Science.gov

Sample records for energy authority mortality

  1. Collection and validation of data in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority mortality study.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, P; Booth, M; Beral, V; Inskip, H; Firsht, S; Speak, S

    1985-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority mortality study investigated the relation between mortality and recorded exposure to ionising radiation among employees working at the authority's seven establishments between 1946 and 1979. This report examines the design of the study and methods of data collection and validation. The completeness of the study population was deemed to be unsatisfactory at two establishments, where records of employment before 1965 had been destroyed. Assessment of the magnitude of the deficit led to the conclusion that the data from these establishments were too incomplete for inclusion in the mortality analysis. At the other establishments validation showed that the data collected were accurate and unbiased. Certain characteristics of the 39 546 employees included in the mortality analysis were identified which were relevant in interpreting the findings. PMID:3926231

  2. Cancer mortality among local authority pest control officers in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, H F; Winter, P D; Donaldson, L J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine cancer mortality by tumour site among local authority pest control officers. METHODS: Prospective mortality study, and follow up to the end of 1994, of 1485 male pest control officers aged between 17 and 69 and employed in 296 local authorities in England and Wales for at least six months between January 1980 and April 1984. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with those expected on the basis of the rates for relevant calendar year, cause, sex, and age specific groups for England and Wales. RESULTS: 200 deaths occurred during the follow up period of which 65 were certified as due to malignant neoplasms. No tumour type showed significantly more deaths than expected. Total all cause, lung cancer, and respiratory disease mortality were significantly lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: 15 year follow up of a group of men handling a wide range of pesticides did not show any significant risk of cancer. This may be partially explained by the healthy worker effect and also the limited power of the study to detect significant increases in the less common tumours. Further long term follow up of this cohort will continue. Chemical control of pests that can cause human disease and can contaminate food and water has been, and will continue to be, a major public health measure. It is important to ensure that the health of those applying pesticides is not at excess risk. Negative results are important. PMID:9038805

  3. Capitation funding: population, age, and mortality adjustments for regional and district health authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Raftery, J

    1993-10-30

    This study examined the three components (population projection, age, and mortality weights) in the national funding formula for hospital and community health services in regions and districts. The age cost weights, based on national average age use profiles of 29 programs, emphasized births and elderly age groups. The results of the application of the formula (mid year population projections by age group, age cost weights for each age group of total population, and adjustment to total population by the square root of the all cause standardized mortality ratio among those aged under 75 years) were as follows. The application to the 1997 population regionally showed many changes. Changes in population share for regional health authorities were due more to age weights and mortality and ranged from -9% in the Northwest Region to 6% in the South Western Region. At the District level the changes ranged from -17% to 28%. There were 99 districts that lost funding and 87 districts that gained funding. All regions had some of both districts, except the Northern Region and South Western Regions which had only 3 district losers. In North East Thames, there were only losers with the exception of one district. South East Thames had the widest disparity in gainers and losers from -15% to 28% and in the South West from -14% to 27%. Population projection effects indicated that new towns were gainers of funding and older areas were losers. The share from population projections ranged from -16% to 31%. The age cost weight's effects ranged from -20% to 30%. Some districts were affected greatly: gainers were seaside resorts with large elderly populations. The mortality weight's effects ranged from -9% to 14%. Northern districts and inner city London districts tended to be gainers. The conclusion was that age weights accounted for the bulk of gains. The methodology should be reexamined with attention to the age cost weights and dramatic changes in funding at the district level that are

  4. Housing authority of Baltimore City-Public Housing Energy Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project operating at the Goddard Space Flight Center was called upon by the Housing Authority of Baltimore City to consider the problems of providing low cost public housing because of increased energy costs and suggest methods for correction and alleviation. The first step chosen was to elicit as many different options for solution as possible through means of a Public Housing Energy Workshop held in Easton, Md. in September 1980. A final role for the Workshop was a listing and qualifying of each alternative as to its suitability and cost. Specific areas were examined by three panels: (1) Systems, (2) Conservation and Motivation, and (3) Fuels. Each panel was made up of persons from differing but appropriate backgrounds; membership was not restricted to housing people alone. A summary of their deliberations is given - it will be used as a stepping stone to further selection and implementation of alternatives.

  5. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes.

  6. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests.

    PubMed

    Das, Adrian J; Stephenson, Nathan L; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California's Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes. PMID:23936118

  7. Climatic Correlates of Tree Mortality in Water- and Energy-Limited Forests

    PubMed Central

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Flint, Alan; Das, Tapash; van Mantgem, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1) drought stress, or (2) the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California’s Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation) forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation) forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes. PMID:23936118

  8. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  9. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Artalejo, F; Castaño Lara, S; de Andrés Manzano, B; García Ferruelo, M; Iglesias Martín, L; Calero, J R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to ascertain whether mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (Junta de Energía Nuclear-JEN) was higher than that for the Spanish population overall; and secondly, if this were so, to ascertain whether this difference was associated with exposure to ionising radiation. METHODS: A retrospective follow up of a cohort of 5657 workers was carried out for the period 1954-92. Cohort mortality was compared with that for the Spanish population overall, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for sex, age, and calendar period. Also, Poisson models were used to analyse mortality from lung cancer in the cohort by level of exposure to ionising radiation. RESULTS: Workers' median and mean cumulative exposures were 4.04 and 11.42 mSv, respectively. Mean annual exposure was 1.33 mSv. Excess mortality due to bone tumours was found for the cohort as a whole (six deaths observed; SMR 2.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 6.43). Among miners, excess mortality was found for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 2.94; 95% CI 2.27 to 3.75), and for lung cancer bordering on statistical significance (SMR 1.50; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.23; P = 0.055). Relative risks of dying of lung cancer from ionising radiation in the dose quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus the lowest dose quartile, were 1.00, 1.64, and 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality from lung cancer was found among JEN miners. Nevertheless, no clear relation was found between mortality from lung cancer and level of exposure to ionising radiation in the JEN cohort. Continued follow up of the cohort is required to confirm excess mortality from bone tumours. PMID:9155782

  10. Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered tree mortality is now emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. We demonstrate the link between climate-sensitive tree mortality and risks of altered earth system function though carbon, water, and energy exchange. Tree mortality causes a loss of carbon stocks from an ecosystem and a reduction sequestration capacity. Recent research has shown that the 2000s pinyon pine die-off in the southwest US caused the loss of 4.6 Tg of aboveground carbon stocks from the region in 5 years, far exceeding carbon loss from other disturbances. Widespread tree mortality in British Columbia resulted in the loss of 270 Tg of carbon, shifting affected forestland from a carbon sink to a source, and influenced Canadian forest policy on carbon stocks. Tree mortality, as an immediate loss of live tree cover, directly alters albedo, near-ground solar radiation, and the relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration to total evapotranspiration. Near-ground solar radiation, an important ecosystem trait affecting soil heating and water availability, increased regionally following the pinyon pine die-off. Conversely, forest canopy loss with tree mortality, is expected to increase regional albedo, especially for forests which experience winter snow cover, potentially offsetting the climate forcing of terrestrial carbon releases to the atmosphere. Initial hydrological response to die-off is likely a reduction in evapotranspiration, which can increase

  11. Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Carolyn Stewart, Red Mountain Tribal Energy

    2008-03-31

    The project, “Renewable Energy Feasibility Study” was designed to expand upon previous work done by the Tribe in evaluating utility formation, generation development opportunities, examining options for creating self-sufficiency in energy matters, and integrating energy management with the Tribe’s economic development goals. The evaluation of project locations and economic analysis, led to a focus primarily on solar projects.

  12. The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.

  13. 75 FR 21290 - Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 12, 2010, Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C....

  14. Impact of energy intake, physical activity, and population-wide weight loss on cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality in Cuba, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Orduñez, Pedro; Caballero, Benjamín; Tapia Granados, José A; Lazo, Mariana; Bernal, José Luís; Guallar, Eliseo; Cooper, Richard S

    2007-12-15

    Cuba's economic crisis of 1989-2000 resulted in reduced energy intake, increased physical activity, and sustained population-wide weight loss. The authors evaluated the possible association of these factors with mortality trends. Data on per capita daily energy intake, physical activity, weight loss, and smoking were systematically retrieved from national and local surveys. National vital statistics from 1980-2005 were used to assess trends in mortality from diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and all causes. The crisis reduced per capita daily energy intake from 2,899 calories to 1,863 calories. During the crisis period, the proportion of physically active adults increased from 30% to 67%, and a 1.5-unit shift in the body mass index distribution was observed, along with a change in the distribution of body mass index categories. The prevalence of obesity declined from 14% to 7%, the prevalence of overweight increased 1%, and the prevalence of normal weight increased 4%. During 1997-2002, there were declines in deaths attributed to diabetes (51%), coronary heart disease (35%), stroke (20%), and all causes (18%). An outbreak of neuropathy and a modest increase in the all-cause death rate among the elderly were also observed. These results suggest that population-wide measures designed to reduce energy stores, without affecting nutritional sufficiency, may lead to declines in diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. PMID:17881386

  15. Turtles and culverts, and alternative energy development: an unreported but potentially significant mortality threat to the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, J.E.; Ennen, J.R.; Madrak, S.; Grover, B.

    2011-01-01

    Culverts are often used to increase the permeability of roaded landscapes for wildlife, including turtles. Although the benefits of culverts as safe passages for turtles are well documented, under some conditions culverts can entrap them and cause mortality. Here we report a culvert-related mortality in the federally threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in California and offer simple recommendations to mitigate the negative effects of culverts for wildlife in general.

  16. 78 FR 16849 - Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference On March 8, 2013, Commission staff, in response to the filing of a notice of ] study dispute by the U.S. National...

  17. Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA): Hawaii Ocean Science & Technology Park; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii

    DOE Data Explorer

    Olson, K.; Andreas, A.

    2012-11-01

    A partnership with the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  18. Coral mortality increases wave energy reaching shores protected by reef flats: Examples from the Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Charles; Dixon, David J.; Gourlay, Michael; Sheppard, Anne; Payet, Rolph

    2005-08-01

    In the granitic Seychelles, many shores and beaches are fringed by coral reef flats which provide protection to shores from erosion by waves. The surfaces of these reef flats support a complex ecology. About 10 years ago their seaward zones were extensively covered by a rich coral growth, which reached approximately to mean low water level, but in 1998 this was largely killed by seawater warming. The resulting large expanses of dead coral skeletons in these locations are now disintegrating, and much of the subsequent modest recovery by new coral recruitment was set back by further mortalities. A mathematical model of wave energy reaching shorelines protected by coral reef flats has been applied to 14 Seychelles reefs. It is derived from equations which predict: (1) the raised water level, or wave set-up, on reef flats resulting from wave breaking, which depends upon offshore wave height and period, depth of still water over the reef flat and the reef crest profile, and (2) the decay of energy from reef edge to shoreline that is affected by width of reef flat, surface roughness, sea level rise and 'pseudo-sea level rise' created by increased depth resulting from disintegration of coral colonies. The model treats each reef as one entity, but because biota and zonation on reef flats are not homogenous, all reefs are divided into four zones. In each, cover by both living and dead biota was estimated for calculation of parameters, and then averaged to obtain input data for the model. All possible biological factors were taken into account, such as the ability of seagrass beds to grow upwards to match expected sea level rise, reduction in height of the reef flat in relation to sea level as zones of dead corals decay, and the observed 'rounding' of reef crests as erosion removes corals from those areas. Estimates were also made of all these factors for a time approximately a decade ago, representing a time before the mass coral mortality, and for approximately a decade in

  19. Local to regional scale energy balance consequences of widespread mortality in piñon-juniper woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Morillas, L.; Hilton, T. W.; Fox, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The southwestern U.S. experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands were extremely vulnerable to this drought, experiencing 40 to 95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years. Understanding the response trajectories of these woodlands is crucial given that climate projections for the region suggest that episodic droughts, and associated conifer mortality, are likely to increase in frequency and severity in the coming century. We used a combination of eddy covariance, high-resolution remotely sensed datasets, and sap flow made at an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) in central New Mexico and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm dbh were girdled (decreasing LAI by ~ 1/3) to quantify the response of ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes in PJ woodlands to piñon mortality. The girdled site has gradually become both warmer and drier following piñon mortality (annual average temperatures have been 0.6 - 1.2 C warmer than the control site over past 5 years). Our analyses suggest the mortality-triggered decrease in aerodynamic conductance is largely responsible for the increase in surface temperature. In addition, both carbon and water cycling in the girdled site have been more sensitive than the control site to the extreme drought experienced from 2011-2013. We compare these results from our manipulation experiment to: 1) observations in PJ control site and surrounding area following 2013 die-off triggered by bark beetles, 2) responses of MODIS land surface temperature and leaf area index in NM PJ woodlands to climatic variables before and after mortality, and 3) output from CLM4 run in point mode for PJ woodlands where we modified percent vegetation/bare ground cover and quantified the model sensitivity of

  20. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...The Forest Service is amending its internal directives for special use authorizations and wildlife monitoring. The amendments provide direction and guidance specific to wind energy projects on National Forest System (NFS) lands. These amendments supplement, rather than supplant or duplicate, existing special use and wildlife directives to address issues specifically associated with siting,......

  1. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  2. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, C; Beral, V; Maconochie, N; Fraser, P; Davies, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer. SUBJECTS--136 men with prostatic cancer diagnosed between 1946 and 1986 and 404 matched controls, all employees of United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Documented or possible contamination with specific radionuclides. RESULTS--Risk of prostatic cancer was significantly increased in men who were internally contaminated with or who worked in environments potentially contaminated by tritium, chromium-51, iron-59, cobalt-60, or zinc-65. Internal contamination with at least one of the five radionuclides was detected in 14 men with prostatic cancer (10%) and 12 controls (3%) (relative risk 5.32 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 17.24). Altogether 28 men with prostatic cancer (21%) and 46 controls (11%) worked in environments potentially contaminated by at least one of the five radionuclides (relative risk 2.36 (1.26 to 4.43)); about two thirds worked at heavy water reactors (19 men with prostatic cancer and 32 controls (relative risk 2.13 (1.00 to 4.52)). Relative risk of prostatic cancer increased with increasing duration of work in places potentially contaminated by these radionuclides and with increasing level of probable contamination. Prostatic cancer was not associated with exposure to plutonium, uranium, cadmium, boron, beryllium, or organic or inorganic chemicals. CONCLUSIONS--Risk of prostatic cancer risk was increased in United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority workers who were occupationally exposed to tritium, 51Cr, 59Fe, 60Co, or 65Zn. Exposure to

  3. 78 FR 11867 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 31, 2013, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and CenterPoint's blanket certificate authorized...

  4. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, Christine

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  5. Morris County Improvement Authority, Morris County, New Jersey Renewable Energy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanni, John

    2013-05-01

    The Morris County Improvement Authority (Authority), a public body corporate and politic of the State of New Jersey and created and controlled by the County, at the direction of the County and through the Program guaranteed by the County, financed 3.2 MW of solar projects (Solar Projects) at fifteen (15) sites for seven (7) local government units (Local Units) in and including the County. The Program uses a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) structure, where the Solar Developer constructs, operates and maintains all of the Solar Projects, for the benefit of the Local Units and the Authority, for the maximum State law allowable PPA period of fifteen (15) years. Although all fifteen (15) sites were funded by the Authority, only the Mennen Arena site was considered for the purposes of the required local match funding for this grant. Specifically at the Mennen Arena site, the Authority financed 1.6 MW of solar panels. On October 18, 2013, the DOE Grant was drawn down following completion of the necessary application documents and final execution of an agreement memorializing the contemplated transaction by the Local Units, the County, The Authority and the solar developer. The proceeds of the DOE Grant were then applied to reduce the PPA price to all Local Units across the program and increase the savings from approximately 1/3 to almost half off the existing and forecasted utility pricing over the fifteen (15) year term, without adversely affecting all of the other benefits. With the application of the rate buy down, the price of electricity purchased under the PPA dropped from 10.9 to 7.7 cents/kWh. This made acquisition of renewable energy much more affordable for the Local Units, and it enhanced the success of the program, which will encourage other counties and local units to develop similar programs.

  6. ACEEE 1990 summer study on energy efficiency in buildings: Proceedings. Subject and Author Index

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The sixth Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, a biennial conference, attracts an international and interdisciplinary audience from utilities, public-interest groups, public utility commissions, government agencies, universities, research institutions, and appliance manufacturers, as well as builders, architects, and engineers. During this year`s week-long conference, participants exchange information and share ideas on how to improve the efficient use of energy in buildings. The 1990 Summer Study focuses on what we know now about energy efficiency in buildings and where we should be headed. Topics examined include new technologies for residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; improved appliance and equipment efficiency; cost-effective building retrofits; design and implementation of government programs; marketing demand-side programs; least-cost utility planning; and other utility issues. This year, because of the increased interest in such environmental issues as global warming, acid rain, and ozone depletion, recently completed research on energy efficiency and the environment is also presented for discussion. These individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base. This current volume includes author and subject indexes to these papers.

  7. 77 FR 53885 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 15, 2012, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC (CenterPoint), 1111 Louisiana...

  8. 77 FR 26543 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 13, 2012, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC (CEGT), 1111 Louisiana...

  9. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  10. Islip Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Islip, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    More than 1 million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  11. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  12. Mortal assets

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, John J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2005-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). Whle associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15

  13. Effects of fluctuating temperature on mortality, stress, and energy reserves of juvenile coho salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.E.; Gharrett, J.A.; Carls, M.G.; Rice, S.D.; Moles, A.; Korn, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of fluctuating diel temperature cycles on survival, growth, plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, liver weight, and liver glycogen of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were determined. Temperature cycles (10-13/sup 0/, 9-15/sup 0/, 8-17/sup 0/, and 6.5-20/sup 0/C) were selected to stimulate observed temperatures in clear-cuts of southeastern Alaska. Different levels of feeding, including starvation, were used in each of the tests. LT50s (peak temperature within a cycle producing 50% mortality) were 28/sup 0/C for age-0 fish (350 mg) and 26/sup 0/ for age-II fish (22-g presmolts). Cyclic temperatures for 40 d, averaging 11/sup 0/C daily, did not influence growth of age-0 fish on any food ration as compared to controls held at a constant 11/sup 0/C. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were significantly greater in fish maintained for 20 d in the 6.5-20/sup 0/C cycle but not different in fish in 10-13/sup 0/ and 9-15/sup 0/ cycles or a constant 11/sup 0/C. These elevated concentrations may be indicators of long-term stress. Plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in starved fish than in fed fish at all temperature regimes; however, fluctuating temperature did not enhance starvation effects on cortisol levels. Diel temperature cycles did not affect liver weights or liver glycogen concentrations.

  14. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Islip Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Islip, New York

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dentz, F. Conlin, D. Podorson, and K. Alaigh

    2014-08-01

    In this project, Building America team ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHA) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  15. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  16. 76 FR 47144 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. (Barite Milling); Larose, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. (Barite... the Federal Register (76 FR 4284, 01/25/2011) and the application has been processed pursuant to the...,'' and authorizes the Foreign-Trade Zones Board to grant to qualified corporations the privilege...

  17. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an application (Application) filed on February 22, 2013, by Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC (FME), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 24 million metric tons per year (mtpa), which FME states is......

  18. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Research projects` update project status as of March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report provides an update of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) program. The NYSERDA research and development program has five major areas: industry, buildings, energy resources, transportation, and environment. NYSERDA organizes projects within these five major areas based on energy use and supply, and end-use sectors. Therefore, issues such as waste management, energy products and renewable energy technologies are addressed in several areas of the program. The project descriptions presented are organized within the five program areas. Descriptions of projects completed between the period April 1, 1996, and March 31, 1997, including technology-transfer activities, are at the end of each subprogram section.

  19. 77 FR 64982 - WBI Energy Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... this Application should be directed to Keith A. Tiggelaar, Director of Regulatory Affairs, WBI Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission WBI Energy Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket...

  20. Department of Energy Office of Energy Research Programs: Fiscal year 1996 authorization testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1995-02-15

    Fusion energy is not as mature as the other energy options. However, in recent years fusion research has focused on its energy mission, and the progress has been impressive. Ten years ago, many observers questioned whether fusion in the laboratory was scientifically feasible. Today, few question fusion`s basic feasibility, and the issues have shifted to its economic and environmental aspects. This is a measure of the progress the program has made. For the reasons outlined here, the author requests Congress to support at a minimum the Administration`s FY96 budget request of $366 Million for fusion energy. This level permits the program to continue developing the tokamak as its principal fusion concept. The level is, however, insufficient to pursue meaningful development of specialized materials and non-tokamak alternatives which are sure to play important roles in enabling fusion to reach its highest potential attractiveness.

  1. Depositional response to seagrass mortality along a low-energy, barrier-island coast: west-central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.W.; Hine, A.C.; David, R.A.; Belknap, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of aerial photographs and surficial sediment samples from the northern islands of the west-central barrier system of Florida indicates that: (1) seagrass beds in the nearshore zone have controlled onshore/longshore sand transport, and (2) resulting sedimentary accumulations within nearshore seagrass beds make differentiation of nearshore and backbarrier facies difficult. Between 1957 and 1973, an extensive seagrass community occupying the nearshore zone off Anclote Key disappeared, thus allowing the sudden and rapid onshore and longshore transport of sand. The 1000 year old barrier island lengthened 30% by recurved spit growth in this very short period of time. Although there are not direct observations, four possible causes of seagrass mortality have been postulated, and of these overgrazing as a result of the accelerated population growth of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus) seems to be the most likely cause. Because of the ability of seagrasses to trap fine-grained sediments, contribute organic matter, and provide for low-energy, sheltered, molluscan biocoenosis, there is little depositional difference between these nearshore and backbarrier/lagoonal facies. This work indicates that the development and destruction of benthic floral communities should be considered as a process that generates or accentuates episodicity/cyclicity in the sedimentary record. Additionally, such changes in these communities should be expected to present a blurred distinction between certain types of coastal sedimentary facies.

  2. Sublethal exposure to azamethiphos causes neurotoxicity, altered energy allocation and high mortality during simulated live transport in American lobster.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C M; Burridge, L E

    2015-05-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, sea lice outbreaks in caged salmon are treated with pesticides including Salmosan(®), applied as bath treatments and then released into the surrounding seawater. The effect of chronic exposure to low concentrations of this pesticide on neighboring lobster populations is a concern. Adult male lobsters were exposed to 61 ngL(-1) of azamethiphos (a.i. in Salmosan(®) formulation) continuously for 10 days. In addition to the direct effects of pesticide exposure, effects on the ability to cope with shipping conditions and the persistence of the effects after a 24h depuration period in clean seawater were assessed. Indicators of stress and hypoxia (serum total proteins, hemocyanin and lactate), oxidative damage (protein carbonyls in gills and serum) and altered energy allocation (hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices, hepatopancreas lipids) were assessed in addition to neurotoxicity (chlolinesterase activity in muscle). Directly after exposure, azamethiphos-treated lobsters had inhibition of muscle cholinesterase, reduced gonadosomatic index and enhanced hepatosomatic index and hepatopancreas lipid content. All these responses persisted after 24-h depuration, increasing the risk of cumulative impacts with further exposure to chemical or non-chemical stressors. In both control and treated lobsters exposed to simulated shipment conditions, concentrations of protein and lactate in serum, and protein carbonyls in gills increased. However, mortality rate was higher in azamethiphos-treated lobsters (33 ± 14%) than in controls (2.6 ± 4%). Shipment and azamethiphos had cumulative impacts on serum proteins. Both direct effects on neurological function and energy allocation and indirect effect on ability to cope with shipping stress could have significant impacts on lobster population and/or fisheries. PMID:25499691

  3. 77 FR 58828 - Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Extension of Time To File Comments on the Proposed Study and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Proposed Study and Revised Study Plan On July 16, 2012, Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) filed its proposed study plan for the Susitna-Watana Project No. 14241 as required by the Commission's regulations for implementing the Integrated Licensing Process, making comments on the study plan due October 14, 2012....

