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Sample records for energetic particle instability

  1. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I. G. J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  2. Suppression of energetic particle driven instabilities with HHFW heating

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kramer, G.; Liu, D.; Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S.; White, R.

    2015-01-01

    In plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] heated with neutral beams, the beam ions typically excite Energetic Particle Modes (EPMs or fishbones), and Toroidal, Global or Compressional Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE, GAE, CAE). These modes can redistribute the energetic beam ions, altering the beam driven current profile and the plasma heating profile, or they may affect electron thermal transport or cause losses of the beam ions. In this paper we present experimental results where these instabilities, driven by the super-thermal beam ions, are suppressed with the application of High Harmonic Fast Wave heating.

  3. Suppression of energetic particle driven instabilities with HHFW heating

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Darrow, D. S.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kramer, G.; Liu, D.; Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S.; White, R.

    2015-01-01

    In plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] heated with neutral beams, the beam ions typically excite Energetic Particle Modes (EPMs or fishbones), and Toroidal, Global or Compressional Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE, GAE, CAE). These modes can redistribute the energetic beam ions, altering the beam driven current profile and the plasma heating profile, or they may affect electron thermal transport or cause losses of the beam ions. In this paper we present experimental results where these instabilities, driven by the super-thermal beam ions, are suppressed with the application of High Harmonic Fastmore » Wave heating.« less

  4. Theory of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities excited by energetic-trapped particles in large-size tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.; White, R.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is shown that, in present-day large-size tokamaks, finite resistivity modifies qualitatively the stability properties of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities resonantly excited by the unfavorable processional drift of energetic-trapped particles, i.e., the so-called ''fishbone''-type instabilities. Specifically, it is found that (1) the n = 1 energetic-trapped particle-induced internal kink (''fishbone'') instability is strongly stabilized by resistive dissipation and (2) finite resistivity lowers considerably the threshold conditions for resonant excitations of high-n ballooning/interchange modes. The possibility of exciting fishbones by alpha particles in ignition experiments is also considered.

  5. Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.

    2008-05-15

    Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P{sub {zeta}} is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety

  6. Edge plasma responses to energetic-particle-driven MHD instability in Heliotron J

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Shi, N.; Zang, L.; Kasajima, K.; Kenmochi, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Nagae, Y.; Mukai, K.; Lee, H. Y.; Matsuura, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Konoshima, S.; Sano, F.

    2016-01-01

    Two different responses to an energetic-particle-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability, modulation of the turbulence amplitude associated with the MHD instability and dynamical changes in the radial electric field (Er) synchronized with bursting MHD activities, are found around the edge plasma in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas of the Heliotron J device using multiple Langmuir probes. The nonlinear phase relationship between the MHD activity and broadband fluctuation is found from bicoherence and envelope analysis applied to the probe signals. The structural changes of the Er profile appear in perfect synchronization with the periodic MHD activities, and radial transport of fast ions are observed around the last closed flux surface as a radial delay of the ion saturation current signals. Moreover, distortion of the MHD mode structure is clarified in each cycle of the MHD activities using beam emission spectroscopy diagnostics, suggesting that the fast ion distribution in real and/or velocity spaces is distorted in the core plasma, which can modify the radial electric field structure through a redistribution process of the fast ions. These observations suggest that such effects as a nonlinear coupling with turbulence and/or the modification of radial electric field profiles are important and should be incorporated into the study of energetic particle driven instabilities in burning plasma physics.

  7. Effect of Energetic Trapped Particles Produced by ICRF Wave Heating on Sawtooth Instability in the DIII-D Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lao, L. L.; Li, G.; Pinsker, R. I.; Ren, Q.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2007-09-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the Porcelli sawtooth model using more realistic numerical models from the ORBIT-RF and GATO codes in DIII-D fast wave heating experiments. Simulation results confirm that the fast wave-induced energetic trapped particles may stabilize the sawtooth instability. The crucial kinetic stabilizing contribution strongly depends on both the experimentally reconstructed magnetic shear at the q = 1 surface and the calculated poloidal beta of energetic trapped particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  8. Global gyrokinetic models for energetic particle driven Alfvén instabilities in 3D equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spong, Don; Holod, Ihor

    2015-11-01

    The GTC global gyrokinetic PIC model has been adapted to 3D VMEC equilibria and provides a new method for the analysis of Alfvénic instabilities in stellarators, 3D tokamaks, and helical RFP states. The gyrokinetic orderings (k||/k⊥ << 1, ω/Ωci << 1, ρEP/L << 1) are applicable to a range of energetic particle driven instabilities that have been observed in 3D configurations. Applications of this model to stellarators have indicated that a variety of different Alfvén instabilities can be excited, depending on the toroidal mode number, fast ion average energy and fast ion density profile. Both an LHD discharge where bursting n = 1 Alfvén activity in the TAE gap was observed and a W7-X case have been examined. TAE,/EAE/GAE modes have been found in the simulations, depending on the mode family and fast ion profiles used. The dynamical evolution of the instabilities shows the field period coupling between n and n + Nfp expected for a stellarator. The development of gyrofluid reduced models that can capture relevant physics aspects of the gyrokinetic models will also be discussed. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC and the GSEP SciDAC Center.

  9. One-dimensional energetic particle quasilinear diffusion for realistic TAE instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Vinicius; Ghantous, Katy; Berk, Herbert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the proximity of the characteristic phase (Alfvén) velocity and typical energetic particle (EP) superthermal velocities, toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) can be resonantly destabilized endangering the plasma performance. Thus, it is of ultimate importance to understand the deleterious effects on the confinement resulting from fast ion driven instabilities expected in fusion-grade plasmas. We propose to study the interaction of EPs and TAEs using a line broadened quasilinear model, which captures the interaction in both regimes of isolated and overlapping modes. The resonance particles diffuse in the phase space where the problem essentially reduces to one dimension with constant kinetic energy and the diffusion mainly along the canonical toroidal angular momentum. Mode structure and wave particle resonances are computed by the NOVA code and are used in a quasilinear diffusion code that is being written to study the evolution of the distribution function, under the assumption that they can be considered virtually unalterable during the diffusion. A new scheme for the resonant particle diffusion is being proposed that builds on the 1-D nature of the diffusion from a single mode, which leads to a momentum conserving difference scheme even when there is mode overlap.

  10. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-05-15

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q{sub fi}) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes.

  11. Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle Effects on the n=1 Mode in Tokamaks: Internal Kink and Fishbone Instability

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Fu; W. Park; H.R. Strauss; J. Breslau; J. Chen; S. Jardin; L.E. Sugiyama

    2005-08-09

    Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle effects on the n=1 internal kink mode have been carried out for tokamaks. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER Physics Basis Editors et al., Nucl. Fusion 39:2137 (1999)], it is shown that alpha particle effects are stabilizing for the internal kink mode. However, the elongation of ITER reduces the stabilization effects significantly. Nonlinear simulations of the precessional drift fishbone instability for circular tokamak plasmas show that the mode saturates due to flattening of the particle distribution function near the resonance region. The mode frequency chirps down rapidly as the flattening region expands radially outward. Fluid nonlinearity reduces the saturation level.

  12. Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Falessi, Matteo V.; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-10-01

    > In this paper we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analysed.

  13. The Energetics of Centrifugal Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, W. K.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A recent study has argued that the California Undercurrent, and poleward eastern boundary currents in general, generate mixing events through centrifugal instability (CI). Conditions favorable for CI are created by the strong horizontal shears developed in turbulent bottom layers of currents flowing in the direction of topographic waves. At points of abrupt topographic change, like promontories and capes, the coastal current separates from the boundary and injects gravitationally stable but dynamically unstable flow into the interior. The resulting finite amplitude development of the instability involves overturnings and diabatic mixing. The purpose of this study is to examine the energetics of CI in order to characterize it as has been done for other instabilities and develop a framework in which to estimate its regional and global impacts. We argue that CI is roughly twice as efficient at mixing as is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and that roughly 10% of the initial energy in a CUC-like current is lost to either local mixing or the generation of unbalanced flows. The latter probably leads to non-local mixing. Thus centrifugal instability is an effective process by which energy is lost from the balanced flow and spent in mixing neighboring water masses. We argue the importance of the mixing is regional in nature, but of less importance to the global budgets given its regional specificity.

  14. Onset condition of the subcritical geodesic acoustic mode instability in the presence of energetic-particle-driven geodesic acoustic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-05-01

    An analytic model is developed for understanding the abrupt onset of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of chirping energetic-particle-driven GAM (EGAM). This abrupt excitation phenomenon has been observed on LHD plasma. Threshold conditions for the onset of abrupt growth of GAM are derived, and the period doubling phenomenon is explained. The phase relation between the mother mode (EGAM) and the daughter mode (GAM) is also discussed. This result contributes to the understanding of "trigger problems" of laboratory and nature plasmas.

  15. Energetic particles at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The energetic particle measurements by the low-energy charged-particle and cosmic-ray instruments on the Voyager 2 spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Uranus are reviewed. Upstream events were observed outside the Uranian bow shock, probably produced by ion escape from the magnetosphere. Evidence of earthlike substorm activity was discovered within the Uranian magnetosphere. A proton injection event was observed within the orbit of Umbriel and proton events were observed in the magnetotail plasma-sheet boundary layer that are diagnostic of earthlike substorms. The magnetospheric composition is totally dominated by protons, with only a trace abundance of H(2+) and no evidence for He or heavy ions; the Uranian atmophere is argued to be the principal plasma source. Phase-space densities of medium energy protons show inward radial diffusion and are quantitatively similar to those observed at the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These findings and plasma wave data suggest the existence of structures analogous to the earth's plasmasphere and plasmapause.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    2003-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In fact, the highest proton intensities directly measured near Earth at energies up to approximately 1 GeV occur at the time of passage of shocks, which arrive about a day after the CMEs leave the Sun. CME-driven shocks expanding across magnetic fields can fill over half of the heliosphere with SEPs. Proton-generated Alfven waves trap particles near the shock for efficient acceleration but also throttle the intensities at Earth to the streaming limit early in the events. At high energies, particles begin to leak from the shock and the spectrum rolls downward to form an energy-spectral 'knee' that can vary in energy from approximately 1 MeV to approximately 1 GeV in different events. All of these factors affect the radiation dose as a function of depth and latitude in the Earth's atmosphere and the risk to astronauts and equipment in space. SEP ionization of the polar atmosphere produces nitrates that precipitate to become trapped in the polar ice. Observations of nitrate deposits in ice cores reveal individual large SEP events and extend back approximately 400 years. Unlike sunspots, SEP events follow the approximately 80-100-year Gleissberg cycle rather faithfully and are now at a minimum in that cycle. The largest SEP event in the last 400 years appears to be related to the flare observed by Carrington in 1859, but the probability of SEP events with such large fluences falls off sharply because of the streaming limit.

  17. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-05-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma.

  18. Solar Eruptions and Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthukonar; Mewaldt, Richard; Torsti, Jarmo

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic events in the heliosphere. During solar cycle 23, the close connection between CMEs and solar energetic particles (SEPs) was studied in much greater detail than was previously possible, including effects on space weather. This book reviews extensive observations of solar eruptions and SEPs from orbiting and ground-based systems. From SOHO and ACE to RHESSI and TRACE, we now have measurements of unprecedented sensitivity by which to test assumptions and refine models. Discussion and analysis of: • Coronal mass ejections and energetic particles over one solar cycle • Implications of solar eruptions for space weather and human space exploration • The elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge state composition of accelerated particles • Complex interconnections among CMEs, flares, shocks, and energetic particles will make this book an indispensable resource for scientists working on the Sun-Earth connection, including space physicists, magnetospheric physicists, atmospheric physicists, astrophysicists, and aeronomists.

  19. Solar flares and energetic particles.

    PubMed

    Vilmer, Nicole

    2012-07-13

    Solar flares are now observed at all wavelengths from γ-rays to decametre radio waves. They are commonly associated with efficient production of energetic particles at all energies. These particles play a major role in the active Sun because they contain a large amount of the energy released during flares. Energetic electrons and ions interact with the solar atmosphere and produce high-energy X-rays and γ-rays. Energetic particles can also escape to the corona and interplanetary medium, produce radio emissions (electrons) and may eventually reach the Earth's orbit. I shall review here the available information on energetic particles provided by X-ray/γ-ray observations, with particular emphasis on the results obtained recently by the mission Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. I shall also illustrate how radio observations contribute to our understanding of the electron acceleration sites and to our knowledge on the origin and propagation of energetic particles in the interplanetary medium. I shall finally briefly review some recent progress in the theories of particle acceleration in solar flares and comment on the still challenging issue of connecting particle acceleration processes to the topology of the complex magnetic structures present in the corona. PMID:22665901

  20. EDITORIAL: Energetic particles in magnetic confinement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, K.

    2006-10-01

    Energetic alpha particle physics plays an obviously crucial role in burning fusion plasmas. Good confinement of them is required to sustain fusion burn and to avoid damage of the first wall. Because of this importance for nuclear fusion research, Y. Kolesnichenko and the late D. Sigmar initiated a series of IAEA technical (committee) meetings (TCM, since the 8th meeting TM) in order to exchange information on the behaviour of energetic particles in magnetic confinement devices. The role of the TMs has become increasingly important since burning plasma projects such as ITER are in preparation. After every TM, invited speakers are encouraged to publish an adapted and extended version of their contributions to the meeting as an article in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion. An exception was the 8th TM the articles of which were published in a special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (2004 46 S1-118). These special issues attract much interest in the subject. The 9th IAEA TM of this series was held in Takayama, Japan, 9-11 November 2005, and 53 papers including 16 invited talks were presented. A total of 11 papers based on these invited talks are included in this special issue of Nuclear Fusion and are preceded by a conference summary. Experimental results of energetic ion driven global instabilities such as Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), energetic particle modes (EPMs) and fishbone instabilities were presented from several tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade), helical/stellarator devices (LHD and CHS) and spherical tori (NSTX and MAST). Experimental studies from JET and T-10 tokamaks on the interaction of ion cyclotron waves with energetic ions and runaway electrons were also presented. Theoretical works on AEs, EPMs and nonlinear phenomena induced by energetic particles were presented and compared with experimental data. Extensive numerical codes have been developed and applied to obtain predictions of energetic particle behaviour in future ITER

  1. The Giotto Energetic Particle Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Kirsch, E.; Melrose, D.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPA) onboard Giotto will measure the energy distribution of electrons, protons and heavier nuclei with E ≥ 20 keV during the cruise phase and in the cometary environment during Halley encounter. The detector system and the main scientific objectives of EPA are described.

  2. Energetic particle effects on global MHD modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of energetic particles on MHD type modes are studied by analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K). In particular we address the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral-beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beat space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect (finite {omega}{sub *i}). On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the n=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  4. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Lal, N.; McGuire, R. E.; Szabo, A.; Narock, T. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Hill, M. E.; Vandergriff, J. D.; McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Tranquille, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events, acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  5. Multiphase Instabilities in Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S. ``Bala''

    2015-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of particles is a complex multiphase phenomenon that can be observed in volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as multiphase explosives. As the layer of particles moves outward at high speed, it undergoes complex interactions with the blast-wave structure following the reaction of the energetic material. Particularly in this work, we are interested in the multiphase flow instabilities related to Richmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RM) instabilities (in the gas phase and particulate phase), which take place as the particle layer disperses. These types of instabilities are known to depend on initial conditions for a relatively long time of their evolution. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, we study the growth of these instabilities and their dependence on initial conditions related to the particulate phase - namely, (i) particle size, (ii) initial distribution, and (iii) mass ratio (particles to explosive). Additional complexities associated with compaction of the layer of particles are avoided here by limiting the simulations to modest initial volume fraction of particles. A detailed analysis of the initial conditions and its effects on multiphase RM/RT-like instabilities in the context of an explosive dispersal of particles is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  6. Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode. Landau damping due to thermal species is investigated.

  7. Geodesic Acoustic Modes Induced by Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchun; Berk, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    A global geodesic acoustic mode driven by energetic particles (EGAM) has been observed in JET[1, 2] and DIII D[3, 4]. The mode is to be treated fully kinetically. The descriptions of the background electrons and ions are based on standard high and low bounce frequency expansion respectively with respect to the mode frequency. However, the energetic ions must be treated without any expansion of ratio between their bounce frequency and the mode frequency since they are comparable. Under electrostatic perturbation, we construct a quadratic form for the wave amplitude, from which an integro-differential equation is derived. In the limit where the drift orbit width is small comparison with the mode width, a differential equation for perturbed electrostatic field is obtained. Solution is obtained both analytically and numerically. We find that beam counterinjection enhances the instability of the mode

  8. The Giotto energetic particle experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Thompson, A.; Sullivan, D.; Kirsch, E.; Melrose, D.; Wenzel, K. P.

    1986-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPA) onboard Giotto will measure the energy distribution of electrons, protons, and heavier nuclei (E is greater than 20 keV) during the cruise phase and in the cometary environment during the Halley encounter. The detector system consists of three particle telescopes each incorporating totally depleted silicon surface barrier layer detectors, and employing active and passive background shielding. In-situ measurements will be made of the flux and spatial distribution of energetic electrons and cometary ions in the Halley environment. Particle acceleration due to magnetic-field-line reconnection processes will, if present, be detected. The occurrence of a solar-particle event during the encounter would provide special opportunities to study the comet/solar-wind interaction and dust distribution around the comet, while the EPA would act as a reference for onboard instruments that are sensitive to particle radiation. Cruise-phase studies provide interplanetary particle flux levels since switch-on, and flare-related particle enhancements are detected.

  9. Solar Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    An outstanding problem of solar and heliospheric physics is the transport of solar energetic particles. The more energetic particles arriving early in the event can be used to probe the transport processes. The arrival direction distribution of these particles carries information about scattering during their propagation to Earth that can be used to test models of interplanetary transport. Also, of considerable importance to crewed space missions is the level of ionizing radiation in the interplanetary medium, and the dose that the crew experiences during an intense solar particle event, as well as the risk to space systems. A recent study concludes that 90% of the absorbed dose results from particles in the energy range 20-550 MeV. We will describe a new compact instrument concept, SEPS, that can cover the energy range from 50-600 MeV with a single compact detector. This energy range has been difficult to cover. There are only limited data, generally available only in broad energy bins, from a few past and present instruments outside Earth s magnetosphere. The SEPS concept can provide improved measurements for this energy range and its simple light-weight design could be easily accommodated on future missions.

  10. Extreme solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Properties of extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.

  11. The Energetic Assessment of Frictional Instability Based on Rowe's Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional instability that controls the occurrence of unstable slips has been related to (1) rate and state dependent friction law (Dieterich, 1979; Ruina, 1983) and (2) shear localization in a gouge layer (e.g., Byerlee et al., 1978; Logan et al., 1979). Ikari et al. (2011) indicated that the transitions of frictional parameters obtained from the rate and state dependent friction law involve shear localization. However, the underlining theoretical background for their link has been unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate their relation theoretically and experimentally based on Rowe's theory on constant minimum energy ratio (Rowe, 1962) describing particle deformations quantitatively by energetic analysis. In theoretical analysis using analytical dynamics and irreversible thermodynamics, the energetic criterion about frictional instability is obtained; unstable slip occurs at energy ratios below 1. In friction experiments using a gas medium apparatus, simulated fault gouge deforms obeying the Rowe's theory. Additionally, the energy ratios change gradually with shear and show below 1 before the occurrence of unstable slip. Moreover, energy ratios are derived from volume changes. Transition of energy ratios from increase to decrease, which has been confirmed at the end of compaction, indicates the onset of volume increase toward the occurrence of unstable slip. The volume increases likely correspond to the formation of R1-shears with open mode character, which occurs prior to the unstable slip. Shear localization leads to a change in internal friction angle which is a statistical parameter to constitute a energy ratio. In short, changes in internal friction angle play an important role in evolving from being frictionally stable to unstable. From these results, the physical and energetic background for their link between the frictional parameter and shear localization becomes clear.

  12. Quasilinear Model for Energetic Particles Interacting with TAE Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2010-11-01

    TAE instabilities are thought to be a major source of Energetic Particle transport which could set limits on operational scenarios, especially for burning plasmas, and causes damage to the first wall. The quasilinear model proposed by Berk et al.ootnotetextH. L. Berk et al, Nucl. Fusion, 35:1661, 1995. relies on diffusion mechanisms for particle dynamics to captures the evolution of the energetic particle distribution function and the associated mode amplitude. Using the bump-on-tail as a paradigm, we analyze the dynamics near the resonances for accurate diffusion coefficient representation. We verify the model to get the predicted single mode saturation levels and benchmark the case of multimode overlap against particle codes. Using the TAE mode structures computed by the ideal MHD code NOVA, we generalize this method to relax energetic particles' profiles in the full 3D phase space.

  13. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  14. Energetic particle influences in Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Rycroft, Michael; Briggs, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Energetic particles from outer space, known as galactic cosmic rays, constantly ionise the entire atmosphere. During strong solar storms, solar energetic particles can also reach the troposphere and enhance ionisation. Atmospheric ionisation generates cluster ions. These facilitate current flow in the global electric circuit, which arises from charge separation in thunderstorms driven by meteorological processes. Energetic particles, whether solar or galactic in origin, may influence the troposphere and stratosphere through a range of different mechanisms, each probably contributing a small amount. Some of the suggested processes potentially acting over a wide spatial area in the troposphere include enhanced scavenging of charged aerosol particles, modification of droplet or droplet-droplet behavior by charging, and the direct absorption of infra-red radiation by the bending and stretching of hydrogen bonds inside atmospheric cluster-ions. As well as reviewing the proposed mechanisms by which energetic particles modulate atmospheric properties, we will also discuss new instrumentation for measurement of energetic particles in the atmosphere.

  15. Energetic Particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.

    2008-09-12

    A new energetic particle-induced Geodesic Acoustic Mode (EGAM) is shown to exist. The mode frequency, mode structure, and mode destabilization are determined non-perturbatively by energetic particle kinetic effects. In particular the EGAM frequency is found to be substantially lower than the standard GAM frequency. The radial mode width is determined by the energetic particle drift orbit width and can be fairly large for high energetic particle pressure and large safety factor. These results are consistent with the recent experimental observation of the beam- driven n=0 mode in DIII-D. The new mode is important since it can degrade energetic particle confinement as shown in the DIII-D experiments. The new mode may also affect the thermal plasma confinement via its interaction with plasma micro-turbulence.

  16. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  17. Energetic Particle Influence on the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, Irina A.; Aplin, Karen L.; Arnold, Frank; Bazilevskaya, Galina A.; Harrison, R. Giles; Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Turunen, Esa; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) onto the whole atmosphere, from the lower thermosphere/mesosphere through the stratosphere and troposphere, to the surface. The paper summarizes the different sources and energies of particles, principally galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and energetic electron precipitation (EEP). All the proposed mechanisms by which EPP can affect the atmosphere are discussed, including chemical changes in the upper atmosphere and lower thermosphere, chemistry-dynamics feedbacks, the global electric circuit and cloud formation. The role of energetic particles in Earth's atmosphere is a multi-disciplinary problem that requires expertise from a range of scientific backgrounds. To assist with this synergy, summary tables are provided, which are intended to evaluate the level of current knowledge of the effects of energetic particles on processes in the entire atmosphere.

  18. Subsatellite measurements of plasma and energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Chase, L. M.; Lin, R. P.; Mccoy, J. E.; Mcguire, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 particles and fields subsatellite is instrumented to measure (1) plasma and energetic-particle fluxes, (2) vector magnetic fields, and (3) velocity of the subsatellite to a high precision for the purpose of determining lunar gravitational anomalies. Results from the magnetic-field and gravitational-field experiments are discussed. The results obtained from the plasma and energetic-particle detectors are discussed briefly. The plasma and energetic-particles experiment describes the various plasma regimes in which the moon moves, and determines how the moon interacts with the plasma and magnetic fields in the environment.

