHF) inspired, in random order, through the WP and THRESHOLD trainer for 4 min each. The pressure-time product (PTP) was calculated for each 4 min period, to compare the work performed on inspiring through each device. The mean measured opening pressures for the WP set at 10, 20, 30 and 40 cmH2O, were 9.0, 19.3, 27.9 and 39.2 cmH2O, respectively, and there was little change over the range of flow tested. Corresponding values for the THRESHOLD trainer were 7.5, 16.9, 26.2 and 39.1 cmH2O, with the pressure being closer to the set pressure as flow increased to that seen in clinical practice. The 10 different trainers tested performed very similarly to one another. Work performed (as measured by PTP) on inspiring through the WP and THRESHOLD trainer was not significantly different. Although less accurate than the weighted plunger, the THRESHOLD trainer is an inexpensive device of consistent quality. In a clinical setting it would be a satisfactory option for inspiratory muscle training in most patients, but less so in patients with very low inspiratory flow rates. PMID:8980985

  10. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; MacInnis, Martin J.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gibala, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second ‘all-out’ cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10−4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PMID:27115137

  11. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    This study compared a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink vs. carbohydrates alone during 8 weeks of aerobic training. Thirty-two men (age, mean ± SD = 23 ± 3 years) performed tests for aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak), time to exhaustion (TTE) at 90% V(O2)peak, and percent body fat (%fat), and fat-free mass (FFM). Testing was conducted at pre-training (PRE), mid-training at 3 weeks (MID3), mid-training at 6 weeks (MID6), and post-training (POST). Cycle ergometry training was performed at 70% V(O2)peak for 1 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Participants were assigned to a test drink (TEST; 370 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 14 g protein, 2.2 g d-ribose; n = 15) or control drink (CON; 370 kcal, 93 g carbohydrate; n = 17) ingested immediately after training. Body weight (BW; 1.8% decrease CON; 1.3% decrease TEST from PRE to POST), %fat (5.5% decrease CON; 3.9% decrease TEST), and FFM (0.1% decrease CON; 0.6% decrease TEST) decreased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas V(O2)peak (19.1% increase CON; 15.8% increase TEST) and TTE (239.1% increase CON; 377.3% increase TEST) increased (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the 8 weeks of training. Percent decreases in %fat from PRE to MID3 and percent increases in FFM from PRE to MID3 and MID6 were greater (p ≤ 0.05) for TEST than CON. Overall, even though the TEST drink did not augment BW, V(O2)peak, or TTE beyond carbohydrates alone, it did improve body composition (%fat and FFM) within the first 3-6 weeks of supplementation, which may be helpful for practitioners to understand how carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks can and cannot improve performance in their athletes. PMID:22692117

  12. High-intensity interval and endurance training are associated with divergent skeletal muscle adaptations in a rodent model of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension. PMID:25855305

  13. Exertional heat illness in a Marine training on the endurance course.

    PubMed

    Rohe, Steven T

    2012-06-01

    Exercise-induced heat stroke is defined as core temperature greater than 104 degrees F (400 degrees C) accompanied by signs or symptoms of organ system failure, most commonly CNS dysfunction. Exertional heatstroke is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate whole-body cooling for a satisfactory outcome. Cooling should be initiated and, in the absence of life-threatening complications, completed on site prior to evacuation to an emergency department or other facility. Cool-water immersion provides the fastest whole body cooling rate and the lowest morbidity and mortality for exertional heat stroke. When water immersion is unavailable, ice water towels combined with ice packs on the head, trunk, and extremities provide effective but slower whole-body cooling. Medications, including antipyretics and dantrolene, are not effective in treating heatstroke and should not be used. Clinical observations indicate that prognosis is closely linked to the amount of time a patient's temperature remains elevated. Prevention strategies are essential to reducing the incidence of exertional heatstroke, heat exhaustion, and exercise-associated muscle cramping. PMID:22693882

  14. Endurance training associated with slightly lowered serum estradiol levels decreases mineral density of canine skeleton.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, K; Karjalainen, P; Nieminen, J; Arokoski, J; Parviainen, M; Helminen, H J; Soimakallio, S

    1992-06-01

    The effects of long-term running exercise were studied in 20 beagle dogs. A total of 10 dogs ran from the age of 15 weeks to the age of 70 weeks in a progressive program for up to 40 km/day. A total of 10 sister dogs spent the study period in individual cages. When the dogs were 70 weeks old, bone mineral density of the vertebrae, hip, and radius was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar) and the vertebrae were also assessed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT; Siemens DR 1). Mineral density was lower in the running dogs than in the controls. The difference was greatest in the spine in the QCT analysis. Blood chemistry analyses revealed that the metabolism of the bone was significantly accelerated. The estradiol levels showed the trend to be reduced in the running group. The beneficial effect of exercise on mineral density has been shown in many earlier studies. However, in this study we demonstrate the possibility of adverse effects of long-term exercise on bone tissue. The change was associated with a decrease of serum estradiol level. PMID:1414479

  15. Endurance exercise training programs intestinal lipid metabolism in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu‐Han; Linden, Melissa A.; Gordon, Alicia; Scott Rector, R.; Buhman, Kimberly K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endurance exercise has been shown to improve metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the physiological and molecular mechanisms for these benefits are not completely understood. Although endurance exercise has been shown to decrease lipogenesis, promote fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and increase mitochondrial biosynthesis in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver, its effects on intestinal lipid metabolism remain unknown. The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, mediate the highly efficient absorption and processing of nutrients, including dietary fat for delivery throughout the body. We investigated how endurance exercise altered intestinal lipid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long‐Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. We assessed mRNA levels of genes associated with intestinal lipid metabolism in nonhyperphagic, sedentary Long‐Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (L‐Sed), hyperphagic, sedentary OLETF rats (O‐Sed), and endurance exercised OLETF rats (O‐EndEx). O‐Sed rats developed hyperphagia‐induced obesity (HIO) and type 2 diabetes compared with L‐Sed rats. O‐EndEx rats gained significantly less weight and fat pad mass, and had improved serum metabolic parameters without change in food consumption compared to O‐Sed rats. Endurance exercise resulted in dramatic up‐regulation of a number of genes in intestinal lipid metabolism and mitochondrial content compared with sedentary rats. Overall, this study provides evidence that endurance exercise programs intestinal lipid metabolism, likely contributing to its role in improving metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25602012

  16. Modification of cellular immune functions in humans by endurance exercise training during beta-adrenergic blockade with atenolol or propranolol.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Moriguchi, S; Jackson, J C; Werner, L; Wilmore, J H; Freund, B J

    1986-02-01

    Young, healthy, previously inactive men were trained aerobically 40 to 50 min X d-1, 5 d X wk-1 for 15 wk. They were randomly assigned to one of three medication groups: placebo, propranolol (160 mg X d-1), or atenolol (100 mg X d-1). All subjects lost weight and decreased relative body fat as a result of training. Following training, submaximal steady-state heart rates were reduced in all groups. Maximal oxygen uptake and maximal treadmill times were also increased in all groups. The VO2max of the placebo increased 18.4%. While that of the atenolol group increased 19.4%, the propranolol group went up 17.0%. After training the maximal heart rate did not change in the placebo group, while treatment with propranolol and atenolol reduced at 24.6 and 21.9%, respectively. Training caused a significant decrease in the natural killer cell activity in all three groups. The placebo group had 38.8% +/- 3.8 (SD) before and 29.3 +/- 3.2% lysis of target cells by natural killer cells after physical conditioning, which was significantly lower (P less than 0.01). The groups treated with propranolol and atenolol were also similarly decreased. The use of propranolol or atenolol had no additional significant effect on natural killer cell activity. T-cell mitogenesis stimulated with a mitogen significantly increased with conditioning. The groups given atenolol or propranolol tended to increase somewhat more than the placebo group, although this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant change in the percentage of total lymphocytes isolated due to training or beta-blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3485757

  17. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  18. Effects of a fixed-intensity of endurance training and pistacia atlantica supplementation on ATP-binding cassette G4 expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate-cassette binding protein (ABC) type G is considered as a part of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process in modification and metabolism of plasma and tissue cholesterol. This study aims to evaluate the effect of endurance training with or without Pistacia atlantica (Baneh) supplementation on the female rat tissues ABC type G expression and its correlation with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. Methods Twenty Wistar rats (six to eight weeks old, 125–135 g weight) were arbitrarily allocated into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and further divided into saline-control (n = 5), saline-training (n = 5), Baneh-control (n = 5), and Baneh-training (n = 5). The training groups were given exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. The rats were fed orally with Baneh extract and saline for six weeks. Seventy-two hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed and their tissues were excised for tissues ABCG4 expression which was detected by Real-time PCR method. Results The ABCG4 gene expressions were significantly higher in liver (P = 02), small intestine (P = 06), and visceral fat tissues (P = 04) of the trained rats compared to the tissues of the control rats, but were lower in Baneh treated rats (liver P = 045, small intestine P = 06 and visceral fat P = 004) with lower HDL-C concentrations (P = 008). Conclusions The Baneh administration lowered tissues ABCG4 expression and plasma HDL-C concentrations while endurance training increased the expression in female rat tissues. PMID:24267473

  19. Endurance exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obese rats.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Gabrielle; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Silva, Sabrina; Vitto, Marcelo F; Cesconetto, Patricia A; de Pinho, Ricardo A; Pauli, José R; Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2011-09-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to underlie the induction of obesity-induced JNK and NF-κB activation inflammatory responses, and generation of peripheral insulin resistance. On the other hand, exercise has been used as a crucial tool in obese and diabetic patients, and may reduce inflammatory pathway stimulation. However, the ability of exercise training to reverse endoplasmatic reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obesity has not been investigated in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that exercise training ameliorates ER stress and insulin resistance in DIO-induced rats. Rats were fed with standard rodent chow (3,948 kcal kg(-1)) or high-fat diet (5,358 kcal kg(-1)) for 2 months. After that rats were submitted to swimming training (1 h per day, 5 days for week with 5% overload of the body weight for 8 weeks). Samples from epididymal fat and liver were obtained and western blot analysis was performed. Our results showed that swimming protocol reduces pro-inflammatory molecules (JNK, IκB and NF-κB) in adipose and hepatic tissues. In addition, exercise leads to reduction in ER stress, by reducing PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation in these tissues. In parallel, an increase in insulin pathway signaling was observed, as confirmed by increases in IR, IRSs and Akt phosphorylation following exercise training in DIO rats. Thus, results suggest that exercise can reduce ER stress, improving insulin resistance in adipose and hepatic tissue. PMID:21249392

  20. Haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations contribute to the increase in peak oxygen uptake induced by moderate endurance training.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Cathomen, Adrian; Jacobs, Robert A; Flück, Daniela; de Leur, Jeroen; Keiser, Stefanie; Bonne, Thomas; Kirk, Niels; Lundby, Anne-Kristine; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-15

    It remains unclear whether improvements in peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)) following endurance training (ET) are primarily determined by central and/or peripheral adaptations. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is mainly determined by haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations. Sixteen untrained healthy male volunteers (age = 25 ± 4 years, V̇(O2peak) = 3.5 ± 0.5 l min(-1)) underwent supervised ET (6 weeks, 3-4 sessions per week). V̇(O2peak), peak cardiac output (Q̇(peak)), haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and blood volumes were assessed prior to and following ET. Skeletal muscle biopsies were analysed for mitochondrial volume density (Mito(VD)), capillarity, fibre types and respiratory capacity (OXPHOS). After the post-ET assessment, red blood cell volume (RBCV) was re-established at the pre-ET level by phlebotomy and V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were measured again. We speculated that the contribution of skeletal muscle adaptations to the ET-induced increase in V̇(O2peak) would be revealed when controlling for haematological adaptations. V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were increased (P < 0.05) following ET (9 ± 8 and 7 ± 6%, respectively) and decreased (P < 0.05) after phlebotomy (-7 ± 7 and -10 ± 7%). RBCV, plasma volume and Hb(mass) all increased (P < 0.05) after ET (8 ± 4, 4 ± 6 and 6 ± 5%). As for skeletal muscle adaptations, capillary-to-fibre ratio and total Mito(VD) increased (P < 0.05) following ET (18 ± 16 and 43 ± 30%), but OXPHOS remained unaltered. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, Q̇(peak), RBCV and Hb(mass) were found to be independent predictors of V̇(O2peak). In conclusion, the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is primarily attributed to increases in Q̇(peak) and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in untrained healthy young subjects. PMID:26282186

  1. Muscle UCP3 overexpression mimics endurance training and reduces circulating biomarkers of incomplete beta-oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise substantially improves metabolic health, making the elicited mechanisms important targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle. Here we report that only moderate UCP3 overexpre...

  2. Serum Proteomic Changes after Randomized Prolonged Erythropoietin Treatment and/or Endurance Training: Detection of Novel Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Britt; Ludvigsen, Maja; Nellemann, Birgitte; Kopchick, John J.; Honoré, Bent; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite implementation of the biological passport to detect erythropoietin abuse, a need for additional biomarkers remains. We used a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers of prolonged erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) exposure (Darbepoietin-α) and/or aerobic training. Trial Design Thirty-six healthy young males were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sedentary-placebo (n = 9), Sedentary-ESA (n = 9), Training-placebo (n = 10), or Training-ESA (n = 8). They were treated with placebo/Darbepoietin-α subcutaneously once/week for 10 weeks followed by a 3-week washout period. Training consisted of supervised biking 3/week for 13 weeks at the highest possible intensity. Serum was collected at baseline, week 3 (high dose Darbepoietin-α), week 10 (reduced dose Darbepoietin-α), and after a 3-week washout period. Methods Serum proteins were separated according to charge and molecular mass (2D-gel electrophoresis). The identity of proteins from spots exhibiting altered intensity was determined by mass spectrometry. Results Six protein spots changed in response to Darbepoietin-α treatment. Comparing all 4 experimental groups, two protein spots (serotransferrin and haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein) showed a significant response to Darbepoietin-α treatment. The haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein spot showed a significantly lower intensity in all subjects in the training-ESA group during the treatment period and increased during the washout period. Conclusion An isoform of haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein could be a new anti-doping marker and merits further research. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01320449 PMID:25679398

  3. Skeletal muscle Heat shock protein 60 increases after endurance training and induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Campanella, Claudia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Moresi, Viviana; Coletti, Dario; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto JL; Cappello, Francesco; Adamo, Sergio; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Di Felice, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperone localizing in skeletal muscle mitochondria, whose role is poorly understood. In the present study, the levels of Hsp60 in fibres of the entire posterior group of hindlimb muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) were evaluated in mice after completing a 6-week endurance training program. The correlation between Hsp60 levels and the expression of four isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) were investigated only in soleus. Short-term overexpression of hsp60, achieved by in vitro plasmid transfection, was then performed to determine whether this chaperone could have a role in the activation of the expression levels of PGC1α isoforms. The levels of Hsp60 protein were fibre-type specific in the posterior muscles and endurance training increased its content in type I muscle fibers. Concomitantly with the increased levels of Hsp60 released in the blood stream of trained mice, mitochondrial copy number and the expression of three isoforms of PGC1α increased. Overexpressing hsp60 in cultured myoblasts induced only the expression of PGC1 1α, suggesting a correlation between Hsp60 overexpression and PGC1 1 α activation. PMID:26812922

  4. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage. PMID:26319691

  5. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution. PMID:26238760

  6. Circulorespiratory Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsen, Philip E.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiovascular endurance is defined as the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to provide the cells of the body with the necessary substances to perform work for extended periods of time. People beginning such a program need to have an understanding of warming-up, intensity, duration, and frequency of an exercise program. (JN)

  7. Does training-induced orthostatic hypotension result from reduced carotid baroreflex responsiveness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Raven, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    As manned space travel has steadily increased in duration and sophistication, the answer to a simple, relevant question remains elusive. Does endurance exercise training - high intensity rhythmic activity, performed regularly for extended periods of time - alter the disposition to, or severity of, postflight orthostatic hypotension? Research results continue to provide different views; however, data are difficult to compare because of the following factors that vary between investigations: the type of orthostatic stress imposed (+Gz, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), head-up tilt); pretest perturbations used (exercise, heat exposure, head-down tilting, bed rest, water immersion, hypohydration, pharmacologically-induced diuresis); the length of the training program used in longitudinal investigations (days versus weeks versus months); the criteria used to define fitness; and the criteria used to define orthostatic tolerance. Generally, research results indicate that individuals engaged in aerobic exercise activities for a period of years have been reported to have reduced orthostatic tolerance compared to untrained control subjects, while the results of shorter term longitudinal studies remain equivocal. Such conclusions suggest that chronic athletic training programs reduce orthostatic tolerance, whereas relatively brief (days to weeks) training programs do not affect orthostatic tolerance to any significant degree (increase or decrease). A primary objective was established to identify the alterations in blood pressure control that contribute to training-induced orthostatic hypotension (TIOH). Although any aspect of blood pressure regulation is suspect, current research has been focused on the baroreceptor system. Reductions in carotid baroreflex responsiveness have been documented in exercise-trained rabbits, reportedly due to an inhibitory influence from cardiac afferent, presumably vagal, nerve fibers that is abolished with intrapericardiac denervation. The

  8. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  9. Effect of endurance training and/or fish oil supplemented diet on cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein in rat skeletal muscles and heart.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Stéphan; Farout, L; Briand, M; Briand, Y; Jouanel, P

    2002-07-01

    Endurance training and/or a fish oil supplemented diet affect cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c)) content in rat skeletal muscles and heart. After 8 weeks of swimming, trained rats exhibited higher FABP(c) content in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and in the gastrocnemius than did control rats (30%). The FABP(c) increase was associated with an increase of citrate synthase activity (85% and 93%, respectively, in the two muscles), whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased significantly. In contrast, in the soleus and in the heart we did not observe any effect of exercise either on FABP(c) or on the metabolic profile. Therefore, increasing oxidative capacities of muscle by exercise resulted in a concomitant increase of the FABP(c) content. Giving a polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) supplemented diet for eight weeks induced a large rise of the FABP(c) in EDL (300%), gastrocnemius (250%), soleus (50%) and heart (15%) without a concurrent accumulation of intramuscular triglycerides or modification of the citrate synthase activity, suggesting that polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase FABP(c) content by up-regulating fatty acid metabolism genes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation. Endurance trained rats fed with an omega-3 diet had similar FABP(c) content in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared to sedentary omega-3 fed rats, whereas an additive effect of exercise and diet was observed in the EDL. The FABP(c) in the soleus and in the heart of rats fed with omega-3 supplements remained constant whether rats performed exercise or not. As a result, both exercise and omega-3-enriched diet influenced FABP(c) content in muscle. These two physiological treatments presumably acted on FABP(c) content by increasing fatty acid flux within the cell. PMID:12111278

