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Sample records for energy calibration facility

  1. Low energy stable plasma calibration facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick-Frost, K. M.; Lynch, K. A.

    2007-07-01

    We have designed and fabricated a low energy plasma calibration facility for testing and calibration of rocket-borne charged-particle detectors and for the investigation of plasma sheath formation in an environment with ionospheric plasma energies, densities, and Debye lengths. We describe the vacuum system and associated plasma source, which was modified from a Naval Research Laboratory design [Bowles et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 455 (1996)]. Mechanical and electrical modifications to this cylindrical microwave resonant source are outlined together with a different method of operating the magnetron that achieves a stable discharge. This facility produces unmagnetized plasmas with densities from 1×103/cm3to6×105/cm3, electron temperatures from 0.1to1.7eV, and plasma potentials from 0.5to8V depending on varying input microwave power and neutral gas flow. For the range of input microwave power explored (350-600W), the energy density of the plasma remains constant because of an inverse relationship between density and temperature. This relationship allows a wide range of Debye lengths (0.3-8.4cm) to be investigated, which is ideal for simulating the ionospheric plasma sheaths we explore.

  2. Calibration facility safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    A set of requirements is presented to insure the highest practical standard of safety for the Apollo 17 Calibration Facility in terms of identifying all critical or catastrophic type hazard areas. Plans for either counteracting or eliminating these areas are presented. All functional operations in calibrating the ultraviolet spectrometer and the testing of its components are described.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Calibration Facilities - 12103

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Deborah; Traub, David; Widdop, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes radiometric calibration facilities located in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at three secondary calibration sites. These facilities are available to the public for the calibration of radiometric field instrumentation for in-situ measurements of radium (uranium), thorium, and potassium. Both borehole and hand-held instruments may be calibrated at the facilities. Aircraft or vehicle mounted systems for large area surveys may be calibrated at the Grand Junction Regional Airport facility. These calibration models are recognized internationally as stable, well-characterized radiation sources for calibration. Calibration models built in other countries are referenced to the DOE models, which are also widely used as a standard for calibration within the U.S. Calibration models are used to calibrate radiation detectors used in uranium exploration, remediation, and homeland security. (authors)

  4. Integrated development facility for the calibration of low-energy charged particle flight instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a low-energy ion facility for development and calibration of thermal ion instrumentation is examined. A directly heated cathode provides the electrons used to produce ions by impact ionization and an applied magnetic field increases the path length followed by the electrons. The electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration in the ion source is studied. The procedures for the charge neutralization of the beam and the configuration and function of the 1.4-m drift tube are analyzed. A microcomputer is utilized to control and monitor the beam energy and composition, and the mass- and angle-dependent response of the instrument under testing. The facility produces a high-quality ion beam with an adjustable range of energies up to 150 eV; the angular divergence and uniformity of the beam is obtained from two independent retarding potential analyzers. The procedures for calibrating the instrument being developed are described.

  5. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in the X-Ray Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This photograph is of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 telescope being evaluated by engineers in the clean room of the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC was heavily engaged in the technical and scientific aspects, testing and calibration, of the HEAO-2 telescope The HEAO-2 was the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date. The X-Ray Calibration Facility was built in 1976 for testing MSFC's HEAO-2. The facility is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produced a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performance in space is predicted. The original facility contained a 1,000-foot long by 3-foot diameter vacuum tube (for the x-ray path) cornecting an x-ray generator and an instrument test chamber. Recently, the facility was upgraded to evaluate the optical elements of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  6. Calibration Facilities for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, T.S.

    2000-06-15

    The calibration facilities will be dynamic and will change to meet the needs of experiments. Small sources, such as the Manson Source should be available to everyone at any time. Carrying out experiments at Omega is providing ample opportunity for practice in pre-shot preparation. Hopefully, the needs that are demonstrated in these experiments will assure the development of (or keep in service) facilities at each of the laboratories that will be essential for in-house preparation for experiments at NIF.