  19. Marginal Stability Dynamics for Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Marginal stability in plasmas characteristically sets a stiff limit to the range of that can be achieved. Below this limit, the system is governed by classical. Near marginal stability, however, plasmas may be subject to rapid processes, resulting in a system that hovers near marginality. This scenario emerged from nonlinear studies of energetic particle relaxation and may be to more general plasma transport. We describe results from several such which include. [1] Avalanches---Near marginal stability, an important point is whether an instability driven by resonant particles where the distribution function has ``free energy'' will cause global radial diffusion. For that,modes need to overlap. This process can be continuous or bursty, the latter having been recently observed in NSTX and DIII-D. [2] Frequency chirping---Recent simulations by Vann showed that marginal stability can be sustained when there is only one unstable linear mode, due to the mechanism of spontaneous frequency sweeping. Although a single mode near stability should not cause dramatic relaxation, nevertheless in the Vann simulations, the achievement of marginal stability induced a continual chirping of that had removed energy from the bulk of the region where the external beam to deposit free energy. The distribution was then found to hover near stability. This mechanism may apply to the n=0 GAM where frequency sweeping might be a mechanism for extracting energy from alpha particles in a burning plasma, thereby reducing the stored alpha particle pressure. One way to implement this is to have the n=0 geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) be preferentially excited, since energy rather than momentum (leading to spatial diffusion) is then primarily extracted from alpha particles.

  20. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  1. Size distributions of solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E.; Reames, D.; Kahler, S.; Cane, H.

    1991-01-01

    NASA particle detectors on the IMP-8 are employed to determine the size distributions of the peak fluxes of events related to solar-energetic particles including protons and electrons. The energetic proton events show a flatter size distribution which suggests that not all flares are proton flares. Both the electron and proton events are classified as either 'impulsive' or 'gradual', and the impulsive events tend to have a steeper power-law distribution.

  2. Fast excitation of geodesic acoustic mode by energetic particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jintao; Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-12-15

    A new mechanism for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) excitation by a not fully slowed down energetic particle (EP) beam is analyzed to explain experimental observations in Large Helical Device. It is shown that the positive velocity space gradient near the lower-energy end of the EP distribution function can strongly drive the GAM unstable. The new features of this EP-induced GAM (EGAM) are: (1) no instability threshold in the pitch angle; (2) the EGAM frequency can be higher than the local GAM frequency; and (3) the instability growth rate is much larger than that driven by a fully slowed down EP beam.

  3. Migrational Instabilities in Particle Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, Joe D.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with an instability arising from the shear-induced migration of particles in dense suspensions coupled with a dependence of viscosity on particle concentration. The analysis summarized here treats the inertialess (Re = O) linear stability of homogeneous simple shear flows for a Stokesian suspension model of the type proposed by Leighton and Acrivos (1987). Depending on the importance of shear-induced migration relative to concentration-driven diffusion, this model admits short-wave instability arising from wave-vector stretching by the base flow and evolving into particle-depleted shear bands. Moreover, this instability in the time-dependent problem corresponds to loss of ellipticity in the associated static problem (Re = O, Pe = O). While the isotropic version of the Leighton-Acrivos model is found to be stable with their experimentally determined parameters for simple shear, it is known that the stable model does not give a good quantitative description of particle clustering in the core of pipe flow (Nott and Brady 1994). This leads to the conjecture that an appropriate variant on the above model could explain such clustering as a two-phase bifurcation in the base flow.

  4. The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Davin E.; Lillis, Robert J.; Lee, Christina O.; Dunn, Patrick A.; Hatch, Kenneth; Robinson, Miles; Glaser, David; Chen, Jianxin; Curtis, David; Tiu, Christopher; Lin, Robert P.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instrument is designed to measure the energetic charged particle input to the Martian atmosphere. SEP consists of two sensors mounted on corners of the spacecraft deck, each utilizing a dual, double-ended solid-state detector telescope architecture to separately measure fluxes of electrons from 20 to 1000 keV and ions from 20-6000 keV, in four orthogonal look directions, each with a field of view of 42° by 31°. SEP, along with the rest of the MAVEN instrument suite, allows the effects of high energy solar particle events on Mars' upper atmospheric structure, temperatures, dynamics and atmospheric escape rates, to be quantified and understood. Given that solar activity was likely substantially higher in the early solar system, understanding the relationship between energetic particle input and atmospheric loss today will enable more confident estimates of total atmospheric loss over Mars' history.

  5. Isomon instabilities driven by energetic ions in Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Könies, A.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Drevlak, M.; Turkin, Yu.; Helander, P.

    2016-06-01

    It is found that modes of Alfvénic character affected by plasma compressibility and having equal poloidal and toroidal mode numbers (named ‘isomon modes’) can exist in W7-X. These modes, and the conditions under which they arise, are sensitive to the magnitude of the rotational transform of the field lines and the presence of energetic ions. The energetic ions produced by neutral-beam injection (having the energy 55–60 keV) interact resonantly with large-scale isomon modes (m=n\\ll 10 ), which tends to lead to instabilities extending over a large part of the plasma cross section.

  6. Numerical Analyses of Energetic Particles in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Todo, Yasushi; Murakami, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Fukuyama, A.; Spong, Donald A; Yamamoto, S.; Osakabe, M.; Nakajima, N.

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating is studied using GNET simulation code, in which the drift kinetic equation is solved in five-dimensional phase-space. The steady-state distributions of the energetic ions are obtained, and characteristics of the energetic-ion distribution depending on the plasma heating method are shown. The magnetic configuration effect on the energetic-ion confinement is also investigated, and it is found that the energetic-ion confinement is improved by a strong inward shift of the magnetic axis position in the major radius direction. The interaction between energetic particles and Alfven eigenmodes are investigated using the MEGA code and the AE3D code. A reduced version of the MEGA code has been developed to simulate the Alfven eigenmode (AE) evolution in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with NBI and collisions taken into account. The spatial profile and frequency of the AE modes in the LHD plasma are analyzed with the AE3D code. The evolution of energetic particles and AE mode amplitude and phase are followed in a self-consistent way, while the AE spatial profiles are assumed to be constant. It is demonstrated that the AE bursts can be simulated with the new code.

  7. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  8. Energetic solar particle behaviour in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of energetic solar flare particles in the magnetosphere is discussed. In the absence of magnetospheric motion, the problem of particle transport can be treated as simple propagation of charged particles in a stationary magnetic field configuration using, for instance, trajectory calculations in model fields. This single particle approach is the basis for the determination of intensity and anisotropy structures over the polar caps and in the geomagnetic tail from different interplanetary conditions. Particle transport on closed field lines is in addition strongly affected by resonant interaction processes as pitch angle scattering and radial diffusion.

  9. Physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in burning plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liu; Zonca, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of shear Alfvén waves and energetic particles are crucial to the performance of burning fusion plasmas. This article reviews linear as well as nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves and their self-consistent interaction with energetic particles in tokamak fusion devices. More specifically, the review on the linear physics deals with wave spectral properties and collective excitations by energetic particles via wave-particle resonances. The nonlinear physics deals with nonlinear wave-wave interactions as well as nonlinear wave-energetic particle interactions. Both linear as well as nonlinear physics demonstrate the qualitatively important roles played by realistic equilibrium nonuniformities, magnetic field geometries, and the specific radial mode structures in determining the instability evolution, saturation, and, ultimately, energetic-particle transport. These topics are presented within a single unified theoretical framework, where experimental observations and numerical simulation results are referred to elucidate concepts and physics processes.

  10. Energetic Particles Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Ryou, A.S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Alexeev, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically collide with the planet or the magnetopause and will not be able to complete a full drift orbit. These simulations provide direct comparison for recent spacecraft measurements from MESSENGER. Mercury's offset dipole results in an asymmetric loss cone and therefore an asymmetry in particle precipitation with more particles precipitating in the southern hemisphere. Since the planet lacks an atmosphere, precipitating particles will collide directly with the surface of the planet. The incident charged particles can kick up neutrals from the surface and have implications for the formation of the exosphere and weathering of the surface

  11. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  12. Composition of energetic particles from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model for composition of heavy ions in the Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). The SEP composition in a typical large solar particle event reflects the composition of the Sun, with adjustments due to fractionation effects which depend on the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the ion and on the ratio of ionic charge to mass (Q/M). Flare-to flare variations in composition are represented by parameters describing these fractionation effects and the distributions of these parameters are presented.

  13. Excitation of external kink mode by trapped energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Xu, X. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, Z. R.

    2016-05-01

    An unstable fishbone-like non-resonant external kink mode (FLEM) is numerically found to be driven by the precessional drift motion of trapped energetic particles (EPs) in both reversed-field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas, even under the ideal wall boundary condition. In the presence of a sufficiently large fraction of trapped energetic ions in high beta plasmas, the FLEM instability may occur. The excitation condition is discussed in detail. The frequency of the FLEM is linked to the precessional drift frequency of EPs, and varies with the plasma flow speed. Therefore, it is usually much higher than that of the typical resistive wall mode (RWM). In general, the growth rate of FLEM does not depend on the wall resistivity. However, the wall position can significantly affect the mode’s property. The drift kinetic effects from thermal particles (mainly due to the transit resonance of passing particles) play a stabilizing role on FLEMs. In the presence of EPs, the FLEM and the RWM can co-exist or even couple to each other, depending on the plasma parameters. The FLEM instabilities in RFP and tokamaks have rather similar physics nature, although certain sub-dominant characters appear differently in the two configurations.

  14. Access of energetic particles to Titan's exobase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, L.; Roussos, E.; Feyerabend, M.; Jones, G.; Krupp, N.; Coates, A.; Simon, S.; Motschmann, U.

    2015-10-01

    In this contribution we use a particle tracing code to trace energetic particles close to Titan in the specific magnetospheric conditions of the Cassini T9 flyby. The particles simulated are H+and O+ions with energies ranging from 1 keV to 1 MeV and the background electromagnetic field is represented by the output of the A.I.K.E.F. hybrid code for that specific flyby. These tools are used to generate 2D maps showing the access of the particles to the moon's exobase and those maps are subsequently used to normalize the fluxes measured by the Cassini MIMI/CHEMS instrument and estimate the energy deposition at specific positions around the moon.With this, we are able to estimate the importance that the asymmetries in the access of particles to the exobase has in the dynamics of Titan's ionosphere.

  15. Ring current instabilities excited by the energetic oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kakad, A. P.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2007-09-15

    The ring current instabilities driven by the energetic oxygen ions are investigated during the magnetic storm. The electrons and protons are considered to have Maxwellian distributions, while energetic oxygen ions are having loss-cone distribution. Dispersion relation for the quasielectrostatic modes with frequencies {omega}>{omega}{sub cp} (proton cyclotron frequency) and propagating obliquely to the magnetic field is obtained. Dispersion relation is studied numerically for the storm time ring current parameters and it is found that these instabilities are most prominent during intense storms when the oxygen ions become the dominant constituents of the ring current plasma. For some typical storm-time ring current parameters, these modes can produce quasielectrostatic noise in the range of 17-220 Hz, thus providing a possible explanation of the electrostatic noise observed at the inner boundary of the ring current during magnetic storms. Further, these modes can attain saturation electric fields of the order of 100-500 {mu}V/m, and therefore, are expected to scatter O{sup +} ions into the loss-cone giving rise to their precipitation into the atmosphere, thus contributing to the ring current decay.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.

  17. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  18. Solar energetic particle transport in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chunsheng

    2007-08-01

    The transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the inner heliosphere is a very important issue which can affect our daily life. For example, large SEP events can lead to the failure of power grids, interrupt communications, and may participate in global climate change. The SEPS also can harm humans in space and destroy the instruments on board spacecraft. Studying the transport of SEPs also helps us understand remote regions of space which are not visible to us because there are not enough photons in those places. The interplanetary magnetic field is the medium in which solar energetic particles travel. The Parker Model of the solar wind and its successor, the Weber and Davis model, have been the dominant models of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field since 1960s. In this thesis, I have reviewed these models and applied an important correction to the Weber and Davis model Various solar wind models and their limitations are presented. Different models can affect the calculation of magnetic field direction at 1 AU by as much as about 30%. Analysis of the onset of SEP events could be used to infer the release time of solar energetic particles and to differentiate between models of particle acceleration near the Sun. It is demonstrated that because of the nature of the stochastic heliospheric magnetic field, the path length measured along the line of force can be shorter than that of the nominal Parker spiral. These results help to explain recent observations. A two dimensional model and a fully three dimensional numerical model for the transport of SEPs has been developed based on Parker's transport equation for the first time. ''Reservoir'' phenomenon, which means the inner heliosphere works like a reservoir for SEPs during large SEP events, and multi-spacecraft observation of peak intensities are explained by this numerical model.

  19. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect

    Florinski, V.; Le Roux, J. A.; Jokipii, J. R.; Alouani-Bibi, F.

    2013-10-20

    In 2012 August the Voyager 1 space probe entered a distinctly new region of space characterized by a virtual absence of heliospheric energetic ions and magnetic fluctuations, now interpreted as a part of the local interstellar cloud. Prior to their disappearance, the ion distributions strongly peaked at a 90° pitch angle, implying rapid escape of streaming particles along the magnetic field lines. Here we investigate the process of particle crossing from the heliosheath into the interstellar space, using a kinetic approach that resolves scales of the particle's cyclotron radius and smaller. It is demonstrated that a 'pancake' pitch-angle distribution naturally arises at a tangential discontinuity separating a weakly turbulent plasma from a laminar region with a very low pitch-angle scattering rate. The relatively long persistence of gyrating ions is interpreted in terms of field line meandering facilitating their cross-field diffusion within the depletion region.

  20. Coronal abundances determined from energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide a measurement of coronal element abundances that is highly independent of the ionization states and temperature of the ions in the source plasma. The most complete measurements come from large 'gradual' events where ambient coronal plasma is swept up by the expanding shock wave from a coronal mass ejection. Particles from 'impulsive' flares have a pattern of acceleration-induced enhancements superimposed on the coronal abundances. Particles accelerated from high-speed solar wind streams at corotating shocks show a different abundance pattern corresponding to material from coronal holes. Large variations in He/O in coronal material are seen for both gradual and impulsive-flare events but other abundance ratios, such as Mg/Ne, are remarkably constant. SEP measurements now include hundreds of events spanning 15 years of high-quality measurement.

  1. SAMPEX: New Insights into Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klecker, B.

    2012-12-01

    One of the scientific objectives of SAMPEX (Solar, Anomalous, Magnetospheric Particle EXplorer) was the study of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The low altitude high inclination (82°) orbit of SAMPEX was selected in part to measure SEPs and interplanetary particles (e.g. related to corotating interaction regions) over the polar caps, and to provide the unique capability of determining their charge states, utilizing the rigidity dependent cutoff of the magnetic field of the Earth. The four instruments onboard SAMPEX were novel ion and electron detectors with unprecedented sensitivity, with geometric factors of up to 100 cm2 sr, providing measurements of solar and interplanetary particles with elemental and isotopic resolution over a wide energy range (~0.3 to 70 MeV/nuc for Fe). The high sensitivity of the SAMPEX instrumentation combined with using Earth's magnetic field as a M/Q spectrometer provided the first (and so far only) direct SEP ionic charge measurements at energies up to 10s of MeV/nuc. These measurements showed for the first time evidence of an energy dependence of the mean charge of solar energetic particles, suggesting multiple sources in large SEP events and ion stripping in the low corona. The high sensitivity of the SAMPEX instruments also allowed the measurement of energy spectra over a wide energy range, showing characteristic differences in spectral breaks in large SEP events, and systematic enrichment of heavy isotopes in 3He-rich events. Furthermore, the high time resolution SEP measurements from the polar cap to low latitudes provided an ideal tool to study dynamic variations of the Earth's large scale magnetic field, by measuring cutoff variations during large SEP events. This talk will give an overview of the contributions of SAMPEX to our present understanding of SEPs and also summarize related SAMPEX highlights.

  2. Solar Energetic Particles: Sampling Coronal Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-05-01

    In the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves out through the corona that accelerate elements of the ambient material to MeV energies in a fairly democratic, temperature-independent manner. These events provide the most complete source of information on element abundances in the corona. Relative abundances of 22 elements from H through Zn display the well-known dependence on the first ionization potential (FIP) that distinguishes coronal and photospheric material. For most elements, the main abundance variations depend upon the gyrofrequency, and hence on the charge-to-mass ratio, Q/A, of the ion. Abundance variations in the dominant species, H and He, are not Q/A dependent, presumably because of non-linear wave-particle interactions of H and He during acceleration. Impulsive flares provide a different sample of material that confirms the Ne:Mg:Si and He/C abundances in the corona.

  3. Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. O.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Epavier, F.; Thiemann, E.; Zeitlin, C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of solar energetic particle (SEP) events made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) SEP instrument, which measures energetic ions and electrons impacting the upper Martian atmosphere. Since the arrival of the MAVEN spacecraft at Mars, a large number of solar flares and a few major coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from the Sun. The SEPs are accelerated by the related shock in the solar corona or by the propagating interplanetary shock ahead of the CME ejecta. Mixed in with these SEPs are particles accelerated by the shocks of corotating streams, some of which have recurred for several solar cycles due to the persistent coronal hole sources. The SEP events are analyzed together with the upstream solar wind observations from the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and magnetometer (MAG). The sources of the SEP events are determined from Earth-based solar imagery and the MAVEN Extreme Ultra-violet Monitor (EUVM) together with numerical simulations of the inner heliospheric conditions. A comparison with the radiation dose rate measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) reveals a lack of ground signatures during the onset of the highest energy SEPs for the events observed by MAVEN, indicating that the SEPs fully deposit their energies into the Martian atmosphere. Using measurements made from the ensemble of instruments onboard MAVEN, we investigate the consequences of SEPs at Mars for a number of events observed during the primary science mapping phase of the MAVEN mission.

  4. STEREO Observations of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonRosenvinge, Tycho; Christian, Eric; Cohen, Christina; Leske, Richard; Mewaldt, Richard; Stone, Edward; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We report on observations of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events as observed by instruments on the STEREO Ahead and Behind spacecraft and on the ACE spacecraft. We will show observations of an electron event observed by the STEREO Ahead spacecraft on June 12, 2010 located at W74 essentially simultaneously with electrons seen at STEREO Behind at E70. Some similar events observed by Helios were ascribed to fast electron propagation in longitude close to the sun. We will look for independent verification of this possibility. We will also show observations of what appears to be a single proton event with very similar time-history profiles at both of the STEREO spacecraft at a similar wide separation. This is unexpected. We will attempt to understand all of these events in terms of corresponding CME and radio burst observations.

  5. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  6. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non-/sup 3/He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge).

  7. Solar Energetic Particles Trapping in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M.; Larsen, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are protons, electrons, and heavy ions emitted from the Sun with energies spanning tens of keV to GeV. They are episodic and associated with energetic events at the Sun such as coronal mass ejections. Importantly, they can be injected into and trapped by the Earth's magnetosphere, forming transient new, intense radiation belts that can severely damage components of our space infrastructure and cause significant backgrounds in instruments on national security and other payloads. Our goal is to understand the conditions under which SEPs become trapped and untrapped in the magnetosphere, how trapping depends on the energy distribution of the trapped particles, and if we can predict the location and persistence of these new radiation belts. Previous studies have shown how trapping can occur for individual shock-driven events but do not explore the overall magnetospheric conditions that can lead to SEP trapping and cannot predict trapped population energy spectra, location, or provide a probabilistic model trapping likelihood. Using events spanning 10 years, we will correlate the magnetospheric conditions that affect trapping and dumping. The results of this study will attempt to answer the questions: What fraction of injected SEPs are trapped,forming new, persistent radiation belts? Is there a geomagnetic field preconditioning required for injected SEPs to be trapped or untrapped? What does the energy distribution of injected SEPs relative to their trapped distribution tell us about the underlying physics of trapping? What is the probability of trapping injected SEPs based on different magnetospheric conditions, and can we use this probability as a predictive tool?

  8. CUSP Energetic Particles: Confinement, Acceleration and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jiasheng

    1999-01-01

    The cusp energetic particle (CEP) event is a new magnetospheric phenomenon. The events were detected in the dayside cusp for hours, in which the measured helium ions had energies up to 8 MeV. All of these events were associated with a dramatic decrease and large fluctuations in the local magnetic field strength. During January 1999 - December 1999 covered by this report, I have studied the CEP events by analyzing the POLAR, GEOTAIL, and WIND particle and magnetic field data measured during the geomagnetic quiet periods in 1996 and one geomagnetic storm period in 1998. The simultaneous observations indicated that the ion fluxes in the CEP events were higher than that in both the upstream and the downstream from the bow shock. The pitch angle distribution of the helium ions in the CEP events was found to peak around 90 deg. It was found that the mirror parameter, defined as the ratio of the square root of the integration of the parallel turbulent power spectral component over the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges to the mean field in the cusp, is correlated with the intensity of the cusp MeV helium flux, which is a measure of the influence of mirroring interactions and an indication of local effect. It was also found that the turbulent power of the local magnetic field in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges is correlated with the intensity of the cusp energetic helium ions. Such ULF ranges correspond to periods of about 0.33-500 seconds that cover the gyroperiods, the bounce periods, and the drift periods of the tens keV to MeV charged particles when they are temporarily confined in the high-altitude dayside cusp. These observations represent a discovery that the high-altitude dayside cusp is a new acceleration and dynamic trapping region of the magnetosphere. The cusp geometry is connected via gradient and curvature drift of these energized ions to the equatorial plasma sheet as close as the geostationary orbit at local midnight. It implies that the dayside cusp is

  9. Solar Energetic Particles and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.

    2001-01-01

    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of greater than ten MeV protons occur at an average rate of approx. 13 per year near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of > 100 McV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the 'streaming limit.' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a 'delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to approx. one GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral 'knee'. The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from approx. ten MeV to approx. one GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars.

  10. PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2014-05-23

    The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.

  11. Energetic Particle Observations Near the Termination Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Decker, Robert B.; Roelof, Edmond C.; Hill, Matthew E.

    2004-09-15

    The most recent data from Voyager 1 (V1) show that a second event (TS2), apparently associated with the termination shock (TS), is in progress, with spectral characteristics similar to the energetic particle increase observed from 2002.4-2003.1 (TS1). We concentrate on the pressure, composition, and anisotropy profiles of TS1. The magnetic field pressure is significantly smaller than the particle pressure perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the 40-4000 keV range. The composition during the interplanetary shock event (ISE) observed by V1 during 1991 is drastically different from that during TS1 (C/O {approx}0.2 for ISE, {approx}0.02 for TS1). The dominant anisotropy during TS1 is azimuthally in the outward direction for a Parker spiral field, suggesting a source inward of the spacecraft, while the radial anisotropy is consistent with zero (-0.024 {+-} 0.02), implying a slow (<50 km/s) plasma flow speed. We conclude that the totality of the data is consistent with V1 being in the heliosheath during TS1.

  12. Kinetic transport simulation of energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, He; Waltz, R. E.

    2016-05-01

    A kinetic transport code (EPtran) is developed for the transport of the energetic particles (EPs). The EPtran code evolves the EP distribution function in radius, energy, and pitch angle phase space (r, E, λ) to steady state with classical slowing down, pitch angle scattering, as well as radial and energy transport of the injected EPs (neutral beam injection (NBI) or fusion alpha). The EPtran code is illustrated by treating the transport of NBI fast ions from high-n ITG/TEM micro-turbulence and EP driven unstable low-n Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) in a well-studied DIII-D NBI heated discharge with significant AE central core loss. The kinetic transport code results for this discharge are compared with previous study using a simple EP density moment transport code ALPHA (R.E. Waltz and E.M. Bass 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 104006). The dominant EP-AE transport is treated with a local stiff critical EP density (or equivalent pressure) gradient radial transport model modified to include energy-dependence and the nonlocal effects EP drift orbits. All previous EP transport models assume that the EP velocity space distribution function is not significantly distorted from the classical ‘no transport’ slowing down distribution. Important transport distortions away from the slowing down EP spectrum are illustrated by a focus on the coefficient of convection: EP energy flux divided by the product of EP average energy and EP particle flux.