  10. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  11. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Iain P; Harris, Roger C; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Chang Keun; Dang, Viet H; Lam, Thanh Q; Bui, Toai T; Smith, Marcus; Wise, John A

    2008-05-01

    Carnosine (Carn) occurs in high concentrations in skeletal muscle is a potent physico-chemical buffer of H+ over the physiological range. Recent research has demonstrated that 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-alanine (beta-ala) can significantly increase skeletal muscle Carn concentrations (M-[Carn]) whilst the resultant change in buffering capacity has been shown to be paralleled by significant improvements in anaerobic and aerobic measures of exercise performance. Muscle carnosine increase has also been linked to increased work done during resistance training. Prior research has suggested that strength training may also increase M-[Carn] although this is disputed by other studies. The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of 10 weeks resistance training on M-[Carn], and, secondly, to investigate if increased M-[Carn] brought about through beta-ala supplementation had a positive effect on training responses. Twenty-six Vietnamese sports science students completed the study. The subjects completed a 10-week resistance-training program whilst consuming 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-ala (beta-ALG) or a matched dose of a placebo (PLG). Subjects were assessed prior to and after training for whole body strength, isokinetic force production, muscular endurance, body composition. beta-Alanine supplemented subjects increased M-[Carn] by 12.81 +/- 7.97 mmol x kg(-1) dry muscle whilst there was no change in PLG subjects. There was no significant effect of beta-ala supplementation on any of the exercise parameters measured, mass or % body fat. In conclusion, 10 weeks of resistance training alone did not change M-[Carn]. PMID:18175046

  12. Endurance training increases leptin expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats. PMID:24243000

  13. Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Impey, Samuel G; Hammond, Kelly M; Shepherd, Sam O; Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire; Limb, Marie; Smith, Kenneth; Philp, Andrew; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-05-01

    Using an amalgamation of previously studied "train-low" paradigms, we tested the effects of reduced carbohydrate (CHO) but high leucine availability on cell-signaling responses associated with exercise-induced regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle protein synthesis (MPS). In a repeated-measures crossover design, 11 males completed an exhaustive cycling protocol with high CHO availability before, during, and after exercise (HIGH) or alternatively, low CHO but high protein (leucine enriched) availability (LOW + LEU). Muscle glycogen was different (P < 0.05) pre-exercise (HIGH: 583 ± 158, LOW + LEU: 271 ± 85 mmol kg(-1) dw) but decreased (P < 0.05) to comparable levels at exhaustion (≈100 mmol kg(-1) dw). Despite differences (P < 0.05) in exercise capacity (HIGH: 158 ± 29, LOW + LEU: 100 ± 17 min), exercise induced (P < 0.05) comparable AMPKα2 (3-4-fold) activity, PGC-1α (13-fold), p53 (2-fold), Tfam (1.5-fold), SIRT1 (1.5-fold), Atrogin 1 (2-fold), and MuRF1 (5-fold) gene expression at 3 h post-exercise. Exhaustive exercise suppressed p70S6K activity to comparable levels immediately post-exercise (≈20 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). Despite elevated leucine availability post-exercise, p70S6K activity remained suppressed (P < 0.05) 3 h post-exercise in LOW + LEU (28 ± 14 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)), whereas muscle glycogen resynthesis (40 mmol kg(-1) dw h(-1)) was associated with elevated (P < 0.05) p70S6K activity in HIGH (53 ± 30 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). We conclude: (1) CHO restriction before and during exercise induces "work-efficient" mitochondrial-related cell signaling but; (2) post-exercise CHO and energy restriction maintains p70S6K activity at basal levels despite feeding leucine-enriched protein. Our data support the practical concept of "fuelling for the work required" as a potential strategy for which to amalgamate train-low paradigms into periodized training programs. PMID:27225627

  14. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered. PMID:24279436

  15. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.05). PHRT and PHET decreased augmentation index (AIx) by 7.5% ± 2.8% and 8.1% ± 3.2% (P < 0.05), AIx@75 by 8.0% ± 3.2% and 9.2% ± 3.8% (P < 0.05), and left ventricular wasted pressure energy, an index of extra left ventricular myocardial oxygen requirement due to early systolic wave reflection, by 573±161 dynes s/cm2 and 612±167 dynes s/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. PHRT and PHET reduced carotid–radial PWV by 1.02±0.32 m/sec and 0.92±0.36 m/sec (P < 0.05) and femoral–distal PWV by 1.04±0.31 m/sec and 1.34±0.33 m/sec (P < 0.05), respectively. No significant changes were observed in the time-control groups. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that both resistance and endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  16. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach. PMID:21916794

  17. 'Endurance' Untouched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a cylindrical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  18. Increases in skeletal muscle ATGL and its inhibitor G0S2 following 8 weeks of endurance training in metabolically different rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Patrick C; Longo, Amanda B; Ramos, Sofhia V; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

    2016-01-15

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the rate-limiting removal of the first fatty acid from a triglyceride. ATGL is activated by comparative gene identification-58 and inhibited by G(0)/G(1) switch gene-2 protein (G0S2). Research in other tissues and cell culture indicates that inhibition is dependent on relative G0S2-to-ATGL protein content. G0S2 may also have several roles within mitochondria; however, this has yet to be observed in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle G0S2 relative to ATGL content would decrease to facilitate intramuscular lipolysis following endurance training. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10; age 51-53 days old) were progressively treadmill trained at a 10% incline for 8 wk ending with 25 m/min for 1 h compared with control. Sciatic nerve stimulation for hind-limb muscle contraction (and lipolysis) was administered for 30 min to one leg, leaving the opposing leg as a resting control. Soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius were excised from both legs following stimulation or control. ATGL protein increased in all trained muscles. Unexpectedly, G0S2 protein was greater in the trained SOL and RG. In RG-isolated mitochondria, G0S2 also increased with training, yet mitochondrial G0S2 content was unaltered with acute contraction; therefore, any role of G0S2 in the mitochondria does not appear to be acutely mediated by content alone. In summary, G0S2 increased with training in oxidative muscles and mitochondria but not following acute contraction, suggesting that inhibition is not through relative G0S2-to-ATGL content but through more complicated intracellular mechanisms. PMID:26511521

  19. Associations between CD36 gene polymorphisms and metabolic response to a short-term endurance-training program in a young-adult population.

    PubMed

    Jayewardene, Avindra F; Mavros, Yorgi; Gwinn, Tom; Hancock, Dale P; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that CD36 gene variants are associated with an increased prevalence of chronic disease. Although a genetic component to trainability has been proven, no data are available specifically on the influence of CD36 on training response. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1527479 and rs1984112) were assessed for associations with whole-body substrate oxidation, response to a 75-g dextrose oral glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a young healthy cohort, both using cross-sectional analysis and following a 4-week endurance-exercise training program. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectional data were collected in 34 individuals (age, 22.7 ± 3.5 years), with 17 completing the training program. At baseline, TT SNP carriers at rs1527479 and wild-type GG carriers at rs1984112 were associated with significantly greater whole-body rate of fat oxidation (Fatox) during submaximal exercise (P < 0.05), whilst AA carriers at the same position were associated with elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. A significant genotype × time interaction in Fatox at SNP rs1984112 was identified at rest. Significant genotype × time interactions were present at rs1527479, with TT carriers exhibiting a favourable response to training when compared with C-allele carriers for fasting TG, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In conclusion, cross-sectional assessment identified associations with Fatox and TG. Training response at both SNPs identified "at-risk" genotypes responding favourably to the training stimulus in Fatox, TG, DBP, and MAP. Although these data show potential pleiotropic influence of CD36 SNPs, assessment in a larger cohort is warranted. PMID:26830498

  20. Differential Effect of Endurance Training on Mitochondrial Protein Damage, Degradation, and Acetylation in the Context of Aging.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew L; Irving, Brian A; Lanza, Ian R; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Konopka, Adam R; Robinson, Matthew M; Henderson, Gregory C; Klaus, Katherine A; Morse, Dawn M; Heppelmann, Carrie; Bergen, H Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Schimke, Jill M; Jakaitis, Daniel R; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2015-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise increases reactive oxygen species and could potentially damage proteins, but exercise training (ET) enhances mitochondrial respiration irrespective of age. Here, we report a differential impact of ET on protein quality in young and older participants. Using mass spectrometry we measured oxidative damage to skeletal muscle proteins before and after 8 weeks of ET and find that young but not older participants reduced oxidative damage to both total skeletal muscle and mitochondrial proteins. Young participants showed higher total and mitochondrial derived semitryptic peptides and 26S proteasome activity indicating increased protein degradation. ET however, increased the activity of the endogenous antioxidants in older participants. ET also increased skeletal muscle content of the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 in both groups. A reduction in the acetylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 was observed following ET that may counteract the effect of acute oxidative stress. In conclusion aging is associated with an inability to improve skeletal muscle and mitochondrial protein quality in response to ET by increasing degradation of damaged proteins. ET does however increase muscle and mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in older individuals, which provides increased buffering from the acute oxidative effects of exercise. PMID:25504576

  1. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  2. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P< 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P< 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P< 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+)pump activity and muscle K(+)homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+)handling. PMID:26791827

  3. Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on genes related to myostatin signaling pathway and muscle fiber responses.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo O; Tricoli, Valmor; Aoki, Marcelo S; Roschel, Hamilton; Brum, Patrícia C; Bacurau, Aline V N; Silva-Batista, Carla; Wilson, Jacob M; Neves, Manoel; Soares, Antonio G; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent training (CT) seems to impair training-induced muscle hypertrophy. This study compared the effects of CT, strength training (ST) and interval training (IT) on the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) response, and on the expression of selected genes involved in the myostatin (MSTN) signaling mRNA levels. Thirty-seven physically active men were randomly divided into 4 groups: CT (n = 11), ST (n = 11), IT (n = 8), and control group (C) (n = 7) and underwent an 8-week training period. Vastus lateralis biopsy muscle samples were obtained at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Muscle fiber CSA, selected genes expression, and maximum dynamic ST (1 repetition maximum) were evaluated before and after training. Type IIa and type I muscle fiber CSA increased from pre- to posttest only in the ST group (17.08 and 17.9%, respectively). The SMAD-7 gene expression significantly increased at the posttest in the ST (53.9%) and CT groups (39.3%). The MSTN and its regulatory genes ActIIb, FLST-3, FOXO-3a, and GASP-1 mRNA levels remained unchanged across time and groups. One repetition maximum increased from pre- to posttest in both the ST and CT groups (ST = 18.5%; CT = 17.6%). Our findings are suggestive that MSTN and their regulatory genes at transcript level cannot differentiate muscle fiber CSA responses between CT and ST regimens in humans. PMID:24832980

  4. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  5. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways. PMID:26298685

  6. L-glutamine supplementations enhance liver glutamine-glutathione axis and heat shock factor-1 expression in endurance-exercise trained rats.

    PubMed

    Petry, Éder Ricardo; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Tirapegui, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Liver L-glutamine is an important vehicle for the transport of ammonia and intermediary metabolism of amino acids between tissues, particularly under catabolic situations, such as high-intensity exercise. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral supplementations with L-glutamine in its free or dipeptide forms (with L-alanine) on liver glutamine-glutathione (GSH) axis, and 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70)/heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) expressions. Adult male Wistar rats were 8-week trained (60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a treadmill. During the last 21 days, the animals were daily supplemented with 1 g of L-glutamine/kg body weight per day in either l-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide (DIP) form or a solution containing L-glutamine and l-alanine in their free forms (GLN+ALA) or water (controls). Exercise training increased cytosolic and nuclear HSF1 and HSP70 expression, as compared with sedentary animals. However, both DIP and GLN+ALA supplements enhanced HSF1 expression (in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions) in relation to exercised controls. Interestingly, HSF1 rises were not followed by enhanced HSP70 expression. DIP and GLN+ALA supplements increased plasma glutamine concentrations (by 62% and 59%, respectively) and glutamine to glutamate plasma ratio in relation to trained controls. This was in parallel with a decrease in plasma ammonium levels. Supplementations increased liver GSH (by 90%), attenuating the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to GSH ratio, suggesting a redox state protection. In conclusion, oral administration with DIP and GLN+ALA supplements in endurance-trained rats improve liver glutamine-GSH axis and modulate HSF1 pathway. PMID:25202991

  7. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  8. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  9. Reducing neural network training time with parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1995-01-01

    Obtaining optimal solutions for engineering design problems is often expensive because the process typically requires numerous iterations involving analysis and optimization programs. Previous research has shown that a near optimum solution can be obtained in less time by simulating a slow, expensive analysis with a fast, inexpensive neural network. A new approach has been developed to further reduce this time. This approach decomposes a large neural network into many smaller neural networks that can be trained in parallel. Guidelines are developed to avoid some of the pitfalls when training smaller neural networks in parallel. These guidelines allow the engineer: to determine the number of nodes on the hidden layer of the smaller neural networks; to choose the initial training weights; and to select a network configuration that will capture the interactions among the smaller neural networks. This paper presents results describing how these guidelines are developed.

  10. Effects of Fluency versus Accuracy Training on Endurance and Retention of Assembly Tasks by Four Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gabrielle T.; Singer-Dudek, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly being encouraged to teach vocational skills to middle and high school students. Although extensive research exists demonstrating the benefits of fluency instruction when teaching academic skills to this population of students, few studies have examined the importance of fluency training when teaching vocational skills.…

  11. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  12. Influence of vitamin D status on respiratory infection incidence and immune function during 4 months of winter training in endurance sport athletes.

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Shiun; Handzlik, Michal; Fraser, William D; Muhamad, Ayu; Preston, Hannah; Richardson, Andrew; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of vitamin D status on mucosal and systemic immunity and the incidence, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) episodes in endurance athletes during a 16-week winter training period. Blood was collected from 225 subjects at the start of the study and plasma was analysed for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and cathelicidin concentration. Blood was also collected at the end of the study and analysed for 25(OH)D and antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Unstimulated saliva samples were obtained at the start and at 4-week intervals during the study period. Saliva samples were analysed for salivary antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). Weekly training and daily illness logs were kept. At the start and end of the study 38% and 55%, respectively, of the athlete cohort had inadequate (plasma 25(OH)D 30-50 nmol/L) or deficient (plasma 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) vitamin D status. There was a significantly higher proportion of subjects who presented with symptoms of URTI in the vitamin D deficient status group (initial plasma 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) during the study period than in the optimal vitamin D group (> 120 nmol/L) and the total number of URTI symptom days and the median symptom-severity score in the vitamin D deficient group was signifi- cantly higher than in the other groups. The plasma cathelicidin concentration positively correlated with the plasma 25(OH)D concentration and the saliva secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion rate in the optimal vitamin D status group was significantly higher than in the other groups. Low vitamin D status was associated with lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production by monocytes and lymphocytes. Low vitamin D status could be an important determinant of URTI risk in endurance athletes and mucosal as well as systemic immunity may be modified via vitamin D-dependent mechanisms. PMID:23977722

  13. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  14. Combat Experiences, Pre-Deployment Training, and Outcome of Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F.; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness. PMID:22253233

  15. Effects of exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and work rate on diaphragmatic fatigue in highly trained endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Olga; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Koskolou, Maria; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Kosmas, Epaminondas; Wagner, Harrieth; Peraki, Eleni; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Koulouris, Nickolaos; Wagner, Peter D; Roussos, Charis

    2006-01-01

    Diaphragmatic fatigue occurs in highly trained athletes during exhaustive exercise. Since approximately half of them also exhibit exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during high-intensity exercise, the present study sought to test the hypothesis that arterial hypoxaemia contributes to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in this population. Ten cyclists (: 70.0 ± 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1; mean ± s.e.m.) completed, in a balanced ordering sequence, one normoxic (end-exercise arterial O2 saturation (Sa,O2): 92 ± 1%) and one hyperoxic (FI,O2: 0.5% O2; Sa,O2: 97 ± 1%) 5 min exercise test at intensities equal to 80 ± 3 and 90 ± 3% of maximal work rate (WRmax), respectively, producing the same tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (f) throughout exercise. Cervical magnetic stimulation was used to determine reduction in twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,tw) during recovery. Hyperoxic exercise at 90% WRmax induced significantly (P = 0.022) greater post-exercise reduction in Pdi,tw (15 ± 2%) than did normoxic exercise at 80% WRmax (9 ± 2%), despite the similar mean ventilation (123 ± 8 and 119 ± 8 l min−1, respectively), breathing pattern (VT: 2.53 ± 0.05 and 2.61 ± 0.05 l, f: 49 ± 2 and 46 ± 2 breaths min−1, respectively), mean changes in Pdi during exercise (37.1 ± 2.4 and 38.2 ± 2.8 cmH2O, respectively) and end-exercise arterial lactate (12.1 ± 1.4 and 10.8 ± 1.1 mmol l−1, respectively). The difference found in diaphragmatic fatigue between the hyperoxic (at higher leg work rate) and the normoxic (at lower leg work rate) tests suggests that neither EIAH nor lactic acidosis per se are likely predominant causative factors in diaphragmatic fatigue in this population, at least at the level of Sa,O2 tested. Rather, this result leads us to hypothesize that blood flow competition with the legs is an important contributor to diaphragmatic fatigue in heavy exercise, assuming that higher leg work required greater leg blood flow. PMID

  16. Transductive SVM for reducing the training effort in BCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiang; Yao, Dezhong; Li, Chaoyi

    2007-09-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a communication channel that translates human intention reflected by a brain signal such as electroencephalogram (EEG) into a control signal for an output device. In this work, the main concern is to reduce the training effort for BCI, which is often tedious and time consuming. Here we introduce a transductive support vector machines (TSVM) algorithm for the classification of EEG signals associated with mental tasks. TSVM possess the property of using both labeled and unlabeled data for reducing the calibration time in BCI and achieving good performance in classification accuracy. The advantages of the proposed method over the traditional supervised support vector machines (SVM) method are confirmed by about 2%-9% higher classification accuracies on a set of EEG recordings of three subjects from three-tasks-based mental imagery experiments. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 30525030 and 60571019, the 973 Project No. 2003CB716106.