  4. 77 FR 59609 - WBI Energy Transmission Company, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... request pursuant to sections 157.210 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). WBI... of intervention and, pursuant to section 157.205 of the Commission's Regulations under the NGA (18... instant request shall be treated as an application for ] authorization pursuant to section 7 of the...

  5. Author! Author! Beverly Cleary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Beverly Cleary. Born on April 12, 1916 in McMinnville, Oregon (Yamhill County), Beverly Cleary celebrated her eighty-ninth birthday in 2005. Cleary is probably best known for creating "Ramona" and the other children's book characters who live on Klickitat Street in Portland, Oregon. A selective…

  6. Evolution of infant and child mortality in Chile: a model.

    PubMed

    Hojman, D E

    1992-10-01

    The author contends that birth rate and infant and child mortality rates are jointly determined by demographic, economic, health care, and other influences. Working under this structural assumption, a multiequation model is developed, estimated, and simulated, in which real earnings, unemployment, midwife visits, access to cheap energy, public health expenditures, and degree of urbanization are determinant factors of declining infant and child mortality in Chile. Most notably, mortality declined during a period of increasing unemployment and falling living standards for at least part of the population. The study found all 3 rates to be jointly determined, but by different variables. Specifically, unemployment affected birth rate and child mortality rate, while declining infant mortality was based upon midwife visits, health expenditure, and access to cheap energy. At the policy level, trade-offs often result between infant and child mortality, especially where high birth rates prevail. Where movement along the Phillips curve is possible, higher earnings should be preferred over lower unemployment for the benefit of infant and child mortality. Preferred policy would week to provide a carefully balanced combination of better earnings and more midwife visits. PMID:12286009

  7. Allometry of Herring mortality

    SciTech Connect

    McGurk, M.D. )

    1993-11-01

    The author calculated the relationship between instantaneous natural mortality, M (d[sup [minus]1]), and dry body weight, W ([mu]g), for herring larvae and adults using data from the scientific literature. Geometric mean mortality of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi (0.52[center dot]year[sup [minus]1]), was about three times greater than that of adult Atlantic herring Clupea harengus (0.18 year[sup [minus]1]), which may reflect greater reproductive effort per unit size by Pacific herring than by Atlantic herring. Geometric mean mortality of Pacific herring larvae (0.083[center dot]d[sup [minus]1]) was 30% greater than that of Atlantic herring larvae (0.064[center dot]d[sup [minus]1]), but the difference was not significant. The functional regression for Atlantic herring was log[sub e](M) = -0.4924 - 0.4064[center dot]log[sub e](W), and the regression for Pacific herring was log[sub e](M) = 0.1553 0.3935[center dot]log[sub e](W). The regressions provide preliminary estimates of average M of herring eggs and juveniles, life history stages for which there are few direct estimates of mortality. They also indicate that the weight exponent of instantaneous growth of herring should be greater than -0.4. Allometry of herring mortality implies that year-class strength of herring should be positively correlated with size at recruitment. 78 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Impact evaluation of the energy retrofits installed in the Margolis high-rise apartment building, Chelsea housing authority

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.; MacDonald, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving HUD, DOE, a local public housing authority and Boston Edison, an evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits was conducted for a tall, residential, low-income building located in Boston. The thirteen story building underwent window, lighting, and heating system control renovations in December, 1992. The success of these retrofits was determined using monthly and hourly whole-building consumption data along with a calibrated DOE-2.1D energy simulation model. According to the model developed, post-retrofit conditions showed reductions in annual energy consumption of 325 MWh and in peak demand of 100 kW. These savings resulted in an annual energy cost savings of $28,000. Over 90% of energy and cost savings were attributed to the window retrofit. Interaction of the reduction in lighting capacity with the building`s electric resistance heating system reduced the potential for energy and demand savings associated with the lighting retrofit. Results from the hourly simulation model also indicate that night setbacks controlled by the energy management system were not implemented. An additional 32 MWh in energy savings could be obtained by bringing this system on-line, however peak demand would be increased by 40 kW as the morning demand for space heat is increased, with a net loss in cost savings of $2,500.

  9. World nonrenewable energy resources. [Based on published estimates of recognized authors and agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, J.D.

    1981-10-26

    Up-to-date estimates are presented for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil, such as exist in formations of very low permeability, are not included. 4 tables.

  10. Preparation of public housing energy efficiency publications for the Atlanta Housing Authority

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) has produced and evaluated the effectiveness of pamphlets prepared to encourage utility cost conservation. The target population for this project is not only public housing residents but also the public housing maintenance staff (who also have a dramatic impact on facility energy costs). Because the majority of the problems associated with excess resident utility costs occur during extreme cold weather of the heating season, heating conservation was the focus of this study.

  11. Snakebite mortality in the world

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Grab, B.

    1954-01-01

    In examining the relative importance of snakebite mortality in different parts of the world, the authors review the information collected concerning both snakebite mortality and the species of snake incriminated. Available statistical data are known to be unreliable and at best can serve to provide only an approximate and highly conservative estimate of the relative magnitude of the snakebite problem. The sources of error inherent in the data are discussed, and estimates are made of the probable mortality from snakebite in various areas of the world. PMID:13150169

  12. Mortality and fertility control.

    PubMed

    Tietze, C; Lewit, S

    1977-01-01

    The authors present a continuation of the thesis suggesting that the most rational procedure for regulating fertility is a perfectly safe, even though not completely effective, contraceptive method combined with safe methods for terminating pregnancy when the contraceptive fails. This analysis demonstrates that, compared with the risk of death from pregnancy and childbirth, major reversible methods of fertility control--the pill, IUDs, condoms, and diaphragms--and abortion are associated with very low levels of mortality. The exception to this statement is pill use after age 40 by women who smoke. This analysis also confirms the very low mortality associated with using the condom and diaphragm with early induced abortion as a backup to terminate pregnancies resulting from contraceptive failures. PMID:606579

  13. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  14. Jewish mortality reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Staetsky, Laura Daniel; Hinde, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    It is known that mortality of Jews is different from the mortality of the populations that surround them. However, the existence of commonalities in mortality of different Jewish communities across the world has not received scholarly attention. This paper aims to identify common features of the evolution of Jewish mortality among Jews living in Israel and the Diaspora. In the paper the mortality of Jews in Israel is systematically compared with the mortality of the populations of developed countries, and the findings from the earlier studies of mortality of Jews in selected Diaspora communities are re-examined. The outcome is a re-formulation and extension of the notion of the 'Jewish pattern of mortality'. The account of this pattern is based on the consistently low level of behaviourally induced mortality, the migration history of Jewish populations and the enduring influence of early-life conditions on mortality at older ages. PMID:24784140

  15. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR APPROXIMATING RELATIVE RISK BY THE STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standardized mortality ratio is a widely used and often criticized summary statistic for studies of occupational mortality. In the paper the authors discuss practical conditions under which relative risk can reasonably be approximated by the standardized mortality ratio. When...

  16. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  17. Authoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  18. 77 FR 37669 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... (NGA). CEGT seeks authorization to abandon in place certain segments of its Line H, a low pressure... intervention and, pursuant to section 157.205 of the Commission's Regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157.205) a... shall be treated as an application for authorization pursuant to section 7 of the NGA. The...

  19. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  20. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  1. Estimating bat and bird mortality occurring at wind energy turbines from covariates and carcass searches using mixture models.

    PubMed

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Brinkmann, Robert; Niermann, Ivo; Behr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impacts of wind energy facilities increasingly cause concern, a central issue being bats and birds killed by rotor blades. Two approaches have been employed to assess collision rates: carcass searches and surveys of animals prone to collisions. Carcass searches can provide an estimate for the actual number of animals being killed but they offer little information on the relation between collision rates and, for example, weather parameters due to the time of death not being precisely known. In contrast, a density index of animals exposed to collision is sufficient to analyse the parameters influencing the collision rate. However, quantification of the collision rate from animal density indices (e.g. acoustic bat activity or bird migration traffic rates) remains difficult. We combine carcass search data with animal density indices in a mixture model to investigate collision rates. In a simulation study we show that the collision rates estimated by our model were at least as precise as conventional estimates based solely on carcass search data. Furthermore, if certain conditions are met, the model can be used to predict the collision rate from density indices alone, without data from carcass searches. This can reduce the time and effort required to estimate collision rates. We applied the model to bat carcass search data obtained at 30 wind turbines in 15 wind facilities in Germany. We used acoustic bat activity and wind speed as predictors for the collision rate. The model estimates correlated well with conventional estimators. Our model can be used to predict the average collision rate. It enables an analysis of the effect of parameters such as rotor diameter or turbine type on the collision rate. The model can also be used in turbine-specific curtailment algorithms that predict the collision rate and reduce this rate with a minimal loss of energy production. PMID:23844144

  2. Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Brinkmann, Robert; Niermann, Ivo; Behr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impacts of wind energy facilities increasingly cause concern, a central issue being bats and birds killed by rotor blades. Two approaches have been employed to assess collision rates: carcass searches and surveys of animals prone to collisions. Carcass searches can provide an estimate for the actual number of animals being killed but they offer little information on the relation between collision rates and, for example, weather parameters due to the time of death not being precisely known. In contrast, a density index of animals exposed to collision is sufficient to analyse the parameters influencing the collision rate. However, quantification of the collision rate from animal density indices (e.g. acoustic bat activity or bird migration traffic rates) remains difficult. We combine carcass search data with animal density indices in a mixture model to investigate collision rates. In a simulation study we show that the collision rates estimated by our model were at least as precise as conventional estimates based solely on carcass search data. Furthermore, if certain conditions are met, the model can be used to predict the collision rate from density indices alone, without data from carcass searches. This can reduce the time and effort required to estimate collision rates. We applied the model to bat carcass search data obtained at 30 wind turbines in 15 wind facilities in Germany. We used acoustic bat activity and wind speed as predictors for the collision rate. The model estimates correlated well with conventional estimators. Our model can be used to predict the average collision rate. It enables an analysis of the effect of parameters such as rotor diameter or turbine type on the collision rate. The model can also be used in turbine-specific curtailment algorithms that predict the collision rate and reduce this rate with a minimal loss of energy production. PMID:23844144

  3. 77 FR 34935 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... with T/IM procedures, as authorized by FTZ Board Orders 1347 (69 FR 52857, 8/30/04) and 1480 (71 FR 55422, 9/22/06), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 20782,...

  4. Marital Status and Mortality in Canada, 1951-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trovato, Frank; Lauris, Gloria

    1989-01-01

    Used Canadian mortality census data from 1959 through 1981 to examine relationship between marital status transitions of men and women and mortality from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. Found lower death rate among marrieds. Found men had greater mortality risk reduction from state of marriage than women. (Author/CM)

  5. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article looks at how…

  6. [Mortality. The behavior of mortality through 1987].

    PubMed

    Jimenez, R

    1988-01-01

    Mexico's crude death rate has declined from 33/1000 in the early 20th century to about 6/1000 in 1985-87. Mortality declined sharply from 1640-60. more slowly from 1960-77, and rapidly again beginning around 1980. The explanation for the mortality decline lies both in advances in medical and health care and in economic growth of the country. The mortality declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s probably resulted primarily from extension of primary health care programs in rural areas. The infant mortality rate has declined from 288.6/1000 live births in 1900 to 73.8 in 1960 and 42 in 1986-87. At present 30% of deaths in Mexico are to children under 5, but little is known of the impact of the country's economic crisis on mortality in this age group. The strong mortality decline between 1950-70 was in the economically active age group of 15-64 years. Excess male mortality in this group reached a maximum in 1980: for each death of woman there were 150 male deaths. Between 1960-80 the rate of deaths due to infection, parasfitism, and respiratory disease declined by 5%, the rate of death from cancer remained almost unchanged, and the rate of death from cardiovascular diseases increased by 9%. Deaths from accidents, homicide, suicide, and other violence increased by 38%. Male general mortality rates were 25% higher than female in 1980. Mexican life expectancy increased from 49.6 years in 195 to 67 in 1987. Life expectancy was 65.6 for males and 71.7 for females. Average life expectancy was 69 for the more privileged social sectors and 56.7 for agricultural workers in 1965-79. The life expectancy of urban women was 3 years longer than that of rural women and 10.4 years longer than that of rural men. PMID:12158030

  7. 76 FR 80913 - Carib Energy (USA) LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000... Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586... available for inspection and copying in the Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities docket room, Room...

  8. 77 FR 23243 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Act (NGA), and CEGT's blanket certificate issued in Docket Nos. CP82-384-000 and CP82-384-001, for... Commission's staff may, pursuant to section 157.205 of the Commission's Regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157... instant request shall be treated as an application for authorization pursuant to section 7 of the...

  9. Visiting Author

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

  10. Testosterone deficiency and cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    New concerns have been raised regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). These concerns are based primarily on two widely reported retrospective studies. However, methodological flaws and data errors invalidate both studies as credible evidence of risk. One showed reduced adverse events by half in T-treated men but reversed this result using an unproven statistical approach. The authors subsequently acknowledged serious data errors including nearly 10% contamination of the dataset by women. The second study mistakenly used the rate of T prescriptions written by healthcare providers to men with recent myocardial infarction (MI) as a proxy for the naturally occurring rate of MI. Numerous studies suggest T is beneficial, including decreased mortality in association with TTh, reduced MI rate with TTh in men with the greatest MI risk prognosis, and reduced CV and overall mortality with higher serum levels of endogenous T. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated benefits of TTh in men with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Improvement in CV risk factors such as fat mass and glycemic control have been repeatedly demonstrated in T-deficient men treated with T. The current evidence does not support the belief that TTh is associated with increased CV risk or CV mortality. On the contrary, a wealth of evidence accumulated over several decades suggests that low serum T levels are associated with increased risk and that higher endogenous T, as well as TTh itself, appear to be beneficial for CV mortality and risk. PMID:25432501

  11. Cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle R.; de Souza, Dyego L.B.; Bernal, María M.; Costa, Íris do C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is currently in the spotlight due to their heavy responsibility as main cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Analysis of the epidemiological situation is required as a support tool for the planning of public health measures for the most vulnerable groups. We analyzed cancer mortality trends in Brazil and geographic regions in the period 1996 to 2010 and calculate mortality predictions for the period 2011 to 2030. This is an epidemiological, demographic-based study that utilized information from the Mortality Information System on all deaths due to cancer in Brazil. Mortality trends were analyzed by the Joinpoint regression, and Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions. Stability was verified for the female (annual percentage change [APC] = 0.4%) and male (APC = 0.5%) sexes. The North and Northeast regions present significant increasing trends for mortality in both sexes. Until 2030, female mortality trends will not present considerable variations, but there will be a decrease in mortality trends for the male sex. There will be increases in mortality rates until 2030 for the North and Northeast regions, whereas reductions will be verified for the remaining geographic regions. This variation will be explained by the demographic structure of regions until 2030. There are pronounced regional and sex differences in cancer mortality in Brazil, and these discrepancies will continue to increase until the year 2030, when the Northeast region will present the highest cancer mortality rates in Brazil. PMID:25906105

  12. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  13. National energy conservation policy under the Reagan administration: Analysis of hearings on the Department of Energy authorization for fiscal year 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissine, F. J.

    1982-03-01

    Some of the major issues in energy conservation policy are summarized, including the significance of energy conservation to the national economy, foreign competition, and the prospects for increased private and local government participation. The role of the Federal Government in energy conservation, outreach, and information dissemination is discussed.

  14. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  15. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  16. [Mortality of myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, E; Kirkorian, G

    2011-12-01

    Coronary disease is a major cause of death and disability. From 1975 to 2000, coronary mortality was reduced by half. Better treatments and reduction of risk factors are the main causes. This phenomenon is observed in most developed countries, but mortality from coronary heart disease continues to increase in developing countries. In-hospital mortality of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is in the range of 7 to 10% in registries. In infarction without ST segment elevation (NSTEMI), in-hospital mortality is around 5%. More recent studies found a similar in-hospital mortality for STEMI and NSTEMI. Because of patient selection and monitoring, mortality in clinical trials is much lower. After adjustment for the extent of coronary disease, age, risk factors, history of myocardial infarction, the excess mortality observed in women is fading. Many clinical, biological and laboratory parameters are associated with mortality in myocardial infarction. They refer to the immediate risk of death (ventricular rhythm disturbances, shock…), the extent of infarction (number of leads with ST elevation on the ECG, release of biomarkers, ejection fraction…), the presence of heart failure, the failure of reperfusion and the patient's baseline risk (age, renal function…). Risk scores, and more specifically the GRACE risk score, synthesize these different markers to predict the risk of death in a given patient. However, their use for the treatment of myocardial only concerns NSTEMI. Only a limited number of mechanical or pharmacological interventions reduces mortality of heart attack. The main benefits are observed with reperfusion by thrombolysis or primary angioplasty in STEMI, aspirin, heparin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Some medications such as bivalirudin and fondaparinux reduce mortality by decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications. The guidelines classify interventions according to their benefit and especially their ability

  17. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  18. Mortality in Asia.

    PubMed

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  19. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  20. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  1. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently.

  2. Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Aaron R; Demissie, Zewditu

    2004-11-15

    Intake of fish or omega-3 fatty acids may decrease risk of total and coronary heart disease death, but evidence from low-risk populations is less convincing. The authors assessed intake by using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline in a cohort of Iowa women aged 55-69 years. Among women initially free of heart disease and cancer (4,653 deaths over 442,965 person-years), there was an inverse age- and energy-adjusted association between total mortality and fish intake, with a relative risk of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.91) for the highest versus lowest quintile. Age- and energy-adjusted associations also were inverse (p for trend < 0.05), although not entirely monotonic, for cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and cancer mortality. Adjustment for multiple other risk factors attenuated all associations to statistically nonsignificant levels. Estimated marine omega-3 fatty acid intake also was not associated with total or cause-specific mortality. In comparison, plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with mortality after multivariable adjustment. Intake of neither fish nor marine omega-3 fatty acids was associated with breast cancer incidence. These findings do not argue against recommending fish as part of a healthy diet, as other evidence suggests benefit. Nevertheless, the authors of this 1986-2000 study could not verify that fish and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake had independent health benefits in these postmenopausal women. PMID:15522857

  3. A bill to amend the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to authorize the Secretary of Energy to issue conditional commitments for loan guarantees under certain circumstances.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2010-08-05

    08/05/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6904) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  5. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  6. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under...

  7. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  8. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  9. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  10. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under...

  11. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  12. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  13. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  14. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under...

  15. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under...

  16. 10 CFR 26.57 - Authorization update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization update. 26.57 Section 26.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.57 Authorization update. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual whose authorization has been interrupted...

  17. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  18. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under...

  19. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of a DOE protective force officer to arrest without warrant...

  20. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of a DOE protective force officer to arrest without warrant...

  1. 10 CFR 1047.4 - Arrest authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arrest authority. 1047.4 Section 1047.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.4 Arrest authority. (a) Under the Act, the authority of a DOE protective force officer to arrest without warrant...

  2. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki.

    PubMed

    Pönkä, A; Savela, M; Virtanen, M

    1998-01-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM10), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM10 levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of ozone was independent of the PM10 effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM10. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10 resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval=0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 microg/m3 increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval=1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM10 was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors' findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high concentrations. PMID:9709992

  3. The mortality of companies.

    PubMed

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  4. The mortality of companies

    PubMed Central

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  5. Autoantibodies, mortality and ageing.

    PubMed

    Richaud-Patin, Y; Villa, A R

    1995-01-01

    Immunological failure may be the cause of predisposition to certain infections, neoplasms, and vascular diseases in adulthood. Mortality risks through life may reflect an undetermined number of causes. This study describes the prevalence of positivity of autoantibodies through life, along with general and specific mortality causes in three countries with different socioeconomic development (Guatemala, Mexico and the United States). Prevalence of autoantibodies by age was obtained from previous reports. In spite of having involved different ethnic groups, the observed trends in prevalence of autoantibodies, as well as mortality through life, showed a similar behavior. Thus, both the increase in autoantibody production and death risk as age rises, may share physiopathological phenomena related to the ageing process. PMID:7539882

  6. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Anthony A.

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  7. S. 1109: a Bill to authorize the Department of Energy to initiate a cooperative research program in ocean energy. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, May 8, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The intent of S.1109 is to initiate a joint DOE/Pacific International Center for High Technology Research program that will apply data on design methods developed by the DOE and other international research organizations to the development of a 200 kW integrated open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experimental system at the National Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. The Bill authorizes $500,000 for fiscal year 1986, $2 million for 1987, $3.5 million for 1988, $3 million for 1989, and $1 million for 1990.

  8. [Changes in infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  9. Accelerating global forest mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest mortality is apparently accelerating globally. The evidence supporting this contention is now substantial, as is the evidence suggesting the acceleration has just begun and will become progressively worse in upcoming decades. I will review the data and models used to make these contentions.

  10. Maternal and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Krishna Menon, M K

    1972-01-01

    A brief analysis of data from the records of the Government Hospital for Women and Children in Madras for a 36-year period (1929-1964) is presented. India with a population of over 550 million has only 1 doctor for each 6000 population. For the 80% of the population which is rural, the doctor ratio is only 88/1 million. There is also a shortage of paramedical personnel. During the earlier years of this study period, abortions, puerperal infections; hemorrhage, and toxemia accounted for nearly 75% of all meternal deaths, while in later years deaths from these causes were 40%. Among associated factors in maternal mortality, anemia was the most frequent, it still accounts for 20% and is a contributory factor in another 20%. The mortality from postpartum hemorrhage was 9.3% but has now decreased to 2.8%. Eclampsia is a preventable disease and a marked reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality from this cause has been achieved. Maternal deaths from puerperal infections have dropped from 25% of all maternal deaths to 7%. Uterine rupture has been reduced from 75% to 9.3% due to modern facilities. Operative deliveries still have an incidence of 2.1% and a mortality rate of 1.4% of all deliveries. These rates would be further reduced by more efficient antenatal and intranatal care. Reported perinatal mortality of infants has been reduced from 182/1000 births to an average of 78/1000 in all areas, but is 60.6/1000 in the city of Madras. Socioeconomic standards play an important role in perinatal mortality, 70% of such deaths occurring in the lowest economic groups. Improvement has been noted in the past 25 years but in rural areas little progress has been made. Prematurity and low birth weights are still larger factors in India than in other countries, with acute infectious diseases, anemia, and general malnutrition among mothers the frequent causes. Problems requiring further efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality are correct vital statistics, improved

  11. Mortality and development revisited.

    PubMed

    Preston, S H

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to update results reported in 2 earlier papers about the role of socioeconomic factors in worldwide mortality declines since the 1930s. Preston (1975) demonstrated that the relationship between life expectancy at birth and per capita income (in constant dollars) had shifted between the 1930s and the 1960s. A country at a particular level of national income per capita was estimated to have a level of life expectancy at birth that was, on average, 9.7 years higher in the 1960s than it would have been in the 1930s at the same level of income. That shift clearly was attributable to factors other than measured income gains. To identify the contribution of advances in literacy and nutrition to the apparent shift, Preston (1980) added those variables to income in regression equations estimated with data on 36 countries around 1940 and 120 countries around 1970. For the less developed countries (LDCs), the shift in the relationship between 1940-70 was estimated to be 8.8 years after those variables were introduced along with income. Thus, literacy and nutritional gains were responsible for relatively little of the shift. The goal here is to estimate the amount of shift in the relation between mortality and other development indicators during the 1965-69 to 1975-79 period. The focus is on the 70% of the developing world (exclude China) where, in the aggregate, there are indications of a slowdown in the pace of mortality change during the 1960s and the early 1970s. In all cases a mortality indicator was used as the dependent variable in a cross-national regression analysis that includes data from LDCs and from developed countries. Also, in all cases, the set of independent variables included some transformation of the following: the percentage of adults who were literate, gross domestic product per capita in constant dollars, and the excess of per capita daily calories supplied above 1500. Data were drawn from the standard UN, UNESCO, and World Bank

  12. 48 CFR 23.105 - Exemption authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.105 Exemption authority. (a) The head of...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.104 - Exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy... any authorizing statute or applicable law, if the Administrator determines that application of...