  13. The energy spectra of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, R. E.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of recent results on the shapes and relative slopes of the spectra of various solar energetic particle populations is presented, with emphasis on the more extensive results currently available for protons, alphas and electrons. From previous work, it is found that proton spectra 0.8 to more than 400 MeV and alpha spectra 1.4 to 80 MeV/nucleon are best characterized, on average, by a functional form involving a Bessel function in momentum/nucleon. However, proton and alpha spectral slopes using this form are not equal, and there is significant variation from event to event. From other studies, electrons 0.02 to 20 MeV are also found to have curved spectra, but seem to be better fit with a double power law in energy. The spectral properties in both cases correlate with other measures of solar particle acceleration; e.g. gamma-ray line production, hard X-ray burst spectra and microwave fluxes.

  14. Effect of dynamical friction on nonlinear energetic particle modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, M. K.; Breizman, B. N.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2010-09-15

    A fully nonlinear model is developed for the bump-on-tail instability including the effects of dynamical friction (drag) and velocity space diffusion on the energetic particles driving the wave. The results show that drag provides a destabilizing effect on the nonlinear evolution of waves. Specifically, in the early nonlinear phase of the instability, the drag facilitates the explosive scenario of the wave evolution, leading to the creation of phase space holes and clumps that move away from the original eigenfrequency. Later in time, the electric field associated with a hole is found to be enhanced by the drag, whereas for a clump it is reduced. This leads to an asymmetry of the frequency evolution between holes and clumps. The combined effect of drag and diffusion produces a diverse range of nonlinear behaviors including hooked frequency chirping, undulating, and steady state regimes. An analytical model is presented, which explains the aforementioned diversity. A continuous production of hole-clump pairs in the absence of collisions is also observed.

  15. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  16. Energetic Particles Events inside Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Jose; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Blanco, Juan Jose; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier

    The effect of the magnetic topology of the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) over the energetic particle event (EPe) fluxes (0.5-100 MeV) have been simulated. In the data corresponding to the ion and electron fluxes, a depression after a strong maximum is observed when a EPe passes through a MC. Using our cross-section circular and elliptical MC models (Journal of Geophysical Research 107(1), doi:10.1029/2001JA900100 (2002) and Solar Physics 207(1), 187-198 (2002)) we have tried to explain that effect, understanding the importance of the topology of the MC. In sight of the results of the preliminary analysis we conclude that the magnitude of the magnetic field seems not to play a significant role but the helicoidal topology associated with topology of the MCs. This work has been supported by the Spanish Comisín Internacional de o Ciencia y Tecnoloǵ (CICYT), grant ESP2005-07290-C02-01 and ESP2006-08459. This work ıa is performed inside COST Action 724.

  17. Energetic particle abundances in solar electron events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Cane, H. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive search of the ISEE 3 energetic particle data for solar electron events with associated increases in elements with atomic number Z = 6 or greater are reported. A sample of 90 such events was obtained. The events support earlier evidence of a bimodal distribution in Fe/O or, more clearly, in Fe/C. Most of the electron events belong to the group that is Fe-rich in comparison with the coronal abundance. The Fe-rich events are frequently also He-3-rich and are associated with type III and type V radio bursts and impulsive solar flares. Fe-poor events are associated with type IV bursts and with interplanetary shocks. With some exceptions, event-to-event enhancements in the heavier elements vary smoothly with Z and with Fe/C. In fact, these variations extend across the full range of events despite inferred differences in acceleration mechanism. The origin of source material in all events appears to be coronal and not photospheric.

  18. Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.

  19. Solar Energetic Particle Events: Phenomenology and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, S. B.; Patrick, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    Solar energetic particle events can cause major disruptions to the operation of spacecraft in earth orbit and outside the earth's magnetosphere and have to be considered for EVA and other manned activities. They may also have an effect on radiation doses received by the crew flying in high altitude aircraft over the polar regions. The occurrence of these events has been assumed to be random, but there would appear to be some solar cycle dependency with a higher annual fluence occuring during a 7 year period, 2 years before and 4 years after the year of solar maximum. Little has been done to try to predict these events in real-time with nearly all of the work concentrating on statistical modelling. Currently our understanding of the causes of these events is not good. But what are the prospects for prediction? Can artificial intelligence techniques be used to predict them in the absence of a more complete understanding of the physics involved? The paper examines the phenomenology of the events, briefly reviews the results of neural network prediction techniques and discusses the conjecture that the underlying physical processes might be related to self-organised criticality and turblent MHD flows.

  20. Intensity Variation of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the intensity of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported in Gopalswamy et al. (2004, JGR 109, Al2105) is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of corona) holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  1. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Low Energy Telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft have been used to measure the elemental composition (Z = 2-28) and energy spectra (5-15 MeV per nucleon) of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in seven large flare events. Four flare events were selected which have SEP abundance ratios approximately independent of energy per nucleon. For these selected flare events, SEP composition results may be described by an average composition plus a systematic flare-to-flare deviation about the average. The four-flare average SEP composition is systematically different from the solar composition determined by photospheric spectroscopy. These systematic composition differences are apparently not due to SEP propagation or acceleration effects. In contrast, the four-flare average SEP composition is in agreement with measured solar wind abundances and with a number of recent spectroscopic coronal abundance measurements. These findings suggest that SEPs originate in the corona, and that both SEPs and the solar wind sample a coronal composition which is significantly and persistently different from that measured for the photosphere.

  2. The Two Sources of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2012-05-01

    The identification of two different physical mechanisms for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) began nearly 50 years ago with the radio observations of type III bursts produced by outward streaming electrons and type II bursts from coronal (and interplanetary) shock waves. Since that time we have found that the former are related to “impulsive” SEP events from flares or jets where resonant stochastic acceleration, probably related to magnetic reconnection, can produce 1000-fold enhancements of 3He/4He and of (Z>50)/O, for example, while the latter “gradual” SEP events sample ion abundances democratically and are used to measure the coronal abundances of the elements. Sometimes, unfortunately, residual impulsive suprathermal ions can also contribute to the seed population for shock acceleration, complicating the picture, but this process can now be modeled theoretically. Initially, impulsive events behave like a point source on the Sun, while multi-spacecraft observations of gradual events show extensive acceleration that can span half of the inner heliosphere, beginning when the shock reaches 2 solar radii. Acceleration occurs as ions are scattered back and forth across the shock by proton-generated resonant Alfven waves. These waves also define a streaming-limited maximum intensity or plateau region prior to arrival of the shock. Behind the shock lies an extensive “reservoir” region of spatially uniform SEP intensity that decreases with time as the “magnetic bottle” enclosing it expands.

  3. Energetic Particles in the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are a key ingredient of Solar-Terrestrial Physics both for fundamental research and space weather applications. SEP events are the defining component of solar radiation storms, contribute to radio blackouts in polar regions and are related to many of the fastest Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) driving major geomagnetic storms. In addition to CMEs, SEPs are also related to flares. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the SEP field will be reviewed. Key issues to be covered and discussed include: the current understanding of the origin, acceleration and transport processes of SEPs at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere, lessons learned from multi-spacecraft SEP observations, statistical quantification of the comparison of solar events and SEP events of the current solar cycle 24 with previous solar cycles, causes of the solar-cycle variations in SEP fluencies and composition, theoretical work and current SEP acceleration models. Furthermore, the outstanding issues that constitute a knowledge gap in the field will be presented and discussed, as well as future directions and expected advances from the observational and modeling perspective, also in view of the unique observations provided by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  4. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  5. Energetic particles over Io's polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    2003-11-01

    We present results obtained from the Galileo satellite's Energetic Particles Detector during its final two encounters in 2001 with Jupiter's moon Io. These encounters returned the first data from just above Io's polar caps. They complement previous low-latitude data and provide a new perspective of Io's interaction with Jupiter's magnetosphere and ionosphere. The evolution of electron and ion distributions was measured from the upstream region throughout the polar cap traversals. From the time of initial field contact with Io and continuing throughout the encounter these distributions evolve in a manner consistent with adiabatic motion along the Io-Jupiter field line. At encounter all particles develop narrow trapped-like distributions indicative of the creation of a near-Io magnetic bottle caused by an enhancement of field at Io's upstream surface. The measured pitch angle distributions indicate a field enhancement of up to 10%-15% higher than the field observed at Galileo's position. Distribution evolution times agree roughly with particle bounce times on the Io-Jupiter field line. The ion distribution evolution times provide an estimate of ˜3-7 km/s for the field line convection speed across Io's polar caps, a value small (˜10%) compared with the upstream convection speed. Along with these trapped distributions, beams of ions and electrons are observed streaming into Io's polar caps throughout the encounters. The continued observation of ion beams across the polar cap is consistent with their half-bounce times. The data further indicate that the convection speed may vary as the polar cap is traversed. The one exception to the adiabatic particle behavior discussed above is the observation of intense electron beams streaming into Io's polar caps. The polar cap electron beams are similar to those previously measured in Io's wake [, 1996] and apparently originate from the same source. The source has been located at low (˜0.5 RJ) altitudes on the Io-Jupiter field

  6. Energetic storm particle events in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, F.; Trainor, J.; Mihalov, J.; Wolfe, J.; Webber, W.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of energetic particle events with increasing heliocentric distance is studied through events of Pioneers 10 and 11. Beyond 12 AU the events become the dominant type of solar particle event at 1 AU, and the combined effects of adiabatic cooling and volume expansion rule out the possibility that the particles represent the confinement of the original particle population behind the shock. It is not established whether the particles originate from the solar wind by injection via post-shock enhancements or are energetic solar particles further energized by the shock, although their very long lifetime favors the solar wind origin.

  7. The Two Sources of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2013-06-01

    Evidence for two different physical mechanisms for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) arose 50 years ago with radio observations of type III bursts, produced by outward streaming electrons, and type II bursts from coronal and interplanetary shock waves. Since that time we have found that the former are related to "impulsive" SEP events from impulsive flares or jets. Here, resonant stochastic acceleration, related to magnetic reconnection involving open field lines, produces not only electrons but 1000-fold enhancements of 3He/4He and of ( Z>50)/O. Alternatively, in "gradual" SEP events, shock waves, driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), more democratically sample ion abundances that are even used to measure the coronal abundances of the elements. Gradual events produce by far the highest SEP intensities near Earth. Sometimes residual impulsive suprathermal ions contribute to the seed population for shock acceleration, complicating the abundance picture, but this process has now been modeled theoretically. Initially, impulsive events define a point source on the Sun, selectively filling few magnetic flux tubes, while gradual events show extensive acceleration that can fill half of the inner heliosphere, beginning when the shock reaches ˜2 solar radii. Shock acceleration occurs as ions are scattered back and forth across the shock by resonant Alfvén waves amplified by the accelerated protons themselves as they stream away. These waves also can produce a streaming-limited maximum SEP intensity and plateau region upstream of the shock. Behind the shock lies the large expanse of the "reservoir", a spatially extensive trapped volume of uniform SEP intensities with invariant energy-spectral shapes where overall intensities decrease with time as the enclosing "magnetic bottle" expands adiabatically. These reservoirs now explain the slow intensity decrease that defines gradual events and was once erroneously attributed solely to slow

  8. Role of Alfven instabilities in energetic ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Budny, R.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Hosea, J. C.; Majeski, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.

    1999-09-20

    Experiments with plasma heating by waves at the ion cyclotron resonance of a minority species have shown that the heating efficiency degrades above a certain power threshold. It is found that this threshold is due to the destabilization of shear Alfven waves, which causes loss of fast ions. There are two distinct regimes characterized by low q{sub a} and high q{sub a}. In the first case, the fast ion distribution created by ICRF, lies entirely inside r{sub q=1}, away from the location of global TAE. This situation leads to the formation of a very strong fast ion population which stabilizes the sawteeth, but also excites Energetic Particle Modes (EPM), which transport fast ions outside r{sub q=1} causing the giant crash. At higher q{sub a}, the widening of the Alfven gap due to the steeper q profile, brings the global TAE ''in contact'' with the fast ion distribution. This results in an immediate and continuous depletion of fast ions from the core, which prevents the formation of the monster sawtooth and the excitation of EPM. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von

    2016-03-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  10. The Modeling of Pickup Ion or Energetic Particle Mediated Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; Mostafavi, P.; Hunana, P.

    2016-05-01

    Suprathermal energetic particles, such as solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the inner heliosphere and pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosphere and the very local interstellar medium, often form a thermodynamically dominant component in their various environments. In the supersonic solar wind beyond > 10 AU, in the inner heliosheath (IHS), and in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma. Similarly, SEPs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background solar wind in the inner heliosphere. In the absence of equilibration between plasma components, a separate coupled plasma description for the energetic particles is necessary. Using a collisionless Chapman-Enskog expansion, we derive a closed system of multi-component equations for a plasma comprised of thermal protons and electrons, and suprathermal particles (SEPs, PUIs). The energetic particles contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to leading order, a collisionless heat flux at the next order, and a collisionless stress tensor at the second-order. The collisionless heat conduction and viscosity in the multi-fluid description results from a nonisotropic energetic particle distribution. A simpler single-fluid MHD-like system of equations with distinct equations of state for both the background plasma and the suprathermal particles is derived. We note briefly potential pitfalls that can emerge in the numerical modeling of collisionless plasma flows that contain a dynamically important energetic particle component.

  11. Diagnostics of Solar Flare Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Procheta; Brown, J. C.; MacKinnon, A. L.

    2009-05-01

    For work on my thesis dissertation, we have been studying some energetic processes in solar flares. On our work on Hard X-ray (HXR) emission from flares, we have shown that recombination emission can exceed the bremsstrahlung HXR flux for certain flare conditions. We will show some spectral features characteristic of non-thermal recombination HXR emission and will suggest how it plays a significant role in the flare HXR continuum, something that has been ignored in the past. It is important to note that these results could demand a reconsideration of the numbers of accelerated electrons since recombination can be much more efficient in producing HXR photons than bremsstrahlung. In related work on diagnosing particle acceleration in flares, we also have an interest in studying solar neutrons. To this end, we will present our work done with new-age neutron detectors developed by our colleagues at the University of New Hampshire. Using laboratory and simulated data from the detector to produce its response matrix, we then employ regularisation and deconvolution techniques to produce encouraging results for data inversion. As a corollary, we have also been reconsidering the role of inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photospheric photons. Gamma-ray observations clearly show the presence of 100 MeV electrons and positrons in the solar corona, by-products of GeV energy ions. Here we will present results of IC scattering of such photons taking proper account of radiation field geometry near the solar surface. If observed, such radiation would let us determine the number of secondary positrons produced in large flares, contributing to a full picture of ion acceleration and to predicting neutron fluxes to be encountered by future inner heliosphere space missions. This work is supported by a UK STFC Rolling Grant and a Dorothy Hodgkin's Scholarship (PM).

  12. Energetic particle characteristics of magnetotail flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the recent ISEE-3 Geotail Mission three events have been identified from the magnetometer data which are consistent with a spacecraft crossing of a magnetotail flux rope. Energetic electron and proton observations obtained by the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system during two of the possible flux rope events are presented. During one event remote sensing of the flux rope with energetic protons reveals that the flux rope is crossed by the spacecraft from south to north. This allows determination of the bandedness of the magnetic field twist and of the flux rope velocity relative to the spacecraft. A minimal flux rope radius of 3 earth radii is derived. Energetic proton intensity is highest just inside of the flux rope and decreases towards the core. Energetic electrons are streaming tailward near the outer boundary, indicating openness of the field lines, and are isotropic through the inner part of the flux rope.

  13. The acceleration and propagation of solar flare energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.; Ramaty, R.; Zweibel, E. G.; Holzer, T. E. (Editor); Mihalas, D. (Editor); Sturrock, P. A. (Editor); Ulrich, R. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Observations and theories of particle acceleration in solar flares are reviewed. The most direct signatures of particle acceleration in flares are gamma rays, X-rays and radio emissions produced by the energetic particles in the solar atmosphere and energetic particles detected in interplanetary space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The implication of these observations are discussed. Stochastic and shock acceleration as well as acceleration in direct electric fields are considered. Interplanetary particle propagation is discussed and an overview of the highlights of both current and promising future research is presented.

  14. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  15. Compositions of energetic particle populations in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of helium and heavier particles with energies below about 10 to 20 MeV/nucleon are discussed with emphasis on the composition of solar flare particles, corotating energetic particle streams, and the anomalous cosmic ray component. Future advances expected from results obtained from ISEE -3, Voyager, and the international solar polar spacecraft are reviewed.

  16. Theory of energetic trapped particle-induced resistive interchange-ballooning modes

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-02-01

    A theory describing the influence of energetic trapped particles on resistive interchange-ballooning modes in tokamaks is presented. It is shown that a population of hot particles trapped in the region of adverse curvature can resonantly interact with and destabilize the resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. The mode is different from the usual resistive interchange mode not only in its destabilization mechanism, but also in that it has a real component to its frequency comparable to the precessional drift frequency of the rapidly circulating energetic species. Corresponding growth rate and threshold conditions for this trapped-particle-driven instability are derived and finite banana width effects are shown to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. Finally, the ballooning/tearing dispersion relation is generalized to include hot particles, so that both the ideal and the resistive modes are derivable in the appropriate limits. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Energetic particle destabilization of shear Alfven waves in stellarators and tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Weller, A.

    1994-12-31

    An important issue for ignited devices is the resonant destabilization of shear Alfven waves by energetic populations. These instabilities have been observed in a variety of toroidal plasma experiments in recent years, including: beam-destabilized toroidal Alfven instabilities (TAE) in low magnetic field tokamaks, ICRF destabilized TAE`s in higher field tokamaks, and global Alfven instabilities (GAE) in low shear stellarators. In addition, excitation and study of these modes is a significant goal of the TFIR-DT program and a component of the ITER physics tasks. The authors have developed a gyrofluid model which includes the wave-particle resonances necessary to excite such instabilities. The TAE linear mode structure is calculated nonperturbatively, including many of the relevant damping mechanisms, such as: continuum damping, non-ideal effects (ion FLR and electron collisionality), and ion/electron Landau damping. This model has been applied to both linear and nonlinear regimes for a range of experimental cases using measured profiles.

  18. Transport of Energetic Particles by Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wenlu; Lin Zhihong; Chen Liu

    2008-08-29

    Transport of energetic particles by the microturbulence in magnetized plasmas is studied in gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient turbulence. The probability density function of the ion radial excursion is found to be very close to a Gaussian, indicating a diffusive transport process. The particle diffusivity can thus be calculated from a random walk model. The diffusivity is found to decrease drastically for high energy particles due to the averaging effects of the large gyroradius and orbit width, and the fast decorrelation of the energetic particles with the waves.

  19. Energetic particles in space - The Giotto mission to Halley's comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Daly, P.; Kirsch, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1988-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Analyzer (EPA) experiment, which was part of the Giotto mission to study the environment of Halley's comet, is discussed. The EPA instrument is described and the results of the study are summarized. The particle studies discussed cover the energy range from tens of keV to the MeV region. The observation of omnidirectional particle fluxes and ion and magnetic field intensity are examined. It is suggested that there is no striking correlation between measurements of magnetic field intensity and direction and variations in the energetic-particle fluxes.

  20. Energetic particle transport and acceleration within the interplanetary medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The propagation through space of energetic particles accelerated at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere is governed by the characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field. At large scales, the average Parker spiral configuration, on which transient magnetic structures may be superimposed, dominates the transport, while at smaller scales turbulence scatters the particles and produces field line meandering. This talk will review the classical 1D approach to interplanetary transport, mainly applied to Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), as well as alternative models which allow for effects such as scattering perpendicular to the average magnetic field and field line meandering. The recently emphasized role of drifts in the propagation of SEPs will be discussed. The presentation will also review processes by which particle acceleration takes place within the interplanetary medium and the overall way in which acceleration and transport shape in-situ observations of energetic particles.

  1. Resistance probe for energetic particle dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Wampler, W.R.

    A probe for determining the energy and flux of particles in a plasma comprises a carbon film adapted to be exposed to the plasma, the film having an electrical resistance which is related to the number of particles impacting the film, contacts for passing an electrical current throught the film, and contacts for determining the electrical resistance of the film. An improved method for determining the energy or flux of particles in a plasma is also disclosed.

  2. Energetic Particles and Upstream Waves at Co-rotating Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Edward J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2010-03-01

    We report a study of energetic ion acceleration at shocks bounding co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). Archived data obtained by Ulysses magnetic field, solar wind and energetic particle investigations at low latitude CIRs have been assembled and analyzed. The statistical relations between various properties of 22 Forward shocks, energetic particles and upstream heliospheric magnetic field fluctuations are presented. No statistically significant correlations are found between the shock compression ratio, r, or the particle intensity, jp, or the energetic particle spectral index, s, and the shock normal-upstream field angle, θBn. Furthermore, a theoretical relation between the particle spectral index and shock compression is not consistent with the observed values of s and r. The particle intensities are poorly correlated with the power in upstream heliospheric magnetic field fluctuations contrary to our preliminary study of fewer shocks. We conclude that many of the expectations of Diffusive Shock Theory are not supported by this data set but it is too early to decide whether some key measurement is missing or the theory needs reconsideration.

  3. Energetic particles as probes of solar wind disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Wibberenz, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the response of particles, in the energy range approximately 1-5000 MeV, to interplanetary shocks and coronal ejecta. Shocks can accelerate particles or cause decreases in particle densities. Ejecta cause decreases. Thus particle observations can provide information about solar wind disturbances. Of particular interest is that the boundaries of ejecta can often be more readily identified from approximately l GeV particle decrease observations than from most other phenomena associated with ejecta. We will discuss the properties of less energetic shocks and ejecta and compare them with those of the more energetic events which are normally discussed in the context of Forbush decreases, large proton events, etc. We use data from both Helios spacecraft and IMP 8 which allows some spatial variations to be studied.

  4. Energetic particles in geospace: Physics and space weather effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I.

    2013-09-01

    Geospace is populated by charged particles covering a wide range of energies and densities. Influenced by electromagnetic fields and waves, a subset of these particles are accelerated and driven into the inner magnetosphere, creating the storm-time ring current and the radiation belts - the two dominant energetic particle populations in geospace. The acceleration processes are associated with a variety of space weather related phenomena, some of which are detrimental for space infrastructure and ground facilities alike. We present recent advances in our understanding of the complex interplay of particles, fields and waves in geospace, with an emphasis on the role of magnetic storms and wave-particle interactions.

  5. Energetics of Mixed Phase Cloud Particle Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidaurre, G.; Hallett, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ratio of the kinetic to surface energy of a crystal or a drop on impact gives a measure of the available energy for break-up and splash. Such a break-up process may influence particle collision and also particle observations at aircraft speed. The detail physical processes of the impact determines how the kinetic energy is distributed: 1) part retained by bouncing particles, 2) to create new surfaces during break-up, 3) to dislocate or melt part of the crystal, and 4) converted to thermal energy through viscous dissipation of deforming liquid or displacing air on impact. Extensive break-up of 2% of the crystal or melting of 6% is enough to explain the crystal kinetic energy losses during the encounter at aircraft speed. Ice crystals from convective and stratiform clouds and continental clouds were collected in formvar solution by continuous replicator and also were video-recorded following impact on optical flat of a Cloudscope. Particle sizes were classified in bins, the expected number of fragments being given by an exponential function for ice particles with effective diameter between 5 μm and 2500 μm, and 70% standard deviation. Regions of crystals broken into a few fragments account for 0.6% of the kinetic energy loss; in other parts severe break-up makes it impossible to measure the fracture length. Knowledge regarding ice and water interaction in Mixed-Phase clouds and also with the aircraft instruments provides basic underpinning for characterization of ice particle impact. Further, detail of the fracture process may also be of importance in relation to electrical properties of the particle after impaction or break-up. These conclusions are of major operational importance for prediction of the icing process itself, having implications for both aircraft icing and particle measurement instrumentation.

  6. CIRCUMSOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ON 2011 NOVEMBER 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.J.; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J.; Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.; Heber, B.; Banjac, S.; Lario, D.; Agueda, N.; Malandraki, O. E.