  17. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  18. Brain serotonergic and dopaminergic modulators, perceptual responses and endurance exercise performance following caffeine co-ingested with a high fat meal in trained humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study examined putative modulators and indices of brain serotonergic and dopaminergic function, perceptual responses, and endurance exercise performance following caffeine co-ingested with a high fat meal. Methods Trained humans (n = 10) performed three constant-load cycling tests at 73% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) until exhaustion at 10°C remove space throughout. Prior to the first test, subjects consumed a 90% carbohydrate meal (Control trial) and for the remaining two tests, a 90% fat meal with (FC trial) and without (F trial) caffeine. Results Time to exhaustion was not different between the F and FC trials (P > 0.05); [Control trial: 116(88-145) min; F trial: 122(96-144) min; FC trial: 127(107-176) min]. However, leg muscular discomfort during exercise was significantly lower on the FC relative to F trial (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between F and FC trials in key modulators and indices of brain serotonergic (5-HT) and dopaminergic (DA) function [(i.e. plasma free and total tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), large neutral amino acids (LNAA), Trp:LNAA ratio, free-Trp:Tyr ratio, total Trp:Tyr ratio, and plasma prolactin] (P > 0.05) with the exception of plasma free-Trp:LNAA ratio which was higher at 90 min and at exhaustion during the FC trial (P < 0.05). Conclusions Neither brain 5-HT nor DA systems would appear to be implicated in the fatigue process when exercise is performed without significant thermoregulatory stress, thus indicating fatigue development during exercise in relatively cold temperatures to occur predominantly due to glycogen depletion. PMID:20507554

  19. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  20. Food selection for endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Houtkooper, L

    1992-09-01

    1) The body requires at least 40 nutrients that are classified into six groups: protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, and water. These nutrients cannot be made in the body and so they must be supplied from solid or liquid foods. 2) Fat, carbohydrate, and protein contain energy that is measured in units called kilocalories. Alcohol also contains kilocalories, but is not a recommended energy source for endurance exercise. 3) Foods in endurance sports training programs should provide adequate fluids to prevent dehydration; energy intake that is high in carbohydrate, low in fat, adequate in protein, and that maintains desirable body weight and desirable proportions of fat and lean weight; and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals. 4) Six categories of food types form the fundamentals of good diets for endurance exercise training and include: fruits, vegetables, grains-legumes, lean meats, low-fat milk products, and fats-sweets. Vegetarian diets include all food type categories except meat and/or milk products. 5) Fat and carbohydrate content of foods in each food type category varies greatly because of how foods are prepared. 6) The Food Pyramid and Sports Food Swap are guides for selecting foods that provide recommended amounts of essential nutrients for endurance exercise. 7) Before, during, and after endurance exercise, food intake should include adequate amounts of easily digestible, high carbohydrate foods that are familiar and psychologically satisfying. 8) Easily digestible high carbohydrate liquid or solid foods should be eaten soon after exercise is stopped to maximize rates of glycogen replacement. 9) Dehydration can be prevented by adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise. 10) Any food plan should be tested before a competition to find out how well that plan works for an athlete. PMID:1406209

  1. Fenitrothion, an organophosphorous insecticide, impairs locomotory function and alters body temperatures in Sminthopsis macroura (Gould 1845) without reducing metabolic rates during running endurance and thermogenic performance tests.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; French, Kris; Astheimer, Lee B; Buttemer, William A

    2016-01-01

    Endemic Australian mammal species are exposed to pesticides used for locust control as they occupy the same habitat as the target insect. The authors examined the impact of an ultra-low volume formulation of the organophosphorous insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl-O-[3-methyl-4-nitrophenol]-phosphorothioate) on a suite of physiological measures that affect the ability of animals to survive in free-living conditions: locomotory and thermogenic functions, metabolic performance, body mass, and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Plasma and brain cholinesterase activity in relation to time since exposure to pesticide were also determined. An orally applied dose of 90 mg kg(-1) fenitrothion reduced running endurance in the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura, by 80% the day after exposure concomitantly with a reduction of approximately 50% in plasma and 45% in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These adverse effects disappeared by 10 d postexposure. Maximal metabolic rates reached during running were unaffected by pesticide, as were body mass and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Maximal cold-induced metabolic rate (measured as peak 2 min metabolic rate attained during cold exposure), time taken to reach peak metabolic rate on cold exposure, cumulative total oxygen consumed during shivering thermogenesis, and body temperature before and after cold exposure were unaffected by fenitrothion. Dunnart rectal temperatures showed a reduction of up to 5 °C after exposure to fenitrothion but returned to pre-exposure levels by 10 d postdose. Such physiological compromises in otherwise asymptomatic animals demonstrate the importance of considering performance-based measures in pesticide risk assessments. PMID:26184692

  2. [Attentional bias training in reducing symptoms of anxiety].

    PubMed

    Kłosowska, Joanna; Blaut, Agata; Paulewicz, Borysław

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification - Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method. PMID:25844410

  3. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance performance (e.g., time trial). Significant improvements in endurance performance were observed in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time to exhaustion trials, and 3.1% for time to completion trials. Three of six studies found that coffee reduced perceived exertion during performance measures significantly more than control conditions (p < .05). Based on the reviewed studies there is moderate evidence supporting the use of coffee as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in endurance cycling and running. Coffee providing 3-8.1 mg/kg (1.36-3.68 mg/lb) of caffeine may be used as a safe alternative to anhydrous caffeine to improve endurance performance. PMID:26568580

  4. Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. PMID:26580081

  5. Vegetarian dietary practices and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C

    1988-09-01

    Confounding influences of varying fat, protein, and carbohydrate (CHO) levels, training habits, and lifestyle patterns make the interpretation of specific influences of the diet on endurance performance unclear. In general, exhaustion during prolonged, hard endurance exercise is tied to low muscle glycogen stores. Athletes in heavy training are urged to consume 70% of calories as CHO to maximize body CHO stores. A deemphasis in animal products with an emphasis in high-CHO plant foods would facilitate athletes in conforming to nutritional recommendations. Some female athletes may increase their risk of iron deficiency and/or amenorrhea if a restrictive vegetarian diet is adopted. In general, the high-CHO nature of the vegetarian diet can help the endurance athlete in heavy training maximize body glycogen stores and thus the ability to perform. The balanced vegetarian diet provides the athlete with added reduction in coronary risk factors while meeting all known nutritional needs. PMID:3046304

  6. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  7. Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood lactate concentration during volitional hyperpnoea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter I; Sharpe, Graham R; Johnson, Michael A

    2008-09-01

    Although reduced blood lactate concentrations ([lac(-)](B)) have been observed during whole-body exercise following inspiratory muscle training (IMT), it remains unknown whether the inspiratory muscles are the source of at least part of this reduction. To investigate this, we tested the hypothesis that IMT would attenuate the increase in [lac(-)](B) caused by mimicking, at rest, the breathing pattern observed during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-two physically active males were matched for 85% maximal exercise minute ventilation (.V(E) max) and divided equally into an IMT or a control group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention, participants performed 10 min of volitional hyperpnoea at the breathing pattern commensurate with 85% .V(E) max. The IMT group performed 6 weeks of pressure-threshold IMT; the control group performed no IMT. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased (mean +/- SD) 31 +/- 22% following IMT and was unchanged in the control group. Prior to the intervention in the control group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.76 +/- 0.24 mmol L(-1) at rest to 1.50 +/- 0.60 mmol L(-1) (P < 0.05) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea. In the IMT group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.85 +/- 0.40 mmol L(-1) at rest to 2.02 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea (P < 0.05). After 6 weeks, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea were unchanged in the control group. Conversely, following IMT the increase in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea was reduced by 17 +/- 37% and 25 +/- 34% following 8 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea at 85% .V(E) max were attenuated following IMT. These findings suggest that the inspiratory muscles were the source of at least part of this reduction, and provide a possible explanation for some of the IMT-mediated reductions in [lac(-)](B), often observed during whole-body exercise. PMID:18560878

  8. Prognosis: does exercise training reduce adverse events in heart failure?

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

  9. Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil Jit R J; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhpal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elizabeth; Wisloff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym M; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system in vivo in mice and in vitro in the denervated sinus node. We also show that a widespread remodelling of pacemaker ion channels, notably a downregulation of HCN4 and the corresponding ionic current, If. Block of If abolishes the difference in heart rate between trained and sedentary animals in vivo and in vitro. We further observe training-induced downregulation of Tbx3 and upregulation of NRSF and miR-1 (transcriptional regulators) that explains the downregulation of HCN4. Our findings provide a molecular explanation for the potentially pathological heart rate adaptation to exercise training. PMID:24825544

  10. Sustained attention training reduces spatial bias in Parkinson's disease: a pilot case series.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Grosso, Mallory; VanVleet, Thomas; Esterman, Michael; Pistorino, Laura; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly demonstrate lateralized spatial biases, which affect daily functioning. Those with PD with initial motor symptoms on the left body side (LPD) have reduced leftward attention, whereas PD with initial motor symptoms on the right side (RPD) may display reduced rightward attention. We investigated whether a sustained attention training program could help reduce these spatial biases. Four non-demented individuals with PD (2 LPD, 2 RPD) performed a visual search task before and after 1 month of computer training. Before training, all participants showed a significant spatial bias and after training, all participants' spatial bias was eliminated. PMID:26360648

  11. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  12. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  13. A multifaceted mental health training program in reducing burnout among occupational social workers.

    PubMed

    Rabin, S; Saffer, M; Weisberg, E; Kornitzer-Enav, T; Peled, I; Ribak, J

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at ways of reducing stress through a multifaceted training program involving the acquisition of mental health knowledge and skills and experiential training in a group of occupational social workers. The training group of 13 occupational workers was compared to a group of occupational social workers not attending the program. Post-training revealed statistically significant increases in professional self-efficacy associated with awareness of psychological and psychopathological issues and professional social support. Reduction in cognitive weariness and listlessness associated with burnout was also found. Gaining competence in mental health issues relating to the occupational setting coupled with emotional sharing helped to reduce professional burnout. PMID:10857266

  14. Trained Home Composters Reduce Solid Waste by 18%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossen, Paul; Rilla, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    In the University of California Cooperative Extension's Master Gardener Program, a partnership with the Sonoma County Waste Management Agency, volunteers teach approximately 1000 people annually how to compost in their backyards to help reduce landfill waste. Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1996 showed that home composters reduced their input into…

  15. LOWER EXTREMITY HYPERMOBILITY, BUT NOT CORE MUSCLE ENDURANCE INFLUENCES BALANCE IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE DANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Shane V.; Ambegaonkar, Gautam P.; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    collegiate dancers. While LE hypermobility status influenced balance in the female collegiate dancers, how this LE hypermobility status affects their longitudinal injury risk as their careers progress needs further study. Overall, the current findings suggest that rather than using isolated core endurance-centric training, clinicians may encourage dancers to use training programs that incorporate multiple muscles - in order to improve their balance, and possibly reduce their LE injury risk. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:27104055

  16. Reduced posterior parietal cortex activation after training on a visual search task.

    PubMed

    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Parcet, María-Antonia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ávila, César

    2016-07-15

    Gaining experience on a cognitive task improves behavioral performance and is thought to enhance brain efficiency. Despite the body of literature already published on the effects of training on brain activation, less research has been carried out on visual search attention processes under well controlled conditions. Thirty-six healthy adults divided into trained and control groups completed a pre-post letter-based visual search task fMRI study in one day. Twelve letters were used as targets and ten as distractors. The trained group completed a training session (840 trials) with half the targets between scans. The effects of training were studied at the behavioral and brain levels by controlling for repetition effects using both between-subjects (trained vs. control groups) and within-subject (trained vs. untrained targets) controls. The trained participants reduced their response speed by 31% as a result of training, maintaining their accuracy scores, whereas the control group hardly changed. Neural results revealed that brain changes associated with visual search training were circumscribed to reduced activation in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) when controlling for group, and they included inferior occipital areas when controlling for targets. The observed behavioral and brain changes are discussed in relation to automatic behavior development. The observed training-related decreases could be associated with increased neural efficiency in specific key regions for task performance. PMID:27132048

  17. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Whole body carbohydrate utilization was greater with sucrose (2.03 ± 0.43 g/min) vs. glucose (1.66 ± 0.36 g/min; P < 0.05) ingestion. Both liver (from 454 ± 33 to 283 ± 82 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and muscle (from 111 ± 46 to 67 ± 31 mmol/l; P < 0.01) glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836. PMID:26487008

  18. Isometric handgrip training reduces arterial pressure at rest without changes in sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carrasco, D. I.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether isometric handgrip (IHG) training reduces arterial pressure and whether reductions in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) mediate this drop in arterial pressure. Normotensive subjects were assigned to training (n = 9), sham training (n = 7), or control (n = 8) groups. The training protocol consisted of four 3-min bouts of IHG exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) separated by 5-min rest periods. Training was performed four times per week for 5 wk. Subjects' resting arterial pressure and heart rate were measured three times on 3 consecutive days before and after training, with resting MSNA (peroneal nerve) recorded on the third day. Additionally, subjects performed IHG exercise at 30% of MVC to fatigue followed by muscle ischemia. In the trained group, resting diastolic (67 +/- 1 to 62 +/- 1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (86 +/- 1 to 82 +/- 1 mmHg) significantly decreased, whereas systolic arterial pressure (116 +/- 3 to 113 +/- 2 mmHg), heart rate (67 +/- 4 to 66 +/- 4 beats/min), and MSNA (14 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 2 bursts/min) did not significantly change following training. MSNA and cardiovascular responses to exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia were unchanged by training. There were no significant changes in any variables for the sham training and control groups. The results indicate that IHG training is an effective nonpharmacological intervention in lowering arterial pressure.

  19. Controlled aerobic exercise training reduces resting blood pressure in sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyuan; Shi, Xiangrong; Gibson, Cheryl A; Huang, Sunny C; Coudret, Nadine A; Ehlman, Mary C

    2013-12-01

    The results of existing controlled clinical trials were synthesized to determine effects of aerobic exercise training on resting systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among previously sedentary older adults, to quantify the magnitude of observed changes, and to examine the influence of the associated interventional variables on these changes. Studies were identified via a systematic computer database search, hand searching, and cross-referencing of previously located articles. All potentially eligible articles were carefully reviewed and examined with the established inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies, representing a total of 1226 older subjects, were included in the final analysis. Robust statistically significant effects were found in terms of the pooled standardized effect size of - 0.33 ± 0.06 (p < 0.0001) in SBP and - 0.39 ± 0.09 (p < 0.0001) in DBP. When compared with the control group, net decreases in both SBP (- 5.39 ± 1.21 mmHg, p < 0.0001) and DBP (-3.68 ± 0.83 mmHg, p < 0.0001) were observed in older exercisers, representing a 3.9% and a 4.5% reduction, respectively. This meta-analytic study provides robust quantitative data to support the efficacy and effectiveness of controlled endurance exercise training in decreasing resting SBP and DBP among previously sedentary older adults. PMID:23550511

  20. A comparison of PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression in response to 1-week endurance training on alternate days or 4 consecutive days.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ping; Yao, Min; Wang, Ya-Li; Davie, Allan; Zhou, Shi

    2015-11-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to different training protocols, this study compared the effects of 4 sessions of 90 min treadmill exercise on alternate days or consecutive days in 1 week on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α in rat gastrocnemius muscle. The mRNA significantly increased by 25.8-fold after alternate-day and 10.1-fold after consecutive-day training, while the protein showed no significant cumulative effect, 1.5-1.7-fold above baseline, in the 2 protocols. PMID:26466083

  1. Endurance training effects on 5-HT(1B) receptors mRNA expression in cerebellum, striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, M; Drogou, C; Gomez-Merino, D; Grimaldi, B; Fillion, G; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The 5-HT(1B) receptors are the predominant auto- and heteroreceptors located on serotonergic and non-serotonergic terminals where they regulate the neuronal release of neurotransmitters. The present study investigated the effects of a 7 week period of physical training on the expression of cerebral 5-HT(1B) receptors by measuring corresponding mRNA levels in rat. Using RNase protection assay technique, we have observed no change in 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and in the hippocampus after moderate as well as after intensive training. In contrast, a significant decrease in 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA levels was observed in cerebellum of intensively trained rats. Moreover, in frontal cortex, a significant decrease in 5-HT(1B) receptors mRNA level occurred in both groups of trained rats. These data suggest the existence of regional differences in the effect of physical exercise on the expression of 5-HT(1B) receptors. PMID:11516568

  2. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement: Health Aspects of Resistance Exercise and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Michael S.; Rozenek, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, improve body composition, increase bone mineral density, reduce anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of injury during other sports, and increase muscular strength and endurance. The paper describes the effects of resistance training on: the cardiovascular system, energy expenditure and body…

  3. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  4. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  5. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety compared to control group without any treatment using students in a science and engineering university of South Korea. For the present study, a total of 15 graduate students with moderate level of trait anxiety were recruited for 4 individual sessions every two weeks. They were randomly assigned into three groups: biofeedback treatment (n = 5), relaxation training (n = 5), and no treatment control group (n = 5). Our results revealed significant difference in change score of trait anxiety between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the no treatment control group. However, no significant difference was found between the relaxation training group and the no treatment control group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the relaxation training. Results of the present study indicate that there is potential benefit in utilizing HRV biofeedback treatment for stress management programs and/or anxiety reduction treatment PMID:27099546

  6. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  7. The Effect of Rater Training on Reducing Social Style Bias in Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a quasiexperimental control group design in a university setting to test the effect of a rater-training program on reducing social style bias in intragroup peer evaluations after controlling for ability based on GPA. Comparison of rating scores of the test group to the control group indicated minimal social style rating bias in…

  8. Efficacy of Self-Instructional Training for Reducing Children's Dental Fear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Pier J.