  14. 10 CFR 810.6 - Authorization requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization requirement. 810.6 Section 810.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.6 Authorization requirement. Section 57b of the Atomic Energy Act in pertinent part provides that: It shall be unlawful for any...

  15. 10 CFR 810.6 - Authorization requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization requirement. 810.6 Section 810.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.6 Authorization requirement. Section 57b of the Atomic Energy Act in pertinent part provides that: It shall be unlawful for any...

  16. 10 CFR 810.6 - Authorization requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization requirement. 810.6 Section 810.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.6 Authorization requirement. Section 57b of the Atomic Energy Act in pertinent part provides that: It shall be unlawful for any...

  17. 10 CFR 810.6 - Authorization requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization requirement. 810.6 Section 810.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.6 Authorization requirement. Section 57b of the Atomic Energy Act in pertinent part provides that: It shall be unlawful for any...

  18. 10 CFR 810.6 - Authorization requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization requirement. 810.6 Section 810.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.6 Authorization requirement. Section 57b of the Atomic Energy Act in pertinent part provides that: It shall be unlawful for any...

  19. 10 CFR 60.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction authorization. 60.31 Section 60.31 Energy... REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.31 Construction authorization. Upon review and... authorize construction if it determines: (a) Safety. That there is reasonable assurance that the types...

  20. 10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction authorization. 63.31 Section 63.31 Energy... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31 Construction authorization... part, the Commission may authorize construction of a geologic repository operations area at the...

  1. 10 CFR 60.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Construction authorization. 60.31 Section 60.31 Energy... REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.31 Construction authorization. Upon review and... authorize construction if it determines: (a) Safety. That there is reasonable assurance that the types...

  2. 10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Construction authorization. 63.31 Section 63.31 Energy... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31 Construction authorization... part, the Commission may authorize construction of a geologic repository operations area at the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  4. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  5. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  6. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  7. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  8. 10 CFR 63.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction authorization. 63.31 Section 63.31 Energy... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.31 Construction authorization... part, the Commission may authorize construction of a geologic repository operations area at the...

  9. 10 CFR 60.31 - Construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... authorize construction if it determines: (a) Safety. That there is reasonable assurance that the types and... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction authorization. 60.31 Section 60.31 Energy... REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.31 Construction authorization. Upon review...

  10. 74 FR 44894 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Heroes: Mortals and Myths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-08-31

    ... Greece'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... hereby determine that the objects in the exhibition: ``Heroes: Mortals and Myths in Ancient...

  11. Neonatal mortality in Meerut district.

    PubMed

    Garg, S K; Mishra, V N; Singh, J V; Bhatnagar, M; Chopra, H; Singh, R B

    1993-09-01

    A study of neonatal mortality in Meerut district revealed an infant mortality rate of 50.1 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality accounted for 37.8% of infant mortality with a neonatal mortality rate of 19.0 per 1000 live births. 90.5% of these neonates were delivered at home largely by untrained personnel (57.2%). Only 28.6% of these neonates were treated by qualified doctors and only 30.9% of their mothers were fully immunized against tetanus. At least 2/3rd of neonatal mortality was due to exogenous factors with tetanus neonatorum and septicaemia being the principal causes of mortality each accounting for a mortality rate of 4.7 per 1000 live births. PMID:8112786

  12. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

  13. 10 CFR 782.3 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority. 782.3 Section 782.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT General § 782.3 Authority. The General Counsel or the General Counsel's delegate is authorized to investigate, settle, deny, or otherwise dispose of all...

  14. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  15. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Extends the Lifespan of Drosophila and Mice, Increases Mortality-Related Tumors and Hemorrhagic Diathesis, and Alters Energy Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Stephen R.; Mote, Patricia L.; Lublin, Alex L.; Flegal, James M.; Dhahbi, Joseph M.; Li, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Mesonordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) extends murine lifespan. The studies reported here describe its dose dependence, effects on body weight, toxicity-related clinical chemistries, and mortality-related pathologies. In flies, we characterized its effects on lifespan, food consumption, body weight, and locomotion. B6C3F1 mice were fed AIN-93M diet supplemented with 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, or 4.5g NDGA/kg diet (1.59, 2.65, 3.71 and 4.77mg/kg body weight/day) beginning at 12 months of age. Only the 3.5mg/kg diet produced a highly significant increase in lifespan, as judged by either the Mantel–Cox log-rank test (p = .008) or the Gehan–Breslow–Wilcoxon test (p = .009). NDGA did not alter food intake, but dose-responsively reduced weight, suggesting it decreased the absorption or increased the utilization of calories. NDGA significantly increased the incidence of liver, lung, and thymus tumors, and peritoneal hemorrhagic diathesis found at necropsy. However, clinical chemistries found little evidence for overt toxicity. While NDGA was not overtly toxic at its therapeutic dosage, its association with severe end of life pathologies does not support the idea that NDGA consumption will increase human lifespan or health-span. The less toxic derivatives of NDGA which are under development should be explored as anti-aging therapeutics. PMID:25380600

  16. Air pollution and daily mortality in Shenyang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Yu, D.; Jing, L.; Xu, X.

    2000-04-01

    The authors analyzed daily mortality data in Shenyang, China, for calendar year 1992 to identify possible associations with ambient sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates. Both total suspended particulate concentrations and sulfur dioxide concentrations far exceeded the World Health Organizations' recommended criteria. An average of 45.5 persons died each day. The lagged moving averages of air-pollution levels, calculated as the mean of the nonmissing air-pollution levels of the concurrent and 3 preceding days, were used for all analyses. Locally weighted regression analysis, including temperature, humidity, day of week, and a time variable, showed a positive association between daily mortality and both total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide. When the authors included total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide separately in the model, both were highly significant predictors of daily mortality. The risk of all-cause mortality increased by an estimated 1.7% and 2.4% with a 100-{micro}g/m{sup 3} concomitant increase in total suspended particulate and sulfur dioxide, respectively. When the authors analyzed mortality separately by cause of death, the association with total suspended particulates was significant for cardiovascular disease, but not statistically significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In contrast, the association with sulfur dioxide was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but not for cardiovascular disease. The mortality from cancer was not associated significantly with total suspended particles or with sulfur dioxide. The correlation between sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates was high. When the authors included sulfur dioxide and total suspended particulates simultaneously in the model, the association between total suspended particulates and mortality from all causes and cardiovascular diseases remained significant. Sulfur dioxide was associated significantly with increased

  17. Mortality after hip fracture in Austria 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Reichardt, Berthold; Kimberger, Oliver; Zwerina, Jochen; Dimai, Hans Peter; Kritsch, Daniela; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwettler, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis-related hip fractures represent a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries like Austria. Identification of groups at high risk for mortality after hip fracture is crucial for health policy decisions. To determine in-hospital, long-term, and excess mortality after osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Austrian patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pseudonymized invoice data from Austrian social insurance authorities covering roughly 98 % of the entire population. The data set included 31,668 subjects aged 50 years and above sustaining a hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 with follow-up until June 2011, and an age-, gender-, and regionally matched control population without hip fractures (56,320 subjects). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard regression analyses served to determine unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates: Unadjusted all-cause 1-year mortality amounted to 20.2 % (95 % CI: 19.7-20.7 %). Males had significantly higher long-term, in-hospital, and excess mortality rates than females, but younger males exhibited lower excess mortality than their female counterparts. Advanced age correlated with increased long-term and in-hospital mortality, but lower excess mortality. Excess mortality, particularly in males, was highest in the first 6 months after hip fracture, but remained statistically significantly elevated throughout the observation period of 3 years. Longer hospital stay per fracture was correlated with mortality reduction in older patients and in patients with more subsequent fractures. In conclusion, more efforts are needed to identify causes and effectively prevent excess mortality especially in male osteoporosis patients. PMID:24989776

  18. Hyperparathyroidism: Cancer and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2012-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a commoner endocrinopathy today with a large number of asymptomatic patients in contrast to the scenario five decades ago. Surgery is indicated for patients fulfilling the NIH criteria who are mostly symptomatic while individuals with mild disease are managed conservatively. Several studies indicate increased risk of malignancy involving several sites and related mortality in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with the risk persisting for several years after surgery. PHPT is associated with structural & functional cardiac abnormalities and premature death from increased cardiovascular disease with risk normalising only several years after surgery. Mortality risk is associated with pre-operative serum calcium & parathormone and parathyroid adenoma weight. However, the issue of existence of similar risk and surgical benefit in mild PHPT is mired in controversy although some studies have shown an association and beneficial trends with surgery. With current evidence, it would be prudent to follow up PHPT patients for malignancy and cardiovascular disease and possibly adopt a more liberal attitude towards surgery. PMID:23565381

  19. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae, A.; Savela, M.; Virtanen, M.

    1998-07-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 {micro}m (PM{sub 10}), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM{sub 10} levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of the ozone was independent of the PM{sub 10} effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM{sub 10}. An increase of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in PM{sub 10} resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 {micro}g/m{sup 3} increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM{sub 10} was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors` findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high

  20. Marital Trajectories and Mortality Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    More than a century of empirical evidence links marital status to mortality. However, the hazards of dying associated with long-term marital trajectories and contributing risk factors are largely unknown. The authors used 1992–2006 prospective data from a cohort of US adults to investigate the impact of current marital status, marriage timing, divorce and widow transitions, and marital durations on mortality. Multivariate hazard ratios were significantly higher for adults currently divorced and widowed, married at young ages (≤18 years), who accumulated divorce and widow transitions (among women), and who were divorced for 1–4 years. Results also showed significantly lower risks of mortality for men married after age 25 years compared with on time (ages 19–25 years) and among women experiencing ≥10 years of divorce and ≥5 years of widowhood relative to those without exposure to these statuses. For both sexes, accumulation of marriage duration was the most robust predictor of survival. Results from risk-adjusted models indicated that socioeconomic resources, health behaviors, and health status attenuated the associations in different ways for men and women. The study demonstrates that traditional measures oversimplify the relation between marital status and mortality and that sex differences are related to a nexus of marital experiences and associated health risks. PMID:19584130

  1. Identifying and Targeting Mortality Disparities: A Framework for Sub-Saharan Africa Using Adult Mortality Data from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Sartorius, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    risk mortality determinants allows health authorities to tailor interventions at local level. This approach can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:23967209

  2. 48 CFR 23.102 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.102 Authorities. (a) Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management....

  3. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  4. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires specific authorization by the Secretary of Energy...

  5. Authority in Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes John Wilson's account of authority in educational relationships by reconstructing his views on different types of authority. Explores the topic of parental authority arguing that parental authority differs from the authority of teachers. Comments on whether authoritative parental supervision is essential. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. 48 CFR 23.201 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.201 Authorities. (a) Energy... U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). (b) National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253, 8259b,...

  7. 48 CFR 23.201 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.201 Authorities. (a) Energy... U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). (b) National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253, 8259b,...

  8. 48 CFR 23.201 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.201 Authorities. (a) Energy... U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). (b) National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253, 8259b,...

  9. 48 CFR 23.201 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.201 Authorities. (a) Energy... U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). (b) National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253, 8259b,...

  10. 48 CFR 23.201 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.201 Authorities. (a) Energy... U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). (b) National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8253, 8259b,...

  11. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Susuman, A Sathiya

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

  12. [Sex and mortality in France, 1906-1980].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A

    1988-01-01

    Differential mortality in France is examined by sex, with a focus on the excess mortality among men during the period 1906-1980, using data from official and other published sources. The effects of occupation, social class, quality of medical care, and consumption of alchohol and tobacco are considered. The author finds that since 1976, life expectancy has been eight years higher for women than for men. While men employed in executive and white collar positions tend to live longer than their working-class counterparts, the situation is reversed for women, with executive women showing a higher mortality rate than other female employees and workers. PMID:12315114

  13. 10 CFR 1045.32 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.32 Section 1045.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.32 Authorities. (a) Classification... delegate these authorities to other agencies and to contractors. Contractors without the...

  14. Mortality Salience of Birthdays on Day of Death in the Major Leagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed the relationship of mortality salience, as represented by birthdays, on the day of death. Preliminary studies considered the role of possible artifacts such as seasonality of birth and death, and time units for evaluation. On the basis of terror management theory's concept of "mortality salience," the authors hypothesized that…

  15. A climate-driven mortality modelling tool for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The impact of climate change on human health is a serious concern. In particular, changes in the frequency and intensity of heat waves and cold spells are of high relevance in terms of mortality and morbidity. This demonstrates the urgent need for reliable early-warning systems to help authorities prepare and respond to emergency situations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a climate-driven mortality model to provide probabilistic predictions of exceeding emergency mortality thresholds for heat wave and cold spell scenarios. Daily mortality data corresponding to 187 NUTS2 regions across 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998-2003. Data were aggregated to 54 larger regions in Europe, defined according to similarities in population structure and climate. Location-specific average mortality rates, at given temperature intervals over the time period, were modelled to account for the increased mortality observed during both high and low temperature extremes and differing comfort temperatures between regions. Model parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework, in order to generate probabilistic simulations of mortality across Europe for time periods of interest. For the heat wave scenario (1-15 August 2003), the model was successfully able to anticipate the occurrence or non-occurrence of mortality rates exceeding the emergency threshold (75th percentile of the mortality distribution) for 89% of the 54 regions, given a probability decision threshold of 70%. For the cold spell scenario (1-15 January 2003), mortality events in 69% of the regions were correctly anticipated with a probability decision threshold of 70%. By using a more conservative decision threshold of 30%, this proportion increased to 87%. Overall, the model performed better for the heat wave scenario. By replacing observed temperature data in the model with forecast temperature, from state-of-the-art European forecasting systems, probabilistic mortality predictions could

  16. Lessons from history--maternal and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    1989-07-15

    Historical analysis of trends in infant and maternal mortality rates reveal different patterns and factors that influence them. Recent international and urban-rural differences in trends, associations with population density and the influence of parental social class and income has led to questioning the long accepted interpretation of the sharp decline of infant mortality in Britain (at the turn of the century) as due to such measures as pure water supplies, sewage disposal and pasteurization of milk. Several authors now believe that direct control of fertility influenced parity and birth spacing, with all other factors contributing to the decline in infant mortality. While the drop in infant mortality rates can be attributable to social and environmental influence, trends in maternal mortality differ considerably. Even though high maternal mortality has often been associated with areas of poverty, such a link has been indirect; the determining factor is the place of delivery, and the skill and care of the birth attendant. The decline in maternal mortality rates began by the mid-1930's and have been halved every 10 years since. National concerns due to high rates of maternal mortality led to different organizational solutions. The US adopted a specialist obstetrician/hospital-based delivery system; the Netherlands combined midwives with home delivery; New Zealand trained midwives but with delivery in hospitals, and Britain included specialized obstetricians with better training of midwives and general practitioners. All of these variations had no effect on mortality rates. The decline is attributed to the use of sulphonamids followed by penicillin and improvements in medical management. In a recent publication entitled "Working for Patients", mortality rates continue to remain the outcome measures to be used universally while infant mortality rates are considered crude and not amenable to health interventions. PMID:2567902

  17. Mortality of lead smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Selevan, S G; Landrigan, P J; Stern, F B; Jones, J H

    1985-10-01

    To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead. PMID:4025307

  18. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  19. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000–7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure–response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (−1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature–mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable. PMID:23335945

  20. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  1. 48 CFR 901.102 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 901.102 Section... REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 901.102 Authority. The DEAR and amendments thereto are issued... the authority of section 644 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7254),...

  2. 48 CFR 901.103 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 901.103 Section... REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 901.103 Authority. The DEAR and amendments thereto are issued... from the Secretary of Energy in accordance with the authority of section 644 of the Department...

  3. 10 CFR 1045.12 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.12 Section 1045.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.12 Authorities. (a) The Director of Classification...

  4. 10 CFR 1045.32 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.32 Section 1045.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.32 Authorities. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 1045.32 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.32 Section 1045.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.32 Authorities. (a)...

  6. 10 CFR 1045.32 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.32 Section 1045.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.32 Authorities. (a)...

  7. 10 CFR 1045.32 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorities. 1045.32 Section 1045.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.32 Authorities. (a)...

  8. U.S. MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Mortality data, collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), can be analyzed with the SEER*Stat software. The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths. NCHS granted the SEER program limited permission to provide the mortality d...

  9. NATIONAL MORTALITY FOLLOWBACK SURVEY (NMFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) is the latest in a series of periodic surveys designed to supplement information routinely collected on the death certificate. The Mortality Followback Survey Program, begun in the 1960's by the National Center for Health Stati...

  10. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. PMID:25916736

  12. Mortality after distal radial fractures in the Medicare population

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa J.; Zhong, Lin; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a low energy fracture of the distal radius increases the risk for another, more serious fracture such as a proximal femoral fracture. Early mortality after proximal femoral fracture has been widely studied, but the association between distal radial fracture and mortality is unknown. The date of death for all Medicare beneficiaries who sustained an isolated distal radial fracture in 2007 was determined using Medicare Vital Statistics files. The adjusted mortality rate for each age-sex group was calculated and compared with published US mortality tables. Distal radial fractures were not associated with an increased mortality rate. In fact, beneficiaries had a significantly lower mortality rate after distal radial fractures than the general population. This may be related to the injured beneficiaries’ involvement in the healthcare system. Mortality rate did not vary significantly based on time from injury. Our results indicate that any mortality is unlikely to be attributable to the distal radial fracture or its treatment. Level of Evidence: III PMID:26085186

  13. Overview of epidemiological studies on wine, health and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J C

    2003-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have observed that moderate intake of alcohol including wine is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, according to several authors, moderate consumption of wine is more beneficial than that of beer or spirits. Some studies have shown that moderate consumption of wine can lower mortality from CVD and other causes. The link between drinking wine and total mortality risk (all causes combined) has been studied. The results of various prospective population studies show that intake of beer and spirits from abstention to light to moderate daily intake did not influence mortality, while wine seems to have a beneficial effect on all causes of mortality. Other studies have reached the same conclusion. In general, several authors have reported that in subjects consuming wine in moderation the risk of mortality from all causes is 20-30% lower than in abstainers. Grape wine appears to be the main alcoholic beverage that contains antioxidant phenolic substances known to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and affect hemostasis and carcinogenesis. In conclusion, there are differences in the effects of wine, beer and spirits on health. These differences may not be significant in coronary heart disease. Only moderate wine consumption appears to have a beneficial effect on several types of cancer and on total mortality. PMID:15134372

  14. Risk factors and predictors of mortality for proximal humeral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin WT; Manning, Paul A; Wallace, W Angus; Geoghegan, John M

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mortality after proximal humeral fracture, including socioeconomic status, are poorly defined. This retrospective review of prospectively collected data defines the epidemiology and predictors of mortality in association with proximal humeral fractures. Methods Patients who sustained proximal humeral fractures were identified from fragility fracture and trauma databases between May 2001 and September 2012. Results In total, 1880 patients with a mean age of 69 years and a male to female ratio of 2 : 3 were identified. Socioeconomic distribution is skewed towards the lowest and highest quintiles. Low-energy mechanisms caused 88% of fractures. Men sustain fractures when they are aged 10 years younger and via higher-energy mechanisms. In total, 536 patients (29%) died within the study period with a 1-year mortality of 9.8%, rising to 28.2% at 5 years. Female gender, increasing age, pathological fracture and increased number of co-morbidities were independent variables for increased mortality. Conclusions The present study, which was conducted over an 11-year period, is the first to combine the epidemiology and risk factors for mortality with socioeconomic rank. One-year mortality risk is twice that of the background matched population. Patient counselling with respect to increased mortality should be considered, especially in higher-risk elderly females with multiple co-morbidities.

  15. Trends in child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Behl, A S

    2013-01-01

    To assess Indias recent trends in child mortality rates and disparities and identify ways to reduce child mortality and wealth-related health disparities, we analyzed three years of data from Indias National Family Health Survey related to child mortality. Nationally, declines in average child mortality were statistically significant, but declines in inequality were not. Urban areas had lower child mortality rates than rural areas but higher inequalities. Interstate differences in child mortality rates were significant, with rates in the highest-mortality states four to six times higher than in the lowest-mortality states. However, child mortality in most states declined. PMID:23396786

  16. Mortality, integrity, and psychoanalysis (who are you to me? Who am I to you?).

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The author narrates her experience of mourning her therapist's sudden death. The profession has neglected implications of the analyst's mortality: what is lost or vulnerable to loss? What is that vulnerability's function? The author's process of mourning included her writing and her becoming an analyst. Both pursuits inspired reflections on mortality in two overlapping senses: bodily (the analyst is mortal and can die) and character (the analyst is mortal and can err). The subject thus expands to include impaired character and ethical violations. Paradoxically, the analyst's human limitations threaten each psychoanalytic situation, but also enable it: human imperfection animates the work. The essay ends with a specific example of integrity. PMID:24470362

  17. Exposures and mortality among chrysotile asbestos workers. Part II: mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.; Harris, R.L. Jr.; Symons, M.J.; Shy, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a cohort of 1,261 white males employed one or more months in chrysotile asbestos textile operations and followed between 1940 and 1975. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for all causes combined (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) . 150), lung cancer (SMR . 135), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR . 125), nonmalignant respiratory diseases (SMR . 294), and accidents (SMR . 134). Using estimated fiber exposure levels in conjunction with detailed worker job histories, exposure-response relationships were investigated. Strong exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and asbestos related non-malignant respiratory diseases were observed. Compared with data for chrysotile miners and millers, chrysotile textile workers were found to experience significantly greater lung cancer mortality at lower lifetime cumulative exposure levels. Factors such as differences in airborne fiber characteristics may partially account for the large differences in exposure response between textile workers and miners and millers.