    2015-01-20

    Late on 2011 November 3, STEREO-A, STEREO-B, MESSENGER, and near-Earth spacecraft observed an energetic particle flux enhancement. Based on the analysis of in situ plasma and particle observations, their correlation with remote sensing observations, and an interplanetary transport model, we conclude that the particle increases observed at multiple locations had a common single-source active region and the energetic particles filled a very broad region around the Sun. The active region was located at the solar backside (as seen from Earth) and was the source of a large flare, a fast and wide coronal mass ejection, and an EIT wave, accompanied by type II and type III radio emission. In contrast to previous solar energetic particle events showing broad longitudinal spread, this event showed clear particle anisotropies at three widely separated observation points at 1 AU, suggesting direct particle injection close to the magnetic footpoint of each spacecraft, lasting for several hours. We discuss these observations and the possible scenarios explaining the extremely broad particle spread for this event.

  7. Kinetic Effects of Energetic Particles on Resistive MHD Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, R.; Brennan, D. P.; Kim, C. C.

    2009-04-03

    We show that the kinetic effects of energetic particles can play a crucial role in the stability of the m/n=2/1 tearing mode in tokamaks (e.g., JET, JT-60U, and DIII-D), where the fraction of energetic particle {beta}{sub frac} is high. Using model equilibria based on DIII-D experimental reconstructions, the nonideal MHD linear stability of cases unstable to the 2/1 mode is investigated including a {delta}f particle-in-cell model for the energetic particles coupled to the nonlinear 3D resistive MHD code NIMROD[C. C. Kim et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 072507 (2008)]. It is observed that energetic particles have significant damping and stabilizing effects at experimentally relevant {beta}, {beta}{sub frac}, and S, and excite a real frequency of the 2/1 mode. Extrapolation of the results is discussed for implications to JET and ITER, where the effects are projected to be significant.

  8. Stochastic Particle Acceleration in Turbulence Generated by Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Toma, Kenji; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We investigate stochastic particle acceleration in accretion flows. It is believed that magnetorotational instability (MRI) generates turbulence inside accretion flows and that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated by the turbulence. We calculate equations of motion for CRs in the turbulent fields generated by MRI with the shearing box approximation and without back reaction to the field. Our results show that the CRs randomly gain or lose their energy through interaction with the turbulent fields. The CRs diffuse in the configuration space anisotropically: the diffusion coefficient in the direction of the unperturbed flow is about 20 times higher than the Bohm coefficient, while those in the other directions are only a few times higher than the Bohm. The momentum distribution is isotropic and its evolution can be described by the diffusion equation in momentum space where the diffusion coefficient is a power-law function of the CR momentum. We show that the shear acceleration works efficiently for energetic particles. We also cautiously note that in the shearing box approximation, particles that cross the simulation box many times along the radial direction undergo unphysical runaway acceleration by the Lorentz transformation, which needs to be taken into account with special care.

  9. Energetic particles in Saturn's middle magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been exploring Saturn's magnetosphere in situ since 2004. In this study we use measurements from the MIMI/CHEMS and MIMI/LEMMS sensors in order to characterize and understand the distribution of energetic ions (10 keV to 1 MeV range) in Saturn's middle magnetosphere. CHEMS provides very good foreground to background ratios and can discriminate well among ion species. While the positions of the intensity maxima of Saturn's proton belts are located between the orbits of the icy moons and are independent of energy, the intensity maximum within the middle magnetosphere shifts with energy. We find indications that this shift is due to charge exchange in the neutral gas torus of Enceladus. Since the lower energies are easily lost, their maximum is farther out compared to the weakly interacting higher energies. However, the charge exchange lifetime at and outside of the intensity maximum is too long to be the only loss process, when other aspects of the MIMI data are considered. An important other process is thought to be radial diffusion caused by fluctuations of the magnetic and electric fields. This can cause that a moon can have an effect even several Saturn radii away from its orbit, a behavior that we indeed observed. However, we have also found that radial diffusion alone cannot account for the observations, even in regions where the neutral density is low.

  10. Energetic Charged Particle Injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Brandt, P. C.; Carbary, J. F.; Rymer, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in Saturn orbit for over 4 years. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) is a charged and neutral particle instrument with three separate sensors. On every perigee pass to date, data taken by MIMI reveal the presence of very recent and/or older charged particle injections. For our purposes, injections are spatially confined populations whose fluxes are recognizably greater than the fluxes of the ambient population. These populations are transient in nature and our previous work and the work of others has shown that they evolve essentially through the usual corotation and gradient-curvature drifts. However, it is not completely understood whether all of the injections observed by MIMI, in the few keV to MeV energy range, are associated with the same physical mechanism. Injections can, in principle, be caused by local accelerations of a fraction of the denser, lower energy particles. On the other hand, injections may also be associated with processes that transport particles radially, such as in magnetospheric flux tube interchange or large scale magnetospheric reconfigurations. In this paper, we will present a survey of the data set, an organization of the injections by their properties, and some hypotheses about how these properties reveal information about the underlying physical generation mechanisms.

  11. Sawtooth stabilization by energetic trapped particles

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Colestock, P.; Bussac, M.N.

    1988-03-01

    Recent experiments involving high power radio-frequency heating of a tokamak plasma show strong suppression of the sawtooth oscillation. A high energy trapped particle population is shown to have a strong stabilizing effect on the internal resistive kink mode. Numerical calculations are in reasonable agreement with experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Connecting Shock Parameters to the Radiation Hazard from Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel B.; Reames, Donald V.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Schwenn, Rainer W.

    2004-01-01

    We use data from Helios, IMP-8, and other spacecraft (e.g. ISEE) to systematically investigate solar energetic particle (SEP) events from different longitudes and distances in the heliosphere. The purpose of the project is to assess empirically the connection between the morphology of the travelling shock and strength with observed enhancements in the flow of energized particles in shock accelerated particle (SEP) events (also often identified as "gradual" solar energetic particle events). Activities during this first year centered on the organization of the SEPs events and their correlation with solar wind observations at multiple spacecraft locations. From an identified list of more than 30 SEPs events at multiple spacecraft locations, currently four single cases for detailed study were selected and are in an advance phase of preparation for publication. Preliminary results of these four cases were presented at AGU Spring and Fall 2003 meetings, and other meetings on SEPs.

  13. The Energetic Particles in Shock-ICME Interaction Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Previous results show that the energetic particles intensity will decreased in the ICMEs. But, in the year of 2008, Shen et al. reported a definite case that the intensity of solar energetic particles (SEP) in the shock-MC interaction structure increase greatly. They further found that such enhancement is the main cause of the largest SEP event in solar cycle 23. The questions remained are: Did all the shock-ICME(MC) structure cause the enhancement of the SEP intensity? If not, why it only happened in some events? Is there any other mechanism which can make the energetic particle intensity in ICME enhanced? To answer these questions, the SEP signatures in all ICMEs including the shock-ICME interaction structures from 1996 to 2014 are studied detail. It is found that the SEP intensities enhanced in about half of the shock-ICME interaction events. Meanwhile, large fraction of energetic particles intensity enhanced ICMEs are interacted with shocks. To find the possible condition and physical mechanismof such enhancement, the parameters of the shock, ICME(MC) and etc. are detailed analyzed.

  14. Energetic particles flux experiment for ISEE mother/daughter spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the energetic particle experiments on the International Sun Earth Explorer 1 and 2 spacecraft is outlined, and descriptions of the instruments are given. The inflight performance and data analysis are summarized. The research is completed and ongoing are described and a bibliography is included.

  15. Observations of solar energetic particles at a synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenaka, T.; Ohi, Y.; Yanagimachi, T.; Ito, K.; Kohno, T.; Sakurai, K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Environment Monitors (SEM) on board the Japanese geostationary meteorological satellites (GMS-1 and GMS-2) observed energetic protons, alpha particles and electrons continuously for February 1978 to September 1984. The satellites were at 6.6 Earth radii above 140 deg E equator.

  16. Scalings of energetic particle transport by ion temperature gradient microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Wenlu; Decyk, Viktor; Holod, Ihor; Xiao Yong; Lin Zhihong; Chen Liu

    2010-05-15

    Transport scaling of energetic particles by ion temperature gradient microturbulence in magnetized plasmas is studied in massively paralleled gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that the diffusivity decreases drastically at high particles energy (E) to plasma temperature (T) ratio because of the averaging effects of the large gyroradius and drift-orbit width, and the fast wave-particle decorrelation. At high energy, the diffusivity follows a (E/T){sup -1} scaling for purely passing particles, a (E/T){sup -2} scaling for deeply trapped particles and a (E/T){sup -1} scaling for particles with an isotropic velocity distribution since the diffusivity therein is contributed mostly by the passing particles.

  17. Isotopic overabundances and the energetic particle model of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Enriquez, R.; Bravo, S.

    1985-01-01

    According to the energetic particle model of solar flares particles are efficiently accelerated in the magnetic field loop of an active region (AR) by hydromagnetic turbulence. It is demonstrated that the isotopic overabundances observed in some flares are not a consequence of the flare itself but are characteristic of the plasma in the AR. Only when a flare releases the plasma into the interplanetary space it is possible to observe this anomalous composition at spacecraft locations.

  18. Energetic particles and magnetic field measurements at Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Kirsch, E.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1986-12-01

    Studies of energetic charged particles in the environment of comet Halley, based on data from the EPA instrument on the Giotto spacecraft, are presented. Investigation of the lowest energy channels (p,e; 26 to 46 keV) of Telescopes 1 and 3 are reported. Investigation of the particle data in relation to magnetic field measurements made during 13 and 14 March 1986 are discussed. Overall flux patterns are similar to those of higher energy channels.

  19. Tangling clustering instability for small particles in temperature stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Liberman, M.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2013-08-01

    We study tangling clustering instability of inertial particles in a temperature stratified turbulence with small finite correlation time. It is shown that the tangling mechanism in the temperature stratified turbulence strongly increases the degree of compressibility of particle velocity field. This results in the strong decrease of the threshold for the excitation of the tangling clustering instability even for small particles. The tangling clustering instability in the temperature stratified turbulence is essentially different from the inertial clustering instability that occurs in non-stratified isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. While the inertial clustering instability is caused by the centrifugal effect of the turbulent eddies, the mechanism of the tangling clustering instability is related to the temperature fluctuations generated by the tangling of the mean temperature gradient by the velocity fluctuations. Temperature fluctuations produce pressure fluctuations and cause particle accumulations in regions with increased instantaneous pressure. It is shown that the growth rate of the tangling clustering instability is by sqrtRe (ell _0 / L_T)^2 / (3 Ma)^4 times larger than that of the inertial clustering instability, where Re is the Reynolds number, Ma is the Mach number, ℓ0 is the integral turbulence scale, and LT is the characteristic scale of the mean temperature variations. It is found that depending on the parameters of the turbulence and the mean temperature gradient there is a preferential particle size at which the particle clustering due to the tangling clustering instability is more effective. The particle number density inside the cluster after the saturation of this instability can be by several orders of magnitude larger than the mean particle number density. It is also demonstrated that the evaporation of droplets drastically changes the tangling clustering instability, e.g., it increases the instability threshold in the droplet radius. The

  20. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory for the Heliospheric Data Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Armstrong, T. P.; Hill, M. E.; Lal, N.; McGuire, R. E.; McKibben, R. B.; Narock, T. W.; Szabo, A.; Tranquille, C.

    2007-01-01

    The heliosphere is pervaded by interplanetary energetic particles, traditionally also called cosmic rays, from solar, internal heliospheric, and galactic sources. The particles species of interest to heliophysics extend from plasma energies to the GeV energies of galactic cosmic rays still measurably affected by heliospheric modulation and the still higher energies contributing to atmospheric ionization. The NASA and international Heliospheric Network of operational and legacy spacecraft measures interplanetary fluxes of these particles. Spatial coverage extends from the inner heliosphere and geospace to the heliosheath boundary region now being traversed by Voyager 1 and soon by Voyager 2. Science objectives include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events, acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) will improve access and usability of selected spacecraft and sub-orbital NASA heliospheric energetic particle data sets as a newly approved effort within the evolving heliophysics virtual observatory environment. In this presentation, we will describe current VEPO science requirements, our initial priorities and an overview of our strategy to implement VEPO rapidly and at minimal cost by working within the high-level framework of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO). VEPO will also leverage existing data services of NASA's Space Physics Data Facility and other existing capabilities of the U.S. and international heliospheric research communities.

  1. Interaction of Energetic Particles with Discontinuities Upstream of Strong Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Mikhail; Diamond, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Acceleration of particles in strong astrophysical shocks is known to be accompanied and promoted by a number of instabilities which are driven by the particles themselves. One of them is an acoustic (also known as Drury's) instability driven by the pressure gradient of accelerated particles upstream. The generated sound waves naturally steepen into shocks thus forming a shocktrain. Similar magnetoacoustic or Alfven type structures may be driven by pick-up ions, for example. We consider the solutions of kinetic equation for accelerated particles within the shocktrain. The accelerated particles are assumed to be coupled to the flow by an intensive pitch-angle scattering on the self-generated Alfven waves. The implications for acceleration and confinement of cosmic rays in this shock environment will be discussed.

  2. Energetic particle acceleration in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.

    2012-05-01

    There has been a remarkable discovery in the heliosphere. Ions accelerated in disparate plasma conditions - the quiet solar wind, disturbed conditions downstream from shocks, and throughout the heliosheath - all have the same spectrum, a power law with spectral index of -5 when expressed as a distribution function. An acceleration mechanism has been developed that can account for these observations, a pump mechanism, in which particles are pumped out of a core distribution through a series of compressions and expansions. The derivation of the governing equation of the pump mechanism and some important subtleties in the derivation are discussed.

  3. Abundance variations in solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1991-01-01

    Abundance variations are examined in a large number of events including smaller nonimpulsive events not previously considered. Whereas a comparison at equal energy per nucleon is appropriate for heavy ions this is not the case when including H. The best representation is either in terms of rigidity or energy per charge depending on the type of event under consideration. For the majority of large events, where particles are primarily accelerated at interplanetary shocks, if abundances relative to H are evaluated at equal energy per charge then abundance ratios are compatible with solar wind values and spectral shapes agree. Furthermore the behavior of H is then compatible with that of other high FIP elements.

  4. Energetic particle microsignatures of Saturn's satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Ip, W.-H.

    1983-01-01

    During Voyager's 1980 and 1981 encounters with Saturn, the low energy charged particle experiment observed satellite microsignatures in ions and electrons. Each of the five major satellites within Titan's orbit were associated with at least one absorption feature in the high time resolution data. Microsignatures are usually observed in the corotational wake region within about 25 deg in azimuth of a satellite, and do not generally occur at times predicted by a centered, aligned dipole. A better predictive model seems to be that of an aligned, axisymmetric field with significant quadrupole and octupole terms.

  5. Studies of modern and ancient solar energetic particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R.

    1998-12-01

    Modern solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been studied for about 50 years by satellites and ground-based observations. These measurements indicate much about the nature of SEPs but cover too short a period to quantify the probabilities of very large solar particle events. Many SEPs have high enough energies to make nuclides in material in which they interact. Radionuclides measured in lunar samples have been used to extend the record about SEPs back several million years. Some new measurements of modern SEPs during the last solar cycle and new results for nuclides made by SEPS in lunar samples are presented and their implications discussed. Both the modern and ancient records need to be improved, and methods to get a better understanding of solar energetic particles discussed. The fluxes of SEPs during the last million years show an increasing trend when averaged over shorter radionuclide half-lives.

  6. Space Weather Research in Greece: The Solar Energetic Particle Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga E.

    2015-03-01

    Space Weather Research carried out in the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), within the SEPServer and COMESEP projects under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union (EU) is presented. Results and services that these projects provide to the whole scientific community as well as stakeholders are underlined. NOA strongly contributes in terms of crucial Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) dataset provided, data analysis and SEP catalogue items provided as well as comparative results of the various components of the project server, greatly facilitating the investigation of SEPs and their origin. SEP research highlights carried out at NOA are also presented, used to test and validate the particle SEP model developed and incorporated within the SEP forecasting tools of the COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) Space Weather Alert System, i.e. the First European Alert System for geomagnetic storms and SEP radiation hazards.

  7. Erosion tests of materials by energetic particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, D.E.; Tsai, C.C.; Sluss, F.; Becraft, W.R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal components of magnetic fusion devices must withstand erosion from and high heat flux of energetic plasma particles. The selection of materials for the construction of these components is important to minimize contamination of the plasma. In order to study various materials' comparative resistance to erosion by energetic particles and their ability to withstand high heat flux, water-cooled copper swirl tubes coated or armored with various materials were subjected to bombardment by hydrogen and helium particle beams. Materials tested were graphite, titanium carbide (TiC), chromium, nickel, copper, silver, gold, and aluminum. Details of the experimental arrangement and methods of application or attachment of the materials to the copper swirl tubes are presented. Results including survivability and mass losses are discussed.

  8. Energetic Particle Pressure at Interplanetary Shocks: STEREO-A Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-11-01

    We study periods of elevated energetic particle intensities observed by STEREO-A when the partial pressure exerted by energetic (≥83 keV) protons (PEP) is larger than the pressure exerted by the interplanetary magnetic field (PB). In the majority of cases, these periods are associated with the passage of interplanetary shocks. Periods when PEP exceeds PB by more than one order of magnitude are observed in the upstream region of fast interplanetary shocks where depressed magnetic field regions coincide with increases of energetic particle intensities. When solar wind parameters are available, PEP also exceeds the pressure exerted by the solar wind thermal population (PTH). Prolonged periods (>12 hr) with both PEP > PB and PEP > PTH may also occur when energetic particles accelerated by an approaching shock encounter a region well upstream of the shock characterized by low magnetic field magnitude and tenuous solar wind density. Quasi-exponential increases of the sum PSUM = PB + PTH + PEP are observed in the immediate upstream region of the shocks regardless of individual changes in PEP, PB, and PTH, indicating a coupling between PEP and the pressure of the background medium characterized by PB and PTH. The quasi-exponential increase of PSUM implies a radial gradient ∂PSUM/∂r > 0 that is quasi-stationary in the shock frame and results in an outward force applied to the plasma upstream of the shock. This force can be maintained by the mobile energetic particles streaming upstream of the shocks that, in the most intense events, drive electric currents able to generate diamagnetic cavities and depressed solar wind density regions.

  9. Energetic Particles at High Latitudes of the Heliosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ming

    2004-09-15

    Ulysses has by now made two complete out-of-ecliptic orbits around the sun. The first encounter of the solar poles occurred in 1994-1995, when the sun was near the minimum of its activity cycle, while the second one was in 2000-2001, when the sun was at solar maximum. To our surprise, energetic particles of all origins at high latitude are not much different from those we observe near the ecliptic for at least these two phases of solar cycle. The latitude gradients of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays are positive but small at the 1994-1995 solar minimum and almost zero at the 2000-2001 solar maximum, while temporal solar cycle variation dominates their flux variation at all latitudes. Solar energetic particles from all large gradual events can be seen at both Ulysses and Earth no matter how large their spatial separations from the solar event are, and the particle flux often reaches a uniform level in the entire inner heliosphere within a few days after event onset and remains so throughout the decay phase that can sometimes last over a month. Energetic particles accelerated by low-latitude CIRs can appear at high latitudes, far beyond the latitudinal range of CIRs. All these observations suggest that latitudinal transport of energetic particles is quite easy. In addition, because the average magnetic field is radial at the pole, The Ulysses observations indicate that parallel diffusion and drift in the radial direction need to be reduced at the poles relative to their equatorial values. To achieve such behaviors of particle transport, the heliospheric magnetic field needs a significant latitudinal component at the poles. A non-zero latitudinal magnetic field component can be produced by latitudinal motion of the magnetic field line in solar corona, which can be in form of either random walk suggested by Jokipii or large scale systematic motion suggested by Fisk.

  10. Energetic helium particles trapped in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Guzik, T. Gregory; Sang, Yeming; Wefel, John P.; Cooper, John F.

    1994-01-01

    High energy (approximately 40-100 MeV/nucleon) geomagnetically trapped helium nuclei have been measured, for the first time, by the ONR-604 instrument during the 1990/1991 Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission. The helium events observed at L less than 2.3 have a pitch angle distribution peaking perpendicular to the local magnetic field and are contained in peaks located at L = 1.2 and 1.9. The events in each peak can be characterized by power law energy spectra with indices of 10.0 +/- 0.7 for L = 1.9-2.3 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 for L = 1.15-1.3, before the large storm of 24 March 1991. CRRES was active during solar maximum when the anomalous component is excluded from the inner heliosphere, making it unlikely that the observed events derived from the anomalous component. The trapped helium counting rates decrease gradually with time indicating that these high energy ions were not injected by flares during the 1990/91 mission. Flare injection prior to mid-1990 may account for the highest energy particles, while solar wind injection during magnetic storms and subsequent acceleration could account for the helium at lower energies.

  11. The acceleration and propagation of solar flare energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.; Ramaty, R.; Zweibel, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the most pertinent data on solar energetic particles is presented, and the implications of the data are discussed, taking into account radio emissions, hard X-rays, gamma rays, energy spectra and electron-proton correlations, chemical compositions, and isotopic and ionic compositions. The mechanisms of solar flare particle acceleration are considered along with solar flare particle spectra in interplanetary space. Attention is given to stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, acceleration in direct electric fields, the mean free paths of solar electrons and protons in interplanetary space, and an illustration of the probable effect of adiabatic deceleration on the spectra of solar flare ions at the time of maximum.

  12. COSTEP: A comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer for SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunow, Horst; Fischer, Harald; Green, Guenter; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wibberenz, Gerd; Holweger, Hartmut; Evenson, Paul; Meyer, Jean-Paul; Hasebe, Nabuyuki; Vonrosenvinge, Tycho

    1988-01-01

    The group of instruments involved in the COSTEP (comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer) project are described. Three sensors, the LION (low energy ion and electron) instrument, the MEICA (medium energy ion composition analyzer) and the EPHIN (electron proton helium instrument) are described. They are designed to analyze particle emissions from the sun over a wide range of species (electrons through iron) and energies (60 KeV/particle to 500 MeV/nucleon). The data collected is used in studying solar and space plasma physics.

  13. Energetic Particle Instrumentation for Future Space Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. H.; Griffin, D. K.; Dunlop, M. W.; Davies, J. A.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Collisionless plasmas frequently exhibit strong fluxes of electrons and ions at energies well above the mean plasma energy. These suprathermal particles play an important role in the identification and interpretation of the fundamental properties and physical processes within space plasmas. Investigations of these energetic populations require both good angular and temporal resolution measurements. Large geometric factors and fast electronics are vital to ensure adequate sampling of the tail of the particle distribution. We present the status of the energetic particle instrument development activity that is currently underway at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. This is in preparation for both the proposed HEP instrument for Cross-Scale mission, which is currently undergoing assessment for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme, and the IEPS instrument for the Chinese KuaFu mission. The activities are based on the heritage of instruments already successfully flown on the NASA/Polar and ESA/Cluster spacecraft. The design consists of a simple ‘pin-hole' aperture and segmented silicon solid state detector array capable of measuring energetic particle distributions in the range 30-1000 keV. Key features of the activities include the development of 1) a modular mechanical design that can easily support different spacecraft accommodation constraints and scientific requirements, 2) combined detector configurations for ions and electrons, and 3) multi-channel hybrid ASICs for the sensor electronics which is crucial for low mass and power.

  14. The Solar Energetic Particle Event of 14 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Richardson, I. G.; Reames, D. V.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    The solar energetic particle event on 14 December 2006 was observed by several near-Earth spacecraft including the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), STEREO A and B, SOHO and Wind. An interesting feature of this event is a series of unusual fluctuations in the particle intensity that occurred during the first few hours. These fluctuations were observed inside a magnetic cloud that originated in a solar event on 13 December and show both similarities and variations at the different spacecraft. Interestingly, the most striking difference is between observations at the two closely-separated STEREO spacecraft. In particular, large fluctuations in the proton intensity were seen by the High Energy Telescope (HET) on STEREO A, and to a lesser extent at Wind and ACE, but not by the STEREO B HET. We conclude that the differences in intensity-time profiles were caused by anisotropies in the particle distribution and the different viewing directions of the individual particle telescopes. The intensity/anisotropy variations suggest that flux tubes with different particle propagation conditions existed within this magnetic cloud despite the absence of local magnetic field signatures associated with these regions. The intensity fluctuations are similar to those occasionally seen in impulsive particle events. There were also spacecraft-to-spacecraft differences during the onset of the particle event. An initial rapid onset of energetic (> 40 MeV) protons was observed by the STEREO A and B spacecraft outside the magnetic cloud, but not by spacecraft such as SOHO that were already inside the magnetic cloud at this time. The latter spacecraft observed a slower, lower intensity increase. Evidently, energetic proton propagation from the solar event to the vicinity of Earth was inhibited within the magnetic cloud compared to outside.