    1988-01-01

    Utilizes two different experiments to test the effectiveness of a variety self-instructional training methods to reduce the dental fears of groups of 8- to 12-year-old children. Results indicate that high levels of anxiety impair the effectiveness of self-instruction. (FMW)

  9. 'Endurance' Untouched (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a polar projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  10. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  11. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  12. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  13. Effect of sulphurous mineral water in haematological and biochemical markers of muscle damage after an endurance exercise in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Esteva, Santiago; Escanero, Jesús F; Pina, José R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of sulphurous mineral water (SMW) after a hydroponic treatment on muscle damage, antioxidant activity and peripheral blood changes induced by submaximal exercise. Thirty well-trained male triathletes were supplemented with SMW or placebo: 3 weeks of placebo, 30 days of wash out and 3 weeks of SMW. After both periods, participants ran for 2 h at 70% maximal aerobic speed. Antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity and blood cell markers were compared between placebo and SMW at pre-exercise (T0), immediately post-exercise (T1), 24 h post-exercise (T2) and 48 h post-exercise (T3). Total thiols decreased until T3 vs. T0 for both placebo and SMW; transient red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit increased were shown at T1 vs. T0 and for leucocytes until T2 vs. T0, only for placebo group. Total thiols increased significantly in SMW vs. placebo at T0; Thiobarbituric acid reactive species was significantly higher at T0, T1, T2 and T3; catalase increased significantly at T1; creatine phosphokinase decreased significantly at T1, T2 and T3, although no significant differences were found at T0. Furthermore, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly higher and leucocytes were significantly lower at T0 and T1 in SMW group vs. placebo group. This study suggests that three weeks of SMW supplementation may protect from exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:24499262

  14. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers. PMID:25867005

  15. Working Memory Training and CBT Reduces Anxiety Symptoms and Attentional Biases to Threat: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadwin, Julie A.; Richards, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that cognitive processes linked to the detection of threat stimuli are associated with poor attentional control, placing children and adolescents at increased risk for the development of anxious affect. The current study aimed to provide preliminary data to assess whether an intervention designed to improve attentional control (via working memory; WM) would lead to better performance in tests of WM and would be associated with positive changes in symptoms of trait and test anxiety, increased inhibitory control and reduced attention to threat. Forty adolescents aged 11–14 years who reported elevated anxiety and low attentional control were randomly allocated to a WM training or an active cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) control group. Post intervention, WM training was associated with greater improvements (versus. CBT) in trained WM tasks. Both groups, however, reported fewer anxiety symptoms, demonstrated increased inhibitory control and a reduction in attentional biases to threat post intervention and these results were maintained at follow up. The study provides indicative evidence which suggests that WM training has similar benefits to a more traditional CBT intervention on reduced anxiety and attentional biases for threat. Future research should aim to replicate the findings in a large sample size and explore the broader impact of training on day-to-day functioning. In addition, further research is needed to identify which participants benefit most from different interventions (using baseline characteristics) on treatment compliance and outcome. PMID:26869956

  16. Strength Training Reduces Injury Rate in Elite Young Soccer Players During One Season.

    PubMed

    Zouita, Sghair; Zouita, Amira B M; Kebsi, Wiem; Dupont, Grégory; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Ben Salah, Fatma Z; Zouhal, Hassane

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of strength training on physical fitness parameters and injuries occurrence in young elite soccer players. Fifty-two elite young soccer players (13-14 years) were divided on a randomized order into experimental group (EG, n = 26) and control group (CG, n = 26). For EG, 2 to 3 sessions of strength training (90 minutes) were introduced weekly in their training program for 12 weeks (4 × 3 weeks separated by 1-week recovery). Sprint tests (10-20-30 m), T-test time, and jumping tests were measured at the start (T0), at the middle (T1), and at the end of the experiment period (T2). The injury rate was recorded by the medical and fitness training staff throughout the soccer season. Compared to CG, EG performed significantly better in sprint running and T-test time at T2 (p < 0.01). Similarly, the improvement amount for jumping tests was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) in EG than in CG. A total of 17 injuries were recorded over the soccer season. The rate was higher in CG (13 injuries) than in training group (4 injuries). This study showed that strength training accurately and efficiently scheduled in youth soccer players, induced performance improvement, and reduced the rate of injuries. PMID:26918277

  17. Reduced central line infection rates in children with leukemia following caregiver training

    PubMed Central

    Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Schaffzin, Joshua K.; Ruberto, Eliana; Caiazzo, Maria Angela; Saggiomo, Loredana; Mambretti, Daniela; Russo, Danila; Crispo, Sara; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Dello Iacovo, Rossano; Poggi, Vincenzo; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with acute leukemia. Central-line (CL) devices increase this population's risk of serious infections. Within the context of a quality improvement (QI) project, we tested the effect of caregiver education on CL management on the CL-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate among children with acute leukemia seen at a large referral center in Italy. The intervention consisted of 9 in-person sessions for education and practice using mannequins and children. One hundred and twenty caregivers agreed to participate in the initiative. One hundred and five (87.5%) completed the training, 5 (4.1%) withdrew after the first session, and 10 (8.3%) withdrew during practical sessions. After educational intervention, the overall CLABSI rate was reduced by 46% (from 6.86 to 3.70/1000 CL-days). CLABSI rate was lower in children whose caregivers completed the training (1.74/1000 CL-days, 95% CI 0.43–6.94) compared with those who did not receive any training (12.2/1000 CL-days, 95% CI 7.08–21.0, P < 0.05) or were in-training (3.96/1000 CL-days, 95% CI 1.98–7.91) at the time of infection. Caregiver training in CL management, applied within a multifaceted QI approach, reduced the rate of CLABSI in children with acute leukemia. Specific training and active involvement of caregivers in CL management may be effective to reduce CLABSI in high-risk children. PMID:27336888

  18. Reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan improves muscle strength and power in football players.

    PubMed

    Rebaï, H; Chtourou, H; Zarrouk, N; Harzallah, A; Kanoun, I; Dogui, M; Souissi, N; Tabka, Z

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of maintaining or reducing resistance training volume during Ramadan-intermittent-fasting (RIF) on short-term maximal performances. 20 footballers (age: 18.4 ± 0.8 years; body-mass: 72.4 ± 4.1 kg; height: 183.4 ± 4.6 cm) were matched and randomly assigned to a normal-training-group (G1) or a tapering-group (G2). They were tested for muscular strength (maximal-voluntary-contraction) and power (squat-jump and counter-movement-jump) 1 month before RIF (T0), 1 week before RIF (T1), after 2 weeks of fasting (T2) and at the end of RIF (T3). From T1 to T2, subjects performed a whole-body resistance training program (8-repetitions × 4-sets with 4-min recovery in-between). During RIF, G1 maintained the same training program, while G2 performed a period of reduced training volume (3 sets/exercise; - 22%). Muscle strength and power increased significantly from T0 to T1, from T0 to T2 and from T0 to T3 in G1 and G2 and from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3 only in G2 (p<0.05). Performance was higher in G2 than G1 during T2 (p<0.01). Moreover, the ∆-change of performance between T0 and T2 and T3 was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (p<0.05). For young soccer players, a tapering period characterized by a reduced training volume during RIF may lead to significant improvement in muscle strength and power. PMID:24048913

  19. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26589122

  20. Can intense endurance exercise cause myocardial damage and fibrosis?

    PubMed

    La Gerche, Andre

    2013-01-01

    There has been long-standing debate as to whether intense endurance exercise provokes acute myocardial damage and whether cardiac remodeling associated with long-standing endurance training is entirely physiological. Despite the lack of concrete evidence on either side, the potential for serious clinical consequences, including life-threatening arrhythmias, elevates the importance of the debate. Studies have taught us that elite athletes enjoy excellent health, and athletic animal models consistently show up-regulation of molecular pathways, which are free of fibrosis and entirely different from those induced through pathological cardiac loading. On the other hand, extreme exercise has been associated with biochemical and functional evidence of acute damage, and some recent imaging techniques raise the possibility of small areas of myocardial scar. Moreover, some arrhythmias appear to be more prevalent amongst endurance athletes. Only large prospective trials will enable us to really assess the health benefits and risks of regular intense endurance sports. PMID:23478555

  1. Acute ingestion of sugar-free red bull energy drink has no effect on upper body strength and muscular endurance in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Eckerson, Joan M; Bull, Anthony J; Baechle, Thomas R; Fischer, Chelsea A; O'Brien, Daniel C; Moore, Geri A; Yee, Jennifer C; Pulverenti, Timothy S

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms and taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF CAF-free placebo (PL) on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions × kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received the following: (A) 500 mL of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 mL of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or (C) a SF CAF-free 500 mL PL drink 60 minutes before testing on 3 separate occasions. After a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 minutes rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared with PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL = 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg/kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg/kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men. PMID:23880655

  2. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    PubMed

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead. PMID:7148690

  3. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis. PMID:24771131

  4. Reducing maternal mortality on a countrywide scale: The role of emergency obstetric training.

    PubMed

    Moran, Neil F; Naidoo, Mergan; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2015-11-01

    Training programmes to improve health worker skills in managing obstetric emergencies have been introduced in various countries with the aim of reducing maternal mortality through these interventions. In South Africa, based on an ongoing confidential enquiry system started in 1997, detailed information about maternal deaths is published in the form of regular 'Saving Mothers' reports. This article tracks the recommendations made in successive Saving Mothers reports with regard to emergency obstetric training, and it assesses the impact of these recommendations on reducing maternal mortality. Since 2009, South Africa has had its own training package, Essential Steps in the Management of Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE), which the last three Saving Mothers reports have specifically recommended for all doctors and midwives working in maternity units. A special emphasis has been placed on the need for the simulation training component of ESMOE, also called obstetric 'fire drills', to be integrated into the clinical routines of all maternity units. The latest Saving Mothers report (2011-2013) suggests there has been little progress so far in improving emergency obstetric skills, indicating a need for further scale-up of ESMOE training in the country. The example of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa is used to illustrate the process of scale-up and factors likely to facilitate that scale-up, including the introduction of ESMOE into the undergraduate medical training curriculum. Additional factors in the health system that are required to convert improved skills levels into improved quality of care and a reduction in maternal mortality are discussed. These include intelligent government health policies, formulated with input from clinical experts; strong clinical leadership to ensure that doctors and nurses apply the skills they have learnt appropriately, and work professionally and ethically; and a culture of clinical governance. PMID:26363737

  5. Stress responses to short-term intensified and reduced training in competitive weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Storey, A G; Birch, N P; Fan, V; Smith, H K

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify and evaluate the tolerance to, and consequences of, short-term variations in training load in competitive weightlifters. Seven international-level lifters performed 1 week of initial training followed by 2 weeks of intensified (INT: +100%, 36.5 ± 11.3 × 10(3)  kg/week) and 1 week of subsequently reduced (RED: -25%) training within their annual program. After INT, but not RED, 90 min of weightlifting increased mRNA levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cellular stress-associated DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 40-240%. Resting- and weightlifting-induced changes in plasma protein carbonyls, indicative of oxidative stress, but not pro-inflammatory CCL4 concentrations differed between INT and RED. Symptoms of stress (Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire) were reported as worse than normal more frequently during INT and RED than initial training. Global (negative) mood state increased during INT and declined during RED. Maximal snatch (-4.3 ± 3.7%) and vertical jump (-7.2 ± 6.5%), but not clean and jerk, were reduced after INT and restored after RED. Chemokine signaling may thus be part of the stress response to intense weightlifting and short-term reductions in training load support recovery from periodic INT training in weightlifters. PMID:25640639

  6. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. PMID:22148989

  7. Influence of Selected Exercise on Serum Immunoglobulin, Testosterone and Cortisol in Semi-Endurance Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Keyvan; Hosseini, Seyyed-Reza Attarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the levels of serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), testosterone and cortisol in semi-endurance elite runners during general preparation and competition phase of training. Methods Thirteen semi-endurance elite male runners with an average age of 18.92±1.7 years volunteered to take part in this study. The runners participated in the selected training for a period of 14 weeks and 12 sessions per week (in the morning and afternoon). Blood samples were collected during the three phases of training (before-preparation phase, after-preparation phase and before-competition phase). Data were analyzed by repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test, at a significance level of P<0.05. Results The levels of serum IgM in semi-endurance elite runners after preparation phase reduced significantly (P=0.004), while these levels during the competition phase increased even though significantly. The levels of serum IgG and IgA also reduced, however not significantly, during both phases. Moreover, after preparation phase, there was no significant change in serum IgA levels; though, these levels reduced, however not significantly, before competition phase. Cortisol levels significantly decrease after preparation phase (P=0.04); although, it increased before competition phase. Testosterone/cortisol ratio increases significantly after preparation phase (P=0.04), and it decreased before competition phase. Testosterone levels intangibility increased and decreased respectively after preparation and before competition phases. Conclusions Findings indicated that long and intensive exercises weaken the immune system, while moderate and short drills strengthened this system. PMID:23012638

  8. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  9. 'Endurance' Untouched (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree, stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  10. The impact of reduced working hours on surgical training in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend for reduced working hours for doctors, particularly in the developed western countries. This has been led by the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) that has had a significant impact on work patterns and training. Australia currently has a more flexible working environment but this is changing. In New Zealand there is a contract for resident doctors defining a maximum 72 h of rostered work per week. PMID:21550001

  11. Countermeasures for Reducing Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Acting on High-Speed Train in Tunnel by Use of Modifications of Train Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi

    As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.

  12. Emotion regulation training to reduce problematic dietary restriction: An experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Hill, Bailey; Fruzzetti, Alan E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that emotion regulation may be a process relevant to problematic dietary restriction. However, emotion regulation has not been evaluated as an intervention target across a range of restriction severity. This study utilized an experimental design to examine whether targeting emotion regulation reduced problematic dietary restriction. Within a self-identified restrictive sample (n = 72), the effects of an emotion regulation condition (i.e., emotion regulation training) were compared to those of a control condition (i.e., nutrition information training) on dietary restriction indices (i.e., effort to reduce intake on a progressive ratio task, work towards an alternate reinforcer on a progressive ratio task, intake by dietary recall) following a stressor. Exploratory analyses of potential moderators (i.e., restraint, BMI, binge eating and purging status, emotion regulation difficulties) were conducted to examine whether these factors affected the impact of training on dietary restriction. No significant main effects of condition were detected on any outcome measure. However, results were moderated by BMI status. Participants with lower BMIs exerted less effort towards dietary restriction following the emotion regulation condition versus the control condition (p = 0.02). Results suggest that targeting emotion regulation may help to reduce problematic dietary restriction among lower weight individuals. PMID:27105583

  13. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  14. When Less Is More: Reduced Usefulness Training for the Learning of Anticipation Skill in Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Smeeton, Nicholas J.; Huys, Raoul; Jacobs, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Participants in this study practiced with feedback to anticipate the left-right direction of forehand tennis shots played by stick-figure players. A technique based on principal component analysis was used to remove dynamical differences that are associated with shots to different directions. Different body regions of the stick-figure players were neutralized with this procedure in the pretests and posttests, and in the practice phases. Experiment 1 showed that training is effective if during practice information is consistently present in the whole body of the player, but not if the information is neutralized in the whole body in half of the practice trials. Experiment 2 showed that training is effective if the variance associated with the direction of the shots is consistently present in one body region but neutralized in others, and that transfer occurs from practice with information in one body region to performance in conditions with information preserved only in other regions. Experiment 3 showed that occlusion has a much larger detrimental effect on learning than the applied neutralization technique, and that transfer between body regions occurs also with occlusion. Discussed are theoretical implications for understanding how biological motion is perceived and possible applications in a type of training referred to as reduced usefulness training. PMID:24244564

  15. When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries in youth?

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307

  16. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  17. 'Endurance Crater' Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview of 'Endurance Crater' traces the path of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from sol 94 (April 29, 2004) to sol 205 (August 21, 2004). The route charted to enter the crater was a bit circuitous, but well worth the extra care engineers took to ensure the rover's safety. On sol 94, Opportunity sat on the edge of this impressive, football field-sized crater while rover team members assessed the scene. After traversing around the 'Karatepe' region and past 'Burns Cliff,' the rover engineering team assessed the possibility of entering the crater. Careful analysis of the angles Opportunity would face, including testing an Earth-bound model on simulated martian terrain, led the team to decide against entering the crater at that particular place. Opportunity then backed up before finally dipping into the crater on its 130th sol (June 5, 2004). The rover has since made its way down the crater's inner slope, grinding, trenching and examining fascinating rocks and soil targets along the way. The rover nearly made it to the intriguing dunes at the bottom of the crater, but when it got close, the terrain did not look safe enough to cross.

  18. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  19. Circulating ANGPTL8/Betatrophin Is Increased in Obesity and Reduced after Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Sriraman, Devarajan; Cherian, Preethi; AlKhairi, Irina; Elkum, Naser; Behbehani, Kazem; Abubaker, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    Objective ANGPTL8 is a liver and adipose tissue produced protein that regulates the level of triglyceride in plasma as well as glucose homeostasis. This study was designed to evaluate the level of ANGPTL8 in obese and non-obese subjects before and after exercise training. Methods A total of 82 non-obese and 62 adult obese were enrolled in this study. Subjects underwent a three months of exercise training. Both full length and C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 were measured by ELISA. Results Our data show that the full length ANGPTL8 level was increased in obese subjects (1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL) compared to non-obese (775.54 ± 46.12) pg/mL (p-Value = 0.002). C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 was also increased in obese subjects 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL vs 0.20 ± 0.02 ng/mL in non-obese (p-value = 0.058). In obese subjects, the levels of both forms were reduced after three months of exercise training; full length was reduced from 1150.04 ± 108.10 pg/mL to 852.04 ± 51.95 pg/mL (p-Values 0.015) and c-terminal form was reduced from 0.28 ± 0.04 ng/mL to 0.19 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p-Value = 0.058). Interestingly, full length ANGPTL8 was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in non-obese (r = 0.317, p-Value = 0.006) and obese subjects (r = 0.346, p-Value = 0.006) C-terminal 139–198 form of ANGPTL8 on the other hand, did not show any correlation in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ANGPTL8 was increased in obesity and reduced after exercise training supporting the potential therapeutic benefit of reducing ANGPTL8. The various forms of ANGPTL8 associated differently with FBG suggesting that they have different roles in glucose homeostasis. PMID:26784326

  20. Training Reduces Stress in Human-Socialised Wolves to the Same Degree as in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Ades, César; Scheidegger, Jördis Kristin; Möstl, Erich; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment. We evaluated the effects of indoor training sessions with familiar caretakers on nine human-socialised individuals of a wild species, the wolf (Canis lupus), in comparison to nine individuals of its domesticated form, the dog (Canis lupus familiaris). All animals were raised and kept in intraspecific packs under identical conditions-in accordance with the social structure of the species-in order to control for socialisation with human beings and familiarity with training. We also collected saliva samples of trainers to measure GC and testosterone concentrations, to control for the effects of trainers' stress levels on the responses of the animals. During the training sessions, separated from pack members, the animals stayed voluntarily close to the trainers and mostly adequately performed requested behaviours, indicating concentration to the task. Similarly to dogs, the salivary cortisol level of wolves-used as an index of stress-dropped during these sessions, pointing to a similar stress-reducing effect of the training interaction in both subspecies. The responses to the requested behaviours and the reduction in salivary cortisol level of wolves and dogs varied across trainers, which indicates that the relaxing effect of training has a social component. This points to another factor affecting the welfare of animals

  1. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cylindrical-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  2. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.