  7. Gemini facility calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Harris, John W.; Gostick, David C.; Laidlaw, Ken; Kidd, Norrie; Strachan, Mel; Wilson, Ken

    2000-08-01

    High-quality, efficient calibration instruments is a pre- requisite for the modern observatory. Each of the Gemini telescopes will be equipped with identical facility calibration units (GCALs) designed to provide wavelength and flat-field calibrations for the suite of instruments. The broad range of instrumentation planned for the telescopes heavily constrains the design of GCAL. Short calibration exposures are required over wavelengths from 0.3micrometers to 5micrometers , field sizes up to 7 arcminutes and spectral resolution from R-5 to 50,000. The output from GCAL must mimic the f-16 beam of the telescope and provide a uniform illumination of the focal plane. The calibration units are mounted on the Gemini Instrument Support Structure, two meters from the focal pane, necessitating the use of large optical components. We will discuss the opto-mechanical design of the Gemini calibration unit, with reference to those feature which allow these stringent requirements to be met. A novel reflector/diffuser unit replaces the integration sphere more normally found in calibration systems. The efficiency of this system is an order of magnitude greater than for an integration sphere. A system of two off-axis mirrors reproduces the telescope pupil and provides the 7 foot focal plane. The results of laboratory test of the uniformity and throughput of the GCAL will be presented.

  8. Meteorological Sensor Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The meteorological sensor calibration facility is designed to test and assess radiosonde measurement quality through actual flights in the atmosphere. United States radiosonde temperature measurements are deficient in that they require correction for errors introduced by long- and short-wave radiation. The effect of not applying corrections results in a large bias between day time and night time measurements. This day/night bias has serious implications for users of radiosonde data, of which NASA is one. The derivation of corrections for the U.S. radiosonde is quite important. Determination of corrections depends on solving the heat transfer equation of the thermistor using laboratory measurements of the emissivity and absorptivity of the thermistor coating. The U.S. radiosonde observations from the World Meteorological Organization International Radiosonde Intercomparison were used as the data base to test whether the day/night height bias can be removed. Twenty-five noon time and 26 night time observations were used. Corrected temperatures were used to calculate new geopotentials. Day/night bias in the geopotentials decreased significantly when corrections were introduced. Some testing of thermal lag attendant with the standard carbon hygristor took place. Two radiosondes with small bead thermistors imbedded in the hygristor were flown. Detailed analysis was not accomplished; however, cursory examination of the data showed that the hygristor is at a higher temperature than the external thermistor indicates.

  9. A Review of X-ray Diagnostic Calibrations in the 2 to 100 keV Region Using the High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Zaheer; Pond, T; Buckles, R A; Maddox, B R; Chen, C D; DeWald, E L; Izumi, N; Stewart, R

    2010-05-19

    The precise and accurate measurement of X-rays in the 2 keV to 100 keV region is crucial to the understanding of HED plasmas and warm dense matter in general. With the emergence of inertially confined plasma facilities as the premier platforms for ICF, laboratory astrophysics, and national security related plasma experiments, the need to calibrate diagnostics in the high energy X-ray regime has grown. At National Security Technologies High Energy X-ray Calibration Facility (HEX) in Livermore, California, X-ray imagers, filter-fluorescer spectrometers, crystal spectrometers, image plates, and nuclear diagnostics are calibrated. The HEX can provide measurements of atomic line radiation, X-ray flux (accuracy within 10%), and X-ray energy (accuracy within 1%). The HEX source is comprised of a commercial 160 kV X-ray tube, a fluorescer wheel, a filter wheel, and a lead encasement. The X-ray tube produces a Tungsten bremsstrahlung spectrum which causes a foil to fluoresce line radiation. To minimize bremsstrahlung in the radiation for calibration we also provide various foils as filters. For experimental purposes, a vacuum box capable of 10{sup -7} Torr, as well as HPGe and CdTe radiation detectors, are provided on an optical table. Most geometries and arrangements can be changed to meet experimental needs.

  10. LLL calibration and standards facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.W.; Elliott, J.H.

    1980-04-15

    The capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Calibration and Standards Facility are delineated. The facility's ability to provide radiation fields and measurements for a variety of radiation safety applications and the available radiation measurement equipment are described. The need for national laboratory calibration labs to maintain traceability to a national standard are discussed as well as the areas where improved standards and standardization techniques are needed.