  18. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  19. Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

  20. Stress habituation, body shape and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Peters, Achim; McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    High cardiovascular mortality is well documented in lean phenotypes exhibiting visceral fat accumulation. In contrast, corpulent phenotypes with predominantly subcutaneous fat accumulation display a surprisingly low mortality. The term 'obesity paradox' reflects the difficulty in understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these clinical observations. The allostatic load model of chronic stress focuses on glucocorticoid dysregulation as part of a 'network of allostasis' involving autonomic, endocrine, metabolic, and immune mediators. Here, we expand upon the energetic demands of the brain and show that 'habituators' and 'non-habituators' develop divergent patterns of fat distribution. Central to this process is the recurrent rise in the cerebral energy need (arousal) that non-habituators experience during chronic stress. These neuroenergetic alterations promote visceral fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat loss, and atherogenesis with subsequent cardiovascular events. Habituators are more or less protected against such cardiovascular complications, but there is a metabolic trade-off that we shall discuss in the present paper. PMID:26148986

  1. An Overview of the Cooperative Effort between the United States Department of Energy and the China Atomic Energy Authority to Enhance MPC&A Inspections for Civil Nuclear Facilities in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ahern, Keith; Daming, Liu; Hanley, Tim; Livingston, Linwood; McAninch, Connie; McGinnis, Brent R; Ning, Shen; Qun, Yang; Roback, Jason William; Tuttle, Glenn; Xuemei, Gao; Galer, Regina; Peterson, Nancy; Jia, Jinlie

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) are cooperating to enhance the domestic regulatory inspections capacity for special nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) requirements for civil nuclear facilities in China. This cooperation is conducted under the auspices of the Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the State Development and Planning Commission of the People s Republic of China on Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology. This initial successful effort was conducted in three phases. Phase I focused on introducing CAEA personnel to DOE and U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection methods for U. S. facilities. This phase was completed in January 2008 during meetings in Beijing. Phase II focused on developing physical protection and material control and accounting inspection exercises that enforced U. S. inspection methods identified during Phase 1. Hands on inspection activities were conducted in the United States over a two week period in July 2009. Simulated deficiencies were integrated into the inspection exercises. The U. S. and Chinese participants actively identified and discussed deficiencies noted during the two week training course. The material control and accounting inspection exercises were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, KY. The physical protection inspection exercises were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN. Phase III leveraged information provided under Phase I and experience gained under Phase II to develop a formal inspection guide that incorporates a systematic approach to training for Chinese MPC&A field inspectors. Additional hands on exercises that are applicable to Chinese regulations were incorporated into the Phase III training material. Phase III was completed in May 2010 at the China

  2. Recent mortality patterns in California.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K F; Zaharia, E S

    1998-10-01

    Mortality among people with developmental disabilities was reviewed using recent data obtained from the California Department of Developmental Services. The time interval for this report was 1991-1995. We defined two study cohorts: one beginning in January 1991 and a second in April 1993. The latter period represented the years of implementation of the Coffelt settlement. Our primary interest was in the Coffelt period cohort. Statistically significant association with increased rates of mortality was found for community residence. A trend of declining mortality was noted for the community facilities from 1991-1995, but not for the developmental centers. PMID:9803127

  3. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  4. Physical barrier to reduce WP mortalities of foraging waterfowl

    SciTech Connect

    Pochop, P.A.; Cummings, J.L.; Yoder, C.A.; Gossweiler, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    White phosphorus (WP) has been identified as the cause of mortality to certain species of water-fowl at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh in Alaska, used as an ordinance impact area by the US Army. A blend of calcium bentonite/organo clays, gravel, and binding polymers was tested for effectiveness as a barrier to reduce duck foraging and mortality. Following the application of the barrier to one of two contaminated ponds, the authors observed greater duck foraging and higher mortality in the untreated pond and no mortality in the treated pond after a year of tidal inundations and ice effects. Emergent vegetation recovered within a year of treatment. WP levels in the barrier were less than the method limit of detection, indicating no migration of WP into the materials. Barrier thickness remained relatively stable over a period of 4 years, and vegetation was found to be important in stabilizing the barrier material.

  5. Mortality associated with mild, untreated xerophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, A

    1983-01-01

    The high mortality rate among children with severe corneal xerophthalmia is well recognized. The present study investigates, for the first time, mortality among the very much larger number of otherwise healthy free-living children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and Bitot's spots). An average of 3481 children (under 6 years of age) living in six Indonesian villages were reexamined by an ophthalmologist, pediatrician, and nutritionist every 3 months for 18 months. The overall prevalence of mild xerophthalmia was 4.9%. During the 18 months of observation, 132 children died. Of these, 24 had mild xerophthalmia and 108 had normal eyes at the 3-monthly examination preceding their death. Mortality rates were calculated for each 3-month interval by classifying all children by their ocular status at the start of the interval, and then dividing the number of deaths within the interval by the number of children of the same ocular status followed up for that interval. Mortality rates for the six 3-month intervals were then added together, and the results expressed as deaths per 1000 "child-intervals" of follow-up. Overall mortality rates for children with mild xerophthalmia and for children with normal eyes were 23.3 and 5.3, respectively, a ratio of 4 to 1. Excess mortality among the mildly xerophthalmic children increased with the severity of their xerophthalmia. Mortality rates for children with night blindness, with Bitot's spots, and with the two conditions concurrently were 2.7, 6.6, and 8.6 times the mortality rate of non-xerophthalmic children. This direct, almost linear relation between mortality and the severity of mild xerophthalmia was still present after standardizing for age and for the presence or absence of respiratory infection and protein-energy malnutrition. In the population studied, 16% of all deaths in children 1 to 6 years of age were directly related to vitamin A deficiency identified by the presence of mild xerophthalmia. These results

  6. 48 CFR 23.502 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 23.502 Authority. Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690)....

  7. 48 CFR 23.502 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 23.502 Authority. Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690)....

  8. 48 CFR 23.502 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 23.502 Authority. 41 U.S.C. chapter 81, Drug-Free Workplace....

  9. 48 CFR 23.801 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) regulations, Protection of Stratospheric Ozone (40 CFR Part 82). ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Ozone-Depleting Substances 23.801 Authorities. (a) Title VI of the Clean Air...

  10. 48 CFR 23.801 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) regulations, Protection of Stratospheric Ozone (40 CFR Part 82). ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Ozone-Depleting Substances 23.801 Authorities. (a) Title VI of the Clean Air...

  11. 48 CFR 23.502 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 23.502 Authority. Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690)....

  12. 48 CFR 23.801 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) regulations, Protection of Stratospheric Ozone (40 CFR Part 82). ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Ozone-Depleting Substances 23.801 Authorities. (a) Title VI of the Clean Air...

  13. 48 CFR 23.901 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems 23.901 Authority. (a) Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. (b) Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy,...

  14. 48 CFR 23.901 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems 23.901 Authority. (a) Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. (b) Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy,...

  15. 48 CFR 23.901 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems 23.901 Authority. (a) Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. (b) Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy,...

  16. 48 CFR 23.901 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems 23.901 Authority. (a) Executive Order 13423 of January 24, 2007, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. (b) Executive Order 13514 of October 5, 2009, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy,...

  17. And Speaking of Authority...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

  18. Authority in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  19. Nonhunting mortality in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Records of 170 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Research Center, Wisconsin, from 1976 through 1985 were reviewed as representative samples to determine causes of nonhunting mortality in the mid-continent and Rocky Mountain populations of sandhill cranes. Avian cholera, avian botulism, and ingestion of mycotoxins were leading causes of nonhunting mortality. Hailstorms, lightning, lead poisoning, predation, avian tuberculosis, and collisions with power lines also killed cranes.

  20. Mortality among Navajo uranium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, R J; Deddens, J A; Salvan, A; Schnorr, T M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To update mortality risks for Navajo uranium miners, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of 757 Navajos from the cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners. METHODS. Vital status was followed from 1960 to 1990. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated, with combined New Mexico and Arizona non-White mortality rates used for comparison. Cox regression models were used to evaluate exposure-response relationships. RESULTS. Elevated standardized mortality ratios were found for lung cancer (3.3), tuberculosis (2.6), and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (2.6). Lowered ratios were found for heart disease (0.6), circulatory disease (0.4), and liver cirrhosis (0.5). The estimated relative risk for a 5-year duration of exposure vs none was 3.7 for lung cancer, 2.1 for pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases, and 2.0 for tuberculosis. The relative risk for lung cancer was 6.9 for the midrange of cumulative exposure to radon progeny compared with the least exposed. CONCLUSIONS. Findings were consistent with those from previous studies. Twenty-three years after their last exposure to radon progeny, these light-smoking Navajo miners continue to face excess mortality risks from lung cancer and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases. PMID:7702118

  1. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  2. 30 CFR 281.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority. 281.2 Section 281.2 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....2 Authority. The Act authorizes the Secretary to grant leases for any mineral other than oil,...

  3. Spatial impacts of heat waves in mortality. Evaluating current risks and future threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, H.; Canario, P.; Nogueira, H.

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of heat waves in morbidity and mortality are largely known. Climate Change is expected to increase the climate health impacts in summer while the winter will be probably favored. The health impacts of extreme thermal events are mainly studied at a national or regional level, considering macro or mesoscale thermal features. But it can be assumed that local variations in mortality must exist, associated, in one hand, with local climatic differences, due to features such as land use and urbanization and, in other hand, with vulnerability factors (depending on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of populations). A model of hazard - vulnerability - risk was developed, to analyze the spatial variations of mortality in extreme thermal events, at the level of city district, in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal). In that model, risk is considered as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Daily mortality data by sex, age and cause of death was supplied by the Health National Authority. The research is yet on-going. In our model, hazard is represented mainly by temperature and air pollution (the influence of other atmospheric variables that affect the human energy balance, such as solar radiation and wind speed should be tested too). Small scale variation of meteorological features, in extreme thermal events, were simulated with a Regional Atmospheric Model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the results were validated and calibrated using observation data from an urban network of termo-higrometers placed in sites with different urban characteristics. Vulnerability is a result on personal sensitivity and exposure. Personal sensitivity is assessed considering individual constitutional and demographic factors as well as socio, cultural and economic variables. Daily mobility determines the population exposure to heat. Since many of these variables are redundant, a set of indicators, including a multiple deprivation index, was used. A

  4. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  6. Authoring tool evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  7. Akenti Authorization System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-06-01

    Akenti is an authorization service for distributed resources. The authorization policy is kept in distributed certificates signed by one or more stakeholders for the resources. The package consists of the following components: Java GUI tools to create and sign the policy certificates C++ libraries to do make acess decisions based on the policy certificates A standalone authorization server that make access decisions C interfaces to the libraries and server

  8. Authoring Issues beyond Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spierling, Ulrike; Szilas, Nicolas

    Authoring is still considered a bottleneck in successful Interactive Storytelling and Drama. The claim for intuitive authoring tools is high, especially for tools that allow storytellers and artists to define dynamic content that can be run with an AI-based story engine. We explored two concrete authoring processes in depth, using various Interactive Storytelling prototypes, and have provided feedback from the practical steps. The result is a presentation of general issues in authoring Interactive Storytelling, rather than of particular problems with a specific system that could be overcome by 'simply' designing the right interface. Priorities for future developments are also outlined.

  9. Respiratory tract mortality in cement workers: a proportionate mortality study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers in the cement industry. Mortality from urinary bladder cancer was used as an indirect indicator of the confounding effect of smoking. Results Mortality from all respiratory cancer was significantly increased in cement production workers (PMR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.33). The proportionate mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated (PMR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.52). A statistically significant increase in proportionate mortality due to respiratory (PMR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.34). and lung cancer (PMR = 1.67;95% CI = 1.15-2.34) among maintenance workers has been observed. The PMR among the three groups of workers (production, maintenance, office) did differ significantly for lung cancer (p = 0.001), while the PMR for urinary bladder cancer found to be similar among the three groups of cement workers. Conclusion Cement production, and maintenance workers presented increased lung and respiratory cancer proportionate mortality, and this finding probably cannot be explained by the confounding effect of smoking alone. Further research including use of prospective cohort studies is needed in order to establish a causal association between occupational exposure to cement and risk of lung cancer. PMID:22738120

  10. Mortality differentials among Israeli men.

    PubMed Central

    Manor, O; Eisenbach, Z; Peritz, E; Friedlander, Y

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differentials in mortality among adult Israeli men with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and several measures of social status. METHODS: Data were based on a linkage of records from a 20% sample of the 1983 census to records of deaths occurring before the end of 1992. The study population included 72,527 men, and the number of deaths was 17,378. RESULTS: Differentials is mortality by origin show that mortality was higher among individuals of North African origin than among those of Asian and European origin. After allowance for several socioeconomic indicators, the excess mortality among North African Jews was eliminated. Substantial and consistent differences in mortality were found according to education, occupation, income, possession of a car, housing, and household amenities. Differentials among the elderly were markedly narrower than those among men younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, these who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin. PMID:10589307

  11. Hodgkin's disease mortality in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Levi, F.; Lucchini, F.; Kaye, S. B.; Boyle, P.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in mortality from Hodgkin's disease between mid 1950s and the late 1980s have been analysed for 16 western European and seven eastern European countries. In all western countries there were substantial falls in mortality from the late 1960s onwards, for an overall mean decline of 50% in both sexes, although these falls were somewhat larger in Nordic countries (approaching 70% in Denmark and Sweden), and more limited (20 to 30%) in Portugal, Spain and Greece. The reductions in Hodgkin's disease mortality were evident both in younger (under 35) and middle age (35 to 64 years), as well as in children under 15 and, in several countries, in the elderly (above 65), too. They were persistent up to the most recent calendar periods, with no evidence of flattening off. The pattern of trends in Hodgkin's disease mortality was largely different in Eastern Europe. Among seven countries examined, some fall was observed only in Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia, but other countries showed no consistent pattern and there was some increase, too. In absolute terms, the reductions in Hodgkin's disease mortality in Western Europe correspond to the avoidance of over 3,000 deaths per year. This stresses the importance and urgency of improving the availability of currently defined knowledge and resources for treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Eastern Europe. PMID:1911221

  12. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. PMID:25775230

  13. The Voice of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  14. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Rod Ellis's comments on their study on motivated classroom behavior. As Ellis correctly summarizes, the three student variables selected for investigation in the authors' study were attention, participation, and volunteering for teacher-fronted activity. These three components were then summed up in a…

  15. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  16. Bringing Authors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II

    2005-01-01

    Traditional story times begin with "The author of this book is..." and "The illustrator of this book is...". Although library media specialists emphasize the role of an author and an illustrator in creating a book, students often have difficulty making the connection between the name and a real person. Learning involves making connections and…

  17. Charter Authorizers Face Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Since the first charter school opened 20 years ago in Minnesota, charters have been a focus of school reform advocates and the subject of substantial research. Yet the regulators of the charter industry (called "authorizers" or "sponsors") remain a mystery to many. In fact, many authorizers work in isolation, developing their…

  18. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  19. American Indian Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  20. Evaluating Digital Authoring Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Russ

    2004-01-01

    As the quality of authoring software increases, online course developers become less reliant on proprietary learning management systems, and develop skills in the design of original, in-house materials and the delivery platforms for them. This report examines the capabilities of digital authoring software tools for the development of learning…

  1. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally authorized activities. 810.7 Section 810.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has determined that the following activities...

  2. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Generally authorized activities. 810.7 Section 810.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has determined that the following activities...

  3. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires...

  4. 10 CFR 810.8 - Activities requiring specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.8 Section 810.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. Unless generally authorized by § 810.7, a person requires...

  5. Cohabitation and U.S Adult Mortality: An Examination by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to explore the relationship between cohabitation and U.S. adult mortality using a nationally representative sample. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey-Longitudinal Mortality Follow-up files 1997-2004 (N = 193,851), the authors found that divorced, widowed, and never-married White men had higher mortality…

  6. Relationships of Suicide Ideation with Cause-Specific Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of South Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The…

  7. Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

    2008-06-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

  8. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mozos, Ioana; Caraba, Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality. Sudden cardiac death may also appear in athletes, due to underlying congenital or inherited cardiac abnormalities. The electrocardiogram is used in clinical practice and clinical trials, as a valid, reliable, accessible, inexpensive method. The aim of the present paper was to review electrocardiographic (ECG) signs associated with cardiovascular mortality and the mechanisms underlying those associations, providing a brief description of the main studies in this area, and consider their implication for clinical practice in the general population and athletes. The main ECG parameters associated with cardiovascular mortality in the present paper are the P wave (duration, interatrial block, and deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1), prolonged QT and Tpeak-Tend intervals, QRS duration and fragmentation, bundle branch block, ST segment depression and elevation, T waves (inverted, T wave axes), spatial angles between QRS and T vectors, premature ventricular contractions, and ECG hypertrophy criteria. PMID:26257460

  9. Mortality among British Columbia pilots.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, D A; Band, P R; Threlfall, W J; Gallagher, R P

    1991-04-01

    We studied the mortality experience of all pilots who died in the province of British Columbia between 1950 and 1984, using proportional mortality ratios (PMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR). There were 341 deaths during that time in males whose usual occupation was listed as pilot. The PMR for aircraft accidents was significantly elevated (PMR = 3196, 95% C.I. 2810, 3634), and the PMR for atherosclerotic heart disease was significantly depressed (PMR = 47, 95% C.I. 30, 70). Although based on small numbers of deaths, and not statistically significant, elevated PCMRs were seen for cancers of the colon, brain, and nervous system, as well as for Hodgkin's disease. These findings suggest the need for further epidemiologic studies of commercial airline pilots. PMID:2031640

  10. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  11. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Cardiovascular Mortality.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Caraba, Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality. Sudden cardiac death may also appear in athletes, due to underlying congenital or inherited cardiac abnormalities. The electrocardiogram is used in clinical practice and clinical trials, as a valid, reliable, accessible, inexpensive method. The aim of the present paper was to review electrocardiographic (ECG) signs associated with cardiovascular mortality and the mechanisms underlying those associations, providing a brief description of the main studies in this area, and consider their implication for clinical practice in the general population and athletes. The main ECG parameters associated with cardiovascular mortality in the present paper are the P wave (duration, interatrial block, and deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1), prolonged QT and Tpeak-Tend intervals, QRS duration and fragmentation, bundle branch block, ST segment depression and elevation, T waves (inverted, T wave axes), spatial angles between QRS and T vectors, premature ventricular contractions, and ECG hypertrophy criteria. PMID:26257460

  12. Does retirement age impact mortality?

    PubMed

    Hernaes, Erik; Markussen, Simen; Piggott, John; Vestad, Ola L

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between retirement and mortality is studied with a unique administrative data set covering the full population of Norway. A series of retirement policy changes in Norway reduced the retirement age for a group of workers but not for others. Difference-in-differences estimation based on monthly birth cohorts and treatment group status show that the early retirement programme significantly reduced the retirement age; this holds true also when we account for programme substitution, for example into the disability pension. Instrumental variables estimation results show no effect on mortality of retirement age; neither do estimation results from a hazard rate model. PMID:23542020

  13. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  14. Authorizing Online Learning. Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Susan; Vander Ark, Tom

    2011-01-01

    processing to personalized learning. There will also be a slow enrollment shift from traditional district-operated schools to schools and programs operated by organizations authorized under contracts or…

  15. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  16. Morbidity and Mortality in Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Alicia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic sarcoidosis is a complex disease with numerous comorbid conditions and can be fatal in some cases. Recognizing causes of morbidity and mortality is important to effectively select treatments, manage symptoms, and improve outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine emerging knowledge on morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Recent Findings Approximately one to five percent of patients with sarcoidosis die from complications of sarcoidosis. Recent population studies indicate that mortality may be increasing over the past decade. The reasons behind these trends are unclear, but could include increasing incidence, detection rates, severity of disease, or age of the population. Morbidity of sarcoidosis is reflected by a trend of increased hospitalizations over recent years and increased use of healthcare resources. Morbidity can be caused by organ damage from granulomatous inflammation, treatment complications, and psychosocial effects of the disease. Recent studies are focused on morbidity related to cardiopulmonary complications, bone health, and aging within the sarcoidosis population. Last, sarcoidosis is associated with autoimmune diseases, pulmonary embolism, and malignancy; however, the underlying mechanisms linking diseases continue to be debated. Summary Morbidity in sarcoidosis is significant and multifactorial. Mortality is infrequent, but may be increasing over the years. PMID:25029298

  17. CANCER MORTALITY MAPS AND GRAPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cancer Mortality Maps & Graph Web Site provides interactive maps, graphs (which are accessible to the blind and visually-impaired), text, tables and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of cancer death rates for the time period 1950-1994 for more than 40 cancer...

  18. Infant Mortality: 1989 Research Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Collected in this document are reports of the National Institutes of Health's 1989 accomplishments in research on the problem of infant mortality. Reports are provided by the: (1) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; (2) National Cancer Institute; (3) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; (4) National Institute of…

  19. Drought, Mortality and Social Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the human population explosion, resource depletion, drought, malnutrition, and disease. As a sample study, mortality trends in Rajasthan State in India in the 1980s were analyzed to correlate the increased death rate with the drought of 1987. It is demonstrated that drought-induced malnutrition was the root cause…

  20. Birth Defects Prevalence and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the prevalence of birth defects present at birth and mortality rates among infants in the United States between from 1999-2008 and 1979-2007, respectively. Some scientific studies have linked birth defects with environmental exposures. This indicator p...

  1. Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMBO is a spreadsheet-based model for the use of managers, conservationists, and biologists for projecting the effects of climate change on coral reefs at local-to-regional scales. The COMBO (Coral Mortality and Bleaching Output) model calculates the impacts to coral reefs from...

  2. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H., Jr.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  3. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY CHART BOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides information on the progress being made in the fight against cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases. It serves as a resource for the Institute as it plans and prioritizes future activities. Compilation of data on the size and trends of morbidity and mortality from the c...

  4. 10 CFR 1017.6 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority. 1017.6 Section 1017.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially Determining What Information Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.6...