    PubMed

    Baar, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete. PMID:25355186

  3. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  4. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Fuku, Noriyuki; Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Boulay, Marcel R; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L; Garton, Fleur C; Generozov, Edward V; Govorun, Vadim M; Houweling, Peter J; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S; Kulemin, Nickolay A; Larin, Andrey K; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Pyankova, Olga N; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A; Uyba, Vladimir V; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  5. Does Resuscitation Training Reduce Neonatal Deaths in Low-Resource Communities? A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sarah; Mielke, John G

    2015-10-01

    Every year, nearly 1 million babies succumb to birth asphyxia (BA) within the Asia-Pacific region. The present study sought to determine whether educational interventions containing some element of resuscitation training would decrease the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality attributable to BA in low-resource communities. We systematically reviewed 3 electronic databases and identified 14 relevant reports. For community deliveries, providing traditional birth attendants (TBAs) with neonatal resuscitation training modestly reduced the RR in 3 of 4 studies. For institutional deliveries, training a range of clinical staff clearly reduced the RR within 2 of 8 studies. When resuscitation-specific training was directed to community and institutional health care workers, a slight benefit was observed in 1 of 2 studies. Specific training in neonatal resuscitation appears most effective when provided to TBAs (specifically, those presented with ongoing opportunities to review and update their skills), but this particular intervention alone may not appreciably reduce mortality. PMID:26378066

  6. High-volume resistance training reduces postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Cobos, Roberto Carlos Rebolledo; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Carteri, Randall Bruce Kreismann; Radaelli, Régis; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)]. Muscle strength (1 RM) and MT were also calculated, and no significant differences were observed between the groups for PPL (mmol · L(-1) per 5 h) as measured by glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. EE total (EE + EPOC; 6.12 ± 1.21 MJ vs. 2.26 ± 0.85 MJ), resting fat oxidation (5.52 ± 1.69 g · h(-1) vs. 4.11 ± 1.12 g · h(-1)); MT (vastus medialis, 21.4 ± 1.8 mm vs. 18.4 ± 1.2 mm and vastus lateralis 22.3 ± 1.2 mm vs. 20.8 ± 1.3 mm); triacylglycerol (TAG) 0, 1, 2, 4; and 5 h after OFTT, TAG area under the curve (AUC) (5.79 ± 0.42 vs. 7.78 ± 0.68), and incremental AUC (-46.21 ± 14.42% vs. 7.78 ± 4.68%) were all significantly different post-training for HVRT versus LVRT, respectively (P < 0.05). The results of this investigation suggest that HVRT reduces PPL in postmenopausal women. PMID:25794044

  7. Changes in selected biochemical, muscular strength, power, and endurance measures during deliberate overreaching and tapering in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Coutts, A; Reaburn, P; Piva, T J; Murphy, A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of overreaching on muscle strength, power, endurance and selected biochemical responses in rugby league players. Seven semi-professional rugby league players (.VO(2max) = 56.1 +/- 1.7 mL . kg (-1) . min (-1); age = 25.7 +/- 2.6 yr; BMI = 27.6 +/- 2.0) completed 6 weeks of progressive overload training with limited recovery periods. A short 7-day stepwise reduction taper immediately followed the overload period. Measures of muscular strength, power and endurance and selected biochemical parameters were taken before and after overload training and taper. Multistage fitness test running performance was significantly reduced (12.3 %) following the overload period. Although most other performance measures tended to decrease following the overload period, only peak hamstring torque at 1.05 rad . s (-1) was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Following the taper, a significant increase in peak hamstring torque and isokinetic work at both slow (1.05 rad . s (-1)) and fast (5.25 rad . s (-1)) movement velocities were observed. Minimum clinically important performance decreases were measured in a multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) following the overload period. Following the taper, minimum clinically important increases in the multistage fitness test, vertical jump, 3-RM squat and 3-RM bench press and chin-up (max) and 10-m sprint performance were observed. Compared to resting measures, the plasma testosterone to cortisol ratio, plasma glutamate, plasma glutamine to glutamate ratio and plasma creatine kinase activity demonstrated significant changes at the end of the overload training period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that muscular strength, power and endurance were reduced following the overload training, indicating a state of overreaching. The most likely explanation for the decreased performance is increased muscle damage via a decrease in the anabolic

  8. Dietary carbohydrates and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Evans, W J; Hughes, V A

    1985-05-01

    Antecedent diet can greatly influence both substrate utilization during exercise and exercise performance itself. A number of studies have convincingly demonstrated that short-term (three to seven days) adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet results in greatly reduced liver and muscle glycogen stores. While carbohydrate utilization after such a diet is reduced, the limited glycogen stores can severely limit endurance exercise performance. High carbohydrate diets on the other hand expand carbohydrate stores which can limit performance. However, long-term adaptation to a low carbohydrate diet can greatly alter muscle and whole body energy metabolism to drastically limit the oxidation of limited carbohydrate stores with no adverse effect on performance. Glycogen loading techniques can result in supercompensation of muscle stores. Exercise induced depletion of muscle glycogen is the most important single factor in this phenomenon. Following the exercise a low carbohydrate diet for two to three days after which a high carbohydrate diet is eaten seemingly has the same effect on increasing muscle glycogen stores as simply eating a high carbohydrate diet. The form of the dietary carbohydrate during glycogen loading should be high in complex carbohydrates; however, the type of dietary starch that effects the greatest rate of resynthesis has not been investigated. Rapid resynthesis of glycogen following exercise is at least in part due to increased insulin sensitivity. The enhanced glucose transport caused by the increased sensitivity provides substrate for glycogen synthase. How rapidly this enhanced sensitivity returns to pre-exercise levels in humans is uncertain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3993621

  9. Effects of excessive endurance activity on the heart.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Jamie; Asplund, Chad A

    2014-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise confers many cardiovascular and health benefits. Because of this, endurance sports events have become very popular with participation increasing tremendously over the past few years. In conjunction with this increase in popularity and participation, people also have increased the amount that they exercise with many training for and competing in ultraendurance events such as ultradistance running events, iron distance triathlons, or multiday races. This excess endurance activity may appear to increase the risk of cardiac abnormalities, which may increase the risk for long-term morbidity or mortality. While it is known that moderate exercise has benefits to cardiovascular health, ultimately, the long-term cardiac effects of excessive endurance activity are unclear. What is clear, however, is that moderate exercise is beneficial, and to date, the evidence does not support recommending against physical activity. PMID:25391090

  10. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. PMID:23899752

  11. An Integrated Approach to Change the Outcome Part II: Targeted Neuromuscular Training Techniques to Reduce Identified ACL Injury Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior reports indicate that female athletes who demonstrate high knee abduction moments (KAMs) during landing are more responsive to neuromuscular training designed to reduce KAM. Identification of female athletes who demonstrate high KAM, which accurately identifies those at risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, may be ideal for targeted neuromuscular training. Specific neuromuscular training targeted to the underlying biomechanical components that increase KAM may provide the most efficient and effective training strategy to reduce noncontact ACL injury risk. The purpose of the current commentary is to provide an integrative approach to identify and target mechanistic underpinnings to increased ACL injury in female athletes. Specific neuromuscular training techniques will be presented that address individual algorithm components related to high knee load landing patterns. If these integrated techniques are employed on a widespread basis, prevention strategies for noncontact ACL injury among young female athletes may prove both more effective and efficient. PMID:22580980

  12. Reducing the modifiable risks of cardiovascular disease in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes: the effectiveness of training.

    PubMed

    Bayındır Çevik, Ayfer; Özcan, Şeyda; Satman, İlhan

    2015-06-01

    Our goal was to reduce the number of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) through providing lifestyle adjustment training and counseling to patients with type 2 diabetes. In this pre-post intervention study, 139 patients with diabetes were provided with training to reduce the modifiable risks of CVD. One hundred three patients attended the post-training evaluation. Two phone counseling sessions were provided with 1-month intervals. Consumption of red meat and processed food decreased and water consumption, carrying on the recommended diet, and the frequency of exercise increased (p = .000), A1C decreased (p = .05), and the use of aspirin increased (p = .03). Thus, a contribution to the reduction of CVD risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes was achieved. The training program for reducing CVD risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes was effective in improving nutrition and lifestyle behaviors and decreasing glycemic control. PMID:24789940

  13. Aerobic exercise training reduces cardiac function in adult male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Laura M; Kirschenman, Raven; Quon, Anita; Morton, Jude S; Shah, Amin; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Exercise is an effective preventive intervention for cardiovascular diseases; however, it may be detrimental in conditions of compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve cardiac performance after I/R injury in IUGR offspring. We used a hypoxia-induced IUGR model by exposing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 21% oxygen (control) or hypoxic (11% oxygen; IUGR) conditions from gestational day 15 to 21. At 10 wk of age, offspring were randomized to a sedentary group or to a 6-wk exercise protocol. Transthoracic echocardiography assessments were performed after 6 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last bout of exercise, ex vivo cardiac function was determined using a working heart preparation. With exercise training, there was improved baseline cardiac performance in male control offspring but a reduced baseline cardiac performance in male IUGR exercised offspring (P < 0.05). In male offspring, exercise decreased superoxide generation in control offspring, while in IUGR offspring, it had the polar opposite effect (interaction P ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of IUGR or exercise on cardiac function in female offspring. In conclusion, in male IUGR offspring, exercise may be a secondary stressor on cardiac function. A reduction in cardiac performance along with an increase in superoxide production in response to exercise was observed in this susceptible group. PMID:26157059

  14. Functional Imagery Training to reduce snacking: Testing a novel motivational intervention based on Elaborated Intrusion theory.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jackie; Khalil, Marina; Dickson, Jennifer; May, Jon; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-05-01

    Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is a new theory-based, manualized intervention that trains positive goal imagery. Multisensory episodic imagery of proximal personal goals is elicited and practised, to sustain motivation and compete with less functional cravings. This study tested the impact of a single session of FIT plus a booster phone call on snacking. In a stepped-wedge design, 45 participants who wanted to lose weight or reduce snacking were randomly assigned to receive a session of FIT immediately or after a 2-week delay. High-sugar and high-fat snacks were recorded using timeline follow back for the previous 3 days, at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. At 2 weeks, snacking was lower in the immediate group than in the delayed group, and the reduction after FIT was replicated in the delayed group between 2 and 4 weeks. Frequencies of motivational thoughts about snack reduction rose following FIT for both groups, and this change correlated with reductions in snacking and weight loss. By showing that FIT can support change in eating behaviours, these findings show its potential as a motivational intervention for weight management. PMID:26877217

  15. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD. PMID:24478679

  16. Norms for an isometric muscle endurance test.

    PubMed

    Strand, Sarah L; Hjelm, John; Shoepe, Todd C; Fajardo, Marie A

    2014-03-27

    Musculoskeletal performance assessment is critical in the analysis of physical training programs in order to prioritize goals for decreasing injury risk and focusing performance goals. Abdominal endurance as part of this analysis is often assessed with techniques that have validity that has been debated in literature. The purpose of this study was to develop normative sex- and athlete-specific percentiles for a trunk stabilization and muscular endurance by using a prone forearm plank test in college-aged students. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of habitual physical activity and the reason for test termination. There were 471 participants (means ± SE; males: n = 194, age 20.4 ± 0.2 years, body height 179.4 ± 0.5 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 1.2 kg; females: n = 277, age 20.2 ± 0.2 years, body height 165.7 ± 0.4 cm, body mass 63.9 ± 0.7 kg) who performed this test to volitional or technique failure. Males produced significantly higher test durations than females (means ± SD; 124 ± 72 seconds vs. 83 ± 63 seconds) and athletes produced significantly longer test durations than non-athletes (123 ± 69 s vs. 83 ± 63 s) but no interaction effects were seen in the variables of sex and athletic status. The activity level was found to have a threshold of influence (>3 times/week) on abdominal endurance that is dose-specific where greater than 5 times/week showed the greatest influence. The fatigue of the abdominals was the termination reason producing the lowest test duration and there was no sex effect on reason for test termination. These normative percentiles for abdominal endurance suggest that the abdominal plank test can now be used as an alternative to other abdominal assessments in college students, but further investigation is warranted prior to confirmation and generalization to other populations. PMID:25031677

  17. Combined exercise training reduces IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in the plasma and the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Golzari, Zahra; Shabkhiz, Fatemeh; Soudi, Sara; Kordi, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2010-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder in which lymphocytic infiltration mediated mainly by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of combined exercise training on the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 in the plasma and the supernatant of peripheral blood lymphocytes in women with multiple sclerosis. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), VO(2)max, muscle strength, and balance tests were obtained at baseline and post-treatment follow-up. Combined exercises training was designed for 24 sessions during 8 weeks. Each session was started with 5 min warm-up and was followed by 10 min stretch training, 20 min aerobic exercises and 20 min resistance-endurance training. The disability score was significantly decreased in test MS subjects after 8 weeks combined exercise training. Muscle strength and balance were increased significantly after the training program in test group. In this study, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) IL-17 and IFN-γ production was significantly decreased after 8 weeks combined training. Our findings suggest that combined training has useful anti-inflammatory effects by decrease in PBMC and plasma IL-17 production. PMID:20797460

  18. A hypoxia complement differentiates the muscle response to endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Silvia; Däpp, Christoph; Wittwer, Matthias; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Mueller, Matthias; Weinstein, Felix; Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans; Flück, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic stress is believed to constitute an important signal for training-induced adjustments of gene expression and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the effects of endurance training on expression of muscle-relevant transcripts and ultrastructure would be specifically modified by a hypoxia complement during exercise due to enhanced glycolytic strain. Endurance training of untrained male subjects in conditions of hypoxia increased subsarcolemmal mitochondrial density in the recruited vastus lateralis muscle and power output in hypoxia more than training in normoxia, i.e. 169 versus 91% and 10 versus 6%, respectively, and tended to differentially elevate sarcoplasmic volume density (42 versus 20%, P = 0.07). The hypoxia-specific ultrastructural adjustments with training corresponded to differential regulation of the muscle transcriptome by single and repeated exercise between both oxygenation conditions. Fine-tuning by exercise in hypoxia comprised gene ontologies connected to energy provision by glycolysis and fat metabolism in mitochondria, remodelling of capillaries and the extracellular matrix, and cell cycle regulation, but not fibre structure. In the untrained state, the transcriptome response during the first 24 h of recovery from a single exercise bout correlated positively with changes in arterial oxygen saturation during exercise and negatively with blood lactate. This correspondence was inverted in the trained state. The observations highlight that the expression response of myocellular energy pathways to endurance work is graded with regard to metabolic stress and the training state. The exposed mechanistic relationship implies that the altitude specificity of improvements in aerobic performance with a 'living low-training high' regime has a myocellular basis. PMID:20176680

  19. How Cells Endure Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-extremes/

  20. Exercise training reduces inflammatory mediators in the intestinal tract of healthy older adult mice.

    PubMed

    Packer, Nicholas; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2012-06-01

    Aging is associated with increased intestinal inflammation and elevated risk of chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer; many epidemiologic studies show that regular exercise reduces risk. This study examined the effects of long-term voluntary exercise on inflammatory mediators expressed in the intestine of older (15-16 months), healthy C57BL/6 mice. Animals were assigned to four months of freewheel running (WR; n = 20) or to a "sedentary" no wheel running (NWR; n = 20) control group. Intestinal lymphocytes were harvested and analysed for expression of (1) pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β) and pleiotropic (IL-6) cytokines, and (2) pro-(caspase-3/-7) and anti-(Bcl-2) apoptotic proteins. Training was confirmed by skeletal muscle enzyme activity; stress was assessed by plasma 8-iso-PGF(2α) and corticosterone. The WR mice had a lower expression of TNF-α, caspase-7, and 8-isoprostanes (p < .05) compared to sedentary controls, suggesting that long-term exercise may "protect" the bowel by reducing inflammatory cytokine and apoptotic protein expression. PMID:22647663

  1. Vestibular-visual conflict training. [toi reduce symptoms of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, Makoto; Himi, Tetsuo; Kulecz, Walter B.; Kobayashi, Kazutoyo

    1987-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys susceptible to vestibular-visual conflict (similar to that produced in space motion) were successfully trained to lesser sensitivity by repeated exposures to various randomly mixed patterns of vestibular-visual conflict in sagittal plane. As long as the training effect was retained, trained animals exhibited low sickness scores and no emesis. It is suggested that the adaptation maneuvers described in this study can be effective as a training routine for crew members immediately prior to their space flight missions.