  15. Rocket observations of energetic particles at the geomagnetic equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. G.; Houshmand, B.

    1985-01-01

    Energetic particle detectors were included in the payloads of two rockets launched in Peru during the Condor campaign of 1983. These night-time flights reached altitudes of 587 and 535 km, respectively. The pitch-angle distribution is anisotropic with the maximum at 90 deg. Each payload included two solid-state detectors differing in the thickness of the aluminum coating. Comparison of the fluxes measured by the two detectors leads to the conclusion that, on both occasions, the energetic particles are predominantly helium ions. The flux is small below 200 km, increases linearly to 350 km, and then more slowly to apogee. The east-west asymmetry of flux, noted at 200 km in a previous equatorial launch, is not seen at greater altitudes, consistent with the flux profile and the large gyroradius of the ions.

  16. EPD: the energetic particle instrumentation aboard Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier; Ho, George; Boettcher, Stephan; Martin, Cesar; Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Prieto, Manuel; Panitzsch, Lauri; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Mason, Glenn M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Solar Orbiter is the first mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Its launch is scheduled for October 2018. After a cruise phase and once in its nominal orbit, it will approach the Sun as close as 0.28 AU. Solar Orbiter has a comprehensive scientific instrumentation that can be divided into two categories: remote sensing and in situ instruments. Within the latter category, the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) will be responsible for providing data on solar energetic particles (SEP) including its suprathermal population with a temporal and spectral resolutions never achieved in previous missions focused in the inner Heliosphere. We will present the mission instrumentation; its scientific highlights and then describe EPD and its science.

  17. Type 2 radio bursts, interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies which indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.

  18. Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Patrick H.

    2011-09-21

    Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas

  19. Energetic particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions: Ulysses results

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M.I.; Marsden, R.G.; Sanderson, T.R.; Gosling, J.T.

    1997-07-01

    We present here statistical properties of energetic ions (tilde 1 MeV) accelerated by corotating interaction regions observed at the Ulysses spacecraft. We have correlated the tilde 1 MeV proton intensity measured near the trailing edges of the interaction regions with their compression ratio. We interpret our results in terms of the plasma conditions experienced at Ulysses and identify a likely source of the low energy seed particles accelerated at the interaction regions.

  20. Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations: I. Internal excitations by energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Liu . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences); Hasegawa, Akira )

    1990-05-01

    Motivated by recent satellite observations, we have carried out a comprehensive theoretical analysis on the generation of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in a realistic magnetospheric plasma environment consisting of a core and an energetic components. Our theoretical formulation employs the gyrokinetic equations and, thus, retains nonuniform plasma equilibria, anisotropy, finite Larmor radii, magnetic trapping as well as wave-particle interactions. A set of coupled equations for transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations is derived and analyzed for its stabilities assuming interchange stable equilibrium distribution functions. Our findings are compressional and tranverse shear Alfven oscillations are generally coupled in realistic plasmas. In the decoupled limit, for the compressional wave branch, one recovers the drift-mirror instability due to the Landau resonances and {tau} {equivalent to} 1 + 4 {pi}({partial derivative}P{sub {perpendicular}}/B{partial derivative}B) < 0. Here, P{sub {perpendicular}} = P{sub {perpendicular}}({psi},B) is the perpendicular pressure and {psi} is the magnetic flux function. For the decoupled transverse shear Alfven branch, one obtains the drift Alfven ballooning instability due to the Landau resonances and free energy of the pressure gradient for {tau} > 0. For both branches, the most unstable modes have antisymmetric structures and propagate in the diamagnetic drift direction of the energetic ions. Finite coupling can be shown to further enhance the drift Alfven ballooning instabilities. Thus, we conclude that for {tau} {ge} 0, the coupled drift Alfven ballooning-mirror instability constitutes an important internal generating mechanism of geomagnetic pulsations. The various predicted features of this instability are also found to be consistent with satellite observations.

  1. Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations 1. Internal excitations by energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chen ); Hasegawa, Akira )

    1991-02-01

    Motivated by recent satellite observations. the authors have carried out a comprehensive theoretical analysis on the generation of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in a realistic magnetospheric plasma environment consisting of a core ({approximately}100 eV) component and an energetic ({approximately}10 keV) component. The theoretical formulation employs the gyrokinetic equations and, thus, retains anisotropy, finite Larmor radii, magnetic trapping, and wave-particle interactions in addition to nonuniform plasma equilibria. A set of coupled equations for transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations is derived and analyzed for its stabilities assuming equilibrium distribution functions which are interchange stable. The findings are as follows: (1) compressional and transverse shear Alfven oscillations are generally coupled in realistic plasmas; (2) in the decoupled limit, for the compressional wave branch, one recovers the drift mirror instability due to the Landau resonances and {tau}{triple bond} 1 + 4{pi}({partial derivative}P{sub {perpendicular}}/B{partial derivative}B) < 0; here, P{sub {perpendicular}}=P{sub {perpendicular}}({psi},B) is the perpendicular pressure and {psi} is the magnetic flux function; (3) for the decoupled transverse shear Alfven branch, one obtains the drift Alfven ballooning instability due to the Landau resonances and free energy of the pressure gradient for {tau} > 0; (4) for both branches, the most unstable modes have antisymmetric structures and propagate in the diamagnetic drift direction of the energetic ions; and (5) finite coupling can be shown to further enhance the drift Alfven ballooning instabilities. Thus they conclude that for {tau}{ge}0, the coupled drift Alfven ballooning mirror instability constitutes an important internal generating mechanism of geomagnetic pulsations. The various predicted features of this instability are consistent with satellite observations.

  2. Cancellation of drift kinetic effects between thermal and energetic particles on the resistive wall mode stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.

    2016-07-01

    Drift kinetic stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is computationally investigated using MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K following the non-perturbative approach (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503), for both reversed field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas. Toroidal precessional drift resonance effects from trapped energetic ions (EIs) and various kinetic resonances between the mode and the guiding center drift motions of thermal particles are included into the self-consistent toroidal computations. The results show cancellation effects of the drift kinetic damping on the RWM between the thermal particles and EIs contributions, in both RFP and tokamak plasmas, even though each species alone can provide damping and stabilize RWM instability by respective kinetic resonances. The degree of cancellation generally depends on the EIs equilibrium distribution, the particle birth energy, as well as the toroidal flow speed of the plasma.

  3. Los Alamos energetic particle sensor systems at geostationary orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Aiello, W.; Asbridge, J.R.; Belian, R.D.; Higbie, P.R.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.; Tech, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided energetic particle sensors for a variety of spacecraft at the geostationary orbit (36,000 km altitude). The sensor system called the Charged Particle Analyzer (CPA) consists of four separate subsystems. The LoE and HiE subsystems measure electrons in the energy ranges 30 to 300 keV and 200 to 2000 keV, respectively. The LoP and HiP subsystems measure ions in the ranges 100 to 600 keV and 0.40 to 150 MeV, respectively. A separate sensor system called the spectrometer for energetic electrons (SEE) measures very high-energy electrons (2 to 15 MeV) using advanced scintillator design. In this paper we describe the relationship of operational anomalies and spacecraft upsets to the directly measured energetic particle environments at 6.6 R/sub E/. We also compare and contrast the CPA and SEE instrument design characteristics with the next generation of Los Alamos instruments to be flown at geostationary altitudes.

  4. Predictions of energetic particle radiation in the close Martian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.; Dryer, M.; Fry, C. D.; Sun, W.; Lario, D.; Deehr, C. S.; Sanahuja, B.; Afonin, V. A.; Verigin, M. I.; Kotova, G. A.

    2005-03-01

    Intense, prolonged solar flare activity during March 1989 was used to provide a retrospective scenario for predictions of associated interplanetary shocks and accompanying particle radiation at planet Mars. Shocks from five major flares were simulated to hit both the Earth and Mars during the interval 9-23 March 1989. The simulated scenario was provided by the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2) solar wind model. Since part of the generally required inputs for the model (specifically metric radio Type II coronal shock speeds) were not available, the shock speeds were iteratively determined via a "calibration" that uses limited IMP 8 particle and sudden storm commencement (SSC) data as proxies for shock arrival at the Earth. The shocks from four major solar flares were, thereby, found to arrive at Mars at times that are appropriate to explain solar energetic particle (SEP) and energetic storm particle (ESP) events recorded in situ by the particle radiation detector experiments Solar Low Energy Detector (SLED) and Low Energy Telescope (LET) aboard Phobos-2. Supporting measurements were provided by the magnetometer (MAGMA) and plasma spectrometer (TAUS) experiments. A gap in the spacecraft records occurred at the simulated time of arrival of the fifth flare-associated shock. There were some uncertainties attending the selection of certain of the events deemed to be "parent" flares. Such uncertainty can be expected in view of the incomplete set of energetic particle, plasma, and magnetic field measurements made at relevant times at both the Earth and Mars (the latter planet was then located at a distance of 1.6 AU, at about 78° east of the Sun-Earth line). Use of the HAFv.2 solar wind model affords a 4-day lead time between predicted and measured space weather events at Mars, with an error of approximately ±12 hours. Solar radiation events of the magnitude studied occur often enough to warrant consideration in the design of both manned and unmanned expeditions to

  5. Gyrokinetic simulations of mesoscale energetic particle-driven Alfvenic turbulent transport embedded in microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, E. M.; Waltz, R. E.

    2010-11-15

    Energetic particle (EP) transport from local high-n toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and energetic particle modes (EPMs) is simulated with a gyrokinetic code. Linear and nonlinear simulations have identified a parameter range where the longwave TAE and EPM are unstable alongside the well-known ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities. A new eigenvalue solver in GYRO facilitates this mode identification. States of nonlinearly saturated local TAE/EPM turbulent intensity are identified, showing a 'soft' transport threshold for enhanced energetic particle transport against the TAE/EPM drive from the EP pressure gradient. The very long-wavelength (mesoscale) TAE/EPM transport is saturated partially by nonlinear interaction with microturbulent ITG/TEM-driven zonal flows. Fixed-gradient-length, nonlinearly saturated states are accessible over a relatively narrow range of EP pressure gradient. Within this range, and in the local limit employed, TAE/EPM-driven transport more closely resembles drift-wave microturbulent transport than 'stiff' ideal MHD transport with a clamped critical total pressure gradient. At a higher, critical EP pressure gradient, fixed-gradient nonlinear saturation fails: EP transport increases without limit and background transport decreases. Presumably saturation is then obtained by relaxation of the EP pressure gradient to near this critical EP pressure gradient. If the background plasma gradients driving the ITG/TEM turbulence and zonal flows are weakened, the critical gradient collapses to the TAE/EPM linear stability threshold. Even at the critical EP pressure gradient there is no evidence that TAE/EPM instability significantly increases transport in the background plasma channels.

  6. Energetic particle environment in near-Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Klecker, B

    1996-01-01

    The hazard of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is one of the primary concerns of extended manned space missions and a continuous threat for the numerous spacecraft in operation today. In the near-Earth environment the main sources of radiation are solar energetic particles (SEP), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and geomagnetically trapped particles, predominantly protons and electrons. The intensity of the SEP and GCR source depends primarily on the phase of the solar cycle. Due to the shielding effect of the Earth's magnetic field, the observed intensity of SEP and GCR particles in a near-Earth orbit will also depend on the orbital parameters altitude and inclination. The magnetospheric source strength depends also on these orbital parameters because they determine the frequency and location of radiation belt passes. In this paper an overview of the various sources of radiation in the near-Earth orbit will be given and first results obtained with the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) will be discussed. SAMPEX was launched on 3 July 1992 into a near polar (inclination 82 degrees) low altitude (510 x 675 km) orbit. The SAMPEX payload contains four separate instruments of high sensitivity covering the energy range 0.5 to several hundred MeV/nucleon for ions and 0.4 to 30 MeV for electrons. This low altitude polar orbit with zenith-oriented instrumentation provides a new opportunity for a systematic study of the near-Earth energetic particle environment. PMID:11540369

  7. Optimizing Stellarators for Energetic Particle Confinement using BEAMS3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgert, Peter; Drevlak, Michael; Lazerson, Sam; Gates, David; White, Roscoe

    2015-11-01

    Energetic particle (EP) loss has been called the ``Achilles heel of stellarators,'' (Helander, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 087001 (2014)) and there is a great need for magnetic configurations with improved EP confinement. In this study we utilize a newly developed capability of the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT: the ability to optimize EP confinement via an interface with guiding center code BEAMS3D (McMillan et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56, 095019 (2014)). Using this new tool, optimizations of the W7-X experiment and ARIES-CS reactor are performed where the EP loss fraction is one of many target functions to be minimized. In W7-X, we simulate the experimental NBI system using realistic beam geometry and beam deposition physics. The goal is to find configurations with improved neutral beam deposition and energetic particle confinement. These calculations are compared to previous studies of W7-X NBI deposition. In ARIES-CS, we launch 3.5 MeV alpha particles from a near-axis flux surface using a uniform grid in toroidal and poloidal angle. As these particles are born from D-T reactions, we consider an isotropic distribution in velocity space. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Irregular Magnetic Fields and Energetic Particles near the Termination Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Giacalone, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2004-09-15

    The physics of magnetic field-line meandering and the associated energetic-particle transport in the outer heliosphere is discussed. We assume that the heliospheric magnetic field, which is frozen into the solar-wind plasma, is composed of both an average and random component. The power in the random component is dominated by spatial scales that are very large (by a few orders of magnitude) compared to the shock thickness. The results from recent numerical simulations are presented. They reveal a number of characteristics which may be related to recent Voyager 1 observations of energetic particles and fields. For instance, low-energy (tens of keV) particles are seen well upstream of the shock that also have large pitch-angle anisotropies. Furthermore, low-energy particles are readily accelerated by the shock, even though their mean-free paths are very large compared to their gyroradii. When averaging over the entire system, the downstream spectra are qualitatively consistent with the theory of diffusive shock acceleration.

  9. Energetic Particle Measurements on Mars and in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. S.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Ehresmann, B.; Guo, J.; Kohler, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; weigle, G., II; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Curiosity rover has been making measurements of energetic particles on the surface of Mars since the rover landed in August 2012. RAD also acquired data for most of the cruise to Mars, from Dec. 2011 through July 2012. In both cruise and on the surface, RAD is under considerable shielding, averaging 22 g cm-2 of CO2 during the surface mission, and ~ 16 g cm-2 during cruise. The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) aboard the LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit has been making measurements since mid-2009. CRaTER contains three sets of detectors, of which one is unshielded, one is under 6 g cm-2 of tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP) shielding, and one is under 9 g cm-2 of TEP. Taken together, the two experiments provide a wealth of data concerning the effects of shielding on Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). Comparison of data from the two instruments is complicated by their different locations in the heliosphere, which at most times causes them to be magnetically connected to different regions on the Sun. Variability of the atmospheric shielding above RAD, which is both diurnal and seasonal, also influences the comparison. During solar quiet time, when the energetic particle flux is due to GCRs, many similarities - and some small but significant differences - are seen in detailed time series data. In contrast, during SEP events, both the shielding and location disparities cause large differences in the measured particle fluxes.

  10. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, CMEs, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been well known since the earliest observations that solar energetic particle events are well associated with solar flares it is often considered that the association is not physically significant. Instead, in large events, the particles are considered to be only accelerated at a shock driven by the coronal mass ejection (CME) that is also always present. If particles are accelerated in the associated flare, it is claimed that such particles do not find access to open field lines and therefore do not escape from the low corona. However recent work has established that long lasting type III radio bursts extending to low frequencies are associated with all prompt solar particle events. Such bursts establish the presence of open field lines. Furthermore, tracing the radio bursts to the lowest frequencies, generated near the observer, shows that the radio producing electrons gain access to a region of large angular extent. It is likely that the electrons undergo cross field transport and it seems reasonable that ions do also. Such observations indicate that particle propagation in the inner heliosphere is not yet fully understood. They also imply that the contribution of flare particles in major particle events needs to be properly addressed.

  11. Energetic particle studies at Mars by SLED on PHOBOS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V. V.; Gringauz, K. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Keppler, E.; Kirsch, E.; Richter, A.; Rusznyak, P.; Schwingenschuh, K.; O'Sullivan, D.

    1992-09-01

    Data recorded by the SLED instruments on Phobos 2 while it was in the first four elliptical orbits and during 114 circular orbits about Mars (February-March, 1989) are presented. Data obtained while in close elliptical orbits around the planet display evidence of energy-related particle shadowing by the body of Mars; this effect was also sometimes observed in circular orbits at an altitude of 6330 km above the planet. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include the presence of quasi-trapped radiation of Mars and the detected propagation of accelerated particles along the boundary of the magnetopause from the dayside to the nightside of the planet. In circular orbits, many significant flux enhancement events, in the range 30-200 keV, were detected adjacent to the bow shock, indicating that the spacecraft traversed strongly anisotropic jets of energetic particles, which are suggested to contain O(+) ions.

  12. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.

  13. Nightside energetic particle decreases at the synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogott, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    More than 100 cases of major decreases of proton and electron fluxes at the synchronous orbit have been observed and interpreted as a movement of the energetic particle trapping boundary earthward of 6.6 earth radii before the substorm expansion phase. These events are observed only between 1700 and 0800 LT and are consistent with the existence of a westward magnetospheric electric field of a few tenths of a millivolt per meter before substorm expansion. Most substorm particle events seen on the nightside do not exhibit this behavior, presumably because the trapping boundary moves inside 6.6 earth radii only during major events. Such events show evidence of particle acceleration, which probably was concentrated at higher L values, near the instantaneous location of the trapping boundary.

  14. Ionization of the atmosphere caused by energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maik Wissing, Jan; Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Energetic particles from different sources are precipitating into the atmosphere, causing ionization and different chemical follow-ups. Focussing on low and mid-energies, this presentation will concentrate on the solar and magnetospheric particle spectrum, representing the particle forcing from the thermosphere down to the tropopause. While the precipitation of solar particles can be described in simple patterns, the magnetospheric precipitation is intensively modulated by the geomagnetic field, varying with latitude, longitude, geomagnetic disturbance, and MLT, ending up in a fluctuating auroral oval. Modeling the resulting ionization consequently is confronted with numerous challenges, ranging from sparse measurements (in-situ measuring satellites vs. global coverage), contaminated detectors, strong flux variation in space and time and finally the conversion of flux measurements into (3D) ionization profiles. This presentation will give an overview of the general setup, discuss main aspects in modeling particle precipitation and present some recent advances with the help of the Atmospheric Ionization Module OSnabrueck (AIMOS). AIMOS is based on a Geant4 Monte-Carlo Simulation for particle interactions with the atmosphere and in-situ particle measurements from the POES and GOES satellites.

  15. Tracing of energetic particles in the vicinity of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, Leonardo; Jones, Geraint; Krupp, Norbert; Coates, Andrew; Roussos, Elias; Kotova, Anna; Feyerabend, Moritz

    2014-05-01

    We present results from the application of a particle tracing software specifically developed to study the interaction of Titan with the surrounding magnetospheric plasma. By combining the output of hybrid plasma code simulations with the tracing software itself, we aim to further study the different ionization processes occurring at Titan with special emphasis on the role played by energetic ions and electrons. The tracing software is used to simulate the trajectories of particles entering the Titan environment from different positions with energy ranges similar to those observed by the Cassini MIMI/LEMMS detector and with different pitch angle distributions and thus be able to estimate the amount of particles that interact with the moon's atmosphere and those that escape the system due to magnetic and electric field perturbations or charge-exchange with the high-altitude exosphere. Additionally, a comparison of the results obtained with the observational data available from the CAPS, and MIMI instruments allows us to validate the results of the tracing software for those regions of Titan not sampled by Cassini at a given flyby. For this initial study, we show the first maps of allowed energetic electron and ion access (as a function of energy) at Titan's exobase, when magnetic and electric field disturbances in a reference Titan interaction region are considered. Similar maps will be used as input for ionization and energy deposition calculation in future steps of this project.

  16. The Solar Energetic Particle experiment on MAVEN: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Davin; Lillis, Robert J.; Rahmati, Ali; Dunn, Patrick; Cravens, Tom; Curtis, David; Hatch, Ken; Robinson, Miles; Glaser, David; Halekas, Jasper; Jakosky, Bruce; Luhmann, Janet; McFadden, James P.; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instrument arrived at Mars onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mission on September 22, 2014. In order for MAVEN to determine the role that loss of volatiles to space has played through time, solar energy input to the Martian system must be characterized. An important (if infrequent and episodic) portion of this input is in the form of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Understanding the relationship between SEP events and atmospheric escape is crucial to understanding the climate history of Mars. The SEP instrument characterizes such events at Mars by measuring energetic protons and electrons in the energy range absorbed by the upper atmosphere. Additionally, under certain conditions, SEP directly measures the flux of escaping Oxygen that has been picked up by the Solar Wind and can provide limits on this important escape mechanism [1]. The implications of the model comparison with SEP data for the escape of neutral oxygen from Mars will be discussed. SEP takes much of its heritage from the Solid State Telescope (SST) on the THEMIS mission, consisting of 2 orthogonal dual double-ended solid-state telescopes. Proton spectra from 25 keV to 6 MeV and electron spectra from 25 keV to 1 MeV will be collected in 4 look directions at 3 measurement cadences over MAVEN’s 4.5-hour elliptical orbit: 32s far from the planet, 8s between 300 and 800 km altitude and 2s below 300 km. SEP measures particle fluxes from ~20 to ~107 cm-2 s -1 sr-1. We will present results from the first 5 months of the MAVEN science mission.References: [1] Rahmati A. et al. (2014) GRL 41(14) , 4812-481

  17. Energetic Geodesic Acoustic Modes Associated with Two-Stream-like Instabilities in Tokamak Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Qu, Z S; Hole, M J; Fitzgerald, M

    2016-03-01

    An unstable branch of the energetic geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is found using fluid theory with fast ions characterized by their narrow width in energy distribution and collective transit along field lines. This mode, with a frequency much lower than the thermal GAM frequency ω_{GAM}, is now confirmed as a new type of unstable EGAM: a reactive instability similar to the two-stream instability. The mode can have a very small fast ion density threshold when the fast ion transit frequency is smaller than ω_{GAM}, consistent with the onset of the mode right after the turn-on of the beam in DIII-D experiments. The transition of this reactive EGAM to the velocity gradient driven EGAM is also discussed. PMID:26991183

  18. Initial Time Dependence of Abundances in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ny, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    We compare the initial behavior of Fe/O and He/H abundance ratios and their relationship to the evolution of the proton energy spectra in "small" and "large" gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The results are qualitatively consistent with the behavior predicted by the theory of Ng et al. (1999a, b). He/H ratios that initially rise with time are a signature of scattering by non-Kolmogorov Alfven wave spectra generated by intense beams of shock-accelerated protons streaming outward in large gradual SEP events.

  19. Precision Measurements of Solar Energetic Particle Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spaceraft were used to determined, solar energetic particle abundances or upper limits for all elements with Z 30 from a combined set of 10 solar flares during the 1977 to 1982 time period. Statistically meaningful abundances were determined for several rare elements including P, C1, K, Ti and Mn, while the precision of the mean abundances for the more abundant elements was proved. When compared to solar photospheric spectroscopic abundances, these new SEP abundances more clearly exhibit the step-function dependence on first ionization potential previously reported.

  20. Precision measurements of solar energetic particle elemental composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, solar energetic particle abundances or upper limits for all elements with 3 = Z = 30 from a combined set of 10 solar flares during the 1977 to 1982 time period were determined. Statistically meaningful abundances have been determined for the first time for several rare elements including P, Cl, K, Ti and Mn, while the precision of the mean abundances for the more abundant elements has been improved by typically a factor of approximately 3 over previously reported values.