  5. Mortality studies of smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Enterline, P E; Marsh, G M

    1980-01-01

    In view of the historic importance of smelter workers in the field of occupational medicine, it is surprising that until very recently little data was available on the mortality experience of these workers. The problem in most studies lies in identifying the smelter workers, because smelting, strictly speaking, refers to the melting of ores for the purposes of recovering metals, whereas smelters sometimes perform the operations of roasting, calcining, sintering, converting, and refining. These distinctions are not made in most mortality studies. Most mortality studies of smelter workers conducted to date have shown some excess in lung cancer. For lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel smelters a different etiologic agent has been proposed for each. These different explanations arise partly from different initial perspectives in conducting the studies. In this paper, data are presented on a current historical-prospective study of males who worked a year or more during the period January 1, 1940 to December 31, 1964 at a copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington. This smelter (and refinery) handled a copper ore with a relatively high arsenic content and produced arsenic trioxide as a by-product. Overall 97.2% of the original study population was traced through 1976. Of the 1,061 who were found to have died, death certificates were obtained for 1,018, or 96%. For all causes of death, the mortality rates in this cohort, expressed as a Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), were 3.5% higher than that expected based on the United States white male mortality experience. A total of 104 respiratory system cancers were observed compared to 54.6 expected (SMR = 190.5, p less than .05). Respiratory cancer rates were found to be elevated in both smokers and nonsmokers. Overall, a gradual rise in SMR's for respiratory cancer was observed with increasing duration of exposure but not with an increasing interval from onset of exposure. This observation is consistent with the notion that the

  6. Dioxins and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Birnbaum, Linda; Rimm, Eric; Mittleman, Murray A.; Hauser, Russ

    2008-01-01

    Objective In this systematic review we evaluated the evidence on the association between dioxin exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in humans. Data sources and extraction We conducted a PubMed search in December 2007 and considered all English-language epidemiologic studies and their citations regarding dioxin exposure and CVD mortality. To focus on dioxins, we excluded cohorts that were either primarily exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls or from the leather and perfume industries, which include other cardiotoxic coexposures. Data synthesis We included results from 12 cohorts in the review. Ten cohorts were occupationally exposed. We divided analyses according to two well-recognized criteria of epidemiologic study quality: the accuracy of the exposure assessment, and whether the exposed population was compared with an internal or an external (e.g., general population) reference group. Analyses using internal comparisons with accurate exposure assessments are the highest quality because they minimize both exposure misclassification and confounding due to workers being healthier than the general population (“healthy worker effect”). The studies in the highest-quality group found consistent and significant dose-related increases in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and more modest associations with all-CVD mortality. Their primary limitation was a lack of adjustment for potential confounding by the major risk factors for CVD. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that dioxin exposure is associated with mortality from both IHD and all CVD, although more strongly with the former. However, it is not possible to determine the potential bias, if any, from confounding by other risk factors for CVD. PMID:19057694

  7. Peptic ulcers: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzes data on peptic ulcer disease based on deaths for 1951-1988 and hospital separations for 1969-1988. The source of the data are mortality and morbidity statistics provided to Statistics Canada by the provinces. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for peptic ulcer disease decreased from 1951 to 1988 by 69.4% for men (8.5 to 2.6 per 100,000 population), and 31.8% for women (2.2 to 1.5). Separation rates from hospitals during 1969-1988 for peptic ulcer disease also decreased by 59.8% for men (242.7 to 97.6 per 100,000 population) and 35.6% for women (103.2 to 66.5). Age-specific rates for both mortality and hospital separations increased with age. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease is declining in the general population. The downward trends in mortality and hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease reflect this change in incidence, but additional factors probably contribute as well to this decline. Male rates for both mortality and hospital separations were much higher than female rates at the beginning of the study period; but toward the end, the gap between the sexes narrowed considerably, mainly because the male rates declined substantially while the female rates decline moderately. The slower decline in the rates for women may be related to such factors as the increasing labour force participation among women and the slower decline in the population of female smokers. PMID:1801957

  8. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082

  9. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  10. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  11. 10 CFR 205.306 - Authorization not exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Electric Energy to A Foreign Country § 205.306 Authorization not exclusive. No authorization granted... other person or entity to export electric energy or to prevent any other person or entity from...

  12. Analysis of worldwide earthquake mortality using multivariate demographic and seismic data.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Taucer, F; De Groeve, T; Al-Khudhairy, D H A; Zaldivar, J M

    2005-06-15

    In this paper, mortality in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake is studied on a worldwide scale using multivariate analysis. A statistical method is presented that analyzes reported earthquake fatalities as a function of a heterogeneous set of parameters selected on the basis of their presumed influence on earthquake mortality. The ensemble was compiled from demographic, seismic, and reported fatality data culled from available records of past earthquakes organized in a geographic information system. The authors consider the statistical relation between earthquake mortality and the available data ensemble, analyze the validity of the results in view of the parametric uncertainties, and propose a multivariate mortality analysis prediction method. The analysis reveals that, although the highest mortality rates are expected in poorly developed rural areas, high fatality counts can result from a wide range of mortality ratios that depend on the effective population size. PMID:15937024

  13. Brain abscess and subdural empyema. Factors influencing mortality and results of various surgical techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Van Alphen, H A; Dreissen, J J

    1976-01-01

    The authors review the results of various surgical techniques in relation to mortality and morbidity in 100 consecutive cases of brain abscess and subdural empyema. The mortality rate is the same with total excision and fractional drainage of brain abscesses, although in acute and subacute cases slight differences between both techniques are seen. In terms of morbidity, fractional drainage appears to be more favourable than total excision. The authors believe that factors other than surgical procedure influence mortality in cases of brain abscess and subdural empyema. These factors are defined in detail. Images PMID:932767

  14. 76 FR 19338 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On March 2, 2009 Green Island Power Authority, licensee for the Green Island Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Green Island Hydroelectric Project is on the Hudson River in Albany County,...

  15. 10 CFR 871.4 - Limitation on redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitation on redelegation of authority. 871.4 Section 871.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.4 Limitation on redelegation of authority. The authority delegated in this part may not be redelegated without the prior approval of...

  16. 10 CFR 871.4 - Limitation on redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitation on redelegation of authority. 871.4 Section 871.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.4 Limitation on redelegation of authority. The authority delegated in this part may not be redelegated without the prior approval of...

  17. 10 CFR 871.4 - Limitation on redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitation on redelegation of authority. 871.4 Section 871.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.4 Limitation on redelegation of authority. The authority delegated in this part may not be redelegated without the prior approval of...

  18. 10 CFR 4.49 - Other means authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other means authorized by law. 4.49 Section 4.49 Energy... of 1964 and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Means of Effecting Compliance § 4.49 Other means authorized by law. No action to effect compliance by any other means authorized by law...

  19. 10 CFR 871.4 - Limitation on redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitation on redelegation of authority. 871.4 Section 871.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.4 Limitation on redelegation of authority. The authority delegated in this part may not be redelegated without the prior approval of...

  20. 10 CFR 871.4 - Limitation on redelegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on redelegation of authority. 871.4 Section 871.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.4 Limitation on redelegation of authority. The authority delegated in this part may not be redelegated without the prior approval of...

  1. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  2. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  3. Site authorization service (SAZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Skow; Igor Mandrichenko; Vijay Sehkri

    2003-10-01

    In this paper the authors present a methodology to provide an additional level of centralized control for the grid resources. This centralized control is applied to site-wide distribution of various grids and thus provides an upper hand in the maintenance.

  4. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  5. Creating Digital Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…

  6. 30 CFR 585.100 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2005 (EPAct) (Pub. L. 109-58). The Secretary of the Interior delegated to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) the authority to regulate activities under section 388(a) of the EPAct. These...

  7. 30 CFR 285.100 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) (Pub. L. 109-58). The Secretary of the Interior delegated to the Minerals Management Service (MMS) the authority to regulate activities under section 388(a) of the...

  8. 30 CFR 585.100 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2005 (EPAct) (Pub. L. 109-58). The Secretary of the Interior delegated to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) the authority to regulate activities under section 388(a) of the EPAct. These...

  9. 30 CFR 585.100 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2005 (EPAct) (Pub. L. 109-58). The Secretary of the Interior delegated to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) the authority to regulate activities under section 388(a) of the EPAct. These...

  10. A bill to amend the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 to authorize the Secretary of Energy to conduct research, development, and demonstration to make biofuels more compatible with small nonroad engines, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2009-03-30

    12/08/2009 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-330. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Strategies for reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L

    2012-02-01

    The maternal death rate in the United States has shown no improvement in several decades and may be increasing. On the other hand, hospital systems that have instituted comprehensive programs directed at the prevention of maternal mortality have demonstrated rates that are half of the national average. These programs have emphasized the reduction of variability in the provision of care through the use of standard protocols, reliance on checklists instead of memory for critical processes, and an approach to peer review that emphasizes systems change. In addition, elimination of a small number of repetitive errors in the management of hypertension, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, and cardiac disease will contribute significantly to a reduction in maternal mortality. Attention to these general principles and specific error reduction strategies will be of benefit to every practitioner and more importantly to the patients we serve. PMID:22280865

  12. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  13. 48 CFR 970.1170 - Work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Work authorization. 970.1170 Section 970.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170 Work authorization....

  14. 48 CFR 970.1170 - Work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Work authorization. 970.1170 Section 970.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170 Work authorization....

  15. 48 CFR 970.1170 - Work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Work authorization. 970.1170 Section 970.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170 Work authorization....

  16. 48 CFR 970.1170 - Work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Work authorization. 970.1170 Section 970.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170 Work authorization....

  17. 48 CFR 970.1170 - Work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Work authorization. 970.1170 Section 970.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170 Work authorization....

  18. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-08-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  19. Cancer mortality among leather tanners.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Kling, H; Flodin, U; Axelson, O

    1986-01-01

    Workers were studied at a tannery that operated from 1873 to 1960, once one of the biggest in Scandinavia. The results show a slight numerical increase of deaths from cancer of the stomach and a significant, threefold excess mortality from cancer of the pancreas. Even in view of critical questions about validity it seems likely that this excess might be related to exposure to chemicals in tannery work. PMID:3718898

  20. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence— Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared to non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet vs. non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor’s degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.98, p=0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.01, p=0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions Magnet hospitals have lower mortality than is fully accounted for by measured characteristics of nursing. Magnet recognition likely both identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:23047129

  1. Strategies to reduce neonatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1990-01-01

    In India, 60% of deaths in infants under 1 year of age occur in the 1st 4 weeks after birth. The neonatal mortality rate is currently 76/1000 live births in rural areas and 39/1000 in urban areas. The Government if India has launched a plan of action of address the cycle of poorly spaced pregnancies, inadequate maternal health care and nutrition, and high incidence of low birthweight babies that contributes to this high neonatal mortality phenomenon. Crucial to such a plan is the expansion, strengthening, and improved organization of maternal-child health services. At the level of maternal health services, efforts will be made to identify pregnant women early, arrange a minimum of 4 prenatal visits, provide dietary supplementation and immunization against tetanus toxoid, create more sterile conditions for home deliveries, identify and refer high-risk pregnancies and deliveries, and provide postnatal follow-up care. Child health service staff are motivating mothers to breastfeed and screening newborns for jaundice and bacterial infection. A risk approach, in which there is a minimum necessary level of care for all pregnant women but more intensive management and follow-up of those at high risk, is most cost-efficient given the lack of human and financial resources. Attention must also be given to the determinants of low birthweight (maternal undernutrition, closely spaced pregnancies, severe anemia, adolescent childbearing, prenatal infections, strenuous work responsibilities, and maternal hypertension), which is a co-factor in neonatal mortality. PMID:12316586

  2. 29 CFR 4281.14 - Mortality assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contingent annuitant mortality during deferral period. If a participant's joint and survivor benefit is valued as a deferred annuity, the mortality of the contingent annuitant during the deferral period...

  3. Authors: who contributes what?

    PubMed

    Squires, B P

    1996-10-01

    In this issue (see pages 877 to 882) Dr. H. Dele Davies and associates examine how a sample of pediatric department chairs and faculty deans' offices perceive the involvement of faculty members in medical research. Their findings point to the confusion that surrounds the question of authorship in collaborative research. Dr. Drummond Rennie, deputy editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, has proposed that a complete and descriptive list of "contributors" replace author lists and acknowledgements. Slight modifications to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors guidelines on authorship retain the designation "author" and the use of acknowledgements but encourage the explicit description of each investigator's contribution. Researchers and editors should continue to explore ways to ensure that contributions to published research are clearly and honestly identified. PMID:8837537

  4. The Author's Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The referee's report is a standard rite of passage for an author of articles in The Physics Teacher. Will the referee (and the editor) agree with the basic premise and the details of your carefully thought-out article? I have faced this moment of truth many times; the majority of them were during the editorship of Cliff Swartz. These reminiscences are as much about the journal as Cliff, for, to many of us, the two seemed inseparable.

  5. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1986-03-15

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. The purpose of research summarized herein is to test for compensatory mortality during winter in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1985, sixty fawns were radio collared on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirty-three adult females also were telemetered, bringing the total instrumented population to 167 at the onset of winter. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Warrell, David A.; Suraweera, Wilson; Bhatia, Prakash; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jotkar, Raju M.; Rodriguez, Peter S.; Mishra, Kaushik; Whitaker, Romulus; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Background India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001–03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15–29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6–4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8–6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. PMID:21532748

  7. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  8. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  9. Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This document presents mortality statistics for 1985 for the entire United States. Data analysis and discussion of these factors is included: death and death rates; death rates by age, sex, and race; expectation of life at birth and at specified ages; causes of death; infant mortality; and maternal mortality. Highlights reported include: (1) the…

  10. Authorization basis for the 209-E Building

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFANY, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    This Authorization Basis document is one of three documents that constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. Per the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 98-WSD-074, this document, the 209-E Building Preliminary Hazards Analysis (WHC-SD-WM-TI-789), and the 209-E Building Safety Evaluation Report (97-WSD-074) constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. This Authorization Basis and the associated controls and safety programs will remain in place until safety documentation addressing deactivation of the 209-E Building is developed by the contractor and approved by RL.

  11. 10 CFR 217.41 - Requests for priority rating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for priority rating authority. 217.41 Section 217.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Special Priorities Assistance § 217.41 Requests for priority rating authority. (a) If a rated order is likely to be...

  12. 10 CFR 217.41 - Requests for priority rating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for priority rating authority. 217.41 Section 217.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Special Priorities Assistance § 217.41 Requests for priority rating authority. (a) If a rated order is likely to be...

  13. 10 CFR 217.41 - Requests for priority rating authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requests for priority rating authority. 217.41 Section 217.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Special Priorities Assistance § 217.41 Requests for priority rating authority. (a) If a rated order is likely to be...

  14. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  15. 30 CFR 256.4 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority. 256.4 Section 256.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the OCS. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6213), prohibits joint bidding...

  16. 48 CFR 23.105 - Exemption authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemption authority. 23.105 Section 23.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...

  17. 48 CFR 23.105 - Exemption authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption authority. 23.105 Section 23.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY,...

  18. 48 CFR 23.801 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorities. 23.801 Section 23.801 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Ozone-Depleting...

  19. 48 CFR 23.801 - Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorities. 23.801 Section 23.801 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Ozone-Depleting...

  20. Infant mortality in Rajasthan villages.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S D; Jain, T P; Joshi, S; Mangal, D K

    1981-02-01

    Social, cultural and economic factors, beside medical causes, contribute to the high percentage of infant mortality in India. This study was carried out in 12 villages in the area of the Rural Health Training Centre, Naila, India; all villages were being regularly visited by paramedical staff and doctors. During 1977 62 infants died. Most parents were illiterate and very poor. 50.3% of deaths occurred within the first 28 days of life, and 25.8% within the first 7 days of life; 72.8% of deaths occurred within the first 6 months of life. Infections and malnutrition accounted for 77.3% of all deaths; pneumonia alone claimed 25.8% of lives, malnutrition 19.3%, fever for unknown reasons 16.1%, diarrhea 14.5% and prematurity 12.9%. Deaths for pneumonia were 56.3% in the postneonatal period and 43.7% in the neonatal period, while fever predominated as a cause of death in the neonatal rather than in postneonatal period, with 70% and 30% of deaths respectively. 56.4% of deaths were recorded among children born to mothers aged 21-30, 30.7% among children of mothers over 30, and 12.9% among children of mothers below 20. 51.6% of dead children had a birth order of 5 and over; only 17.8% had first birth order. 50.1% of deaths were observed in infants who were born less than 12 months from the previous conception. Similar studies done in other Indian regions show similar percentages of infant mortality and of causes for mortality. PMID:7263000

  1. Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ragins, Arona; Scheirer, Peter; Liu, Vincent; Robles, Jay; Kipnis, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hospital discharge planning has been hampered by the lack of predictive models. Objective: To develop predictive models for nonelective rehospitalization and postdischarge mortality suitable for use in commercially available electronic medical records (EMRs). Design: Retrospective cohort study using split validation. Setting: Integrated health care delivery system serving 3.9 million members. Participants: A total of 360,036 surviving adults who experienced 609,393 overnight hospitalizations at 21 hospitals between June 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measure: A composite outcome (nonelective rehospitalization and/or death within 7 or 30 days of discharge). Results: Nonelective rehospitalization rates at 7 and 30 days were 5.8% and 12.4%; mortality rates were 1.3% and 3.7%; and composite outcome rates were 6.3% and 14.9%, respectively. Using data from a comprehensive EMR, we developed 4 models that can generate risk estimates for risk of the combined outcome within 7 or 30 days, either at the time of admission or at 8 am on the day of discharge. The best was the 30-day discharge day model, which had a c-statistic of 0.756 (95% confidence interval, 0.754–0.756) and a Nagelkerke pseudo-R2 of 0.174 (0.171–0.178) in the validation dataset. The most important predictors—a composite acute physiology score and end of life care directives—accounted for 54% of the predictive ability of the 30-day model. Incorporation of diagnoses (not reliably available for real-time use) did not improve model performance. Conclusions: It is possible to develop robust predictive models, suitable for use in real time with commercially available EMRs, for nonelective rehospitalization and postdischarge mortality. PMID:26465120

  2. Mortality of tuberculosis patients in Chennai, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, C.; Subramani, R.; Karunakaran, K.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the mortality rate and excess general mortality as well as identify groups at high risk for mortality among a cohort of tuberculosis patients treated in Chennai Corporation clinics in south India. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we followed up 2674 patients (1800 males and 874 females) who were registered and treated under the DOTS strategy in Chennai Corporation clinics in 2000. The follow-up period from the date of start of treatment to either the date of interview, or death was 600 days. FINDINGS: The mortality rate among this cohort of tuberculosis patients was 60/1000 person-years. The excess general mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 6.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=5.4-6.9). Younger patients, men, patients with Category II disease, patients who defaulted on, or failed courses of treatment, and male smokers who were alcoholics, all had higher mortality ratios when compared to the rest of the cohort. CONCLUSION: The excess mortality in this cohort was six times more than that in the general population. Young age, male sex, smear-positivity, treatment default, treatment failure and the combination of smoking and alcoholism were identified as risk factors for tuberculosis mortality. We suggest that mortality rate and excess mortality be routinely used as a monitoring tool for evaluating the efficiency of the national control programme. PMID:16878229

  3. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W

    2012-10-30

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. We show that human mortality has decreased so substantially that the difference between hunter-gatherers and today's lowest mortality populations is greater than the difference between hunter-gatherers and wild chimpanzees. The bulk of this mortality reduction has occurred since 1900 and has been experienced by only about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age-specific risk of death is at odds with conventional theories of aging. PMID:23071331

  4. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  5. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality has not been placed in a broad evolutionary context. We quantify the rate and amount of mortality reduction by comparing a variety of human populations to the evolved human mortality profile, here estimated as the average mortality pattern for ethnographically observed hunter-gatherers. We show that human mortality has decreased so substantially that the difference between hunter-gatherers and today’s lowest mortality populations is greater than the difference between hunter-gatherers and wild chimpanzees. The bulk of this mortality reduction has occurred since 1900 and has been experienced by only about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age-specific risk of death is at odds with conventional theories of aging. PMID:23071331

  6. Who Is Hurt by Procyclical Mortality?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in understanding how fluctuations in mortality or health are related to fluctuations in economic conditions. The traditional perspective that economic recessions lower health and raise mortality has been challenged by recent findings that reveal mortality is actually procyclical. The epidemiology of the phenomenon — traffic accidents, cardiovascular disease, and smoking and drinking — suggests that socioeconomically vulnerable populations might be disproportionately at risk of “working themselves to death” during periods of heightened economic activity. In this paper, I examine mortality by individual characteristic during the 1980s and 1990s using the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. I find scant evidence that disadvantaged groups are significantly more exposed to procyclical mortality. Rather, working-age men with more education appear to bear a heavier burden, while those with little education experience countercyclical mortality. PMID:18977577

  7. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  8. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  9. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew D; Leahy, David J; Norton, Bryan J; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  10. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards...

  11. 10 CFR 810.7 - Generally authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.7 Generally authorized activities. In accordance with section 57b(2) of the Atomic Energy Act, the Secretary of Energy has... United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards...

  12. Mortality among United States Coast Guard marine inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, A.; Haas, T.; Prosser, R.; Morrissette, M.; Blackman, K.; Grauman, D.; van Dusen, P.; Moran, F.

    1989-05-01

    Work history records and fitness reports were obtained for 1,767 marine inspectors of the U.S. Coast Guard between 1942 and 1970 and for a comparison group of 1,914 officers who had never been marine inspectors. Potential exposure to chemicals was assessed by one of the authors (RP), who is knowledgeable about marine inspection duties. Marine inspectors and noninspectors had a deficit in overall mortality compared to that expected from the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratios (SMRs = 79 and 63, respectively)). Deficits occurred for most major causes of death, including infectious and parasitic diseases, digestive and urinary systems, and accidents. Marine inspectors had excesses of cirrhosis of the liver (SMR = 136) and motor vehicle accidents (SMR = 107), and cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system (SMR = 157), whereas noninspectors had deficits for these causes of death. Comparison of mortality rates directly adjusted to the age distribution of the inspectors and noninspectors combined also demonstrated that mortality for these causes of death was greater among inspectors than noninspectors (directly adjusted ratio ratios of 190, 145, and 198) for cirrhosis of the liver, motor vehicle accidents, and lymphatic and hematopoietic system cancer, respectively. The SMRs rose with increasing probability of exposure to chemicals for motor vehicle accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, and leukemia, which suggests that contact with chemicals during inspection of merchant vessels may be involved in the development of these diseases among marine inspectors.

  13. Positive associations between ionizing radiation and lymphoma mortality among men.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Wing, Steve; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric; Shimizu, Yukiko; Nishi, Nobuo; Geyer, Susan; Soda, Midori; Suyama, Akihiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Kodama, Kazunori

    2009-04-15

    The authors investigated the relation between ionizing radiation and lymphoma mortality in 2 cohorts: 1) 20,940 men in the Life Span Study, a study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors who were aged 15-64 years at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and 2) 15,264 male nuclear weapons workers who were hired at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1950 and 1986. Radiation dose-mortality trends were evaluated for all malignant lymphomas and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Positive associations between lymphoma mortality and radiation dose under a 5-year lag assumption were observed in both cohorts (excess relative rates per sievert were 0.79 (90% confidence interval: 0.10, 1.88) and 6.99 (90% confidence interval: 0.96, 18.39), respectively). Exclusion of deaths due to Hodgkin's disease led to small changes in the estimates of association. In each cohort, evidence of a dose-response association was primarily observed more than 35 years after irradiation. These findings suggest a protracted induction and latency period for radiation-induced lymphoma mortality. PMID:19270049

  14. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  15. Relationships of suicide ideation with cause-specific mortality in a longitudinal study of South Koreans.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Seong-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Using 7-year mortality follow-up data (n = 341) from the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of South Korean individuals (N = 5,414), the authors found that survey participants with suicide ideation were at increased risk of suicide mortality during the follow-up period compared with those without suicide ideation. The cause-specific analyses showed that, in men, suicide ideation was significantly associated with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, external causes, and other causes. However, there was no significant association between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in women. The relationship between suicide ideation and cause-specific mortality in men was not fully explained by baseline health status, socioeconomic status, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. PMID:21034209

  16. Increased mortality in amateur radio operators due to lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To search for potentially carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic field exposures, the author conducted a population-based study of mortality in US amateur radio operators. Ascertainment of Washington State and California amateur radio operators (67,829 persons) was done through the 1984 US Federal Communications Commission Amateur Radio Station and/or Operator License file. A total of 2485 deaths were located for the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1984, in a population of amateur radio operators which accumulated 232,499 person-years at risk. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 71, but a statistically significant increased mortality was seen for cancers of the other lymphatic tissues (SMR = 162), a rubric which includes multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The all-leukemia standardized mortality ratio was slightly, but nonsignificantly, elevated (SMR = 124). However, mortality due to acute myeloid leukemia was significantly elevated (SMR = 176).