  2. Prepubescent Strength Training. Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Joe W.; Holshouser, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    Under the careful supervision of a trained fitness professional, the benefits of prepubescent strength training (improved strength, power, muscular endurance, bone density) outweigh the risks (acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries). (CB)

  3. Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Dysfunction and Remodeling in Ovariectomized Rats Submitted to Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Simone Alves; Claudio, Erick Roberto Gonçalves; Mengal, Vinícius Franskoviaky; de Oliveira, Suelen Guedes; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila Lang; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Abreu, Gláucia Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exercise training (ET) prevents or minimizes cardiac dysfunction and pathological ventricular remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) and to examine the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were subjected to either MI or fictitious surgery (Sham) and randomly divided into the following groups: Control, OVX+SHAMSED, OVX+SHAMET, OVX+MISED and OVX+MIET. ET was performed on a motorized treadmill (5x/wk, 60 min/day, 8 weeks). Cardiac function was assessed by ventricular catheterization and Dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE) was evaluated to analyze cardiac oxidative stress. Histological analyses were made to assess collagen deposition, myocyte hypertrophy and infarct size. Western Blotting was performed to analyze the protein expression of catalase and SOD-2, as well as Gp91phox and AT1 receptor (AT1R). MI-trained rats had significantly increased in +dP/dt and decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared with MI-sedentary rats. Moreover, oxidative stress and collagen deposition was reduced, as was myocyte hypertrophy. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in both AT1R and Gp91phox expression and an increase in catalase expression. SOD-2 expression was not altered. These results indicate that ET improves the functional cardiac parameters associated with attenuation of cardiac remodeling in ovariectomized rats subjected to MI. The mechanism seems to be related to a reduction in the expression of both the AT1 receptor and Gp91phox as well as an increase in the antioxidant enzyme catalase, which contributes to a reduction in oxidative stress. Therefore, ET may be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of heart failure in postmenopausal women affected by MI. PMID:25551214

  4. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  5. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  6. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  7. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  8. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  9. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  10. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  11. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  12. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  13. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  14. Aerobic exercise and endurance: improving fitness for health benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, Jack H

    2003-05-01

    Clinicians who understand how the body responds to exercise, how aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness, and the benefits and principles of prescribing aerobic exercise can effectively encourage patients to become active and optimize programs for those already active. Patients who are active at an early age and who continue to enjoy active lifestyles as adults will attenuate the normal losses in cardiovascular endurance, strength, and flexibility that accompany aging and sedentary living, thereby maintaining greater independence throughout their life spans. PMID:20086470

  15. Does an In-Season Only Neuromuscular Training Protocol Reduce Deficits Quantified by the Tuck Jump Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Klugman, Madelyn F.; Brent, Jensen L.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female athletes are 4–6 times more likely to suffer an ACL injury than males in comparable sports. A link between landing biomechanics and ACL injury has led to the development of injury prevention focused training protocols. It is often difficult to measure the protocols’ efficacy of different protocols on reduction of ACL injury-related factors. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to test the effects of in-season neuromuscular training on a field-based evaluation used to help identify athletes at risk for ACL injuries. The hypothesis was that the ACL injury prevention training program included with an in-season soccer program would demonstrate increased improvement in the Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA) scores at post-season follow-up testing relative to standard in-season soccer training. METHODS Forty-nine female soccer players were tested with TJA before and after participation in either in-season injury prevention training (IN) or standard in-season soccer training (CTRL). Participants were filmed performing the TJA with digital video cameras and scored by two separate raters, each viewing randomized videos. The groups received neuromuscular training synthesized from previous protocols demonstrated to decrease ACL injury. A mixed design (2X2; group by time) repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the interaction and main effects of group (ACL intervention training in-season vs. standard soccer in-season training) and time (pre vs. post-season) on dynamic TJA scores. RESULTS There was a significant main effect of time on TJA score (p=0.04) for athletes measured at pre- and post-season. The IN group reduced measured landing and jumping deficits from 5.4 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 1.0 points following training. CTRL showed a 14% reduction in TJA deficit points following the soccer season. CONCLUSIONS The tested hypothesis that the in-season ACL intervention training can be utilized to reduce measured TJA deficits above and beyond a standard in-season soccer

  16. Elastomers that Endure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through assistance from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Dow Corning developed a strong, heat-protecting coating with applications in a variety of fields. Previously, NASA used silicate coatings that simply failed to adequately protect, which resulted in the frequent recoating of the damaged areas. The enormous expense of this repeat procedure led Kennedy's Materials Science Laboratory to investigate the possibilities of ablative-type coatings. The investigations resulted in the creation of a silicone ablative material known as the Dow Corning 3-6376 Fast Cure Elastomer. The new product, which does not require a primer coating, is a 100 percent silicone material. It is currently used in the automotive and aerospace industries and serves as an exceptional coating for engine compartment firewalls. Dow Corning's Fast Cure Elastomer has also proved to be an effective sealant. Moreover, it reduces the turnaround time for reuse of the launch structure because of fewer refurbishing operations. This means that NASA is not held up due to repairs when it comes time to launch another Shuttle. To date, the Agency has launched dozens of successful missions without the need for recoating.

  17. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  18. Attention Training to Reduce Attention Bias and Social Stressor Reactivity: An Attempt to Replicate and Extend Previous Findings

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Kristin; Beard, Courtney; Schmidt, Norman B.; Powers, Mark B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that social anxiety is maintained, in part, by an attentional bias toward threat. Recent research shows that a single session of attention modification training (AMP) reduces attention bias and vulnerability to a social stressor (Amir, Weber, Beard, Bomyea, & Taylor, 2008). In addition, exercise may augment the effects of attention training by its direct effects on attentional control and inhibition, thereby allowing participants receiving the AMP to more effectively disengage attention from the threatening cues and shift attention to the neutral cues. We attempted to replicate and extend previous findings by randomizing participants (N = 112) to a single session of: a) Exercise + attention training (EX + AMP); b) Rest + attention training (REST + AMP); c) Exercise + attention control condition (EX + ACC); or d) Rest + attention control condition (REST + ACC) prior to completing a public speaking challenge. We used identical assessment and training procedures to those employed by Amir et al. (2008). Results showed there was no effect of attention training on attention bias or anxiety reactivity to the speech challenge and no interactive effects of attention training and exercise on attention bias or anxiety reactivity to the speech challenge. The failure to replicate previous findings is discussed. PMID:22466022

  19. Recognition and Treatment of Nerve Agent Casualties: Evidence of Reduced Learner Engagement During Video-based Training.

    PubMed

    Bukoski, Alex; Uhlich, Rindi; Tucker, Johnny; Cooper, Chris; Barnes, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Changes in electrodermal activity (EDA) correlate with arousal and stress during stimulating experiences. We hypothesized that associations exist between short-term performance gains and changes in EDA. A total of 187 combat medics were randomly assigned to simulation (S), live tissue (L), or video (V) based training in the recognition and treatment of nerve agent casualties. Change in EDA from baseline to training was quantified for tonic and phasic responses and was categorized as positive (>+10%), no change (±10%), or negative (<-10%). Cognitive and psychomotor skills assessments were applied before and after the baseline/training period to quantify short-term performance changes. Statistically significant differences in both EDA arousal measures between training modalities (p < 0.001 with L > S ∼ V) were observed. Notably, larger proportions of trainees experienced negative changes in tonic (67%) and phasic (21%) EDA measures in the V group when compared to the L and S groups. Regardless of training modality, negative tonic and phasic EDA responses were associated with lower psychomotor performance gains and this finding approached statistical significance (tonic: p = 0.056, phasic: p = 0.08). No significant differences were noted in pre- to post-training cognitive performance between EDA response categories. As quantified by EDA response to training, reduced arousal was associated with lower short-term psychomotor, but not cognitive, performance gains. PMID:27168569

  20. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  1. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  2. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update.

    PubMed

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2-1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  3. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  4. Endurance in high-fat-fed rats: effects of carbohydrate content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Helge, J W; Ayre, K; Chaunchaiyakul, S; Hulbert, A J; Kiens, B; Storlien, L H

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study endurance performance and substrate storage and utilization in fat- or carbohydrate-fed rats. Ninety-nine rats were randomly divided into three groups and over 4 wk were fed either a carbohydrate-rich [CHO; 10% total energy content in the diet (E%) fat, 20 E% protein, 70 E% carbohydrate] diet or one of two fat-rich diets (65 E% fat, 20 E% protein, 15 E% carbohydrate) containing either saturated (Sat) or monounsaturated fatty acids (Mono). Each dietary group was randomly assigned to a trained (6 days/wk, progressive to 60 min, 28 m/min at a 10% incline) or a sedentary group. Rats were killed either before or after a treadmill endurance run to exhaustion. Training increased endurance (206%), but diet composition did not affect endurance in either trained or sedentary rats. beta-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was increased in fat-fed but not carbohydrate-fed rats (P < 0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio during the initial phase of exercise was lower after the Mono compared with the Sat diet (P < 0. 05) and higher after the CHO than the Sat diet (P < 0.05). Thus adaptation to a high-fat diet containing a moderate amount of carbohydrates did not induce enhanced endurance in either trained or untrained rats; however, substrate utilization was modulated by both amount and type of dietary fat during the initial stage of exercise in trained and sedentary rats. PMID:9760326

  5. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Agricultural Workers Receiving Microcredit in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmud, Kazi Tanvir; Parvez, Asif; Hilton, David; Kabir, G. M. Shamsul; Wahid, Ishraat Saira

    2014-01-01

    The policy of providing microcredit and skill training to poor agricultural workers in developing countries is well-established. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of the training part of that policy. BRAC (formerly the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), the largest non-governmental organization in…

  6. Assessing Graduate Teacher Training Programs: Can a Teaching Seminar Reduce Anxiety and Increase Confidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Some effort to test the effectiveness of teacher assistant training programs is common, but these evaluations are typically limited to measures of student satisfaction. Two forms of assessment commonly used in elementary and secondary teacher training programs, measuring levels of teaching anxiety and teacher efficacy, may be of use for sociology…

  7. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  8. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  9. Reducing motion sickness - A comparison of autogenic-feedback training and an alternative cognitive task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen men were randomly assigned to three groups matched for susceptibility to Coriolis motion sickness. All subjects were given six Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) tests separated by 5-d intervals. Treatment Group I subjects were taught to control their own autonomic responses before the third, fourth, and fifth CSSI tests (6 h total training). Group II subjects were given 'sham' training in an alternative cognitive task under conditions otherwise identical to those of Group I. Group III subjects received no treatment. Results showed that Group I subjects could withstand the stress of Coriolis acceleration significantly longer after training. Neither of the other two groups changed significantly.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training in quadriplegics and paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    1986-01-01

    With the growing interest in exercise and sport and the significance of cardiovascular disease in the spinal cord injured population, the role of endurance training in improving cardiovascular health is of particular interest. Ordinary daily activities of those with spinal cord injury are usually not adequate to maintain cardiovascular fitness, and lack of participation in a regular activity programme may result in a debilitative cycle. As this occurs, there is a reduction in functional work capacity which may limit independence, and the reduction in cardiovascular fitness may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Work capacity in those with spinal cord injury is limited by loss of functional muscle mass and sympathetic control. Sympathetic nervous system impairment limits control of regional blood flow and cardiac output, and maximum heart rate following cervical lesions may be reduced to 110 to 130 beats/min. However, endurance training in quadriplegics and paraplegics can elicit improvements in exercise performance similar to those observed in able-bodied individuals. Review of 13 cardiorespiratory training studies involving spinal cord injured subjects revealed average improvements of 20% in VO2max and 40% in physical work capacity after 4 to 20 weeks of training. Based upon the positive results of these studies, the general endurance training guidelines for the normal population appear to also be appropriate for the spinal cord injured population. These guidelines can be followed during participation in a number of different activities and sports including wheelchair pushing, arm crank ergometry, aerobic swimming, ambulation training, canoeing and wheelchair basketball. There is no evidence that intense training and competition is harmful, but special areas of risk as a result of impairments in sensation, cardiovascular function, autonomic function and temperature regulation must be considered. The long term benefits of endurance training in those with

  11. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  12. Seeing 'Endurance' Through Infrared Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Surface composition in 'Endurance Crater' is mapped with color-coded interpretation of data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from Opportunity's panoramic camera. Green, such as on some slopes, indicates material rich in the mineral hematite. Blue and purple, such as on some cliffs of exposed rock, indicate the presence of basalt. Basaltic material is volcanic in origin, but the basalt may have been broken down into sand by weathering, then re-deposited by wind or water. Red indicates areas covered by martian dust.

  13. Subsarcolemmal lipid droplet responses to a combined endurance and strength exercise intervention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuchuan; Lee, Sindre; Langleite, Torgrim; Norheim, Frode; Pourteymour, Shirin; Jensen, Jørgen; Stadheim, Hans K.; Storås, Tryggve H.; Davanger, Svend; Gulseth, Hanne L.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Drevon, Christian A.; Holen, Torgeir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Muscle lipid stores and insulin sensitivity have a recognized association although the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated how a 12‐week supervised combined endurance and strength exercise intervention influenced muscle lipid stores in sedentary overweight dysglycemic subjects and normal weight control subjects (n = 18). Muscle lipid stores were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), electron microscopy (EM) point counting, and direct EM lipid droplet measurements of subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) regions, and indirectly, by deep sequencing and real‐time PCR of mRNA of lipid droplet‐associated proteins. Insulin sensitivity and VO2max increased significantly in both groups after 12 weeks of training. Muscle lipid stores were reduced according to MRS at baseline before and after the intervention, whereas EM point counting showed no change in LD stores post exercise, indicating a reduction in muscle adipocytes. Large‐scale EM quantification of LD parameters of the subsarcolemmal LD population demonstrated reductions in LD density and LD diameters. Lipid droplet volume in the subsarcolemmal LD population was reduced by ~80%, in both groups, while IMF LD volume was unchanged. Interestingly, the lipid droplet diameter (n = 10 958) distribution was skewed, with a lack of small diameter lipid droplets (smaller than ~200 nm), both in the SS and IMF regions. Our results show that the SS LD lipid store was sensitive to training, whereas the dominant IMF LD lipid store was not. Thus, net muscle lipid stores can be an insufficient measure for the effects of training. PMID:25413318

  14. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes. PMID:27465721

  15. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  16. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  17. 'Endurance' Looms on the Horizon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera was taken from a rover position approximately 70 meters (about 230 feet) from the rim of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 93rd sol on Mars. The foreground highlights the now familiar ripples and dimples, common on the plains of Meridiani Planum. Some rock outcrop is seen emerging on the hill to the left, indicating that the rover is driving through the eroded remnants of the crater's ejecta blanket and is getting close to its rim. This light-colored outcrop is probably similar to the rocks seen at 'Fram Crater' and 'Anatolia,' and studied in detail at 'Eagle Crater.' The Eagle Crater rocks are believed to have been deposited in an open body of water. The science team is intrigued by the darker rock on the far side of the crater wall. Just right of the center, on the far crater wall, rocks appear to form thick, massive layers, suggesting they may have been formed by a different geologic processes than the lighter rocks in the foreground. The greater thickness of layered rocks at Endurance Crater will provide the team with a longer record of geologic processes operating at Meridiani Planum.

  18. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  19. Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24 h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30 minutes a day, 18 m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:25052557

  20. Post-training gamma irradiation-enhanced contextual fear memory associated with reduced neuronal activation of the infralimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kugelman, Tara; Zuloaga, Damian G; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects. Brain immunoreactivity patterns of the immediately early gene c-Fos, a marker of cellular activity was used to determine which brain areas might be altered in post-training irradiation memory retention tasks. In this study, we show that post-training gamma irradiation exposure (1 Gy) enhanced contextual fear memory 24h later and is associated with reduced cellular activation in the infralimbic cortex. Reduced GABA-ergic neurotransmission in parvalbumin-positive cells in the infralimbic cortex might play a role in this post-training radiation-enhanced contextual fear memory. PMID:26522840

  1. A novel clinical test of respiratory muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    Hart, N; Hawkins, P; Hamnegård, C H; Green, M; Moxham, J; Polkey, M I

    2002-02-01

    Impaired respiratory muscle endurance (RME) could reduce exercise tolerance and contribute to ventilatory failure. The aim of the present study was to develop a clinically-feasible method to measure RME using negative-pressure inspiratory-threshold loading. It was hypothesized that endurance time (tlim) could be predicted by normalizing oesophageal pressure-time product (PTP) per total breath cycle (PTPoes) for maximum oesophageal pressure (Poes,max); the load/capacity ratio. The corresponding mouth pressures, PTPmouth and Pmouth,max were also measured. The RME test was performed on 30 healthy subjects exposed to the same target pressure (70% of Poes,max). Eight patients with systemic sclerosis/interstitial lung disease were studied to assess the validity and acceptability of the technique. Normal subjects showed a wide intersubject variation in tlim (coefficient of variation, 69%), with a linear relationship demonstrated between log tlim and PTPoes/Poes,max (r=0.88). All patients with systemic sclerosis/interstitial lung disease had normal respiratory muscle strength, but six out of eight had a reduction in RME. In conclusion, endurance time can be predicted from the load/capacity ratio, over a range of breathing strategies; this relationship allows abnormal respiratory muscle endurance to be detected in patients. Oesophageal and mouth pressure showed a close correlation, thus suggesting that the test could be applied noninvasively. PMID:11866003

  2. Reducing HIV/AIDS Vulnerability among Students in the School Setting: A Teacher Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Many teaching-learning materials on HIV/AIDS have been produced by government and non-governmental organizations since 1985. But there is a need to develop strategies and methods that train teachers and educators in delivering these materials to students. This manual is part of the project Strengthening and Expanding the Provision of HIV/AIDS Life…

  3. Reducing Escape Behavior and Increasing Task Completion with Functional Communication Training, Extinction, and Response Chaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining decreased escape-maintained aberrant behavior and increased task participation of 3 youth, ages 10 through 15, with moderate mental retardation, 2 of whom also had autism. Task escape was contingent on verbally responding and completing task steps. Behavior chaining also…

  4. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  5. Resistance circuit training reduced inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of male adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel A.; Diaz, Antonio J.; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that muscle strength plays a key role on functional tasks of daily living and employability in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Recent studies have also reported resistance training may improve chronic inflammation in other clinical situations. This is the first study conducted to determine the effect of resistance circuit training on low-grade systemic inflammation in adults with DS. Material/Methods A total of 40 young male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities and their families. They had medical approval for physical activity participation. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to perform resistance circuit training with 6 stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Exercise intensity was based on function of the 8RM assessments. The control group included 16 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched adults with Down syndrome. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. Body composition was also determined, measuring fat-free mass percentage and waist circumference (WC). This protocol was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee. Results Plasma levels of leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the completion of the training program, as were fat-free mass and WC. No sports-related injuries or withdrawals from the program were reported during the entire study period. No changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions Resistance circuit training improved low-grade systemic inflammation in male sedentary adults with DS. PMID:24196521