  1. Turbulence Evolution and Shock Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chee, Ng K.

    2007-01-01

    We model the effects of self-excitation/damping and shock transmission of Alfven waves on solar-energetic-particle (SEP) acceleration at a coronal-mass-ejection (CME) driven parallel shock. SEP-excited outward upstream waves speedily bootstrap acceleration. Shock transmission further raises the SEP-excited wave intensities at high wavenumbers but lowers them at low wavenumbers through wavenumber shift. Downstream, SEP excitation of inward waves and damping of outward waves tend to slow acceleration. Nevertheless, > 2000 km/s parallel shocks at approx. 3.5 solar radii can accelerate SEPs to 100 MeV in < 5 minutes.

  2. Pioneer 11 observations of energetic particles in the Jovian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Allen, J. A.; Randall, B. A.; Baker, D. N.; Goertz, C. K.; Sentman, D. D.; Thomsen, M. F.; Flindt, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of energetic electrons and protons observed with the University of Iowa instrument on Pioneer 11. A graph shows absolute, spin-averaged unidirectional intensities of electrons and protons as a function of time during traversal of the central magnetosphere. Another graph shows the effects of the Jovian satellites Io and Amalthea on particle intensities. It is pointed out that a full analysis of satellite effects is the most promising technique for understanding the physical dynamics of the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  3. Heliospheric Energetic Particles and Galactic Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents an overview of the SH ‘Solar and Heliospheric cosmic rays’ session of the 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS), Kiel, Germany, 2014. It covers the topics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) origin, acceleration and transport at the Sun and in the interplanetary medium, also from the aspect of multi-spacecraft observations, as well as the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) short- and long-term variations and the Jovian electron variations in the heliosphere. Relevant instruments and methods presented are also covered by this review. The paper is written from a personal perspective, emphasizing those results that the author found most interesting.

  4. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H. H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with Z = 6-30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  5. Solar Coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 Z or = 30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  6. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 = or Z or = 30. The ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  7. Preparation and characterization of energetic materials coated superfine aluminum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songsong; Ye, Mingquan; Han, Aijun; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to protect the activity of aluminum in solid rocket propellants by means of solvent/non-solvent method in which nitrocellulose (NC) and Double-11 (shortened form of double-base gun propellant, model 11) have been used as coating materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the morphology of coated Al particles. Other characterization data of coated and uncoated Al particles, such as infrared absorption spectrum, laser particle size analysis and the active aluminum content were also studied. The thermal behavior of pure and coated aluminum samples have also been studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that: superfine aluminum particles could be effectively coated with nitrocellulose and Double-11 through a solvent/non-solvent method. The energetic composite particles have core-shell structures and the thickness of the coating film is about 20-50 nm. The active aluminum content of different coated samples was measured by means of oxidation-reduction titration method. The results showed that after being stored in room temperature and under 50% humidity condition for about 4months the active aluminum content of coated Al particles decreased from 99.8 to 95.8% (NC coating) and 99.2% (Double-11 coating) respectively. Double-11 coating layer had a much better protective effect. The TG-DTA and DSC results showed that the energy amount and energy release rate of NC coated and Double-11 coated Al particles were larger than those of the raw Al particles. Double-11 coated Al particles have more significant catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition characters of AP than that of NC coated Al particles. These features accorded with the energy release characteristics of solid propellant.

  8. Observation of Energetic Particles Associated with a CIR Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; CHEN, Y.; Li, G.; Liu, Y.; Ebert, R. W.; Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Guo, F.; Tang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are efficient interplanetary particle accelerators in solar minimum. Occasionally, two (or multiple) CIRs may be observed at 1AU with a separation of ~5 days. Under certain circumstances, these CIR pairs can lead to enhanced particle acceleration than a single CIR. In this work, we report, to our knowledge, the first observational evidence of particle acceleration at a CIR pair. This CIR pair occurred in CR2060 (Aug. 14 - Sept. 10, 2007). Observations from STEREO-B (IMPACT/SEPT and IMPACT/LET for energetic ions/electrons and PLASTIC for plasma) showed that the first CIR was between Aug. 24th and Aug. 26th and the second CIR between Aug. 30th and Sep. 2nd. In between the CIR pair, energetic protons reached up to several MeV and energetic electrons up to hundreds of keVs. Both sunward and anti-sunward proton fluxes in the energy range of 4 - 6 MeV were observed, with the sunward (anti-sunward) component dominating in the region closer to the preceding (trailing) CIR. Near the middle of the pair the two components are comparable. The energy spectrum of He ion appears to be harder than that often found at a typical single CIR. These observations are consistent with a scenario where particles are accelerated at two shocks which are magnetically connected. We suggest that such a connection is through large-scale U-shape magnetic field that is detached from the Sun through magnetic reconnection in the upper corona. The presence of counter-streaming solar electrons (~ 200 eV) and the reversal of magnetic field direction between the CIR pair support this scenario. We point out that a system consisting of two shocks connected by a U-shape magnetic field line provides naturally a more efficient particle acceleration site than a single CIR shock. We have also performed a 2-D MHD simulation to help us understanding the above scenario.

  9. Simulations of Diffusion in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, C.; Jokipii, J.; Giacalone, J.

    2007-12-01

    New observations by high-sensitivity instruments onboard the ACE spacecraft show that Fe and O may share similar injection profiles close the solar surface, and that diffusion dominates the transport of these particles (Mason et al 2006). Multi-spacecraft observations by Helios and IMP-8 also confirm the spatial diffusion is important (Wibberenz & Cane 2006). The "reservoir" phenomenon or "spatial invariance" states that during the decay phase of individual gradual solar energetic particle events, the intensities measured by different spacecraft are nearly equal, even if these spacecraft are separated by several AU in radius and by 70 degrees in latitude. Results from our multidimensional numerical model, based on Parker's transport equation, with reasonable values of κ\\perp and κ\\| are compared with observations from Ulysses, IMP-8, and ACE. We demonstrate that most of the features of the "reservoir" phenomenon can be reproduced by a transport model which includes drift, energy loss, and spatial diffusion.

  10. Probabilistic Assessment of Risks from Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, W. F.; Xapsos, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar energetic particle events pose a radiation hazard for space crews and a risk of harmful radiation effects in spacecraft electronics. To assess these risks, engineers need to know the worst-case environment that they must plan for or design to withstand. Depending on the application, engineers may need to know the instantaneous worst-case environment, the radiation environment that accumulates during one solar particle event or the cumulative worst-case environment for their entire mission. Also, depending on their application, they will need to know this environment at a confidence level which they will specify. We will present a probabilistic model for the peak fluxes, event-integrated fluences and mission-integrated fluences for solar protons and heavy ions. The model will provide these worst-case environments at user-specified confidence levels. Examples of the use of this model will also be shown.

  11. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  12. Three-dimensional interplanetary stream magnetism and energetic particle motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with mesoscale configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field. A technique is presented for calculating such configurations in the inner solar system, which are due to streams and source conditions near the sun, and maps of magnetic field are constructed for some plausible stream and source conditions. One effect of these mesoscale configurations on galactic cosmic rays is shown to be an out-of-the-ecliptic gradient drift sufficient to explain Forbush decreases. The effects on solar energetic particles include small polar drifts due to the field gradients and a possibly large modification of the time-intensity profiles and anisotropy characteristics due to the formation of mirror configurations in space. If a diffusion model is applicable to solar particles, the true diffusion coefficient will be masked by the effects of streams. A conceptual model which incorporates these ideas and those of several other models is presented.

  13. Coronal element abundances derived from solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1994-01-01

    The large gradual solar-energetic-particle (SEP) events, where abundances are commonly measured, are produced when coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves through the corona and the interplanetary medium. The shock accelerates particles from the highly-ionized, approximately 1.5 MK, plasma in a manner that depends only weakly upon the Q/A of the ion, except at very high energies. Averaging the approximately 1 MeV/amu abundances over many events compensates for the acceleration effects to produce abundances that appear to correspond directly to those in the coronal source for all observed elements, including H. The resulting abundances reflect the 4 x enhancement of ions with low values of first ionization potential (FIP) arising from ion-neutral fractionation that occurs as the atoms are transported up from the photosphere. A different pattern of fractionation is found for ions that are shock-accelerated from the high speed solar wind emerging from coronal holes.

  14. Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.; Hussein, M. E-mail: m_hussein@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2014-10-10

    A model for noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was recently proposed. This model was already used to study the random walk of magnetic field lines. In the current article we use the same model to investigate the diffusion of energetic particles across the mean magnetic field. To compute the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, two analytical theories are used, namely, the Non-Linear Guiding Center theory and the Unified Non-Linear Transport (UNLT) theory. It is shown that the two theories provide different results for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. We also perform test-particle simulations for the aforementioned turbulence model. We show that only the UNLT theory describes perpendicular transport accurately, confirming that this is a powerful tool in diffusion theory.

  15. Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in collisionless plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental problem in plasma and astrophysics is the interaction between energetic particles and magnetized plasmas. In the current paper, we focus on particle diffusion across the guide magnetic field. It is shown that the perpendicular diffusion coefficient depends only on the parallel diffusion coefficient and the Kubo number. Therefore, one can find four asymptotic limits depending on the values of these two parameters. These regimes are the quasilinear limit, the Kadomtsev and Pogutse limit, the scaling of Rechester and Rosenbluth, and the scaling found by Zybin and Istomin. In the current article, we focus on the Rechester and Rosenbluth scenario because this was not discovered before in the context of collisionless plasmas. Examples and applications are discussed as well. We show that an energy independent ratio of perpendicular and parallel diffusion coefficients can be found and that this ratio can be very small but also close to unity. This is exactly what one observes in the solar wind.

  16. Drifting energetic particle bunches observed on ATS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogott, F. H.; Mozer, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Energetic protons and electrons introduced into the vicinity of the synchronous orbit by geomagnetic substorms and observed on ATS 5 at various local times have been analyzed for velocity dispersion effects associated with their longitudinal drift. Particles with energies between about 30 and 200 keV are shown to be produced simultaneously within tens of minutes at local times between about 0000 and 0400 near 6.6 earth radii during substorm activity. Those with energies not less than approximately 75 keV move in longitude in the direction and with the magnitude expected from gradient B drifts. Lower-energy protons and electrons appear at the satellite sooner than expected from their gradient B drifts, as though the observed particles of such energies were not those originally accelerated but were newly produced from or by the higher-energy drifting component.

  17. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Breizman, B.N. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-07-01

    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width {triangle}{sub b} is much larger than the mode thickness {triangle}{sub m}, we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} {much lt} 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of {triangle}{sub m}/{triangle}{sub b} from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar} = {upsilon}{sub A} is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands ({vert bar}{upsilon}{sub {parallel}}{vert bar}) = {upsilon}{sub A}/(2{ell} {minus} 1) with {ell} {ge} 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs.

  18. Research Activities on MHD and Energetic Particle Physics in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung-Ho; Kwak, Jong-Gu; Lee, San-Gon; Yoon, Si-Woo; Bae, Young-Sun; Kim, Jin-Young; KSTAR Team

    2014-10-01

    In this talk, the recent achievements in MHD and energetic particle physics in KSTAR will be presented. Throughout the 2014 campaign, strategically important works in achieving KSTAR milestone including NTM stabilization, error field measurement, establishing disruption mitigation system, and identification of Alfvenic eigenmode are conducted. Real time feedback control of 2/1 NTM is successfully demonstrated with the search and suppression algorithm and the improved ECCD mirror control system. 3-D structure of n=1 intrinsic error field are fully explored with L- and H-mode plasma aiming not only to complete MID IVCC compass scan but also to set a groundwork toward understanding of KSTAR's unique feature, ELM suppression by n = 1 RMP. Elaborated q95 ~ 2 discharge regime is achieved without any error field correction by virtue of the extremely low intrinsic error field of KSTAR. The integrated disruption avoidance/mitigation system for the safety secured MA-class operation is well assessed. Further investigations of the energetic particle mode have been done with various control nobs of ECH, RMP and tailoring of NBI profile and mode identification efforts have been followed. Besides high priority works above, studies on sawtooth and run-away electron have made progresses.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of intensity profiles for energetic particle propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, R. C.; Bolte, J.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Numerical test-particle simulations are a reliable and frequently used tool for testing analytical transport theories and predicting mean-free paths. The comparison between solutions of the diffusion equation and the particle flux is used to critically judge the applicability of diffusion to the stochastic transport of energetic particles in magnetized turbulence. Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation code is extended to allow for the generation of intensity profiles and anisotropy-time profiles. Because of the relatively low number density of computational particles, a kernel function has to be used to describe the spatial extent of each particle. Results: The obtained intensity profiles are interpreted as solutions of the diffusion equation by inserting the diffusion coefficients that have been directly determined from the mean-square displacements. The comparison shows that the time dependence of the diffusion coefficients needs to be considered, in particular the initial ballistic phase and the often subdiffusive perpendicular coefficient. Conclusions: It is argued that the perpendicular component of the distribution function is essential if agreement between the diffusion solution and the simulated flux is to be obtained. In addition, time-dependent diffusion can provide a better description than the classic diffusion equation only after the initial ballistic phase.

  20. Energetic particle fluxes in vicinity of Jupiter's moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzolko, Mikhail; Getselev, Igor; Gubar, Yuriy; Veselovsky, Igor

    Currently several projects of sending research space vehicles to Jupiter and its Galilean moons in 2020 are being developed. In particular, Russian Space Agency proposed the project of Europa lander. During the mission the spacecraft will be affected by charged particles of various origins. The greatest hazard will originate from powerful Jupiter's radiation belts, especially during the time of spacecraft operation near Europa and on its surface. The absorbed radiation dose during 2 months in Europa's orbit under shielding compared to that for "Galileo" spacecraft will amount to almost 1 megarad, the major contribution to it will originate from relativistic electrons. However, near Europa part of the charged particle flux will be shaded by the moon. Obviously, fluxes of particles of all energies on its surface will be lower by at least 2 times, than in the same point of space without Europa. But furthermore, the reduction of the fluxes in vicinity of Europa is nonuniform, and differs for the surface and the low-altitude orbit. This is caused by several factors: the complexity of particle trajectories near Europa and in Jupiter's magnetosphere in general, difference of Europa's orbital plane from Jupiter's geomagnetic equator plane, certain disturbance of Jupiter's magnetic field in vicinity of Europa, possible influence of electric fields and Europa's tenuous atmosphere. In the current study computations of energetic particle flux distribution near Europa and on its surface are made, taking into account several of the above-mentioned factors.

  1. Why do Saturn's energetic particle profiles look as they do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.

    2012-04-01

    A subset of the particle population within Saturn's magnetosphere is the one of energetic charged particles. Since 2004, the MIMI/LEMMS instrument onboard of Cassini is sampling Saturn's protons and electrons at energies of keV and MeV. We analyze mission-averaged measurements here. Outside Saturn's Main Rings and up to about five Saturn radii (RS) extend the radiation belts. Here, we focus on the region outside the belts and well within the dayside magnetopause. Since the particles are thought to be adiabatically transported, which changes their energy, it is physically meaningful to express the particle distribution in terms of adiabatic invariants. The particle distribution at fixed 1st and 2nd invariant generally decreases towards Saturn. This decrease is not related to losses close to Saturn but follows from adiabatic heating and therefore shape of the energy spectrum. An exception is protons within distances of about 8RS to Saturn that have energies below about 100keV. Only they are significantly lost from charge exchange with the gas environment, so that their radial profiles are steeper than usual. Additional to the overall decrease towards Saturn, we show that the profiles abruptly change their gradients at the orbits of the icy moons. This is especially well visible for electrons at Rhea but also apparent for protons. The fact that the moons influence the particle profiles even far away from the orbit indicates the presence of a radial coupling of the particle distribution, as it is caused by radial diffusion. We use a simple, analytical model to reproduce these gradient changes. The gradient of equatorially mirroring particles is steeper than of field-aligned ones. This is unexpected for the common mechanisms driving radial diffusion and therefore indicates that radial diffusion cannot be the only process acting in this region.

  2. PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN A COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-08-20

    Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of p > p{sub ||} induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.

  3. Reduced quasilinear models for energetic particles interaction with Alfvenic eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy

    The Line Broadened Quasilinear (LBQ) and the 1.5D reduced models are able to predict the effect of Alfvenic eigenmodes' interaction with energetic particles in burning plasmas. This interaction can result in energetic-particle losses that can damage the first wall, deteriorate the plasma performance, and even prevent ignition. The 1.5D model assumes a broad spectrum of overlapping modes and, based on analytic expressions for the growth and damping rates, calculates the pressure profiles that the energetic particles relax to upon interacting with the modes. 1.5D is validated with DIII-D experiments and predicted neutron losses consistent with observation. The model is employed to predict alpha-particle fusion-product losses in a large-scale operational parameter-space for burning plasmas. The LBQ model captures the interaction both in the regime of isolated modes as well as in the conventional regime of overlapping modes. Rules were established that allow quasilinear equations to replicate the expected steady-state saturation levels of isolated modes. The fitting formula is improved and the model is benchmarked with a Vlasov code, BOT. The saturation levels are accurately predicted and the mode evolution is well-replicated in the case of steady-state evolution where the collisions are high enough that coherent structures do not form. When the collisionality is low, oscillatory behavior can occur. LBQ can also exhibit non-steady behavior, but the onset of oscillations occurs for much higher collisional rates in BOT than in LBQ. For certain parameters of low collisionality, hole-clump creation and frequency chirping can occur which are not captured by the LBQ model. Also, there are cases of non-steady evolution without chirping which is possible for LBQ to study. However the results are inconclusive since the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations in the mode evolution are not well-replicated. If multiple modes exist, they can grow to the point of overlap which

  4. Radial dependence of solar energetic particles derived from the 15 March 2013 solar energetic particle event and global MHD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Chun; Liou, Kan; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, Murray; Plunkett, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We study an unusual solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) on March 15, 2013. Enhancements of the SEP fluxes were first detected by the ACE spacecraft at 14:00 UT, ˜7 hours after the onset of the CME (07:00 UT), and the SEP's peak intensities were recorded ˜36 hours after the onset of the CME. Our recent study showed that the CME-driven shock Mach number, based on a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, is well correlated with the time-intensity of 10-30 MeV and 30-80 MeV protons. Here we focus on the radial dependence (r-α) of 4He (3.43-41.2 MeV/n) and O (7.30-89.8 MeV/n) energetic particles from ACE/SIS. It is found that the scaling factor (α) ranges between 2 and 4 for most of the energy channels. We also found that the correlation coefficients tend to increase with SEP energies.

  5. Field-aligned Transport and Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovikov, D.; Sokolov, I.; Tenishev, V.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) phenomena represent one of the major components of space weather. Often, but not exclusively associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), they pose a significant scientific as well as practical interest. As these particles originate at such explosive events, they have energies up to several GeV. SEP may cause disruptions in operations of space instruments and spacecrafts and are dangerous to astronauts. For this reason, studies of SEP events and predictions of their impact are of great importance. The motion and acceleration of SEP, though kinetic in nature, is governed by Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and its disturbances. Therefore, a consistent and accurate simulation and predictive tool must include a realistic MHD model of IMF. At the same time, transport of SEP is essentially one-dimensional as at high energies particles are tied to magnetic field lines. This allows building a model that can effectively map active regions on the solar surface onto various regions of the Solar System thus predicting the affected regions of the at any distance from the Sun. We present the first attempt to construct a model that employs coupling of MHD and kinetic models. The former describes the evolution of IMF disturbed by CME, while the latter simulates particles moving along the field lines extracted from MHD model. The first results are provided.

  6. Precision Modeling of Solar Energetic Particle Intensity and Anisotropy Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Wechakama, M.; Khumlumlert, T.

    2006-12-01

    A focused transport equation for solar energetic particles is sufficiently complex that simple analytic approximations are generally inadequate, but the physics is sufficiently well established to permit precise numerical modeling of high energy particle observations at various distances from the Sun. We demonstrate how observed profiles of intensity and anisotropy vs. time can be quantitatively fit to determine an optimal injection profile at the Sun, scattering mean free path λ, and magnetic configuration. For several ground level enhancements (GLE) of solar energetic particles at energies ~ 1 GeV, the start time of injection has been determined to 1 or 2 minutes. In each case this start time coincides, within that precision, to the soft X-ray peak time, when the flare's primary energy release has ended. This is not inconsistent with acceleration at a coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock, though the rapid timescale is challenging to understand. For the GLE of 2005 January 20, λ decreases substantially over ~ 10 minutes, which is consistent with concepts of proton-amplified waves. The GLE of 2000 July 14 is properly fit only when a magnetic bottleneck beyond Earth is taken into account, a feature later confirmed by NEAR observations. The long-standing puzzle of the 1989 October 22 event can now be explained by simultaneous injection of relativistic solar particles along both legs of a closed interplanetary magnetic loop, while other reasonable explanations fail the test of quantitative fitting. The unusually long λ (confirming many previous reports) and a low turbulent spectral index hint at unusual properties of turbulence in the loop. While the early GLE peak on 2003 October 28 remains a mystery, the main peak's strong anisotropy is inconsistent with a suggestion of injection along the far leg of a magnetic loop; quantitative fitting fails because of reverse focusing during Sunward motion. With these modeling capabilities, one is poised to take full

  7. Prediction of Solar Energetic Particle Trapping in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M.; Larsen, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are protons, electrons, and heavy ions emitted from the Sun with energies spanning tens of keV to GeV. They are episodic and associated with energetic events at the Sun such as coronal mass ejections. Importantly, they can be injected into and trapped by the Earth's magnetosphere, forming transient new, intense radiation belts in the L=3 to L=4 range. These belts can severely damage components of our space infrastructure and cause significant backgrounds in instruments on national security and scientific payloads. The main questions we address here are, what is the difference between an event which causes a new belt to form and one that doesn't? And is the formation of new belts predictable in any way? Using both POES and ACE data we examine the overall likelihood of an event becoming trapped and relate it to various parameters from the data. Here we discuss the trapping criteria used and the categorization of each event, along with the parameters that were compared and their significance. And finally we provide a probabilistic measure of the trapping likelihood of a given event, thus answering, at least in part, our questions.

  8. Interactions of energetic particles and clusters with solids

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Diaz de la Rubia, T. ); Benedek, R. )

    1990-12-01

    Ion beams are being applied for surface modifications of materials in a variety of different ways: ion implantation, ion beam mixing, sputtering, and particle or cluster beam-assisted deposition. Fundamental to all of these processes is the deposition of a large amount of energy, generally some keV's, in a localized area. This can lead to the production of defects, atomic mixing, disordering and in some cases, amorphization. Recent results of molecular dynamics computer simulations of energetic displacement cascades in Cu and Ni with energies up to 5 keV suggest that thermal spikes play an important role in these processes. Specifically, it will be shown that many aspects of defect production, atomic mixing and cascade collapse'' can be understood as a consequence of local melting of the cascade core. Included in this discussion will be the possible role of electron-phonon coupling in thermal spike dynamics. The interaction of energetic clusters of atoms with solid surfaces has also been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. this process is of interest because a large amount of energy can be deposited in a small region and possibly without creating point defects in the substrate or implanting cluster atoms. The simulations reveal that the dynamics of the collision process are strongly dependent on cluster size and energy. Different regimes where defect production, local melting and plastic flow dominate will be discussed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  9. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  10. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20886

  11. Measurement of energetic particle radiation at the synchronous altitude aboard ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.; Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation energetic electron-proton spectrometer operating on ATS-6 is described. This experiment detects energetic electrons in four channels between 140 keV and greater than 3.9 MeV, measures energetic protons in five energy channels between 2.3 and 80 MeV and energetic alpha particles in three channels between 9.4 and 94 MeV. After more than a year of operation in orbit, the experiment continues to return excellent data on the behavior of energetic magnetospheric electrons as well as information regarding the fluxes of solar protons and alpha particles.