  17. 10 CFR 13.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 13.39 Section 13.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.39 Appeal to authority head. (a) Any... civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head by filing a notice of...

  18. 10 CFR 1013.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 1013.39 Section 1013.39 Energy... authority head. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely answer and who is determined in an initial decision to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head...

  19. 10 CFR 1013.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 1013.39 Section 1013.39 Energy... authority head. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely answer and who is determined in an initial decision to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head...

  20. 10 CFR 1013.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 1013.39 Section 1013.39 Energy... authority head. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely answer and who is determined in an initial decision to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head...

  1. 10 CFR 13.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 13.39 Section 13.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.39 Appeal to authority head. (a) Any... civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head by filing a notice of...

  2. 10 CFR 1013.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 1013.39 Section 1013.39 Energy... authority head. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely answer and who is determined in an initial decision to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head...

  3. 10 CFR 13.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 13.39 Section 13.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.39 Appeal to authority head. (a) Any... civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head by filing a notice of...

  4. 10 CFR 1013.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 1013.39 Section 1013.39 Energy... authority head. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely answer and who is determined in an initial decision to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head...

  5. 10 CFR 13.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 13.39 Section 13.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.39 Appeal to authority head. (a) Any... civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head by filing a notice of...

  6. 10 CFR 13.39 - Appeal to authority head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeal to authority head. 13.39 Section 13.39 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.39 Appeal to authority head. (a) Any... civil penalty or assessment may appeal such decision to the authority head by filing a notice of...

  7. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  8. Mortality from cancer and other causes among airline cabin attendants in Europe: a collaborative cohort study in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Hajo; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Hammer, Gaël P; Ballard, Terri J; Santaquilani, Mariano; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Storm, Hans; Haldorsen, Tor; Tveten, Ulf; Hammar, Niklas; Linnersjö, Annette; Velonakis, Emmanouel; Tzonou, Anastasia; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Hrafnkelsson, Jón

    2003-07-01

    There is concern about the health effects of exposure to cosmic radiation during air travel. To study the potential health effects of this and occupational exposures, the authors investigated mortality patterns among more than 44,000 airline cabin crew members in Europe. A cohort study was performed in eight European countries, yielding approximately 655,000 person-years of follow-up. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with expected numbers based on national mortality rates. Among female cabin crew, overall mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.88) and all-cancer mortality (SMR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.95) were slightly reduced, while breast cancer mortality was slightly but nonsignificantly increased (SMR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.48). In contrast, overall mortality (SMR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18) and mortality from skin cancer (for malignant melanoma, SMR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.70, 4.44) among male cabin crew were somewhat increased. The authors noted excess mortality from aircraft accidents and from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in males. Among airline cabin crew in Europe, there was no increase in mortality that could be attributed to cosmic radiation or other occupational exposures to any substantial extent. The risk of skin cancer among male crew members requires further attention. PMID:12835285

  9. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  10. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  11. A matter of life and death: population mortality and football results

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, W; Merrick, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether football results are associated with mortality from circulatory disease. Design: Retrospective study, comparing mortality on days of football matches between 18 August 1994 and 28 December 1999 with the results of the football matches. Setting: Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Subjects: All persons resident in Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Main outcome measures: Mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results: On days when the local professional football team lost at home, mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke increased significantly in men (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.11 to 1.47). No increase was observed in women. Conclusions: Results achieved by the local professional football team are associated systematically with circulatory disease death rates over a five year period in men, but not women. PMID:12775788

  12. Improving maternal care reduces mortality.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries by community-based action is complex but possible. Deaths related to pregnancy are primarily due to bleeding, infection, toxemia and illegal abortion. The excess maternal deaths in developing countries are also related to high numbers of high-risk pregnancies, total lack of prenatal and obstetric care in some areas, poor nutrition and overwork. The basic interventions available to communities include prenatal care, improved alarm and transport systems, referral centers and improved community-based care. Prenatal care can include nutritional supplements and exams and referrals by traditional birth attendants, targeting women suffering from toxemia, bleeding and infections. Local ambulances with life-support equipment, and maternity waiting houses are examples of ways of dealing with transport problems. Referral centers should be capable of providing sterile conditions and blood transfusions. Nurses can be trained to do caesarean sections. Birth attendants can use checklists to administer antibiotics and oxytocic drugs, for example. PMID:12281272

  13. Data base on animal mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD/sub 50/ and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD/sub 50/ was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose.

  14. Pancreatic cancer mortality in Louisiana.

    PubMed Central

    Pickle, L W; Gottlieb, M S

    1980-01-01

    As a preliminary step in the investigation of high pancreas-cancer mortality among White males in a cluster of Louisiana parishes, we examined 876 pairs of certificates of death which occurred in this area during 1960--75. The pancreas-cancer death records were matched to controls by age, race, sex, year of death, and parish of residence. The odds ratios were increased about two-fold for workers in the oil refining and paper manufacturing industries, and slight elevations were seen among residents near refineries and food processing plants. Despite the limited residential and occupational information available on death certificates, this study suggests leads to environmental factors that can be further investigated by a case-control interview study in Louisiana. PMID:7356088

  15. Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

  16. SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN MORTALITY AMONG CHINESE ELDERLY*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weixiang; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association of three different SES indicators (education, economic independence, and household per-capita income) with mortality, using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of 12,437 Chinese ages 65 and older. While the results vary by measures used, we find overall strong evidence for a negative association between SES and all-cause mortality. Exploring the association between SES and cause-specific mortality, we find that SES is more strongly related to a reduction of mortality from more preventable causes (i.e., circulatory disease and respiratory disease) than from less preventable causes (i.e., cancer). Moreover, we consider mediating causal factors such as support networks, health-related risk behaviors, and access to health care in contributing to the observed association between SES and mortality. Among these mediating factors, medical care is of greatest importance. This pattern holds true for both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:25098961

  17. Ethnicity, Russification, and Excess Mortality in Kazakhstan*

    PubMed Central

    Sharygin, Ethan J.; Guillot, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Russians experience higher adult mortality than Central Asians despite higher socioeconomic status. This study exploits Kazakhstan’s relatively heterogeneous population and geographic diversity to study ethnic differences in cause-specific mortality. In multivariate regression, all-cause mortality rates for Russian men is 27% higher than for Kazakh men, and alcohol-related death rates among Russian men are 2.5 times higher (15% and 4.1 times higher for females, respectively). Significant mortality differentials exist by ethnicity for external causes and alcohol-related causes of death. Adult mortality among Kazakhs is higher than previously found among Kyrgyz and lower than among Russians. The results suggest that ethnic mortality differentials in Central Asia may be related to the degree of russification, which could be replicating documented patterns of alcohol consumption in non-Russian populations. PMID:26207118

  18. Possible bias in tree-ring time series due to mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, A A; Warnick, W L; Hyink, D M

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the possible bias in tree-ring time series studies extending from the year of sample collection to a prepollution period. The authors hypothesizes that normal mortality (i.e., mortality not associated with sudden disturbance) can cause reduced tree ring widths in years preceding actual tree death and produce a bias toward smaller and more variable ring widths at the end of the tree-ring time series.

  19. Health underachievement and overachievement in English local authorities

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Tim; Drever, Frances; Whitehead, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify English local authorities that “overachieve” and “underachieve” in health terms, given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region. Design Cross sectional study using data from the 1991 UK census and mortality data from 2000–2. Setting England. Participants 354 local authorities (total population 49 558 000). Main outcome measures Life expectancy. Residual life expectancy after regression analysis. Results In general, the more materially deprived the population of a local authority was in 1991, the lower its life expectancy a decade later, with men being more sensitive to the effects of deprivation than women. Many local authorities, however, did not follow this general trend, and these shared common characteristics. Mining, Manufacturing and Industry, and Urban Fringe authorities collectively had lower life expectancies than predicted by their level of deprivation, as did authorities located in the north west. Outer London and Education Centres and Inner London authorities had much higher life expectancies than predicted, as did authorities located in the east, south east, and south west. Given their level of deprivation, sociodemographic context, and region, 11 local authorities significantly overachieved for male life expectancy and 10 underachieved, while 12 overachieved for female life expectancy and three underachieved. Conclusions Life expectancy in English local authorities is strongly associated not only with material deprivation, but with the local sociodemographic context and the region where the authority is located. Some authorities defy their contexts, however, and overachieve in health terms, while others, including some in affluent areas, underachieve. PMID:16840758

  20. [What about the height of the force of mortality at the end of human life?].

    PubMed

    Koschin, F

    1999-01-01

    The author assesses the use of a modified Gompertz-Makeham model to measure mortality above age 85 in the Czech Republic. "This curve corresponds very well with the empirical data for ages of 85-95 years not only for the Czech but even for the West-European populations.... At the end of the Eighties and during the Nineties mortality decrease of 80 years old and above has significantly accelerated; at...this rate we should reach the European level in about 10 years. As regards the...population [65 and above] mortality decrease has considerably accelerated only with males; in [the] case of females acceleration was lower." (EXCERPT) PMID:12349185

  1. International trends in pedestrian injury mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, I G

    1993-01-01

    Trends in pedestrian injury mortality for children aged 0-4 and 5-14 for England and Wales, Denmark, Sweden, the USA, and New Zealand were examined from 1968 onwards. While there has been a reduction in the pedestrian mortality in all these countries, there are striking international differences in the extent of these reductions. Denmark has achieved the greatest fall in mortality with the smallest decrease seen in New Zealand. Countries which have experienced major decreases in pedestrian mortality are distinguished by having placed greater emphasis on environmentally based prevention strategies rather than pedestrian skills education. PMID:8481041

  2. Consistent Predictions of Future Forest Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We examined empirical and model based estimates of current and future forest mortality of conifers in the northern hemisphere. Consistent water potential thresholds were found that resulted in mortality of our case study species, pinon pine and one-seed juniper. Extending these results with IPCC climate scenarios suggests that most existing trees in this region (SW USA) will be dead by 2050. Further, independent estimates of future mortality for the entire coniferous biome suggest widespread mortality by 2100. The validity and assumptions and implications of these results are discussed.

  3. State-level clustering of safety measures and its relationship to injury mortality.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Bell, N; Conrad, P; Howland, J; Lang, M

    1997-01-01

    This article proposes a social model of investigating injury mortality. The authors hypothesize that (1) state-level laws and regulations on safety cluster together in one or more groupings; (2) groupings of safety measures play a significant role in injury mortality; and (3) injury mortality is very highly associated with social structural variables. There is a clustering of safety policies, with five factors explaining 67 percent of variance, although no "master factor" was discovered. The strongest factor, explaining 21 percent of variance, includes three gun laws and low speed limits before the 1973 federal law. One factor is the most global in that it taps three distinct areas, including helmet laws, minor blood alcohol levels, and smoke detectors, though it only explains 7.5 percent of variance. The only factor that remains in a regression for injury mortality is one that includes strong seat belt laws and strong enforcement of those laws, though in the direction opposite to that hypothesized. This factor, along with percentage rural and environmental spending per capita, is significant for both motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle mortality. For motor vehicle mortality alone, deaths are higher in states with higher percentages of Hispanics and fewer people receiving food stamps and AFDC. Many factors that usually predict individual injury mortality do not hold at the state level, suggesting the usefulness of looking at social factors for new insights into injury mortality and prevention. PMID:9142606

  4. 10 CFR 1016.35 - Authority to reproduce Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to reproduce Restricted Data. 1016.35 Section 1016.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 1016.35 Authority to reproduce Restricted Data. Secret Restricted Data will not be...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.115 - Other means authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other means authorized by law. 1040.115 Section 1040.115 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Means of Effecting Compliance § 1040.115 Other means authorized by law. No action...

  6. 10 CFR 1.1 - Creation and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creation and authority. 1.1 Section 1.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.1 Creation and authority. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of...

  7. 10 CFR 1.1 - Creation and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creation and authority. 1.1 Section 1.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.1 Creation and authority. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of...

  8. 10 CFR 1.1 - Creation and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creation and authority. 1.1 Section 1.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.1 Creation and authority. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of...

  9. 10 CFR 1.1 - Creation and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creation and authority. 1.1 Section 1.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.1 Creation and authority. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of...

  10. 10 CFR 1.1 - Creation and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creation and authority. 1.1 Section 1.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.1 Creation and authority. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of...

  11. Silent keys: leukemia mortality in amateur radio operators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A survey of leukemia mortality among amateur radio operators was conducted. Information on deaths among amateur radio operators in California and Washington was obtained from a monthly magazine of the American Radio Relay League for the years 1971 to 1983. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were computed. During the study period, 296 male deaths were listed for Washington and 1,642 for California. Death certificates or cause of death information were obtained for 280 of the Washington and 1,411 of the California deaths. The author concludes that occupational exposure alone does not explain the leukemia excess in the subjects. These results offer further support for the hypothesis that electromagnetic fields are carcinogenic.

  12. School Visits: The Author's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Betty; Avi

    1987-01-01

    Two authors of children's books discuss the elements of a successful school visit, including how to select and contact an author; fees; choosing dates; having books available; planning collaboratively with authors, principals, teachers, and parents; organizing the schedule; the author as critic; publicity; travel plans; autographs; and follow-up.…

  13. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events—such as heat waves—throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed. PMID:27167851

  14. Levels and patterns of infant and child mortality in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gaisie, S K

    1976-02-01

    This paper attempts to measure infant and child mortality levels and also to determine their structures by utilzing the results of the 1968/69 National Demographic sample survey which was conducted under the directorship of the author. The measurement of infant and child mortality in Ghana is severely hampered by lack of reliable and adequate information on infant and child deaths. The existing data from the compulsory registration areas are deficient and can at best give an indication of only the level of urban infant and child mortalities. The tendency of censuses and surveys to miss a considerable proportion of infant and child deaths also imposes a further limitation on the extent to which the infant and child mortality rates can be accurately measured from the available data. This paper is therefore concerned with 2 major problems: 1) the adjustment of the current raw mortality data on the basis of detected errors as revealed by analytical methods and/or by the fitting of models, and 2) the estimation of infant and child mortality from independent source material (e.g., retrospective information on the number of children ever born and the number surviving). The most plausible estimate of infant mortality appears to be 133/thousand live births. Regional estimates range from 56 in the Accra Capital District to 192 in the Upper Region. Further, the urban rate is lower than the rural rate: 98 as against 161/thousand live births. An examination of child death rates by single years has shown that a large proportion of the deaths among children aged 0 to 4 occur in the 2nd year of life and that deaths in this age group account for the bulk of the deaths within the age group 1 to 4 years. The observed proportions of deaths at age 1 among all deaths within the 1 to 4 years age group range between 34 and 43%. These figures may be compared with 53% in Senegal between 1962 and 1968, and with 48 and 74% in Ibadan, Nigeria (1964/1966) and Mauritius (1961) respectively

  15. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park.

    PubMed

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society. PMID:18479994

  16. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  17. Natural mortality: Its ecology, how it shapes fish life histories, and why it may be increased by fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Holt, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    A stronger focus on natural mortality may be required to better understand contemporary changes in fish life histories and behaviour and their responses to anthropogenic drivers. Firstly, natural mortality is the selection under which fish evolved in the first place, so a theoretical understanding of effects of natural mortality alone is needed. Secondly, due to trade-offs, most organismal functions can only be achieved at some cost in terms of survival. Several trade-offs might need to be analysed simultaneously with effects on natural mortality being a common currency. Thirdly, there is scattered evidence that natural mortality has been increasing, some would say dramatically, in some fished stocks, which begs explanations. Fourthly, natural mortality most often implies transfer of mass and energy from one species to another, and therefore has foodweb and ecosystem consequences. We therefore analyse a model for evolution of fish life histories and behaviour, where state-dependent energy-allocation and growth strategies are found by optimization. Natural mortality is split into five different components, each specified as the outcome of individual traits and ecological trade-offs: a fixed baseline mortality; size-dependent predation; risk-dependent growth strategy; a fixed mortality when sexually mature; and mortality increasing with reproductive investment. The analysis is repeated with and without fishing. Each component of natural mortality has consequences for optimal life history strategies. Beyond earlier models, we show i) how the two types of reproductive mortality sometimes have similar and sometimes contrasting effects on life history evolution, ii) how ecosystem properties such as food availability and predation levels have stronger effects on optimal strategies than changing other mortality components, and iii) how expected changes in risk-dependent growth strategies are highly variable depending on the type of mortality changed.

  18. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. PMID:25413803

  19. Mortality among US commercial pilots and navigators.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, J S; Lackland, D T; Dosemeci, M; Mohr, L C; Dunbar, J B; Grosche, B; Hoel, D G

    1998-11-01

    The airline industry may be an occupational setting with specific health risks. Two environmental agents to which flight crews are known to be exposed are cosmic radiation and magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical system. Other factors to be considered are circadian disruption and conditions specific to air travel, such as noise, vibration, mild hypoxia, reduced atmospheric pressure, low humidity, and air quality. This study investigated mortality among US commercial pilots and navigators, using proportional mortality ratios for cancer and noncancer end points. Proportional cancer mortality ratios and mortality odds ratios were also calculated for comparison to the proportional mortality ratios for cancer causes of death. Results indicated that US pilots and navigators have experienced significantly increased mortality due to cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis, motor neuron disease, and external causes. In addition, increased mortality due to prostate cancer, brain cancer, colon cancer, and cancer of the lip, buccal cavity, and pharynx was suggested. Mortality was significantly decreased for 11 causes. To determine if these health outcomes are related to occupational exposures, it will be necessary to quantify each exposure separately, to study the potential synergy of effects, and to couple this information with disease data on an individual basis. PMID:9830605

  20. Longevity and Mortality in Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thase, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the longevity of Down's Syndrome persons is reviewed, and the life span is noted to have increased, although the overall mortality rate is still five times greater than that for the general population. Statistics on causes of mortality (such as immunological abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and malignancy) are summarized. (CL)

  1. Maternal Mortality in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anne S.

    1977-01-01

    Figures from 1800 through 1973 are used to demonstrate that black women have had substantially higher rates of death in childbirth than white women. As mortality has declined, the relative difference between whites and blacks has actually increased. Factors affecting mortality and future prospects for reducing maternal deaths are discussed. (GC)

  2. Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Kavanagh, Sophie J.; Smith, Arabella; Evans, Elizabeth J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Taffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Persons with Prader-Willi syndrome have been known to have a high mortality rate. However, intellectual disability, which usually accompanies Prader-Willi syndrome, is also associated with a higher mortality rate than in the general population. In this study, the death rates in a longitudinal cohort of people with Prader-Willi syndrome are…

  3. Does parity affect mortality among parous women?

    PubMed Central

    Koski‐Rahikkala, H; Pouta, A; Pietiläinen, K; Hartikainen, A‐L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find out whether there is an association between parity and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Finland, 1966–2001. Participants and methods 12 055 women in the two northernmost provinces of Finland were followed up from pregnancy in 1966–2001, the coverage percentage being 96%. The data on age, smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic position, age at menarche and age at first birth were collected during pregnancy, and data on deaths were obtained from the National Cause of Death Statistics, maintained by Statistics Finland. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate relative mortality between parity groups. Results Total mortality was lowest among the women with 2–4 children (reference group). High parity was associated with an up to twofold risk of mortality from vascular complications, but after adjustment for all background factors, this significance disappeared. Mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was fourfold higher among the women with ⩾10 births compared with those of the reference group. No differences in cerebral infarction or total cancer mortality were seen between the groups. Primiparity was associated with increased mortality from accidental death (relative risk 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.4). Conclusions High parity was associated with an increased risk of mortality from vascular complications, especially haemorrhagic stroke, and primiparity with an increased risk of accidental death. PMID:17053286

  4. 122 CITIES MORTALITY REPORTING SYSTEM (122 MRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This system compiles summary mortality data by age group for all-causes and pneumonia and influenza as reported by Vital Statistic Registrars and Reporters within 122 U.S. cities. Additional information and access to a query system linked to 122 Cities Mortality data is available...

  5. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  6. The Allure of Authors: Author Studies in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Carol Brennan

    Noting that readers of all ages seek out favorite authors, this book offers a model that encourages readers to respond aesthetically, biographically, and critically to an author's literature. At the heart of the book are four author studies that were implemented with children at various grade levels. These studies span the genres of picture…

  7. Combined Analysis of mortality in three United Kingdom Nuclear Industry workforces, 1946-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.; Higgins, C.; Douglas, A.; Fraser, P.; Smith, P.; Beral, V.

    1994-05-01

    Mortality during 1946-1988 has been analyzed in 75,006 employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. All-cause mortality was 19% lower than national rates among workers monitored for external radiation exposure and 18% lower among nonmonitored workers. Cancer mortality was also lower than national rates and was similar in the two groups of workers [rate ratio (RR) = 0.96]. Of 29 specific cancer sites examined, only for cancers of the pleura and uterus were there statistically significant excesses of mortality in monitored workers relative to nonmonitored workers [RR = 7.08, two-sided P(2P) = 0.008 and RR = 3.02, 2P = 0.003, respectively]. There was little association between cumulative external radiation and risk of death from all cancers combined 10 or more years after exposure [z for trend = +0.11, one-sided P (1P) = 0.5]. A positive association was observed for leukemia (assuming a 2-year lag between external radiation and increasing risk of death [1P = 0.009]) but not for other cancers associated with external radiation in previous analyses (lung, uterus, prospate and multiple myeloma, all 1P {>=} 0.1). Positive associations (1P {<=} 0.005) were also observed for melanoma and other skin cancers (1P = 0.03) and ill-defined and secondary cancers (1P = 0.04), but these results are difficult to interpret and, given the number of associations examined may be chance findings. Estimates of excess relative risk per sievert were -0.02 (95% CI = -0.5-+0.6) for all cancers except leukemia and +4.18 for leukemia (95% CI = +0.4-+13.4). The positive estimates for leukemia contrast with negative values found for workers in the United States, although the confidence intervals obtained in the two studies overlap. 26 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Mortality, redundancy, and diversity in stochastic search.