  6. Improvements in Shoulder Endurance Following a Baseball-Specific Strengthening Program in High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephanie D.; Uhl, Tim L.; Kibler, W. Ben

    2013-01-01

    Background: The posterior shoulder muscles play key roles in maintaining shoulder function in throwing. Arm fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers. However, endurance of the posterior shoulder muscles in overhead athletes is not routinely examined or conditioned. Hypothesis: Upper extremity muscular endurance can be improved in adolescent baseball players during a 20-week preseason training program. Secondarily, strength will be improved. Finally, these improvements will be associated with maintenance of range of motion. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Fourteen baseball players (age, 16 ± 2 years) attended 3 supervised training sessions per week for 20 weeks. Strengthening of the upper extremity was performed with a specific progression that utilized readily available equipment. Testing was completed at baseline and at 4, 8, and 20 weeks. The posterior shoulder endurance test was performed to assess muscular endurance. Glenohumeral internal and external rotation range of motion and strength were measured. Results: Posterior shoulder endurance improved from 30 ± 14 repetitions at baseline to 66 ± 26 at 4 weeks and 88 ± 36 at 20 weeks (P < 0.05). Glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion and the glenohumeral internal/external rotation strength ratio remained similar over the course of the program. Conclusion: Implementation of a preseason training program effectively increased shoulder muscular endurance while maintaining strength ratios and range of motion throughout the 20-week program. Clinical Relevance: This program improved a key parameter known to be associated with shoulder function and injury risk. This study describes a simple clinical tool to assess muscular endurance of the posterior shoulder. PMID:24427394

  7. How UK-trained nurse volunteers working overseas can reduce healthcare inequalities.

    PubMed

    Marçal-Grilo, João

    2016-08-01

    Universal health coverage is an ambitious goal central to the eradication of poverty in low and middle-income countries. However, the number of qualified staff working in developing countries is not sufficient to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, and professional development opportunities for nurses are rare or non-existent. This article explores how UK-trained nurses can support the training of colleagues working in regions where resources are limited, and provides examples of current voluntary projects in old age care taking place in Sri Lanka and Nepal. It discusses the contribution that nurses can make to the reduction of healthcare inequalities worldwide and reflects on the benefits that such experiences can have on nursing practice in the UK. PMID:27573963

  8. Prenatal opiate exposure impairs radial arm maze performance and reduces levels of BDNF precursor following training.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Lisa M; Franklin, La 'Tonya M; Serrano, Peter A

    2008-03-10

    Prenatal exposure to opiates, which is invariably followed by postnatal withdrawal, can affect cognitive performance. To further characterize these effects, we examined radial 8-arm maze performance and expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male rats prenatally exposed to the opiate l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Female rats received 1.0 mg/kg/day LAAM or water via daily oral gavage for 28 days prior to breeding, during breeding, and throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered to non-treated lactating dams at birth and underwent neonatal opiate withdrawal. At 5-6 months, prenatal water- and LAAM-exposed males (n=6 each; non-littermates) received radial arm maze training consisting of ten trials a day for five days and three retention trials on day six. Rats prenatally exposed to LAAM had poorer maze performance, decreased percent correct responding and more reference and working memory errors than prenatal water-treated controls. However, they were able to acquire the task by the end of training. There were no differences between the groups on retention 24 h after testing. Following retention testing, hippocampi were removed and protein extracted from cytosol and synaptic fractions. Western blots were used to measure levels of mature and precursor BDNF protein, as well as the BDNF receptor TrkB. BDNF precursor protein was significantly decreased in the synaptic fraction of trained prenatal LAAM-treated rats compared to prenatal water-treated trained controls. No effects were found for the full-length or truncated TrkB receptor. In untrained rats, prenatal treatment did not affect any of the measures. These data suggest that prenatal opiate exposure and/or postnatal withdrawal compromise expression of proteins involved in the neural plasticity underlying learning. PMID:18262500

  9. Voltage divider effect for the improvement of variability and endurance of TaOx memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yang, J. Joshua; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Ge, Ning; Melendez, Noraica Davila; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    The impact of a series resistor (RS) on the variability and endurance performance of memristor was studied in the TaOx memristive system. A dynamic voltage divider between the RS and memristor during both the set and the reset switching cycles can suppress the inherent irregularity of the voltage dropped on the memristor, resulting in a greatly reduced switching variability. By selecting the proper resistance value of RS for the set and reset cycles respectively, we observed a dramatically improved endurance of the TaOx memristor. Such a voltage divider effect can thus be critical for the memristor applications that require low variability, high endurance and fast speed.

  10. Voltage divider effect for the improvement of variability and endurance of TaOx memristor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yang, J. Joshua; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Ge, Ning; Melendez, Noraica Davila; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a series resistor (RS) on the variability and endurance performance of memristor was studied in the TaOx memristive system. A dynamic voltage divider between the RS and memristor during both the set and the reset switching cycles can suppress the inherent irregularity of the voltage dropped on the memristor, resulting in a greatly reduced switching variability. By selecting the proper resistance value of RS for the set and reset cycles respectively, we observed a dramatically improved endurance of the TaOx memristor. Such a voltage divider effect can thus be critical for the memristor applications that require low variability, high endurance and fast speed. PMID:26830763

  11. Reduced Neural Differentiation Between Feedback Conditions After Bimanual Coordination Training with and without Augmented Visual Feedback.

    PubMed

    Beets, Iseult A M; Gooijers, Jolien; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Pauwels, Lisa; Coxon, James P; Wittenberg, George; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-07-01

    It has been established that bimanual coordination with augmented feedback (FB) versus no augmented feedback (NFB) is associated with activity in different brain regions. It is unclear however, whether this distinction remains after practice comprising both these conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in humans to compare visual FB versus NFB conditions for a bimanual tracking task, and their differential evolution across learning. Scanning occurred before (Pre) and after 2 weeks (Post) of mixed FB and NFB training using an event-related design, allowing differentiation between the planning and execution phase of the task. Activations at the whole-brain level initially differed for FB versus NFB movements but this differentiation diminished with training for the movement execution phase. Specifically, in right dorsal premotor cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation increased for NFB and decreased for FB trials to converge toward the end of practice. This suggests that learning led to a decreased need to adjust the ongoing movement on the basis of FB, whereas online monitoring became more pronounced in NFB trials as discrepancies between the required and the produced motor output were detected more accurately after training, due to a generic internal reference of correctness supporting movement control under varying conditions. PMID:24501382

  12. Resistance exercise induced mTORC1 signaling is not impaired by subsequent endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Apró, William; Wang, Li; Pontén, Marjan; Blomstrand, Eva; Sahlin, Kent

    2013-07-01

    The current dogma is that the muscle adaptation to resistance exercise is blunted when combined with endurance exercise. The suggested mechanism (based on rodent experiments) is that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during endurance exercise impairs muscle growth through inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The purpose of this study was to investigate potential interference of endurance training on the signaling pathway of resistance training [mTORC1 phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)] in human muscle. Ten healthy and moderately trained male subjects performed on two separate occasions either acute high-intensity and high-volume resistance exercise (leg press, R) or R followed by 30 min of cycling (RE). Muscle biopsies were collected before and 1 and 3 h post resistance exercise. Phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser²⁴⁴⁸) increased 2-fold (P < 0.05) and that of S6K1 (Thr³⁸⁹) 14-fold (P < 0.05), with no difference between R and RE. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2, Thr⁵⁶) was reduced ~70% during recovery in both trials (P < 0.05). An interesting finding was that phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr¹⁷²) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser⁷⁹) decreased ~30% and ~50%, respectively, 3 h postexercise (P < 0.05). Proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) mRNA increased more after RE (6.5-fold) than after R (4-fold) (RE vs. R: P < 0.01) and was the only gene expressed differently between trials. These data show that the signaling of muscle growth through the mTORC1-S6K1 axis after heavy resistance exercise is not inhibited by subsequent endurance exercise. It is also suggested that prior activation of mTORC1 signaling may repress subsequent phosphorylation of AMPK. PMID:23632629

  13. Anaerobic threshold: its concept and role in endurance sport.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO(2) max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO(2) max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO(2) max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports. PMID:22977357

  14. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers. PMID:23347012

  15. Reducing juvenile recidivism with cognitive training and a cell phone follow-up: an evaluation of the realvictory program.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Cherrington, David J; Bahr, Stephen J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive training and cell phone intervention on the recidivism of 70 juvenile offenders. Median days to rearrest were 106 for the control group, 191 for the class-only group, and 278 for the class plus cell phone group. Using rearrest as the survival criterion, the survival ratios of the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 2.64 and 2.94 times longer than the control group, respectively. After controlling for gender, prior arrests, and risk score, the Poisson regression indicated that the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 51% lower in total arrests than the control group. These results suggest that cognitive training supplemented with a cell phone coach is an effective and cost-efficient intervention for reducing recidivism. PMID:21131310

  16. Resilience Training Program Reduces Physiological and Psychological Stress in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California. Areas assessed included vitality, emotional well-being, stress coping and interpersonal skills, work performance, workplace effectiveness and climate, family relationships, and physiological recalibration following acute stressors. Physiological measurements were obtained to determine the real-time cardiovascular impact of acutely stressful situations encountered in highly realistic simulated police calls used in police training and to identify officers at increased risk of future health challenges. The resilience-building training improved officers' capacity to recognize and self-regulate their responses to stressors in both work and personal contexts. Officers experienced reductions in stress, negative emotions, depression, and increased peacefulness and vitality as compared to a control group. Improvements in family relationships, more effective communication and cooperation within work teams, and enhanced work performance also were noted. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements taken during simulated police call scenarios showed that acutely stressful circumstances typically encountered on the job result in a tremendous degree of physiological activation, from which it takes a considerable amount of time to recover. Autonomic nervous system

  17. Resilience Training Program Reduces Physiological and Psychological Stress in Police Officers.

    PubMed

    McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that police work is among the most stressful occupations in the world and officers typically suffer a variety of physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects and symptoms. Officers operating under severe or chronic stress are likely to be at greater risk of error, accidents, and overreactions that can compromise their performance, jeopardize public safety, and pose significant liability costs to the organization. Therefore, this study explored the nature and degree of physiological activation typically experienced of officers on the job and the impact of the Coherence Advantage resilience and performance enhancement training on a group of police officers from Santa Clara County, California. Areas assessed included vitality, emotional well-being, stress coping and interpersonal skills, work performance, workplace effectiveness and climate, family relationships, and physiological recalibration following acute stressors. Physiological measurements were obtained to determine the real-time cardiovascular impact of acutely stressful situations encountered in highly realistic simulated police calls used in police training and to identify officers at increased risk of future health challenges. The resilience-building training improved officers' capacity to recognize and self-regulate their responses to stressors in both work and personal contexts. Officers experienced reductions in stress, negative emotions, depression, and increased peacefulness and vitality as compared to a control group. Improvements in family relationships, more effective communication and cooperation within work teams, and enhanced work performance also were noted. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements taken during simulated police call scenarios showed that acutely stressful circumstances typically encountered on the job result in a tremendous degree of physiological activation, from which it takes a considerable amount of time to recover. Autonomic nervous system

  18. Performance of high-altitude, long-endurance, turboprop airplanes using conventional or cryogenic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Koenig, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study has been conducted to evaluate the potential endurance of remotely piloted, low speed, high altitude, long endurance airplanes designed with 1990 technology. The baseline configuration was a propeller driven, sailplane like airplane powered by turbine engines that used JP-7, liquid methane, or liquid hydrogen as fuel. Endurance was measured as the time spent between 60,000 feet and an engine limited maximum altitude of 70,000 feet. Performance was calculated for a baseline vehicle and for configurations derived by varying aerodynamic, structural or propulsion parameters. Endurance is maximized by reducing wing loading and engine size. The level of maximum endurance for a given wing loading is virtually the same for all three fuels. Constraints due to winds aloft and propulsion system scaling produce maximum endurance values of 71 hours for JP-7 fuel, 70 hours for liquid methane, and 65 hours for liquid hydrogen. Endurance is shown to be strongly effected by structural weight fraction, specific fuel consumption, and fuel load. Listings of the computer program used in this study and sample cases are included in the report.

  19. Development of virtual environments for training skills and reducing errors in laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendick, Frank; Downes, Michael S.; Cavusoglu, Murat C.; Gantert, Walter A.; Way, Lawrence W.

    1998-06-01

    In every surgical procedure there are key steps and skills that, if performed incorrectly, can lead to complications. In conjunction with efforts, based on task and error analysis, in the Videoscopic Training Center at UCSF to identify these key elements in laparoscopic surgical procedures, the authors are developing virtual environments and modeling methods to train the elements. Laparoscopic surgery is particularly demanding of the surgeon's spatial skills, requiring the ability to create 3D mental models and plans while viewing a 2D image. For example, operating a laparoscope with the objective lens angled from the scope axis is a skill that some surgeons have difficulty mastering, even after using the instrument in many procedures. Virtual environments are a promising medium for teaching spatial skills. A kinematically accurate model of an angled laparoscope in an environment of simple targets is being tested in courses for novice and experienced surgeons. Errors in surgery are often due to a misinterpretation of local anatomy compounded with inadequate procedural knowledge. Methods to avoid bile duct injuries in cholecystectomy are being integrated into a deformable environment consisting of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary tree. Novel deformable tissue modeling algorithms based on finite element methods will be used to improve the response of the anatomical models.

  20. Cardiac Coherence Training to Reduce Anxiety in Remitted Schizophrenia, a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Trousselard, M; Canini, F; Claverie, D; Cungi, C; Putois, B; Franck, N

    2016-03-01

    Health care that addresses the emotional regulation capacity of patients with schizophrenia confronted with daily stress may contribute to a less anxious life. A psycho-physiological training [cardiac coherence training (CCT)] focusing on emotion regulation is known to decrease anxiety for healthy individuals. We performed a pilot cross sectional survey to explore the benefits of CCT for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. Ten patients were enrolled in the program consisting of twelve weekly 1-h session programs monitored over a 2-month period. Standardised questionnaires were used before and after the intervention to assess anxiety, well-being outcomes, and how patients deal with stress and stressors. Results showed that this quite-well accepted intervention improved (or tended to improve) well-being outcomes, state-anxiety, and emotional stressors evaluation. The successful transformations were higher for patients with the highest clinical and emotional suffering. Thus, this pilot study revealed that CCT may help patients with schizophrenia to deal with anxiety in daily life. PMID:26346569

  1. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  2. Carbohydrate-Loading: A Safe and Effective Method of Improving Endurance Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeker, Richard T.; Israel, Richard G.

    Carbohydrate-loading prior to distance events is a common practice among endurance athletes. The purposes of this paper are to review previous research and to clarify misconceptions which may exist concerning carbohydrate-loading. The most effective method of carbohydrate-loading involves a training run of sufficient intensity and duration to…

  3. Mindfulness training for reducing anger, anxiety, and depression in fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Amutio, Alberto; Franco, Clemente; Pérez-Fuentes, María de Carmen; Gázquez, José J.; Mercader, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disabling syndrome. Results obtained with different therapies are very limited to date. The goal of this study was to verify whether the application of a mindfulness-based training program was effective in modifying anger, anxiety, and depression levels in a group of women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. This study is an experimental trial that employed a waiting list control group. Measures were taken at three different times: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The statistical analyses revealed a significant reduction of anger (trait) levels, internal expression of anger, state anxiety, and depression in the experimental group as compared to the control group, as well as a significant increase in internal control of anger. It can be concluded that the mindfulness-based treatment was effective after 7 weeks. These results were maintained 3 months after the end of the intervention. PMID:25628591

  4. Patching the Pipeline: Reducing Educational Disparities in the Sciences Through Minority Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, P. Wesley; Hernandez, Paul R.; Woodcock, Anna; Estrada, Mica; Chance, Randie C.; Aguilar, Maria; Serpe, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    For more than 40 years, there has been a concerted national effort to promote diversity among the scientific research community. Yet given the persistent national-level disparity in educational achievements of students from various ethnic and racial groups, the efficacy of these programs has come into question. The current study reports results from a longitudinal study of students supported by a national National Institutes of Health–funded minority training program, and a propensity score matched control. Growth curve analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling show that students supported by Research Initiative for Science Excellence were more likely to persist in their intentions to pursue a scientific research career. In addition, growth curve analyses indicate that undergraduate research experience, but not having a mentor, predicted student persistence in science. PMID:24285910

  5. Strength and Speed Training for Elders With Mobility Disability

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Elizabeth J.; Tissier, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test a function-focused exercise intervention consisting of strength and gait-speed training in elders with reduced walking speed, decreased walking endurance, and functional impairment. Twelve participants, 77.2 years old (± 7.34), whose usual gait speed was <0.85 m/s, with walking endurance of <305 m in 5 min, and who were functionally impaired participated in a moderate-intensity exercise intervention. The training occurred 3 times per week, 75 min per session, for 3 months and combined 4 weeks of gait-speed training, walking exercise, and functional strengthening. The participants demonstrated mean usual gait speeds (≥1.0 m/s), endurance (≥350 m), and functional ability (≥10 score on performance battery) that were within normal limits after 12 weeks of training. Fastest gait speed (≥1.5 m/s) and muscle strength also improved significantly. Improvements were maintained during follow-up testing after 3–6 months. In summary, a 12-week intervention for frail, mobility-disabled participants led to improvements in walking, function, and strength. PMID:19799099

  6. Shock-absorbing insoles reduce the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries sustained during Royal Marine training.

    PubMed

    House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group (19.0%) compared to the Saran Insole Group (31.7%). The incidences of lower limb stress fractures, tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI. PMID:23756077

  7. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Training: A Brief Intervention to Reduce Procrastination among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scent, Camille L.; Boes, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic procrastination is a multifaceted problem with cognitive, behavioral, and motivational correlates. Considered from an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) point of view, these correlates relate to experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion. This article describes a brief ACT intervention for reducing procrastination.