  12. Energetic charged particle beams for disablement of mines

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1995-03-27

    LLNL has an ongoing program of weapons disablement using energetic charged particle beams; this program combines theoretical and experimental expertise in accelerators, high-energy and nuclear physics, plasma physics and hydrodynamics to simulate/measure effects of electron and proton beams on weapons. This paper reviews work by LLNL, LANL and NSWC on detonating sensitive and insensitive high explosives and land mines using high-current electron beams. Computer simulations are given. 20--160 MeV electron beams incident on wet/dry soils are being studied, along with electron beam propagation in air. Compact high current, high energy accelerators are being developed for mine clearing. Countermine missions of interest are discussed. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Solar abundances as derived from solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are well defined average abundances of heavy (Z above 2) solar energetic particles (SEPs), with variations in the acceleration and propagation producing a systematic flare-to-flare fractionation that depends on the charge per unit mass of the ion. Correcting the average SEP abundances for this fractionation yields SEP-derived coronal abundances for 20 elements. High-resolution SEP studies have also provided isotopic abundances for five elements. SEP-derived abundances indicate that elements with high first ionization potentials (greater than 10 eV) are depleted in the corona relative to the photosphere and provide new information on the solar abundance of C and Ne-22.

  14. Enceladus flybys in the view of energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Khurana, K. K.; Jones, G. H.; Simon, S.

    2015-10-01

    We report on particle measurements in the vicinity of Enceladus in the Saturnian magnetosphere taken onboard the Cassini Spacecraft between 2005 and 2015. Enceladus, embedded in Saturn's radiation belts has been investigated by Cassini during 23 close flybys including those where the spacecraft went through the south polar plumes of the moon. This paper is an update of the results from the first 14 flybys published by [2]. We report on the results of energetic electron measurements in the energy range 27 keV to 21 MeV taken by the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System LEMMS, part of the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument MIMI on board combined with measurements of the magnetometer instrument MAG and the Electron Spectrometer ELS of the Plasma instrument CAPS on board the spacecraft.

  15. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun.

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space explosion'' occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  16. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space ``explosion`` occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  17. OBSERVED CORE OF A GRADUAL SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharov, L.; Valtonen, E.; Reiner, M. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Klassen, A.

    2010-12-20

    Using space-borne particle and EUV detection and radio spectrograms from both ground-based and space-borne instruments, we study the first phase of the major solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the western solar flare and fast and wide coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2000 April 4. The SEP event being observed at the magnetic connection to the eruption's center starts with deka-MeV nucl{sup -1} helium- and relativistic electron-rich production from coronal sources identified with the electromagnetic diagnostics and the SEP event modeling. The broadband observations and modeling of the initial phase of the 'well-connected' major SEP event support the idea that acceleration of SEPs starts in the helium-rich plasma of the eruption's core in association with coronal shocks and magnetic reconnections caused by the CME liftoff, and that the coronal component dominates during the first hour of the SEP event considered, not yet being shielded by the CME bow shock in the solar wind. The first phase of the SEP event is followed by a second phase of SEP production associated with a decelerating CME-driven shock wave in the solar wind, which accelerates ions from a distinct, helium-poor seed particle population that may originate from the CME interaction with a coronal streamer.

  18. Simulations of energetic particles interacting with nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bendover scales and a magnetic field ratio of δ B / B0 = 0.75.

  19. Modeling of Solar Energetic Particles in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Agueda, Neus; Aran, Angels; Lario, David

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the interplanetary (IP) medium are transported under the influence of electromagnetic fields of the solar wind. These fields consists of the smooth background fields, which can be modeled by the MHD equations governing the expansion of the solar wind, and of the small-scale fluctuations (waves or turbulence) that scatter the particles in pitch angle and act as agents enabling their acceleration at IP shock waves. We review theoretical models of SEP transport and acceleration in the IP medium. We start from the simple analytical approaches (diffusion models), which assume quasi-isotropic particle distributions, and then continue to the more accurate numerical approaches based on the focused transport equation, not making this simplifying assumption. A careful analysis of two SEP events, an impulsive and a gradual one, is presented and the spatial scaling of their peak intensities, differential fluences and time-integrated net fluxes is discussed. We conclude that rather simple scaling laws for these quantities can be obtained for impulsive events but no simple scaling laws can be expected to govern the gradual SEP events

  20. Galactic energetic particles and their radiative yields in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rephaeli, Yoel; Sadeh, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    As energetic particles diffuse out of radio and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), their intracluster density builds up to a level that could account for a substantial part or all the emission from a radio halo. We calculate the particle time-dependent, spectro-spatial distributions from a solution of a diffusion equation with radio galaxies as sources of electrons and SFGs as sources of both electrons and protons. Whereas strong radio galaxies are typically found in the cluster (e.g., Coma) core, the fraction of SFGs increases with distance from the cluster center. Scaling particle escape rates from their sources to the reasonably well determined Galactic rates, and for realistic gas density and magnetic field spatial profiles, we find that predicted spectra and spatial profiles of radio emission from primary and secondary electrons are roughly consistent with those deduced from current measurements of the Coma halo (after subtraction of emission from the relic Coma A). Nonthermal x-ray emission is predicted to be mostly by Compton scattering of electrons from radio galaxies off the CMB, whereas γ -ray emission is primarily from the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of protons from SFGs with protons in intracluster gas.

  1. Rocket observation of soft energetic particles at the magnetic equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Results from a rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer flown near the magnetic equator at 0108 LMT, March 10, 1970, exhibit an unusual background current above 200 km. This current is observed to increase 3.5 orders of magnitude between 200 and 260 km before maximizing to a fixed value from 260 km to the 295 km apogee of the flight. Properties of the background combined with laboratory measurements have permitted probable identification of the background source as 2-20 keV electrons or protons. Maximum electron fluxes have been estimated to be of the order 10 to the 10th power particles/sq cm-sec-ster in accord with ISIS-1 satellite measurements at higher altitudes. The background was not observed on an earlier flight at 1938 LMT, suggesting the particles to be trapped in a blet which drifted below 300 km between the two flights. The low altitude penetration of these fluxes may have been related to the great magnetic storm of March 8. Simultaneous measurements of the thermal ion distribution are compared with these results and qualitatively suggest that the soft energetic particles are responsible for an observed O2(+) and NO(+) enhancement.

  2. Solar energetic particle interactions with the Venusian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plainaki, Christina; Paschalis, Pavlos; Grassi, Davide; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Andriopoulou, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the context of planetary space weather, we estimate the ion production rates in the Venusian atmosphere due to the interactions of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with gas. The assumed concept for our estimations is based on two cases of SEP events, previously observed in near-Earth space: the event in October 1989 and the event in May 2012. For both cases, we assume that the directional properties of the flux and the interplanetary magnetic field configuration would have allowed the SEPs' arrival at Venus and their penetration to the planet's atmosphere. For the event in May 2012, we consider the solar particle properties (integrated flux and rigidity spectrum) obtained by the Neutron Monitor Based Anisotropic GLE Pure Power Law (NMBANGLE PPOLA) model (Plainaki et al., 2010, 2014) applied previously for the Earth case and scaled to the distance of Venus from the Sun. For the simulation of the actual cascade in the Venusian atmosphere initiated by the incoming particle fluxes, we apply the DYASTIMA code, a Monte Carlo (MC) application based on the Geant4 software (Paschalis et al., 2014). Our predictions are afterwards compared to other estimations derived from previous studies and discussed. Finally, we discuss the differences between the nominal ionization profile due to galactic cosmic-ray-atmosphere interactions and the profile during periods of intense solar activity, and we show the importance of understanding space weather conditions on Venus in the context of future mission preparation and data interpretation.

  3. Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi

    2015-09-15

    High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.

  4. Anisotropy-driven collective instability in intense charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2005-12-01

    The classical electrostatic Harris instability is generalized to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space charge. For a long, coasting beam, the eigenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A simple theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of the instability. Both the simulations and the analytical theory clearly show that moderately intense beams are linearly unstable to short-wavelength perturbations provided the ratio of the longitudinal temperature to the transverse temperature is smaller than some threshold value. The delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST has been used to study the detailed nonlinear evolution and saturation of the instability.

  5. Vertical coherent instabilities in bunched particle-beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the vertical coherent instabilities which occur in bunched particle beams. The problem is complicated by the fact that the velocity of a single particle in a bunch is not constant, but rather consists of an equilibrium velocity and an oscillation about that. This synchrotron oscillation occurs at a frequency which is in general much less than the other characteristic frequencies of the system: the revolution frequency and the transverse betatron frequencies. The approach used here to study coherent instabilities illuminates the effect of the synchrotron frequency in setting the time scale for an instability, without making restrictive assumptions on the relative size of the synchrotron frequency and the coherent frequency shift (or growth rate).

  6. On the Interaction Between Highly Energetic Charged Particles and the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A. P.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C.; Spence, H. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.

    2012-03-01

    In this study we explore how galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles contribute to deep dielectric charging within the lunar regolith and how these particles affect lunar surface charging in tenuous plasma environments.

  7. Energetic Particle Precipitation Effects Observed in LIMS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Remsberg, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) observed stratospheric enhancements in NO2 inside the Arctic polar vortex during the winter of 1978-1979. These enhancements were attributed to the descent of NOx originally produced by precipitating energetic particles in the upper atmosphere. Although few observations of such stratospheric NOx enhancements were made during the decade succeeding the LIMS measurements, investigations in the last decade have shown abundant evidence for these enhancements. Interannual variability in the enhancements appears to be controlled both by the amount of particle precipitation and the prevailing meteorological conditions, which dictate the efficiency with which NOx is transported from the upper atmosphere into the stratosphere. In this presentation, recent satellite measurements of the temporal evolution of NOx in the polar vortex are compared to the LIMS measurements. Our goal is to investigate whether the enhancements were observed by LIMS because of enhanced geomagnetic activity and/or anomalous dynamical conditions, or whether the nighttime observing capability of LIMS simply enabled it to detect the NOx enhancements under nominal conditions.

  8. Developing an Empirical Model for Predicting Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. A.; Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.; Ashley, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are powerful enhancements in the particle flux received at Earth. These events, often related to coronal mass ejections, can be disruptive to ionospheric communications, destructive to satellites, and pose a health risk to astronauts. To develop a useful forecast for the onset time and peak flux of SEP events, we are examining the radio burst, proton, and electron properties associated with the SEPs of the current solar cycle. Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we analyzed the 123 decametric-hectometric type II solar radio burst properties, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with SEP properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. Through a principal component and logistic regression analyses, we find that the radio properties alone can be used to predict the occurrence of an SEP event with a false alarm rate of 17%, a probability of detection of 65%, and with 88% of the classifications correct. We also explore the use of the > 2 MeV electron flux to forecast proton peak flux and event onset time, with preliminary results suggesting a correlation between the peak electron and proton flux.

  9. Coronal Shock Waves and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward

    Recent evidence supports the view first expressed by Wild, Smerd, and Weiss in 1963 that large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a consequence of shock waves manifested by radio type II bursts. Following Tylka et al. (ApJ 625, 474, 2005), our picture of SEP acceleration at shocks now includes the effects of variable seed particle population and shock geometry. By taking these factors into account, Tylka and Lee (ApJ 646, 1319, 2006; see also Sandroos Vainio, ApJ 662, L127, 2007; AA 507, L21, 2009) were able to account for the charge-to-mass variability in high-Z ions first reported by Breneman and Stone in 1985. Recent studies of electron-to-proton ratios, both in interplanetary space (Cliver Ling, ApJ 658, 1349, 2007; Dietrich et al., in preparation, 2010) and in gamma-ray-line events (Shih et al., ApJ 698, L152, 2009), also support the view that large SEP events originate in coronal shocks and not in solar flares. Concurrent with the above developments, there is growing evidence that coronal shocks are driven by coronal mass ejections rather than by flare pressure pulses.

  10. Solar Sources of Earth-affecting Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Particle radiation from the Sun is one of the most important sources of hazardous space weather in the vicinity of Earth. Detailed studies of the origin of the so-called large solar energetic particle (SEP) events became possible only during the solar cycle 23, thanks to the availability of nearly continuous observation of the solar sources ofthese events. In particular, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are found to be a key requirement for the occurrence of an SEP event, have been recorded continuously only starting in the 1990s. The physical connection between CMEs and SEPs is that the CMEs drive a fast-mode MHD shock, which accelerates SEPs in the corona and interplanetary medium. The earliest indication of a shock is the occurrence of a type II radio burst at frequencies anywhere from more than a hundred MHz to a few MHz. Recent investigations using STEREO observations have revealed that the shock forms very close to the Sun - a mere 100,000 km above the surface. The shock formation depends not only on the CME properties, but also on the physical conditions in the ambient medium that supports shock propagation. This paper considers extreme cases of SEP events and the associated CMEs and type II radio bursts to illustrate the variability observed in SEP event properties. Comparison will be made between the events of solar cycles 23 and 24.

  11. Energetic Particles in the far and near Environment of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Hill, M. E.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Brown, L. E.; Kusterer, M. B.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Smith, H. T.; Mitchell, D. G.; Haggerty, D. K.; Bagenal, F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lisse, C. M.; Delamere, P. A.; Elliott, H. A.; Horanyi, M.; McComas, D. J.; Piquette, M. R.; Poppe, A. R.; Sidrow, E. J.; Strobel, D. F.; Szalay, J.; Valek, P. W.; Weidner, S.; Zirnstein, E.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Stern, A.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched in 2006, passed Jupiter and its magnetotail, took continuous measurements in the solar wind throughout the recent years, and flew by Pluto in July 2015. The onboard PEPSSI instrument measures ion and electron intensities, masses, and energies in the keV to MeV range. The closest approach distance to Pluto was 11 Pluto radii, inside the orbit of Charon. Data taken near Pluto is downlinked throughout August. We will present analysis of this data and set it into context with previous measurements. We expect a number of interesting particle structures around Pluto. Parts of Pluto's molecular nitrogen atmosphere is escaping and will co-orbit with Pluto, potentially forming a partial gas torus. This torus can be additionally sourced by other Kuiper belt objects. The neutrals are eventually ionized and pick-up by the solar wind brings them into the PEPSSI energy range. The measured ion densities can be used to constrain the Pluto torus. Pluto is not expected to have an intrinsic magnetic field, but the energetic particle data can be used to infer its properties, if any. Pluto interacts instead with the solar wind via the pick-up of its ions and the magnetic fields created by currents in its ionosphere. The relative role of these mechanisms can be revealed by the flyby data and directly compared to data that was taken at Jupiter with identical instrumentation.

  12. Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D

    2007-01-01

    Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

  13. Energetic particles, tangential discontinuities, and solar flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Giacalone, J.

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the probable sources of sharp changes in the flux of energetic particles (EPs) in the solar wind. Data acquired by the ACE Low Energy Magnetic Spectrometer sensors during 1999 were used to identify EP boundaries that were not located at interplanetary shocks or caused by intermittent connection to the Earth's bow shock. It was found that at least 68%, and probably 80%, of such boundaries occur at significant changes in the plasma and magnetic field in the solar wind. Those changes are consistent with crossing preexisting tangential discontinuities or flux tube boundaries rather than by local MHD turbulence or time-dependent bursts of acceleration. Because some of the EP boundaries would not have been detected by Borovsky's (2008) analysis of flux tube boundaries, it is concluded that such boundaries in the solar wind are at least 30% more prevalent than previously suggested. The result can also be used to explain some observations of localized variations in EP flux both ahead of and behind the interplanetary shocks where particle acceleration occurred without requiring local acceleration.

  14. Interplanetary propagation of flare-associated energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma Sung, L. S.; Earl, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The basic propagation process of flare-associated energetic particles in interplanetary space is studied on the basis of a model which combines a Gaussian coronal injection profile and interplanetary particle densities found by a theory of focused diffusion. The model is used to describe 30 electron and proton events which originate from the western hemisphere of the sun. A comparison of calculated and observed density profiles shows that the scattering mean free path is 0.1-0.3 AU for 4-80 MeV protons. The value is two or three times smaller for 0.5-1.1 and 3-12 MeV electrons. Thus the scattering mean free path is only slightly rigidity-dependent, contrary to that predicted by the quasi-linear theory of pitch-angle scattering. The rms width is found to be less than an hour for most proton and electron events. This width, which decreases with velocity, is not rigidity-dependent.

  15. Effects acting on energetic particles in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2011-10-01

    Energetic charged particles can undergo a number of different effects in Saturn's magnetosphere. Some of these processes are well known, as the loss of ions due to charge exchange within the extended Neutral Torus. On average, these losses have to be compensated by source processes, but the mechanism and magnitude of them is poorly understood. Especially the origin of protons below 1 MeV within the radiation belts remains an open question. Since more than six years, the MIMI/LEMMS instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft provides a wealth of knowledge about charged particles between several 10 keV and several 10 MeV. From this data, mission averaged proton profiles at constant adiabatic invariants are derived within the radiation belts (L < 5RS) and the middle magnetosphere (L > 5RS). We extended the radial diffusion equation by multiple source and loss terms in order to include all the relevant physics. Numerical solutions of this equation are able to reproduce the observed profiles. Due to the large number of effects, the equation includes parameters that are free as long as only a small range in energy and L is considered. Therefore, we aim to describe the whole range that is covered by LEMMS with the same set of parameters, which then can immediately be used to quantify the different effects they are representing.

  16. Solar photospheric and coronal abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Breneman, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) from 22 solar flares in the 1977-1982 time period are reported. The observations were made by the cosmic ray subsystem on board the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. SEP abundances were obtained for all elements with 3 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 30 except Li, Be, B, F, Sc, V, Co and Cu, for which upper limits have been obtained. Statistically meaningful abundances of several rare elements (e.g., P, Cl, K, Ti, Mn) were determined for the first time, and the average abundances of the more abundant elements were determined with improved precision, typically a factor of three better than the best previous determinations. Previously reported results concerning the dependence of the fractionation of SEPs relative to photosphere on first ionization potential (FIP) have been confirmed and amplified upon with the new data. The monotonic Z dependence of the variation between flares noted by earlier studies was found to be interpretable as a fractionation, produced by acceleration of the particles from the corona and their propagation through interplanetary space, which is ordered by the ionic charge-to-mass ratio Q/M of the species making up the SEPs. It was found that Q/M is the primary organizing parameter of acceleration and propagation effects in SEPs, as evidenced by the dependence on Q/M of time, spatial and energy dependence within flares and of the abundance variability from flare to flare.

  17. Element Abundances in Solar Energetic Particles and the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2014-03-01

    This is a study of abundances of the elements He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe in solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the 2 - 15 MeV amu-1 region measured on the Wind spacecraft during 54 large SEP events occurring between November 1994 and June 2012. The origin of most of the temporal and spatial variations in abundances of the heavier elements lies in rigidity-dependent scattering during transport of the particles away from the site of acceleration at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Variation in the abundance of Fe is correlated with the Fe spectral index, as expected from scattering theory but not previously noted. Clustering of Fe abundances during the "reservoir" period, late in SEP events, is also newly reported. Transport-induced enhancements in one region are balanced by depletions in another, thus, averaging over these variations produces SEP abundances that are energy independent, confirms previous SEP abundances in this energy region, and provides a credible measure of element abundances in the solar corona. These SEP-determined coronal abundances differ from those in the solar photosphere by a well-known function that depends upon the first ionization potential (FIP) or ionization time of the element.

  18. The Role of Precipitating Energetic Particles in Coupling Atmospheric Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. M.; Randall, C. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Yee, S.; Kozyra, J. U.; Baker, D. N.

    2010-12-01

    A key missing element in our understanding of the Sun-Earth system is the response of the atmosphere when precipitating particle energy is redistributed via dynamical, chemical, and radiative processes. Elucidating the coupling intrinsic to this response is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting variability in and across many atmospheric regions. A priority for future observations is the Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) Indirect Effect (IE), by which odd nitrogen compounds produced by EPP in the upper atmosphere descend to the stratosphere, perturbing ozone chemistry and thus the radiative balance of the middle atmosphere. It has been shown that EPP IE occurs nearly every year in both hemispheres, and is modulated by variability in both the EPP and atmospheric meteorology. In this talk, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of EPP IE, the observational evidence for it in the last few decades, and what is required of future observations. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various measurement techniques for observing odd nitrogen and descent, along with uncertainties in the analysis methods.

  19. Energetic particle energy deposition in Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, J. H.; Smith, H. T.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C. P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mandt, K. E.

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s upper atmosphere has been observed to be variable on a pass-by-pass basis. During the nominal mission where the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) only sampled the northern hemisphere this variability was initially believed to be tied to solar drivers manifest in latitudinal variations in the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere. However, when Cassini delved into the southern hemisphere the latitudinal dependence was not present in the data. Recently, Westlake et al. (2011) showed that the pass-by-pass variability is correlated with the deviations in the plasma environment as identified by Rymer et al. (2009) and Simon et al. (2010). Furthermore, the studies of Westlake et al. (2011) and Bell et al. (2011) showed that Titan’s upper atmosphere responds to changes in the ambient magnetospheric plasma on timescales of roughly one Titan day (16 Earth days). We report on recent studies of energy deposition in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Previous studies by Smith et al. (2009), Cravens et al. (2008), Tseng et al. (2008), and Shah et al. (2009) reported on energetic proton and oxygen ion precipitation. Back of the envelope calculations by Sittler et al. (2009) showed that magnetospheric energy inputs are expected to be of the order of or greater than the solar processes. We report on further analysis of the plasma environment around Titan during the flybys that the INMS has good data. We utilize data from the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument to determine how the magnetospheric particle population varies from pass to pass and how this influences the net magnetospheric energy input prior to the flyby. We also report on enhanced energetic neutral atom emissions during select highly energetic passes. References: Bell, J., et al.: “Simulating the time-dependent response of Titan's upper atmosphere to periods of magnetospheric forcing”. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06202, 2011. Rymer, A. M., et al.: “Discrete classification and electron

  20. Observation of energetic-ion losses induced by various MHD instabilities in the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Toi, K.; Watanabe, F.; Spong, Donald A; Shimizu, A.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Sakakibara, S.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic-ion losses induced by toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and resistive interchange modes (RICs) were observed in neutral-beam heated plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) at a relatively low toroidal magnetic field level (<= 0.75 T). The energy and pitch angle of the lost ions are detected using a scintillator-based lost-fast ion probe. Each instability increases the lost ions having a certain energy/pitch angle. TAE bursts preferentially induce energetic beam ions in co-passing orbits having energy from the injection energy E = 190keV down to 130 keV, while RICs expel energetic ions of E = 190 keV down to similar to 130 keV in passing-toroidally trapped boundary orbits. Loss fluxes induced by these instabilities increase with different dependences on the magnetic fluctuation amplitude: nonlinear and linear dependences for TAEs and RICs, respectively.

  1. Role of Alfvén Instabilities in Energetic Ion Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.G.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.D.; et al.

    1998-11-01

    Experiments of plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance of a minority specie have shown that the heating efficiency degrades above a certain power threshold. It is found that this threshold is due to the destabilization of a branch of shear Alfvén waves which causes a diffusive loss of fast ions, the Energetic Particle Modes. These modes not only play a fundamental role in the transport of the fast ions, but appear closely related to the formation of the giant sawteeth.

  2. Role of Alfv{acute e}n instabilities in energetic ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabei, S.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; White, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Zonca, F.; Zweben, S.

    1999-05-01

    Experiments with plasma heating by waves at the ion cyclotron resonance of a minority species have shown that the heating efficiency degrades above a certain power threshold. It is found that this threshold is due to the destabilization of a branch of shear Alfv{acute e}n waves, the Energetic Particle Modes, which causes a diffusive loss of fast ions. These modes not only play a fundamental role in the transport of the fast ions, but appear closely related to the formation of giant sawteeth. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Collective Temperature Anisotropy Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward

    2006-10-01

    Periodic focusing accelerators, transport systems and storage rings have a wide range of applications ranging from basic scientific research in high energy and nuclear physics, to applications such as ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and fusion, and spallation neutron sources. Of particular importance at the high beam currents and charge densities of practical interest, are the effects of the intense self fields produced by the beam space charge and current on determining the detailed equilibrium, stability and transport properties. Charged particle beams confined by external focusing fields represent an example of nonneutral plasma. A characteristic feature of such plasmas is the non-uniformity of the equilibrium density profiles and the nonlinearity of the self fields, which makes detailed analytical investigation very difficult. The development and application of advanced numerical tools such as eigenmode codes [1] and Monte-Carlo particle simulation methods [2] are often the only tractable approach to understand the underlying physics of different instabilities familiar in electrically neutral plasmas which may cause a degradation in beam quality. Two such instabilities are the electrostatic Harris instability [2] and the electromagnetic Weibel instability [1], both driven by a large temperature anisotropy which develops naturally in accelerators. The beam acceleration causes a large reduction in the longitudinal temperature and provides the free energy to drive collective temperature anisotropy instabilities. Such instabilities may lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which will make focusing the beam difficult, and may impose a limit on the beam luminosity and the minimum spot size achievable in focusing experiments. This paper reviews recent advances in the theory and simulation of collective instabilities in intense charged particle beams caused by temperature anisotropy. We also describe new simulation tools that have been

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Research within SEPServer - a Space Weather Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O. E.