    PubMed

    Meerson, Baruch; Redner, S

    2015-05-15

    We investigate a stochastic search process in one dimension under the competing roles of mortality, redundancy, and diversity of the searchers. This picture represents a toy model for the fertilization of an oocyte by sperm. A population of N independent and mortal diffusing searchers all start at x=L and attempt to reach the target at x=0. When mortality is irrelevant, the search time scales as τ_{D}/lnN for lnN≫1, where τ_{D}~L^{2}/D is the diffusive time scale. Conversely, when the mortality rate μ of the searchers is sufficiently large, the search time scales as sqrt[τ_{D}/μ], independent of N. When searchers have distinct and high mortalities, a subpopulation with a nontrivial optimal diffusivity is most likely to reach the target. We also discuss the effect of chemotaxis on the search time and its fluctuations. PMID:26024200

  9. Morbidity and mortality in neonatal kittens.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Monti, K L

    1984-07-01

    The mortality patterns of 294 Domestic Shorthair kittens indicated that birth weight was closely related to survivability. Slightly over half of the nonsurviving kittens lost at 0 to 3 days of life were stillborn. Abnormal gross anatomy did not appear to be a major factor in neonatal kitten death. Mortality was lowest at the 5th parity and in litters of 5 kittens. Litters of 1 kitten experienced high mortality. Smaller queens tended to deliver fewer kittens per litter, but with improved kitten viability. Overweight queens experienced increased mortality of kittens. Further examination of mortality by litter size also revealed that low birth weight kittens tended to survive less often than normal birth weight kittens, even within the same litter. PMID:24049917

  10. Mortality and morbidity risks and economic behavior.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Avraham; Meltzer, David

    2013-02-01

    There are theoretical reasons to expect that high risk of mortality or morbidity during young adulthood decreases investment in human capital. However, investigation of this hypothesis is complicated by a variety of empirical challenges, including difficulties in inferring causation due to omitted variables and reverse causation. For example, to compare two groups with substantially different mortality rates, one typically has to use samples from different countries or periods, making it difficult to control for other relevant variables. Reverse causation is important because human capital investment can affect mortality and morbidity. To counter these problems, we collected data on human capital investments, fertility decisions, and other economic choices of people at risk for Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease is a fatal genetic disorder that introduces a large and exogenous risk of early mortality and morbidity. We find a strong negative relation between mortality and morbidity risks and human capital investment. PMID:22308067

  11. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  12. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  13. Mortality, Redundancy, and Diversity in Stochastic Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Redner, S.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate a stochastic search process in one dimension under the competing roles of mortality, redundancy, and diversity of the searchers. This picture represents a toy model for the fertilization of an oocyte by sperm. A population of N independent and mortal diffusing searchers all start at x =L and attempt to reach the target at x =0 . When mortality is irrelevant, the search time scales as τD/ln N for ln N ≫1 , where τD˜L2/D is the diffusive time scale. Conversely, when the mortality rate μ of the searchers is sufficiently large, the search time scales as √{τD/μ }, independent of N . When searchers have distinct and high mortalities, a subpopulation with a nontrivial optimal diffusivity is most likely to reach the target. We also discuss the effect of chemotaxis on the search time and its fluctuations.

  14. 30 CFR 556.4 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority. 556.4 Section 556.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6213), prohibits joint bidding by major oil and...

  15. 30 CFR 556.4 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority. 556.4 Section 556.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6213), prohibits joint bidding by major oil and...

  16. 30 CFR 556.4 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority. 556.4 Section 556.4 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL... Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6213), prohibits joint bidding by major oil and...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.104 - Exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exception authority. 4280.104 Section 4280.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America...

  18. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  19. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  20. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates (Incidence: 66.96; Mortality: 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian (Incidence: 41.04, Mortality: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry (Incidence: 36.72, Mortality: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. PMID:26338451

  1. Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic

  2. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  3. Authority Work for Transitional Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matters, Marion

    1990-01-01

    Discusses authority work and authority control for personal names and corporate bodies in transitional archive catalogs. The importance of conformance with standards so that archival materials will collocate with other types of material in integrated catalogs is also discussed, together with enhanced authority work and techniques for archival…

  4. Authority and Pedagogy as Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between authority and music. It starts with the proposition that music--as an art or an educative enterprise in Western environs--remains a highly idealized enterprise and this idealization creates an alibi for action that is characteristically narrow and guided by authority. Schmidt claims that authority is…

  5. Orchestrating a Young Authors' Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes preparation for a one-day Young Authors' Conference. Discusses how the organizers set up a date and facilities for the event, enlisted the services of an author/illustrator, recruited team leaders and facilitators from the organization, and explored funding. Describes children sharing, writing journal/bookmarks, and author's sharing from…

  6. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  7. Growth and mortality of larval sunfish in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, S.J.; Jennings, C.A. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors estimated the growth and mortality of larval sunfish Lepomis spp. in backwater habitats of the upper Mississippi River with an otolith-based method and a length-based method. Fish were sampled with plankton nets at one station in Navigation Pools 8 and 14 in 1989 and at two stations in Pool 8 in 1990. For both methods, growth was modeled with an exponential equation, and instantaneous mortality was estimated by regressing the natural logarithm of fish catch for each 1-mm size-group against the estimated age of the group, which was derived from the growth equations. At two of the stations, the otolith-based method provided more precise estimates of sunfish growth than the length-based method. The authors were able to compare length-based and otolith-based estimates of sunfish mortality only at the two stations where they caught the largest numbers of sunfish. Estimates of mortality were similar for both methods in Pool 14, where catches were higher, but the length-based method required more laboratory analysis, but provided better estimates of the growth and mortality than the length-based method when catches were low. However, the length-based method was more cost-effective for estimating growth and mortality when catches were large. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Policies for the reduction of mortality differentials.

    PubMed

    Brass, W

    1980-12-01

    Effective policies for the reduction of mortality differentials can only be formulated from a knowledge of what these differentials are and some understanding of what determines them. This review draws attention to the present limitations of the information. Before turning to a discussion of policies to reduce mortality differentials, attention is directed to differentials by socioeconomic characteristics in developed countries and to mortality differentials in adult and child mortality in developing countries. Britain has the longest series of differential mortality according to individual characteristics. The classification used was occupation, with later grouping into "social classes." Infant mortality is given in table form by the social class of the father, and male adult mortality is presented in a table for the 1921-1971 period. Differentials were consistently larger for the acute and "environmental" diseases than for congenital anomalies and conditions arising from pregnancy and birth. The standardized indexes of adult male mortality showed a smaller range of variation. A good case can be made for the argument that poor health resulted in changes in occupation and hence a downward move in social class. Studies of characteristics other than occupation in the developed countries are uncommon, but a survey in the United States linked birth and death registration records with a family questionnaire from 1964-1966. In families with a household income of under $3000, the infant mortality was 60% higher than in families with a household income over $10,000. In the developed countries, adult female mortality is lower than adult male mortality at all ages. The cumulative evidence supports the old suggestion that in some developing countries female mortality is, in contast, higher than that of males. The abundance of estimates of childhood differentials in mortality in developing countries makes it necessary to be selective. A particularly systematic comparative

  9. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  10. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Alan B.; Fleischer, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999–2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  11. Risk factors for mortality in the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Bern, C.; Sniezek, J.; Mathbor, G. M.; Siddiqi, M. S.; Ronsmans, C.; Chowdhury, A. M.; Choudhury, A. E.; Islam, K.; Bennish, M.; Noji, E.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclones continue to pose a dangerous threat to the coastal populations of Bangladesh, despite improvements in disaster control procedures. After 138,000 persons died in the April 1991 cyclone, we carried out a rapid epidemiological assessment to determine factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and to identify prevention strategies. A nonrandom survey of 45 housing clusters comprising 1123 persons showed that mortality was greatest among under-10-year-olds (26%) and women older than 40 years (31%). Nearly 22% of persons who did not reach a concrete or brick structure died, whereas all persons who sought refuge in such structures survived. Future cyclone-associated mortality in Bangladesh could be prevented by more effective warnings leading to an earlier response, better access to designated cyclone shelters, and improved preparedness in high-risk communities. In particular, deaths among women and under-10-year-olds could be reduced by ensuring that they are given special attention by families, neighbours, local authorities, and especially those in charge of early warnings and emergency evacuation. PMID:8440041

  12. A critical review of international mortality data.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J

    1987-01-01

    Mortality data have become increasingly important not only in health related studies but also in development studies as a whole. The demand for data on life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is met by five publications-the UN Demographic Yearbook, World Population Prospects, World Development Report, World Population Trends and Policies Monitoring Report, and World Population. Within these statistical publications, life expectancy and the infant mortality rate are available for nearly every country each year. However, recent empirical information on mortality in most developing exists only for a handful of countries. The estimates published in the World Development Report and World Population Prospects are based on old empirical data updated with assumed rates of improvement in mortality. Neither of these sources provide technical notes explaining the original data source, estimation technique, and updating model used. Fortunately, two sources, the World Population Trends and Policies Monitoring Report and World Population, publish only empirically based data clearly identifying source, year of applicability, and estimation technique. The work in the World Development Report and the World Population Prospects could be made more useful if they provided adequate technical documentation for each estimate. At present, the Monitoring Report and World Population are the only appropriate sources for quantitative analysis of mortality or of change in mortality. PMID:3317888

  13. Mortality outcomes of various causes of syncope.

    PubMed

    Iacovino, John R

    2004-01-01

    Syncope, especially in older-age applicants, presents a risk selection quandary. When the etiology is established, risk classification is based on the causative impairment. However, often no diagnosis is ascertained. The lack of diagnosis presents a dilemma for the medical director. Underwriting decisions must be based on sound actuarial principles or related to actual and reasonable anticipated experience. The mortality outcome of various causes of syncope from participants of the Framingham Heart Study is presented in this abstract. The primary value to the medical director is the mortality outcome of those applicants without a specific etiologic diagnosis; those belonging to the unknown, the vasovagal or other causes groups. Over a 24-year observation period, patients whose syncope was attributed to vasovagal or other causes had a mortality ratio of 14% and an excess death rate of 20. Neurogenic syncope had a mortality ratio of 168% and an excess death rate of 34. No excess mortality was observed when those with seizures were excluded from analysis. Those whose cause of syncope was unknown had a mortality ratio of 192% and an excess death rate of 46. Individuals whose syncope was deemed to be cardiac exhibited a mortality ratio of 270% and an excess death rate of 82. PMID:15104024

  14. Biodemographic analysis of male honey bee mortality.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

    2005-02-01

    Biodemographic studies of insects have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biology of aging. Eusocial insects have evolved to form different groups of colony members that are specialized for particular tasks and highly dependent on each other. These different groups (castes and sexes) also differ strongly in their life expectancy but relatively little is known about their mortality dynamics. In this study we present data on the age-specific flight activity and mortality of male honey bees from two different genetic lines that are exclusively dedicated to reproduction. We show that males initiating flight at a young age experience more flight events during their lifetime. No (negative) relation between the age at flight initiation and lifespan exists, as might be predicted on the basis of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. Furthermore, we fit our data to different aging models and conclude that overall a slight deceleration of the age-dependent mortality increase at advanced ages occurs. However, mortality risk increases according to the Gompertz-Makeham model when only days with flight activity (active days) are taken into account. Our interpretation of the latter is that two mortality components act on honey bee males during flight: increasing, age-dependent deaths (possibly from wear-and-tear), and age-independent deaths (possibly due to predation). The overall mortality curve is caused by the interaction of the distribution of age at foraging initiation and the mortality function during the active (flight) lifespan. PMID:15659209

  15. Magnetic field exposure in relation to leukemia and brain cancer mortality among electric utility workers.

    PubMed

    Savitz, D A; Loomis, D P

    1995-01-15

    Reports of leukemia and brain cancer among men in electrical occupations suggest a small increase in risk, but most previous studies have failed to classify magnetic field exposure accurately or to consider potential confounders. The authors conducted an historical cohort mortality study of 138,905 men employed at five large electric power companies in the United States between 1950 and 1986 with at least 6 months of work experience. Exposure was estimated by linking individual work histories to data from 2,842 workshift magnetic field measurements. Mortality follow-up identified 20,733 deaths based on 2,656,436 person-years of experience. Death rates were analyzed in relation to magnetic field exposure history with Poisson regression. Total mortality and cancer mortality rose slightly with increasing magnetic field exposure. Leukemia mortality, however, was not associated with indices of magnetic field exposure except for work as an electrician. Brain cancer mortality was modestly elevated in relation to duration of work in exposed jobs and much more strongly associated with magnetic field exposure indices. Brain cancer risk increased by an estimated factor of 1.94 per microtesla-year of magnetic field exposure in the previous 2-10 years, with a mortality rate ratio of 2.6 in the highest exposure category. In contrast to other studies, these data do not support an association between occupational magnetic field exposure and leukemia but do suggest a link to brain cancer. PMID:7817968

  16. Evidence From Chile That Arsenic in Drinking Water May Increase Mortality From Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H.; Marshall, Guillermo; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water causes increased mortality from several cancers, ischemic heart disease, bronchiectasis, and other diseases. This paper presents the first evidence relating arsenic exposure to pulmonary tuberculosis, by estimating mortality rate ratios for Region II of Chile compared with Region V for the years 1958–2000. The authors compared mortality rate ratios with time patterns of arsenic exposure, which increased abruptly in 1958 in Region II and then declined starting in 1971. Tuberculosis mortality rate ratios in men started increasing in 1968, 10 years after high arsenic exposure commenced. The peak male 5-year mortality rate ratio occurred during 1982–1986 (rate ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.6; P < 0.001) and subsequently declined. Mortality rates in women were also elevated but with fewer excess pulmonary tuberculosis deaths (359 among men and 95 among women). The clear rise and fall of tuberculosis mortality rate ratios in men following high arsenic exposure are consistent with a causal relation. The findings are biologically plausible in view of evidence that arsenic is an immunosuppressant and also a cause of chronic lung disease. Finding weaker associations in women is unsurprising, because this is true of most arsenic-caused health effects. Confirmatory evidence is needed from other arsenic-exposed populations. PMID:21190988

  17. Socio-economic development and mortality patterns and trends in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan Poo Chang; Kwok Kwan Kit; Tan Boon Ann; Shyamala Nagaraj; Tey Nai Peng; Siti Norazah Zulkifli

    1987-03-01

    Morality in Peninsular Malaysia has reached a level that is quite similar to that prevailing in the low mortality countries. This article systematically documents changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and relates these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Remedial measures undertaken by the authorities including the expansion of hospital and health services into the estates, together with a comprehensive malaria-eradication program, improvements in sanitation laws, and increased provision of public utilities and education, resulted in beriberi being eliminated and the incidence of malaria, typhus, and smallpox being greatly reduced by the time of World War II. The gain in life expectancy over the period of 1957-1979 was greatest for the Malay, the most significant period being 1957-1967, which saw the introduction of rural health programs. The infant mortality rate and the neonatal and post-neonatal rates declined substantially for all ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia for the same time period. Although the lower infant mortality of the Chinese can be explained by their advantageous socioeconomic position the same reason cannot explain the lower decline in infant mortality levels of the Indians. Much still needs to be done to narrow, if not to eliminate, the existing mortality differentials of different groups in the country. Overall, the quality of life of the general population can be further enhanced by reducing the high mortality level of disadvantaged groups. PMID:12341034

  18. Conifer Decline and Mortality in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.; Im, S.; Ranson, K.

    2015-12-01

    "Dark needle conifer" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica and Picea obovata) decline and mortality increase were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed causes and scale of Siberian pine and fir mortality in Altai-Sayan and Baikal Lake Regions and West Siberian Plane based on in situdata and remote sensing (QuickBird, Landsat, GRACE). Geographically, mortality began on the margins of the DNC range (i.e., within the forest-steppe and conifer-broadleaf ecotones) and on terrain features with maximal water stress risk (narrow-shaped hilltops, convex steep south facing slopes, shallow well-drained soils). Within ridges, mortality occurred mainly along mountain passes, where stands faced drying winds. Regularly mortality was observed to decrease with elevation increase with the exception of Baikal Lake Mountains, where it was minimal near the lake shore and increased with elevation (up to about 1000 m a.s.l.). Siberian pine and fir mortality followed a drying trend with consecutive droughts since the 1980s. Dendrochronology analysis showed that mortality was correlated with vapor pressure deficit increase, drought index, soil moisture decrease and occurrence of late frosts. In Baikal region Siberian pine mortality correlated with Baikal watershed meteorological variables. An impact of previous year climate conditions on the current growth was found (r2 = 0.6). Thus, water-stressed trees became sensitive to bark beetles and fungi impact (including Polygraphus proximus and Heterobasidion annosum). At present, an increase in mortality is observed within the majority of DNC range. Results obtained also showed a primary role of water stress in that phenomenon with a secondary role of bark beetles and fungi attacks. In future climate with increased drought severity and frequency Siberian pine and fir will partly disappear from its current range, and will be substituted by drought-tolerant species (e.g., Pinus silvestris, Larix sibirica).

  19. Maternal mortality in a district hospital in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Gun, K M

    1970-06-01

    To ascertain the causes of high maternal mortality in West Bengal, the author examined maternal mortality between 1964-68. It was intended that measures to improve the situation in rural areas could be suggested. Women in labor often arrive at the hospital very late and few antenatal care facilities are available in rural areas. High risk cases often are delivered at home, a situation which often results in fetal complications. Maternal deaths have declined, but not dramatically. Of the 24,265 deliveries at the Burdwan district hospital, there were 333 maternal deaths for an incidence of 13.7/1000, along with another 42 cases where death was due to pregnancy-associated causes. In contrast, the maternal mortality rate in a district hospital in Calcutta was 4/1000 in 1968. Eclampsia accounted for 42.34% (141) of maternal deaths making it the major cause of death. In Calcutta this cause of death is receding gradually but in the districts it still accounts for a heavy loss of life (an incidence of 1 in 38). Adequate antenatal care would reduce this high mortality. 2 factors which have contributed to the high mortality are the hours lost in transporting a patient from a rural area and inadequate hospital staff. Postpartum hemorrhage and/or retained placenta was responsible for 39 deaths and none of the cases admitted from outside had received antenatal care. A shortage of blood was also a contributory factor. Severe anemia was responsible for 34 deaths and abortions resulted in another 29 deaths (16 because of severe sepsis; 13 due to hemorrhage or shock). An emergency service would help reduce the number of deaths but at present such a service does not even exist in the urban areas. Ruptured uterus resulted in 29 deaths and obstructed labor in 27 deaths. Placenta previa brought about 14 deaths and the remaining 20 deaths were due to such causes as accidental hemorrhage (10), hydatidiform mole (4), puerperal sepsis (3), ectopic pregnancy (2), and uterine inversion (1

  20. Mortality among shipyard Coast Guard workers: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, S; Stewart, P; Rusiecki, J; Blair, A

    2007-01-01

    Background The mortality experience of 4702 (4413 men and 289 women) civilian workers in a US Coast Guard shipyard was evaluated. Methods All workers employed at the shipyard between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 1964 were included in the study and were followed through 31 December 2001 for vital status. Detailed shipyard and lifetime work histories found in the shipyard personnel records and job descriptions were evaluated. Workers were classified as likely exposed to any potential hazardous substances. In addition, 20 job groups were created on likely similar exposures. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on the general population of the state and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex and race. Results The follow‐up was successful for 93.3% of the workers. Among all men employed in the shipyard, there was an excess of mortality from all causes of death (SMR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12), respiratory cancers (SMR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.43), lung cancer (SMR 1.26; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41), mesothelioma (SMR 5.07; 95% CI 1.85 to 11.03) and emphysema (SMR 1.44; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.99) and a decrease for cardiovascular diseases (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00), vascular lesions of the central nervous system (SMR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57) and external causes of death (SMR 0.55; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.68). A similar pattern was observed for the men classified as exposed. No increasing trend of mortality was found with duration of employment in the shipyard, with the exception of mesothelioma (SMRs of 4.23 and 6.27 for <10 years and ⩾10 years, respectively). In occupations with at least three cases and with an SMR of ⩾1.3, the authors observed a significantly elevated mortality for lung cancer among machinists (SMR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.29) and shipfitters, welders and cutters (SMR 1.34; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.65) and for oral and nasopharyngeal cancers among wood workers (SMR 6.20; 95% CI 2.27 to 13

  1. Structural pluralism and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Young, F W; Lyson, T A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that "structural pluralism" reduces age-standardized mortality rates. Structural pluralism is defined as the potential for political competition in communities. METHODS: US counties were the units of analysis. Multiple regression techniques were used to test the hypothesis. RESULTS: Structural pluralism is a stronger determinant of lower mortality than any of the other variables examined--specifically, income, education, and medical facilities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the case for a new structural variable, pluralism, as a possible cause of lower mortality, and they indirectly support the significance of comparable ecologic dimensions, such as social trust. PMID:11189808

  2. Whooping cough and unrecognised postperinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, A; Gardner, A

    1988-01-01

    Trends in postperinatal infant mortality from respiratory causes and the sudden infant death syndrome in England and Wales for 1968 to 1984 were examined. These were compared by time series analysis with changes in the incidence of specific infective diseases and organisms for the same period. Discontinuity was found in association with the occurrence of whooping cough between 1977 and 1982. Associations with the general incidence of respiratory infections and other specific organisms were less evident. An estimate of excess mortality is 460 to 700 deaths, a substantial increase over the certified mortality from whooping cough. PMID:3126714

  3. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years. PMID:1304550

  4. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered...

  5. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered...

  6. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered...

  7. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered...

  8. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered...

  9. 10 CFR 810.10 - Grant of specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of specific authorization. 810.10 Section 810.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.10 Grant of specific... “sensitive nuclear technology” as defined in § 810.3, the requirements of sections 127 and 128 of the...

  10. 10 CFR 810.10 - Grant of specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant of specific authorization. 810.10 Section 810.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.10 Grant of specific... “sensitive nuclear technology” as defined in § 810.3, the requirements of sections 127 and 128 of the...

  11. 10 CFR 810.10 - Grant of specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant of specific authorization. 810.10 Section 810.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.10 Grant of specific... “sensitive nuclear technology” as defined in § 810.3, the requirements of sections 127 and 128 of the...

  12. 76 FR 17846 - Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial Assistance and Other Transaction Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial Assistance and Other Transaction Authority Applications AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in conducting the objective merit review of...

  13. 18 CFR 3a.12 - Authority to classify official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official information. 3a.12 Section 3a.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a.12 Authority to classify official information. (a) The authority to classify information or...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.12 - Authority to classify official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official information. 3a.12 Section 3a.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 3a.12 Authority to classify official information. (a) The authority to classify information or...

  15. 18 CFR 45.2 - Positions requiring authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positions requiring authorization. 45.2 Section 45.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO HOLD...

  16. 10 CFR 63.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 63.33 Section 63.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.33 Amendment...

  17. 10 CFR 63.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 63.33 Section 63.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.33 Amendment...

  18. 10 CFR 63.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 63.33 Section 63.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.33 Amendment...

  19. 10 CFR 63.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 63.33 Section 63.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.33 Amendment...

  20. 10 CFR 63.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 63.33 Section 63.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Construction Authorization § 63.33 Amendment...

  1. 10 CFR 37.33 - Access authorization program review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access authorization program review. 37.33 Section 37.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background Investigations and Access Authorization Program § 37.33 Access...

  2. 10 CFR 60.32 - Conditions of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions of construction authorization. 60.32 Section 60.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.32 Conditions of construction...

  3. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction...

  4. 10 CFR 60.32 - Conditions of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions of construction authorization. 60.32 Section 60.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.32 Conditions of construction...

  5. 10 CFR 60.32 - Conditions of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions of construction authorization. 60.32 Section 60.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.32 Conditions of construction...

  6. 10 CFR 60.32 - Conditions of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions of construction authorization. 60.32 Section 60.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.32 Conditions of construction...

  7. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction...

  8. 10 CFR 60.32 - Conditions of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of construction authorization. 60.32 Section 60.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.32 Conditions of construction...

  9. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction...

  10. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction...

  11. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction...

  12. National Telecommunications and Information Administration Authorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on HR 5497, a Bill to Authorize Appropriations for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for Fiscal Years of 1985 and 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This report on a hearing on legislation to authorize an increased appropriation for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for fiscal years 1985 and 1986 contains an introductory statement by Timothy E. Wirth, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance; the text of the bill;…

  13. 10 CFR 25.31 - Extensions and transfers of access authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extensions and transfers of access authorizations. 25.31 Section 25.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Access Authorizations § 25.31..., transfer an access authorization when an individual's access authorization under one employer or...

  14. 10 CFR 25.31 - Extensions and transfers of access authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extensions and transfers of access authorizations. 25.31 Section 25.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Access Authorizations § 25.31..., transfer an access authorization when an individual's access authorization under one employer or...