  9. The Role of Training in Reducing Poverty: The Case of Microenterprise Development in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharti, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Self-employment in general and microenterprise in particular is evolving as a prospective option for income generation and the reduction of poverty in developing economies such as India. However, a lack of skills among the poor has been identified as one of the key hindrances in promoting microenterprises and, therefore, in reducing poverty.…

  10. Willed-movement training reduces brain damage and enhances synaptic plasticity related proteins synthesis after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu; Tang, Qingping; Shen, Qin; Li, Simin

    2016-01-01

    It has been wildly accepted that willed movement(WM) training promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with stroke. However, it was not clear whether the effect of WM is better than other forms of exercise. The purpose of this study is to assess different effects of WM and other forms of exercise on rats with focal ischemia. The subjects are all had right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and randomly allocated to three groups of training and one control group with no training. Infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye, expression of PICK1 and synaptophysin in cerebral cortex and striatum of injured side by western blotting and immunofluorescence performed are analyzed. Exercise has done respectively on rats in each group for 15 days and 30 days. Compared with the control group, the brain damage is reduced in other groups after 15 days exercise. The protein expressions levels of synaptophysin and PICK1 are upregulated after exercise. Concentration of PICK1 protein in WM is greater than other exercise groups, and the expression of synaptophysin in WM and SM groups are higher than EM groups. The number of PICK1 positive cells, synaptophysin and PICK1 co-positive cells are increased by exercise. Synaptophysin is widely distributed in cortex surrounding the injury area in WM and EM. It is indicated in our result that willed-movement training is the most effective intervention in enhancing the PICK1-mediated synaptic plasticity in the area adjacent to the damage region of ischemic rats. PMID:26556240

  11. Individuation Training with Other-Race Faces Reduces Preschoolers' Implicit Racial Bias: A Link between Perceptual and Social Representation of Faces in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wen S.; Fu, Genyue; Quinn, Paul C.; Qin, Jinliang; Tanaka, James W.; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether perceptual individuation training with other-race faces could reduce preschool children's implicit racial bias. We used an "angry = outgroup" paradigm to measure Chinese children's implicit racial bias against African individuals before and after training. In Experiment 1, children between 4 and 6 years…

  12. Riding the Rim of 'Endurance' (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This polar-projection view was created from navigation camera images that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired on sol 103 (May 8, 2004). Opportunity traversed approximately 13 meters (about 43 feet) farther south along the eastern rim of 'Endurance Crater' before reaching the beginning of the 'Karatepe' area. Scientists believe this layered band of rock may be a good place to begin studying Endurance because it is less steep and more approachable than the rest of the crater's rocky outcrops.

  13. Feeding management of elite endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the principles of feeding management for endurance horses. The amount and type of dietary energy (calories) are key considerations in dietary management, because (1) there is evidence that the body condition score, an indicator of overall energy balance, influences endurance exercise performance, and (2) the source of dietary energy (ie, carbohydrate versus fat calories) impacts health, metabolism, and athletic performance. Optimal performance is also dependent on provision of adequate feed, water, and electrolytes on race day. PMID:19303556

  14. Liver glycogen metabolism during and after prolonged endurance-type exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Betts, James A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the main substrates utilized during prolonged endurance-type exercise. The relative contribution of each is determined primarily by the intensity and duration of exercise, along with individual training and nutritional status. During moderate- to high-intensity exercise, carbohydrate represents the main substrate source. Because endogenous carbohydrate stores (primarily in liver and muscle) are relatively small, endurance-type exercise performance/capacity is often limited by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Much exercise metabolism research to date has focused on muscle glycogen utilization, with little attention paid to the contribution of liver glycogen. (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy permits direct, noninvasive measurements of liver glycogen content and has increased understanding of the relevance of liver glycogen during exercise. In contrast to muscle, endurance-trained athletes do not exhibit elevated basal liver glycogen concentrations. However, there is evidence that liver glycogenolysis may be lower in endurance-trained athletes compared with untrained controls during moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, liver glycogen sparing in an endurance-trained state may account partly for training-induced performance/capacity adaptations during prolonged (>90 min) exercise. Ingestion of carbohydrate at a relatively high rate (>1.5 g/min) can prevent liver glycogen depletion during moderate-intensity exercise independent of the type of carbohydrate (e.g., glucose vs. sucrose) ingested. To minimize gastrointestinal discomfort, it is recommended to ingest specific combinations or types of carbohydrates (glucose plus fructose and/or sucrose). By coingesting glucose with either galactose or fructose, postexercise liver glycogen repletion rates can be doubled. There are currently no guidelines for carbohydrate ingestion to maximize liver glycogen repletion. PMID:27436612

  15. Endurance of rockfall protection fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, W.; Meyer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Research on rockfall protection systems usually focuses on the performance of flexible barriers regarding their limit or design energy retention capacity. This research increased the maximum retention by a factor 15 within the last 15-20 years. Today rockfall energies up to 5'000 kJ can be retained. But this is relevant only for actual projects and newly erected barriers. However, the majority of all barriers installed in the alpine area were built many years ago and there is little knowledge on their long-term performance. Among others this includes not only the consideration of maintenance works such as man and machine power as well as yearly costs, but also the endurance of such barriers over the years. Such information normally stays at the authority or institution that initiated the construction of a protection system and/or is responsible for the maintenance of the object. But even if an institution maintains a large number of barriers, there mostly does not exist a general inventory because the barriers were installed over a time period of sometimes more than 30 years enduring many changes in the inventory procedures, drawings and documentations. Therefore, an actual investigation of all rockfall barriers protecting a sector of the Swiss railways (SBB) was performed in order to obtain an overview of their conditions. This project delivers both a detailed analysis of more than 100 single barriers and a statistically evaluable overview. It also allows a comparison between different generations of barrier types, independently from the different producers of the barriers. In a first step existing catalogues and data belonging to the relevant barriers were evaluated, summarized and mapped into topographic maps using GIS allowing a proper planning of the field trip, optimised regarding route, time consumption and possibly necessary closures of rail tracks. During the field investigations each barrier was inspected and all details regarding structural system

  16. Cycle ergometer and inspiratory muscle training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Covey, M K; Wirtz, S E; Berry, J K; Alex, C G; Langbein, W E; Edwards, L

    1999-08-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the intensity of aerobic training is limited by dyspnea. Improving strength of the inspiratory muscles could enhance aerobic exercise training by reducing exercise-related dyspnea. We examined effects of home-based inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and cycle ergometry training (CET) in 53 patients with moderate to severe COPD (FEV(1)% pred, 50 +/- 17 [mean +/- SD]). Patients were randomly assigned to 4 mo of training in one of four groups: IMT, CET, CET + IMT, or health education (ED). Patients were encouraged to train to the limits of their dyspnea. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance increased in IMT and CET + IMT groups compared with CET and ED groups (p < 0. 01). Peak oxygen uptake increased and heart rate, minute ventilation, dyspnea, and leg fatigue decreased at submaximal work rates in the CET and CET + IMT groups compared with the IMT and ED groups (p < 0. 01). There were no differences between the CET and CET + IMT groups. Home-based CET produced a physiological training effect and reduced exercise-related symptoms while IMT increased respiratory muscle strength and endurance. The combination of CET and IMT did not produce additional benefits in exercise performance and exercise-related symptoms. This is the first study to demonstrate a physiological training effect with home-based exercise training. PMID:10430720

  17. Effects of sleeping with reduced carbohydrate availability on acute training responses.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stephen C; Camera, Donny M; Lassiter, David Gray; Areta, José L; Bird, Stephen R; Yeo, Wee Kian; Jeacocke, Nikki A; Krook, Anna; Zierath, Juleen R; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2015-09-15

    We determined the effects of "periodized nutrition" on skeletal muscle and whole body responses to a bout of prolonged exercise the following morning. Seven cyclists completed two trials receiving isoenergetic diets differing in the timing of ingestion: they consumed either 8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate (CHO) before undertaking an evening session of high-intensity training (HIT) and slept without eating (FASTED), or consumed 4 g/kg BM of CHO before HIT, then 4 g/kg BM of CHO before sleeping (FED). The next morning subjects completed 2 h of cycling (120SS) while overnight fasted. Muscle biopsies were taken on day 1 (D1) before and 2 h after HIT and on day 2 (D2) pre-, post-, and 4 h after 120SS. Muscle [glycogen] was higher in FED at all times post-HIT (P < 0.001). The cycling bouts increased PGC1α mRNA and PDK4 mRNA (P < 0.01) in both trials, with PDK4 mRNA being elevated to a greater extent in FASTED (P < 0.05). Resting phosphorylation of AMPK(Thr172), p38MAPK(Thr180/Tyr182), and p-ACC(Ser79) (D2) was greater in FASTED (P < 0.05). Fat oxidation during 120SS was higher in FASTED (P = 0.01), coinciding with increases in ACC(Ser79) and CPT1 as well as mRNA expression of CD36 and FABP3 (P < 0.05). Methylation on the gene promoter for COX4I1 and FABP3 increased 4 h after 120SS in both trials, whereas methylation of the PPARδ promoter increased only in FASTED. We provide evidence for shifts in DNA methylation that correspond with inverse changes in transcription for metabolically adaptive genes, although delaying postexercise feeding failed to augment markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:26112242

  18. Using a Multidisciplinary Training Program to Reduce Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gadola, Liliana; Poggi, Carla; Poggio, María; Sáez, Lucía; Ferrari, Alejandra; Romero, Jorge; Fumero, Soledad; Ghelfi, Gianella; Chifflet, Liliana; Borges, Patricia Larre

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Objectives: The present study evaluated the tool used to assess patients’ skills and the impact on peritonitis rates of a new multidisciplinary peritoneal dialysis (PD) education program (PDEP). ♦ Methods: After the University Hospital Ethics Committee approved the study, the educational and clinical records of PD patients were retrospectively analyzed in two phases. In phase I, an Objective Structured Assessment (OSA) was used during August 2008 to evaluate the practical skills of 25 patients with adequate Kt/V and no mental disabilities who had been on PD for more than 1 month. Test results were correlated with the prior year’s peritonitis rate. In phase II, the new PDEP, consisting of individual lessons, a retraining schedule, and group meetings, was introduced starting 1 September 2008. Age, sex, years of education, time on PD, number of training sessions, and peritonitis episodes were recorded. Statistical analyses used t-tests, chi-square tests, and Poisson distributions; a p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. ♦ Results: In phase I, 25 patients [16 men, 9 women; mean age: 54 ± 15 years (range: 22 - 84 years); mean time on PD: 35 ± 30 months (range: 1 - 107 months)] were studied. The OSA results correlated with peritonitis rates: patients who passed the test had experienced significantly lower peritonitis rates during the prior year (p < 0.05). In phase II, after the new PDEP was introduced, overall peritonitis rates significantly declined (to 0.28 episodes/patient-year from 0.55 episodes/patient-year, p < 0.05); the Staphylococcus peritonitis rate also declined (to 0.09 episodes/patient-year from 0.24 episodes/patient-year, p < 0.05). ♦ Conclusions: The OSA is a reliable tool for assessing patients’ skills, and it correlates with peritonitis rates. The multidisciplinary PDEP significantly improved outcomes by further lowering peritonitis rates. PMID:22753455

  19. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. PMID:26566725

  20. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  1. Strength training improves cycling performance, fractional utilization of VO2max and cycling economy in female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Vikmoen, O; Ellefsen, S; Trøen, Ø; Hollan, I; Hanestadhaugen, M; Raastad, T; Rønnestad, B R

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding heavy strength training to well-trained female cyclists' normal endurance training on cycling performance. Nineteen female cyclists were randomly assigned to 11 weeks of either normal endurance training combined with heavy strength training (E+S, n = 11) or to normal endurance training only (E, n = 8). E+S increased one repetition maximum in one-legged leg press and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) more than E (P < 0.05), and improved mean power output in a 40-min all-out trial, fractional utilization of VO2 max and cycling economy (P < 0.05). The proportion of type IIAX-IIX muscle fibers in m. vastus lateralis was reduced in E+S with a concomitant increase in type IIA fibers (P < 0.05). No changes occurred in E. The individual changes in performance during the 40-min all-out trial was correlated with both change in IIAX-IIX fiber proportion (r = -0.63) and change in muscle CSA (r = 0.73). In conclusion, adding heavy strength training improved cycling performance, increased fractional utilization of VO2 max , and improved cycling economy. The main mechanisms behind these improvements seemed to be increased quadriceps muscle CSA and fiber type shifts from type IIAX-IIX toward type IIA. PMID:25892654

  2. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    PubMed

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  3. Technical and Clinical Outcome of Talent versus Endurant Endografts for Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mensel, Birger; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Träger, Tobias; Dührkoop, Martin; v. Bernstorff, Wolfram; Rosenberg, Christian; Hoene, Andreas; Puls, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Objective The technical evolution of endografts for the interventional management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) has allowed a continuous expansion of indications. This study compares the established Talent endograft with its successor, the Endurant endograft, taking individual aortoiliac anatomy into account. Methods From June 2007 to December 2010, 35 patients with AAA were treated with a Talent endograft (33 men) and 36 patients with an Endurant endograft (34 men). Aortoiliac anatomy was evaluated in detail using preinterventional computed tomography angiography. The 30-day outcome of both groups were compared regarding technical and clinical success as well as complications including endoleaks. Results The Endurant group included more patients with unfavorable anatomy (kinking of pelvic arteries, p = 0.017; shorter proximal neck, p = 0.084). Primary technical success was 91.4% in the Talent group and 100% in the Endurant group (p = 0.115). Type 1 endoleaks occurred in 5.7% of patients in the Talent group and in 2.8% of those in the Endurant group (p = 0.614). Type 3 endoleaks only occurred in the Talent group (2.9% of patients; p = 0.493). Type 2 endoleaks were significantly less common in the Endurant group than in the Talent group (8.3% versus 28.6%; p = 0.035). Rates of major and minor complications were not significantly different between both groups. Primary clinical success was significantly better in the Endurant group (97.2%) than in the Talent group (80.0%) (p = 0.028). Conclusion Endurant endografts appear to have better technical and clinical outcome in patients with difficult aortoiliac anatomy, significantly reducing the occurrence of type 2 endoleaks. PMID:22715384

  4. Control system to reduce the effects of friction in drive trains of continuous-path-positioning systems. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Green, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    An improved continuous-path-positioning servo-control system is provided for reducing the effects of friction arising at very low cutting speeds in the drive trains of numerically controlled cutting machines, and the like. The improvement comprises a feed forward network for altering the gain of the servo-control loop at low positioning velocities to prevent stick-slip movement of the cutting tool holder being positioned by the control system. The feed forward network shunts conventional lag-compensators in the control loop, or loops, so that the error signal used for positioning varies linearly when the value is small, but being limited for larger values. Thus, at higher positioning speeds there is little effect of the added component upon the control being achieved.

  5. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Clinically, adult with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not been reported previously. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults people with ID can be influenced positively from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program, the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre-to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19089748

  6. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, adults with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not previously been reported. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults with ID can be positively influenced from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19479628

  7. Effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter rim on free-throw performance and kinematics in young basketball players.

    PubMed

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigated the effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter (0.35 m) rim on kinematics and performance of basketball free-throws. Eighteen young male basketball players were divided into control (CG, n = 9) and experimental (EG, n = 9) groups. Both groups undertook a 10-week training programme comprising two training sessions per week. Under fatigued conditions, each participant shot 150 free-throws in each training session, with the CG using a standard rim, and the EG a smaller rim. All other training was identical between groups. Ball release parameters, player's kinematics and mean of successful free-throws (out of 150 attempts) were determined for each participant, before and after completion of the training programme. Following training, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in ball release angle, speed and height and in shoulder joint angle at release (P < 0.01) was observed for the EG. Both the CG (P < 0.001) and the EG (P < 0.0001) showed an increase in the number of successful free throws, although the increase was greater (P < 0.05) for the EG (22.7 ± 6.4 free throws) than for the CG (14.6 ± 7.8 free throws). We conclude that training with a reduced rim significantly improves free-throw performance in young basketball players. PMID:23113531

  8. Measurement of quadriceps endurance by fNIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Devrim; Şayli, Ömer; Karahan, Mustafa; Akin, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, the changes in muscle deoxygenation trends during a sustained isometric quadriceps (chair squat/half squat) endurance exercise were evaluated among twelve male subjects and the relationship between muscle oxygenation and endurance times was investigated by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Neuromuscular activation and predictions of muscle performance decrements during extended fatiguing task was investigated by means of surface electromyography (sEMG). The results of the study showed that in the subjects who maintained exercise longer than five minutes (group 1), mean Hb recovery time (33 [sec.]) was 37.4% less than the others (group 2, 52.7 [sec.]). Also mean HbO II decline amplitude (2.53 [a.u.] in group 1 and 2.07 [a.u.] in group 2) and oxy decline amplitude (8.4 [a.u.] in group 1 and 3.04 [a.u.] in group 2) in the beginning of squat exercise are found to be 22.6% and 176.9% bigger in these group. For the EMG parameters, mean slope of MNF and MDF decline are found to be 57.5% and 42.2% bigger in magnitude in group 2 which indicates higher degree of decrement in mean and median frequencies although their mean squat duration time is less. This indicates higher index of fatigue for this group. It is concluded that training leads to altered oxygenation and oxygen extraction capability in the exercising muscle and investigated fNIRS parameters could be used for endurance evaluation.

  9. Individuation training with other-race faces reduces preschoolers' implicit racial bias: a link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen S; Fu, Genyue; Quinn, Paul C; Qin, Jinliang; Tanaka, James W; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether perceptual individuation training with other-race faces could reduce preschool children's implicit racial bias. We used an 'angry = outgroup' paradigm to measure Chinese children's implicit racial bias against African individuals before and after training. In Experiment 1, children between 4 and 6 years were presented with angry or happy racially ambiguous faces that were morphed between Chinese and African faces. Initially, Chinese children demonstrated implicit racial bias: they categorized happy racially ambiguous faces as own-race (Chinese) and angry racially ambiguous faces as other-race (African). Then, the children participated in a training session where they learned to individuate African faces. Children's implicit racial bias was significantly reduced after training relative to that before training. Experiment 2 used the same procedure as Experiment 1, except that Chinese children were trained with own-race Chinese faces. These children did not display a significant reduction in implicit racial bias. Our results demonstrate that early implicit racial bias can be reduced by presenting children with other-race face individuation training, and support a linkage between perceptual and social representations of face information in children. PMID:25284211

  10. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Dennis M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-11-18

    Striding bipedalism is a key derived behaviour of hominids that possibly originated soon after