    2012-04-01

    SEPServer is a three year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union. One of the primary goals of the project is to lead to novel knowledge on the source, acceleration and transport of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) during solar eruptions, a topic directly related to progress on Space Weather. This latter goal will be accomplished by both the extensive data analysis of energetic particle measurements hosted at SEPServer and the simulation-based data analysis methods capable of deconvolving the effects of interplanetary transport and solar injection from SEP observations. SEPServer focuses on the implementation of a comprehensive and up to date SEP event analysis service including scientific data driven analysis both for 1 AU and for > 1 AU using data from the SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, ACE/SIS, WIND/3DP, Ulysses/HISCALE, Ulysses/COSPIN/LET, Ulysses/COSPIN/KET, STEREO/LET and STEREO/SEPT experiments. SEPServer will also provide for the first time the release of the HELIOS data set in a reasonable format and in full time resolution, thus making available data also for orbits inside 1 AU (down to 0.3 AU). During the first year of the project a novel SEP event list, including 114 cases, based on SOHO/ERNE high energy protons (~70 MeV) was produced. In parallel, the systematic scanning of electrons from SOHO/EPHIN (0.25-3.0 MeV) and ACE/EPAM (45-312 keV) was also performed for all SEP cases. The corresponding EM emissions were also delivered and catalogued. Plots of SEP fluxes for electrons and ions in different energy channels from different instruments (SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM), onset time determination and time shifting analysis for the identification of the solar release times of electrons from SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM, and velocity dispersion analysis of protons observed by SOHO/ERNE were performed, together with a first comparison with the associated solar electromagnetic emissions. SEPServer is

  5. Energetic particle physics in fusion research in preparation for burning plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Pinches, S. D.; Toi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the ‘sea’ of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  6. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  7. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Fu, G. Y.; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  8. M3D-K Simulations of Sawteeth and Energetic Particle Transport in Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Fu, Guoyong; Sheng, Zhengmao; Breslau, Joshua; Wang, Feng

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear simulations of Sawteeth and energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/MHD hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles due to a resistive (1,1) internal kink mode for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in plasma core depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with previous theory. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases as particle energy becomes large.

  9. M3D-K simulations of sawteeth and energetic particle transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A.; Wang, Feng

    2014-09-15

    Nonlinear simulations of sawteeth and related energetic particle transport are carried out using the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K. MHD simulations show repeated sawtooth cycles for a model tokamak equilibrium. Furthermore, test particle simulations are carried out to study the energetic particle transport due to a sawtooth crash. The results show that energetic particles are redistributed radially in the plasma core, depending on pitch angle and energy. For trapped particles, the redistribution occurs for particle energy below a critical value in agreement with existing theories. For co-passing particles, the redistribution is strong with little dependence on particle energy. In contrast, the redistribution level of counter-passing particles decreases with increasing particle energy.

  10. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    2010-08-01

    The history of fusion research resembles the way in which one builds skyscrapers: laying the first foundation stone, one thinks about the top of the skyscraper. At the early stages of fusion, when it became clear that the thermonuclear reactor would operate with DT plasma confined by the magnetic field, the study of the `top item'—the physics of 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the DT fusion reaction—was initiated. The first publications on this topic appeared as long ago as the 1960s. At that time, because the physics of alpha particles was far from the experimental demand, investigations were carried out by small groups of theoreticians who hoped to discover important and interesting phenomena in this new research area. Soon after the beginning of the work, theoreticians discovered that alpha particles could excite various instabilities in fusion plasmas. In particular, at the end of the 1960s an Alfvén instability driven by alpha particles was predicted. Later it turned out that a variety of Alfvén instabilities with very different features does exist. Instabilities with perturbations of the Alfvénic type play an important role in current experiments; it is likely that they will affect plasma performance in ITER and future reactors. The first experimental manifestation of instabilities excited by superthermal particles in fusion devices was observed in the PDX tokamak in 1983. In this device a large-scale instability—the so called `fishbone instability'—associated with ions produced by the neutral beam injection resulted in a loss of a large fraction of the injected energy. Since then, the study of energetic-ion-driven instabilities and the effects produced by energetic ions in fusion plasmas has attracted the growing attention of both experimentalists and theorists. Recognizing the importance of this topic, the first conference on fusion alpha particles was held in 1989 in Kyiv under the auspices of the IAEA. The meeting in Kyiv and several

  11. Streaming reversal of energetic particles in the magnetotail during a substorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1984-01-01

    A case of reversal in the streaming anisotropy of energetic ions and in the plasma flow observed from the IMP 8 spacecraft during a substorm on February 8, 1978 is studied in detail using measurements of energetic particles, plasma, and magnetic field. Four new features emerge when high time resolution data are examined in detail. The times of streaming reversal of energetic particles in different energy ranges do not coincide with the time of plasma flow reversal. Qualitatively different velocity distributions are observed in earthward and tailward plasma flows during the observed flow reversal intervals. Strong tailward streaming of energetic particles can be detected during northward magnetic field environments and, conversely, earthward streaming in southward field environments. During the period of tailward streaming of energetic particles, earthward streaming fluxes are occasionally detected.

  12. {Interball-1 Plasma, Magnetic Field, and Energetic Particle Observations}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Funding from NASA was received in two installments. The first installment supported research using Russian/Czech/Slovak/French Interball-1 plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particles observations in the vicinity of the magnetopause. The second installment provided salary support to review unsolicited proposals to NASA for data recovery and archiving, and also to survey ISTP data provision efforts. Two papers were published under the auspices of the grant. Sibeck et al. reported Interball-1 observations of a wave on the magnetopause with an amplitude in excess of 5 R(sub E), the largest ever reported to date. They attributed the wave to a hot flow anomaly striking the magnetopause and suggested that the hot flow anomaly itself formed during the interaction of an IMF discontinuity with the bow shock. Nemecek et al. used Interball-1's VDP Faraday cup to identify large transient increases in the magnetosheath density. They noted large variations in simultaneous Wind observations of the IMF cone angle, but were unable to establish any relationship between the cone angle variations at Wind and the density variations at Interball-1. Funds from the second installment were used to review over 20 proposals from various researchers in the scientific community who sought NASA support to restore or archive past observations. It also supported a survey of ISTP data provisions which was used as input to a Senior Review of ongoing NASA ISTP programs.

  13. Associations of Accelerating CMEs with Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S.; Sheeley, N.; Reames, D.

    2001-05-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are well associated with fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The times of significant E > 10 MeV SEP events observed with the Goddard Space Flight Center EPACT detector on the Wind spacecraft have been compared with CME observations from the Lasco coronagraph on the SOHO spacecraft. As earlier studies have shown, a correlation exists between peak SEP intensities and the measured speeds of associated CMEs. Of the CMEs associated with SEP events in the period 1996 to 2000, we find 9 CMEs for which the height-time plots of the leading edges show accelerations of at least 13 m/s/s. The heights at which those CMEs attained speeds of 600 km/s ranged from 7 to 20 Ro. The peak 20 MeV intensities of the 9 SEP events are relatively low compared with all gradual SEP events of the same period. We compare the energy spectra and solar event associations of these 9 SEP events with those of the SEP events associated with CMEs of uniform speeds.

  14. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  15. Solar Energetic Particle Events in Different Types of Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-08-01

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar wind (SW) as classified by Richardson and Cane. Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V >~ 900 km s-1) and wide (W > 60°) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences among the transient, fast, and slow SW streams for SEP 20 MeV proton event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ~2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Events in Different Types of Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2014-06-01

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar winds (SWs) as classified by Richardson and Cane (2012). Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V > 900 km/s) and wide (W > 60 deg) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences between transient and fast or slow SW streams for SEP 20-MeV event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ~ 2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  17. The Origin of Element Abundance Variations in Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2016-08-01

    Abundance enhancements, during acceleration and transport in both gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, vary approximately as power laws in the mass-to-charge ratio [A/Q] of the ions. Since the Q-values depend upon the electron temperature of the source plasma, this has allowed a determination of this temperature from the pattern of element-abundance enhancements and a verification of the expected inverse-time dependence of the power of A/Q for diffusive transport of ions from the SEP events, with scattering mean free paths found to be between 0.2 and 1 AU. SEP events derived from plasma of different temperatures map into different regions in typical cross-plots of abundances, spreading the distributions. In comparisons of SEP events with temperatures above 2 MK, impulsive events show much broader non-thermal variation of abundances than do gradual events. The extensive shock waves accelerating ions in gradual events may average over much of an active region where numerous but smaller magnetic reconnections, "nanojets", produce suprathermal seed ions, thus averaging over varying abundances, while an impulsive SEP event only samples one local region of abundance variations. Evidence for a reference He/O-abundance ratio of 91, rather than 57, is also found for the hotter plasma. However, while this is similar to the solar-wind abundance of He/O, the solar-wind abundances otherwise provide an unacceptably poor reference for the SEP-abundance enhancements, generating extremely large errors.

  18. The Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on the Earths Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; García-Comas, M.; Bermejo-Pantaleón, D.; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) represents an important Sun-Earth coupling mechanism with important implications on polar stratospheric ozone chemistry. Solar protons generated during solar storms cause sporadically in situ production of stratospheric NO x and HO x radicals involved in catalytic ozone destruction. Further, NO produced continuously in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by medium energy electron precipitation (EEP) descends to the stratosphere during the polar winter, where it represents an additional, though variable source of NO x . The capability of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) to measure all important NO y species, as well as ClO and HOCl with global coverage including the polar night regions make it an ideal instrument for studying EPP effects on stratospheric chemistry. We present a quantitative assessment of EPP-induced composition changes as observed by MIPAS during 2002-2004, including the unusually strong solar proton event in October/November 2003. The impact of EPP on the stratospheric ozone budget has been studied with chemical models. The stratospheric ozone loss in the polar regions reached 18DU and lasted over months to years.

  19. Energetic Particle Abundances as Probes of an Interplanetary Shock Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Tylka, A. J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We examine the unique abundance variations of Fe/O and He/H in solar energetic particles from a W09 event of 2001 April 10, that have leaked through the flank of an interplanetary shock launched from W04 on April 9. Shock waves from both events reach the Wind spacecraft on April 11. During the second event, both Fe/O and He/H begin at low values and rise to maxima near the time of passage of the shock waves, indicating greater scattering for the species with the highest rigidity at a given velocity. Strong modulation of Fe/O suggests preferential scattering and trapping of Fe by the wave spectrum near and behind the intermediate shock. A significant factor may be the residual proton-generated waves from the very hard proton spectrum accelerated by the early shock wave prior to the onset of the second event. Thus, ion abundances from the later event probe the residual wave spectrum at the earlier shock.

  20. Energetic Particle-Driven ULF Waves in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; James, M. K.; Klimushkin, D. Yu.; Mager, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric radar systems have proved to be a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetospheric ULF waves. High-m poloidal waves become much more attenuated in ground magnetometer data than low-m toroidal waves. For this reason ionospheric radar systems have been effective in the study of high-m poloidal waves driven by energetic particle populations within the magnetosphere, and it is this class of ULF waves that is discussed in this chapter. More recent ionospheric observations of high-m ULF waves have taken advantage of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). SuperDARN is a global array of high-frequency (HF) radars. In a Doppler sounder, use is made of the direct reflection of a radio wave from the ionosphere, rather than a scattering process. A number of alternative techniques are available for exploring the ionospheric signatures of such wave events, which are relatively underexploited, and have the potential to provide important new observations.

  1. Enhancements of energetic particles near the heliospheric termination shock.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Frank B; Stone, Edward C; Cummings, Alan C; Heikkila, Bryant; Lal, Nand; Webber, William R

    2003-11-01

    The spacecraft Voyager 1 is at a distance greater than 85 au from the Sun, in the vicinity of the termination shock that marks the abrupt slowing of the supersonic solar wind and the beginning of the extended and unexplored distant heliosphere. This shock is expected to accelerate 'anomalous cosmic rays', as well as to re-accelerate Galactic cosmic rays and low-energy particles from the inner Solar System. Here we report a significant increase in the numbers of energetic ions and electrons that persisted for seven months beginning in mid-2002. This increase differs from any previously observed in that there was a simultaneous increase in Galactic cosmic ray ions and electrons, anomalous cosmic rays and low-energy ions. The low-intensity level and spectral energy distribution of the anomalous cosmic rays, however, indicates that Voyager 1 still has not reached the termination shock. Rather, the observed increase is an expected precursor event. We argue that the radial anisotropy of the cosmic rays is expected to be small in the foreshock region, as is observed. PMID:14603312

  2. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R., III

    1981-01-01

    The Low Energy Telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft are used to measure the elemental composition (2 or = Z or = 28) and energy spectra (5 to 15 MeV/nucleon) of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in seven large flare events. Four flare events are selected which have SEP abundance ratios approximately independent of energy/nucleon. The abundances for these events are compared from flare to flare and are compared to solar abundances from other sources: spectroscopy of the photosphere and corona, and solar wind measurements. The four flare average SEP composition is significantly different from the solar composition determined by photospheric spectroscopy. The average SEP composition is in agreement with solar wind abundance results and with a number of recent coronal abundance measurements. The evidence for a common depletion of oxygen in SEPs, the corona and the solar wind relative to the photosphere suggest that the SEPs originate in the corona and that both the SEPs and solar wind sample a coronal composition which is significantly and persistently different from that of the photosphere.

  3. Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particle by CME induced shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Chun; Liou, Kan; Dryer, Murray; Wu, Shitsan; Tylka, Allan J.

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may play a major role on the Space Weather forecast since it only takes about 8 minutes (for an representative ion accelerated to 0.5c at a shock's COBPoint at roughly 0.5 AU) to propagate from the Sun to the Earth. COBPoint means Connection of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with Observer Point. It is well known that SEPs can be generated by interplanetary (IP) shocks which are driven by the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using both a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulation and ACE's EPAM data analysis, "how SEPs are being accelerated by IP shocks?" will be presented. Three SEP events occurred during Halloween 2003 epoch will be presented in this study. We assume that the flares occur close enough to the the ecliptic plane to justify the use of the 1.5D approximation and, thus, the IMF connection from the shocks' COBPoint to ACE. We also assume, as a further "first-look" approximation, that the COBPoint is always on the Sun-Earth line. The correlation coefficient for "IP shock Mach number" vs. "SEPs enhancement" will be calculated to interpret "how SEPs are generated by IP shocks?" thus supporting the empirical and existing discussion concerning the need for a high shock compression ratio.

  4. The Origin of Element Abundance Variations in Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2016-07-01

    Abundance enhancements, during acceleration and transport in both gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, vary approximately as power laws in the mass-to-charge ratio [ A/Q] of the ions. Since the Q-values depend upon the electron temperature of the source plasma, this has allowed a determination of this temperature from the pattern of element-abundance enhancements and a verification of the expected inverse-time dependence of the power of A/Q for diffusive transport of ions from the SEP events, with scattering mean free paths found to be between 0.2 and 1 AU. SEP events derived from plasma of different temperatures map into different regions in typical cross-plots of abundances, spreading the distributions. In comparisons of SEP events with temperatures above 2 MK, impulsive events show much broader non-thermal variation of abundances than do gradual events. The extensive shock waves accelerating ions in gradual events may average over much of an active region where numerous but smaller magnetic reconnections, "nanojets", produce suprathermal seed ions, thus averaging over varying abundances, while an impulsive SEP event only samples one local region of abundance variations. Evidence for a reference He/O-abundance ratio of 91, rather than 57, is also found for the hotter plasma. However, while this is similar to the solar-wind abundance of He/O, the solar-wind abundances otherwise provide an unacceptably poor reference for the SEP-abundance enhancements, generating extremely large errors.

  5. Solar energetic particle events in different types of solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-08-10

    We examine statistically some properties of 96 20 MeV gradual solar energetic proton (SEP) events as a function of three different types of solar wind (SW) as classified by Richardson and Cane. Gradual SEP (E > 10 MeV) events are produced in shocks driven by fast (V ≳ 900 km s{sup –1}) and wide (W > 60°) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We find no differences among the transient, fast, and slow SW streams for SEP 20 MeV proton event timescales. It has recently been found that the peak intensities Ip of these SEP events scale with the ∼2 MeV proton background intensities, which may be a proxy for the near-Sun shock seed particles. Both the intensities Ip and their 2 MeV backgrounds are significantly enhanced in transient SW compared to those of fast and slow SW streams, and the values of Ip normalized to the 2 MeV backgrounds only weakly correlate with CME V for all SW types. This result implies that forecasts of SEP events could be improved by monitoring both the Sun and the local SW stream properties and that the well known power-law size distributions of Ip may differ between transient and long-lived SW streams. We interpret an observed correlation between CME V and the 2 MeV background for SEP events in transient SW as a manifestation of enhanced solar activity.

  6. Solar Energetic Particles within the STEREO era: 2007-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, A.; Malandraki, O. E.; Heber, B.; Dresing, N.; Klein, K. L.; Vainio, R.; Rodriguez-Gasen, R.; Klassen, A.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Vilmer, N.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Tziotziou, K.; Tsiropoula, G.

    2013-09-01

    STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) recordings provide an unprecedented opportunity to identify the evolution of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) at different observing points in the heliosphere, which is expected to provide new insight on the physics of solar particle genesis, propagation and acceleration as well as on the properties of the interplanetary magnetic field that control these acceleration and propagation processes. In this work, two instruments onboard STEREO have been used in order to identify all SEP events observed within the rising phase of solar cycle 24 from 2007 to 2011, namely: the Low Energy Telescope (LET) and the Solar Electron Proton Telescope (SEPT). A scan over STEREO/LET protons within the energy range 6-10 MeV has been performed for each of the two STEREO spacecraft. We have tracked all enhancements that have been observed above the background level of this particular channel and cross checked with available lists on STEREO/ICMEs, SIRs and shocks as well as with the reported events in literature. Furthermore, parallel scanning of the STEREO/SEPT electrons in order to pinpoint the presence (or not) of an electron event has been performed in the energy range of 55-85 keV, for all of the aforementioned proton events, included in our lists. We provide the onset of all events for both protons and electrons, time-shifting analysis for near relativistic electrons which lead to the inferred solar release time and the relevant solar associations from radio spectrographs (Nancay Decametric Array; STEREO/WAVES) to GOES Soft X-rays and coronal mass ejections spotted by both SOHO/LASCO and STEREO Coronographs

  7. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS AND THE KIPLINGER EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.

    2012-03-01

    The Kiplinger effect is an observed association of solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events with a 'soft-hard-harder' (SHH) spectral evolution during the extended phases of the associated solar hard (E > 30 keV) X-ray (HXR) flares. Besides its possible use as a space weather predictor of SEP events, the Kiplinger effect has been interpreted as evidence of SEP production in the flare site itself, contradicting the widely accepted view that particles of large SEP events are predominately or entirely accelerated in shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review earlier work to develop flare soft X-ray (SXR) and HXR spectra as SEP event forecast tools and then examine recent Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) evidence supporting the association of SHH HXR flares with large SEP events. We point out that ad hoc prediction criteria using the CME widths and SXR flare durations of associated RHESSI hard X-ray bursts (HXBs) can yield results comparable to those of the SHH prediction criteria. An examination of the RHESSI dynamic plots reveals several ambiguities in the determination of whether and when the SHH criteria are fulfilled, which must be quantified and applied consistently before an SHH-based predictive tool can be made. A comparative HXR spectral study beginning with the large population of relatively smaller SEP events has yet to be done, and we argue that those events will not be so well predicted by the SHH criteria. SHH HXR flares and CMEs are both components of large eruptive flare events, which accounts for the good connection of the SHH HXR flares with SEP events.

  8. Sheath dynamics and energetic particle distributions on substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Michael A.

    2009-10-01

    The energy and angular distributions (EAD's) of energetic particles arriving at a substrate determine crucial plasma processing characteristics; thus knowledge and control of the EAD's are vital for nanoelectronics design and fabrication during scale-down to the ultimate 4--6 nm transistor gate lengths over the next 15 years. We review the history and state-of-the-art of measurements, simulations, and analyses of ion, fast neutral, and ballistic electron EAD's. Ion measurements have been made using electrostatic energy analyzers, cylindrical mirror analyzers, and retarding grid analyzers, often now coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometers to compare different ions in the same discharge. The state-of-the-art for capacitive rf sheaths has advanced greatly since the first observation of a bi-modal ion energy distribution (IED) over 50 years ago. More recently, measurement techniques and models have been developed to determine fast neutral distributions. Monte Carlo, and particle-in-cell simulations with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC) have been used to study IED's since the late 1980's. Recently, PIC-MCC simulations were used to obtain ballistic electron EAD's. Analytical models of the IED for collisionless rf sheaths have emphasized the role of τi/τrf, the ratio of ion transit time across the sheath to rf period, with separate models for the low and high frequency regimes. Various simplifications and bridging models now exist. For collisional rf sheaths, the important role of λi/s, the ratio of ion-neutral mean free path to sheath width, in modifying the collisionless bi-modal IED was demonstrated in the early 1990's. Surface charging effects on insulating substrates are important for low frequency rf discharges or for pulsed transient sheaths; the latter are found during plasma ion implantation processes. Analytical models of the IED for plasma ion implantation have been extended to insulating surfaces and compared with experimental results.

  9. Ionospheric Electric Field and Energetic Particles; Past Successes, Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, A. S.

    2005-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (1957-58) saw a step-increase in the number of ionospheric observations in both polar regions and the establishment of the World Data Centres allowing free exchange of information. Exploitation of these data from such networks of observatories, combined with the early satellite measurements, demonstrated that electric fields and energetic particles driven by solar wind-magnetosphere interactions are of paramount importance in determining the structure and dynamics of the high-latitude ionosphere. Over the next five decades, much greater understanding of the interactions of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system has been achieved. Many features and phenomena can now be predicted with a good degree of accuracy, given the initial solar wind conditions. A few scientific milestones will be presented, many of which have resulted from technical innovations, such as coherent and incoherent radars, and optical imaging. The International Heliophysical and Polar Years offer an excellent opportunity to address the outstanding issues of geospace research. Specific examples will be described. These include the spatial and temporal deposition of energy into the ionosphere and thermosphere by particles and electric fields both on the day side and nightside as a result of reconnection and substorms, and the interaction of micro-scale processes on the meso and macro-scale structure of the coupled system. Such complex topics can now be addressed for the first time with the enhanced capabilities of the ground-based networks of observatories, well complemented by remote sensing from satellites. The outcome will be much improved understanding of the closely-coupled SW-M-I-T system and hence better predictions both for space weather and Sun-Earth connections.

  10. Prediction of solar energetic particle event histories using real-time particle and solar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Gold, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The comparatively well-ordered magnetic structure in the solar corona during the decline of Solar Cycle 20 revealed a characteristic dependence of solar energetic particle injection upon heliographic longitude. When analyzed using solar wind mapping of the large scale interplanetary magnetic field line connection from the corona to the Earth, particle fluxes display an approximately exponential dependence on heliographic longitude. Since variations in the solar wind velocity (and hence the coronal connection longitude) can severely distort the simple coronal injection profile, the use of real-time solar wind velocity measurements can be of great aid in predicting the decay of solar particle events. Although such exponential injection profiles are commonplace during 1973-1975, they have also been identified earlier in Solar Cycle 20, and hence this structure may be present during the rise and maximum of the cycle, but somewhat obscured by greater temporal variations in particle injection.