  15. 10 CFR 25.31 - Extensions and transfers of access authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extensions and transfers of access authorizations. 25.31 Section 25.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Access Authorizations § 25.31..., transfer an access authorization when an individual's access authorization under one employer or...

  16. 10 CFR 25.31 - Extensions and transfers of access authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extensions and transfers of access authorizations. 25.31 Section 25.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Access Authorizations § 25.31..., transfer an access authorization when an individual's access authorization under one employer or...

  17. 10 CFR 25.31 - Extensions and transfers of access authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extensions and transfers of access authorizations. 25.31 Section 25.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION Access Authorizations § 25.31..., transfer an access authorization when an individual's access authorization under one employer or...

  18. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Geng; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are trying to link mortality dynamics with observable factors. This serves as an intermediate step between the two methods. We perform a comprehensive analysis on the relationship between the latent trend in mortality dynamics and the trend in economic growth represented by gross domestic product (GDP). Subsequently, the Lee-Carter framework is extended through the introduction of GDP as an additional factor next to the latent factor, which provides a better fit and better interpretable forecasts. PMID:25277750

  19. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, A. B.; Mathews, A.; Jegasothy, R.; Ali, R.; Kandiah, N.

    1999-01-01

    A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported below and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions. PMID:10083722

  20. Excess mortality among Swedish chimney sweeps.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Gustavsson, A; Hogstedt, C

    1987-01-01

    In a cohort study of 5464 union organised Swedish chimney sweeps employed at any time between 1918 and 1980 mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals: 717 deaths were observed against 540 expected. There was an increased mortality from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and several types of malignant tumours. Lung cancer mortality was significantly increased and positively correlated to the number of years employed. A fivefold risk increase for oesophageal cancer and liver cancer was found. The increased mortality could be attributed to exposure to combustion products in the work environment but not to smoking habits. PMID:3689705

  1. Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, M

    1992-01-01

    Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining. However, a more specific analysis furnishes evidence that this decline has occurred at varying rates within different social groups, reflecting an increase in social inequalities. The analytical strategy used in this article leads to three basic conclusions: (1) the impact of the economic crisis on infant mortality is reflected not in a reversal of the declining trend but an increase in social inequalities; (2) certain variables universally accepted as determinants of infant mortality, such as mother's education, seem nonsignificant for some social sectors; and (3) certain biodemographic characteristics assumed to have a uniform mortality-related behavior vary among sectors, suggesting that even these constants are determined by social factors. PMID:1735623

  2. On hunger and child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2012-01-01

    Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements. PMID:22451985

  3. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate weekly provisional data on nationally notifiable infectious diseases. These provisional data are used for program planning and evaluation, monitoring trends in incidence, and detecting disease outbreaks.

  4. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26046426

  5. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  6. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Time Driving and All‐Cause Mortality: The SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting <1 h/d (IRR: 2.04 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.57]). Conclusions Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030

  7. Author! Author! Jan Brett: Hedgehogs, Trolls, and a Gingerbread Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Jan Brett. According to Jan Brett's official webpage, there have been more than twenty-eight million of her books printed. Her titles can always be found on the best-selling children's book author/illustrator lists. Brett is one of the most beloved and recognized children's book illustrators and is…

  8. 31 CFR 210.4 - Authorizations and revocations of authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorizations and revocations of authorizations. 210.4 Section 210.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... corporate action, or the appointment of a receiver, conservator, or liquidator for the RDFI. In any...

  9. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  10. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24259558

  11. Trash-caused mortality in Mongolian raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    On four expeditions (1994, 1995, 1997, and 1998) through Mongolia, we found two kinds of mortality associated with trash gathered by parent raptors as part of the nest building process. Our observations of actual mortality were limited to three species: the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) (2 clutches of eggs), the saker falcon (Falco cherrug) (4 nestlings), and the upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) (1 nestling); all from the eastern half of Mongolia.

  12. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Christine; Burkle, Frederick M; Wilson, Kumanan; Takaro, Tim; Guyatt, Gordon H; Amad, Hani; Mills, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining mortality estimates and to establish

  13. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables. The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  14. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. Methods A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. Results According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p < 0.05). One percent increase in under-five mortality in the previous period resulted in a 0.83% increase in the mortality rate in the next period, and a 1% increase in total fertility rate, increased the under-five mortality rate by 0.09%. In addition, a 1% increase in GDP per capita decreased the under-five mortality rate by 0.07%, and a 1% improvement in control of corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate. PMID:26952194

  15. Mortality and heart rate in the elderly: role of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Mazzella, Francesca; Abete, Pasquale; Viati, Luisa; Galizia, Gianluigi; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Russo, Salvatore; Visconti, Claudia; Della Morte, David; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Franco

    2007-01-01

    Mortality related to heart rate (HR) increase in the elderly has not yet been well established. To ascertain the relationships among cognitive impairment (CI), mortality, and HR increase, the authors prospectively studied a random sample of elderly subjects stratified according to presence or absence of CI. Elderly subjects randomly selected in 1991 (n = 1332) were followed up for 12 years. Mortality was established in 98.1% of the subjects. When HR was stratified in quartiles (< 69, 70-75, 76-80, and > 80 bpm), mortality was linearly associated with increased HR in all (from 47.7 to 57.0; r2 = .43, p = .019) and in subjects without (from 41.7 to 51.1%; r2 = .50, p = .043) but not in those with CI (from 57.5 to 66.1; r2 = .20, p = .363). Cox regression analysis, adjusted for several variables, shows that HR doesn't predict mortality in all subjects (RR 0.69; 95% CI = 0.27-1.73) or in those with CI (RR 0.91; 95% CI = 0.81-1.02). In contrast, HR predicts mortality in subjects without CI (RR 1.10; 95% CI = 1.00-1.22). Hence, HR increase is a predictor of mortality in elderly subjects without CI. However, when considering all elderly subjects and those with CI, HR increase seems to have no effect on mortality. Thus, CI should be considered when focusing on HR increase as risk factor for mortality in the elderly. PMID:17364903

  16. The Author and His Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Continuing series on contemporary Spanish authors. Covers the writings of Fernando Lazaro Carreter, Maria Elvira Lacaci, Manuel Calvo Hernando, Rodrigo Rubio, Victor Alperi, and Francisco Garfias. (DS)

  17. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  18. Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.

    PubMed

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2008-05-01

    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy. PMID:18613484

  19. Doctors' strikes and mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Mitchell, Kristina; Narayan, K M; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-12-01

    A paradoxical pattern has been suggested in the literature on doctors' strikes: when health workers go on strike, mortality stays level or decreases. We performed a review of the literature during the past forty years to assess this paradox. We used PubMed, EconLit and Jstor to locate all peer-reviewed English-language articles presenting data analysis on mortality associated with doctors' strikes. We identified 156 articles, seven of which met our search criteria. The articles analyzed five strikes around the world, all between 1976 and 2003. The strikes lasted between nine days and seventeen weeks. All reported that mortality either stayed the same or decreased during, and in some cases, after the strike. None found that mortality increased during the weeks of the strikes compared to other time periods. The paradoxical finding that physician strikes are associated with reduced mortality may be explained by several factors. Most importantly, elective surgeries are curtailed during strikes. Further, hospitals often re-assign scarce staff and emergency care was available during all of the strikes. Finally, none of the strikes may have lasted long enough to assess the effects of long-term reduced access to a physician. Nonetheless, the literature suggests that reductions in mortality may result from these strikes. PMID:18849101

  20. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  1. Mortality after total hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Berstock, J. R.; Beswick, A. D.; Lenguerrand, E.; Whitehouse, M. R.; Blom, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Total hip replacement causes a short-term increase in the risk of mortality. It is important to quantify this and to identify modifiable risk factors so that the risk of post-operative mortality can be minimised. We performed a systematic review and critical evaluation of the current literature on the topic. We identified 32 studies published over the last 10 years which provide either 30-day or 90-day mortality data. We estimate the pooled incidence of mortality during the first 30 and 90 days following hip replacement to be 0.30% (95% CI 0.22 to 0.38) and 0.65% (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), respectively. We found strong evidence of a temporal trend towards reducing mortality rates despite increasingly co-morbid patients. The risk factors for early mortality most commonly identified are increasing age, male gender and co-morbid conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular complications appear to have overtaken fatal pulmonary emboli as the leading cause of death after hip replacement. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:175–82. PMID:24894596

  2. Association of Religious Participation With Mortality Among Chinese Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Gu, Danan; George, Linda K.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the association of religious participation with mortality using a longitudinal data set collected from 9,017 oldest-old aged 85+ and 6,956 younger elders aged 65 to 84 in China in 2002 and 2005 and hazard models. Results show that adjusted for demographics, family/social support, and health practices, risk of dying was 24% (p < 0.001) and 12% (p < 0.01) lower among frequent and infrequent religious participants than among nonparticipants for all elders aged 65+. After baseline health was adjusted, the corresponding risk of dying declined to 21% (p < 0.001) and 6% (not significant), respectively. The authors also conducted hazard models analysis for men versus women and for young-old versus oldest-old, respectively, adjusted for single-year age; the authors found that gender differentials of association of religious participation with mortality among all elderly aged 65+ were not significant; association among young-old men was significantly stronger than among oldest-old men, but no such significant young-old versus oldest-old differentials in women were found. PMID:22448080

  3. 76 FR 63914 - Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine River Authority of Texas and Sabine River Authority, State of Louisiana; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Establishing Procedural Schedule for Licensing and Deadline for...

  4. Trends in colorectal cancer mortality in Europe: retrospective analysis of the WHO mortality database

    PubMed Central

    Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Pizot, Cécile; Boniol, Magali; Malvezzi, Matteo; Boniol, Mathieu; Negri, Eva; Bota, Maria; Jenkins, Mark A; Bleiberg, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in colorectal cancer mortality in 34 European countries between 1970 and 2011. Design Retrospective trend analysis. Data source World Health Organization mortality database. Population Deaths from colorectal cancer between 1970 and 2011. Profound changes in screening and treatment efficiency took place after 1988; therefore, particular attention was paid to the evolution of colorectal cancer mortality in the subsequent period. Main outcomes measures Time trends in rates of colorectal cancer mortality, using joinpoint regression analysis. Rates were age adjusted using the standard European population. Results From 1989 to 2011, colorectal cancer mortality increased by a median of 6.0% for men and decreased by a median of 14.7% for women in the 34 European countries. Reductions in colorectal cancer mortality of more than 25% in men and 30% in women occurred in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Luxembourg, and Ireland. By contrast, mortality rates fell by less than 17% in the Netherlands and Sweden for both sexes. Over the same period, smaller or no declines occurred in most central European countries. Substantial mortality increases occurred in Croatia, the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, and Romania for both sexes and in most eastern European countries for men. In countries with decreasing mortality, reductions were more important for women of all ages and men younger than 65 years. In the 27 European Union member states, colorectal cancer mortality fell by 13.0% in men and 27.0% in women, compared with corresponding reductions of 39.8% and 38.8% in the United States. Conclusion Over the past 40 years, there has been considerable disparity in the level of colorectal cancer mortality between European countries, as well as between men and women and age categories. Countries with the largest reductions in colorectal cancer mortality are characterised by better accessibility to screening

  5. Dose-Response Relationship between Exercise and Respiratory Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess prospectively the dose-response relationship between respiratory disease (ICD10: J1-99), pneumonia (ICD10: J12.0-18.9), and asperation pneumonia mortality (ICD10: J69) vs. baseline walking and running energy expenditure (MET-hours/d, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min). Methods Cox proportional hazard analyses of 109,352 runners and 40,798 walkers adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diet, alcohol, and education. Results There were 236 deaths with respiratory disease listed as the underlying cause, and 833 deaths that were respiratory disease related (entity axis diagnosis). Included among these were 79 deaths with pneumonia listed as the underlying cause and 316 pneumonia-related deaths, and 77 deaths due to aspiration pneumonia. There was no significant difference in the effect of running compared to walking (per MET-hours/d) on mortality, thus runners and walkers were combined for analysis. Respiratory disease mortality decreased 7.9% per MET-hours/d as the underlying cause (95%CI: 1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.01) and 7.3% for all respiratory disease-related deaths (95%CI: 4.2% to 10.4%, P=10-5). Pneumonia mortality decreased 13.1% per MET-hours/d as the underlying cause (95%CI: 2.6% to 23.2%, P=0.01) and 10.5% per MET-hours/d for all pneumonia-related deaths (95%CI: 5.4% to 15.5%, P=0.0001). The risk for aspiration pneumonia mortality also did not differ between running and walking, and decreased 19.9% per MET-hours/d run or walked (95%CI: 8.9% to 30.2%, P=0.0004). These results remained significant when additionally adjusted for BMI. Conclusions Higher doses of running and walking were associated with lower risk of respiratory disease, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonia mortality in a dose-dependent manner, and the effects of running and walking appear equivalent. These effects appear to be independent of the effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease. PMID:24002349

  6. 50 CFR 229.7 - Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries. 229.7 Section 229.7 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE...

  7. [Mortality at the end of the sixteenth century according to the data of Jean Hudde].

    PubMed

    Lombardo, E

    1987-01-01

    The author presents survival probability and mortality information for Holland in the late sixteenth century based on life annuity data for the years 1586-1590, examined by Jean Hudde and discussed in a letter he wrote in 1671 to Christiaan Huygens. PMID:12268631

  8. Mortality in Persons with Developmental Disabilities after Transfer into Community Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, David; Shavelle, Robert; Baumeister, Alfred; Anderson, Terence W.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 1,878 persons with developmental disabilities who had been transferred from California state institutions into community care found the mortality rates for movers exceeded institutional rates by 51%. The effect was largest shortly after the move and in subjects who had moved most recently. (Author/CR)

  9. 50 CFR 229.7 - Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972 General Provisions § 229.7 Monitoring of incidental... incidental mortality and serious injury of marine mammals during the course of commercial fishing...

  10. Factors Affecting Infant Mortality in Rural Bangladesh: Results from a Retrospective Sample Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Bimal Kanti

    1990-01-01

    Data from interviews with 1,787 women in rural Bangladesh revealed that infant mortality was highly correlated with smaller birth interval and absence of contraceptive use, followed by younger age of mother, prior pregnancy loss, smaller family landholdings, and birth of less preferred sex. Contains 49 references. (Author/SV)

  11. 50 CFR 229.7 - Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Monitoring of incidental mortalities and serious injuries. 229.7 Section 229.7 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER THE MARINE...

  12. Five-Year Blood Pressure Control and Mortality Following Health Education for Hypertensive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisky, Donald E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Three health education interventions for urban poor hypertensive patients were introduced in a randomized factorial design. Two-year data on compliance with therapy and five-year mortality data indicate the success of such educational programs in the long-term management and control of high blood pressure. (Author/GC)

  13. Dynamics of Inequality: Mother's Education and Infant Mortality in China, 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyze the dynamic relationship between Chinese women's education, their utilization of newly available medical pregnancy care, and their infants' mortality risk. China has undergone enormous social, economic, and political changes over recent decades and is a novel context in which to examine the potential influence of…

  14. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  15. Thirty-day mortality after hip fractures: has anything changed?

    PubMed

    Giannoulis, Dionysios; Calori, Giorgio M; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2016-05-01

    Bone density insufficiency is the main cause for significant musculoskeletal trauma in the elderly population following low-energy falls. Hip fractures, in particular, represent an important public health concern taking into account the complicated needs of the patients due to their medical comorbidities as well as their rehabilitation and social demands. The annual cost for the care of these patients is estimated at around 2 billion pounds (£) in the UK and is ever growing. An increased early and late mortality rate is also recognised in these injuries together with significant adversities for the patients. Lately, in order to improve the outcomes of this special cohort of patients, fast-track care pathways and government initiatives have been implemented. It appears that these measures have contributed in a steady year-by-year reduction of the 30-day mortality rates. Whether we have currently reached a plateau or whether an ongoing reduction in mortality rates will continue to be observed is yet to be seen. PMID:26943870

  16. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  17. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  18. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisak, Marie S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  19. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegation of Authority Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 14, 2012 Delegation of Authority Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you...

  20. The Author and the Reviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Joseph A.

    The diversity of textbook and scholarly book reviewers makes it difficult for an author to deal with reviews in any systematic or preplanned manner. There are, however, several helpful working assumptions: (1) the reviewer is always right, (2) the author is always right in principle but frequently wrong in practice, (3) the publisher wants what…

  1. Student Authority: Antidote to Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The widespread disaffection of students from school is manifested in academic failure, indifference, and defiance. These problems can be alleviated, I argue, when an authority structure is developed that combines three components--freedom, power, and legitimacy. Authority understood as either power or freedom is apt to subvert students' school…

  2. The Classes of Authoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozel, Kathy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of developments in authoring tools and describes ways to categorize products by platform, type of end-product, sophistication of end-product, and authoring metaphor. Discusses products from AimTech, Allegiant, Allen Communication, Asymetrix, Corel, Discovery Systems International, Enigma, Harrow Media, Horizons, Innovus,…

  3. A Copyright Guide for Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Robert E.

    This book provides a commentary on the current copyright law as it affects authors of creative works, intended for authors as well as for business people who need to know more than just the fundamentals. The book has application for novelists, playwrights, poets, biographers, journalists, historians, educators, artists, designers, musicians,…

  4. Lights out: Impact of the August 2003 power outage on mortality in New York, NY

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how power outages affect health. We investigated mortality effects of the largest US blackout to date, August 14–15, 2003 in New York, NY. Methods We estimated mortality risk in New York, NY, using a generalized linear model with data from 1987–2005. We incorporated possible confounders, including weather and long-term and seasonal mortality trends. Results During the blackout, mortality increased for accidental deaths (122% [95% confidence interval = 28%–287%]) and non-accidental (i.e., disease-related) deaths (25% [12%–41%]), resulting in approximately 90 excess deaths. Increased mortality was not from deaths being advanced by a few days; rather, mortality risk remained slightly elevated through August 2003. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of power outages and non-accidental mortality. Understanding the impact of power outages on human health is relevant, given that increased energy demand and climate change are likely to put added strain on power grids. PMID:22252408

  5. 10 CFR 810.9 - Restrictions on general and specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.9 Section 810.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. A general or specific authorization granted by...

  6. 10 CFR 810.9 - Restrictions on general and specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.9 Section 810.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. A general or specific authorization granted by...

  7. 10 CFR 810.9 - Restrictions on general and specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.9 Section 810.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. A general or specific authorization granted by...

  8. 10 CFR 810.9 - Restrictions on general and specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.9 Section 810.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. A general or specific authorization granted by...

  9. 10 CFR 810.9 - Restrictions on general and specific authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.9 Section 810.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. A general or specific authorization granted by...

  10. Trends of lung cancer mortality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lazcano Ponce, E C; Tovar Guzman, V; Meneses Gonzalez, F; Rascon Pacheco, R A; Hernandez Avila, M

    1997-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most important public health problems in the world; 1,035,000 annual deaths are estimated each year and more than 80% of these are attributed to tobacco. The trend of lung cancer mortality in Mexico City from 1979 - 1993 was determined, as was the rate ratio of lung cancer mortality in 31 states in Mexico, taking Mexico City as a reference by means of a Poisson model. A strong linear regression model was used to evaluate the rate, where the dependent variable was LC mortality rate and the independent variable the year observed. In 15 years, 73,807 deaths from LC were reported, with an increase in mortality from 5.01 - 7.25 per 100,000 inhabitants. Mortality increases significantly after 60 years of age (B not equal to 0), p<.05) in men and in women. Mortality from LC was 70% in men, and more than 60% of deaths were reported after 65 years of age. Mortality risk is higher in the northern states of the country (e.g., Sonora, RR=2.40) than in the southern region (e.g., Oaxaca RR=0.40). In Mexico, almost 10,000 deaths by LC are estimated for the year 2010. Therefore, changes in lifestyle should be encouraged in order to decrease the smoking habit. The governmental tax on cigarettes should be increased, smoking restricted in squares and public spaces, and the risks should be announced on cigarette packages, among other measures. With respect to other emergent risk factors, the sources of industrial pollution and toxic emissions should be regulated. PMID:9428585

  11. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  12. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, O. B.; Lopez, A. D.; Inoue, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper examines, describes and documents country-specific trends in under-five mortality rates (i.e., mortality among children under five years of age) in the 1990s. Our analysis updates previous studies by UNICEF, the World Bank and the United Nations. It identifies countries and WHO regions where sustained improvement has occurred and those where setbacks are evident. A consistent series of estimates of under-five mortality rate is provided and an indication is given of historical trends during the period 1950-2000 for both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that 10.5 million children aged 0-4 years died in 1999, about 2.2 million or 17.5% fewer than a decade earlier. On average about 15% of newborn children in Africa are expected to die before reaching their fifth birthday. The corresponding figures for many other parts of the developing world are in the range 3-8% and that for Europe is under 2%. During the 1990s the decline in child mortality decelerated in all the WHO regions except the Western Pacific but there is no widespread evidence of rising child mortality rates. At the country level there are exceptions in southern Africa where the prevalence of HIV is extremely high and in Asia where a few countries are beset by economic difficulties. The slowdown in the rate of decline is of particular concern in Africa and South-East Asia because it is occurring at relatively high levels of mortality, and in countries experiencing severe economic dislocation. As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues in Africa, particularly southern Africa, and in parts of Asia, further reductions in child mortality become increasingly unlikely until substantial progress in controlling the spread of HIV is achieved. PMID:11100613

  13. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  14. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  15. Perioperative and Anesthesia-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pignaton, Wangles; Braz, José Reinaldo C.; Kusano, Priscila S.; Módolo, Marília P.; de Carvalho, Lídia R.; Braz, Mariana G.; Braz, Leandro G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2006, a previous study at our institution reported high perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates of 21.97 and 1.12 per 10,000 anesthetics, respectively. Since then, changes in surgical practices may have decreased these rates. However, the actual perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil remains unknown. The study aimed to reexamine perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates in one Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital. In this observational study, deaths occurring in the operation room and postanesthesia care unit between April 2005 and December 2012 were identified from an anesthesia database. The data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, and medical specialty teams, as well as the types of surgery and anesthesia. All deaths were reviewed and grouped by into 1 of 4 triggering factors groups: totally anesthesia-related, partially anesthesia-related, surgery-related, or disease/condition-related. The mortality rates are expressed per 10,000 anesthetics with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 55,002 anesthetics and 88 deaths were reviewed, representing an overall mortality rate of 16.0 per 10,000 anesthetics (95% CI: 13.0–19.7). There were no anesthesia-related deaths. The major causes of mortality were patient disease/condition-related (13.8, 95% CI: 10.7–16.9) followed by surgery-related (2.2, 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). The major risks of perioperative mortality were children younger than 1-year-old, older patients, patients with poor ASA physical status (III–V), emergency, cardiac or vascular surgeries, and multiple surgeries performed under the same anesthetic technique (P < 0.0001). There were no anesthesia-related deaths. However, the high mortality rate caused by the poor physical conditions of some patients suggests that primary prevention might be the key to reducing perioperative mortality. These findings

  16. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion.

  17. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Am–9:30AM

    2009-03-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion. Refreshments will be served.

  18. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Am–9:30AM

    2012-02-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion. Refreshments will be served.

  19. Tutuorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Am–9:30AM

    2010-03-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion. Refreshments will be served.

  20. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pm–3:30PM

    2012-03-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion. Refreshments will be served.