  11. An integrated development facility for the calibration of low-energy charged particle flight instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A system was developed for the calibration and development of thermal ion instrumentation. The system provides an extended beam with usable current rates, approx. 1 pA/sq cm, at beam energies as low as 1 eV, with much higher values available with increasing energy. A tandem electrostatic and variable geometry magnetic mirror configuration within the ion source optimizes the use of the ionizing electrons. The system is integrated under microcomputer control to allow automatic control and monitoring of the beam energy and composition and the mass and angle-dependent response of the instrument under test. The system is pumped by a combination of carbon vane and cryogenic sorption roughing pumps and ion and liquid helium operating pumps.

  12. Energy spectra of the pneumatically positioned neutron sources at LLNL's Hazards control standards and calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1987-06-15

    The Hazards Control Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains a Standards and Calibration Laboratory that includes three neutron sources (two /sup 252/Cf and one /sup 238/PuBe that can be positioned pneumatically for irradiations. Ten moderators exist to modify the neutron energy spectra produced by these sources. The thicknesses and materials of these moderators are: 25-cm water; 5-, 10-, 15-, and 25-cm heavy water; 20-cm aluminum; and 2-, 5-, 10-, and 15-cm polyethylene. We used a multisphere spectrometer to measure the neutron spectra at 2 m from both the PuBe source and the smaller Cf source, with the sources bare, and in all of the moderators. These data were reduced in 25 energy groups ranging from 0.25 eV to 16 MeV. Except for the 15-m polyethylene moderator, we also made measurements using a liquid-scintillator fast-neutron spectrometer. These data were reduced in 0.1-MeV increments from 0.5 to 12.5 MeV. Spectra from the measurements and from independent calculations are presented in tabular and graphic form. Dosimetric values, calculated from both the measured and calculated spectra, are also presented.

  13. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique; Shariff, Md. Asad; Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Fazlul Hoque, A. K. M.; Chowdhuri, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  14. Energy calibration via correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Daniel; Limousin, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The main task of an energy calibration is to find a relation between pulse-height values and the corresponding energies. Doing this for each pulse-height channel individually requires an elaborated input spectrum with an excellent counting statistics and a sophisticated data analysis. This work presents an easy to handle energy calibration process which can operate reliably on calibration measurements with low counting statistics. The method uses a parameter based model for the energy calibration and concludes on the optimal parameters of the model by finding the best correlation between the measured pulse-height spectrum and multiple synthetic pulse-height spectra which are constructed with different sets of calibration parameters. A CdTe-based semiconductor detector and the line emissions of an 241Am source were used to test the performance of the correlation method in terms of systematic calibration errors for different counting statistics. Up to energies of 60 keV systematic errors were measured to be less than ~ 0.1 keV. Energy calibration via correlation can be applied to any kind of calibration spectra and shows a robust behavior at low counting statistics. It enables a fast and accurate calibration that can be used to monitor the spectroscopic properties of a detector system in near realtime.

  15. CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-03-01

    The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

  16. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  17. Automated Heat-Flux-Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer control speeds operation of equipment and processing of measurements. New heat-flux-calibration facility developed at Lewis Research Center. Used for fast-transient heat-transfer testing, durability testing, and calibration of heat-flux gauges. Calibrations performed at constant or transient heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 6 MW/m2 and at temperatures ranging from 80 K to melting temperatures of most materials. Facility developed because there is need to build and calibrate very-small heat-flux gauges for Space Shuttle main engine (SSME).Includes lamp head attached to side of service module, an argon-gas-recirculation module, reflector, heat exchanger, and high-speed positioning system. This type of automated heat-flux calibration facility installed in industrial plants for onsite calibration of heat-flux gauges measuring fluxes of heat in advanced gas-turbine and rocket engines.

  18. Boeing infrared sensor (BIRS) calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, John D.; Scorsone, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing Infrared Sensor (BIRS) Calibration Facility represents a major capital investment in optical and infrared technology. The facility was designed and built for the calibration and testing of the new generation large aperture long wave infrared (LWIR) sensors, seekers, and related technologies. Capability exists to perform both radiometric and goniometric calibrations of large infrared sensors under simulated environmental operating conditions. The system is presently configured for endoatmospheric calibrations with a uniform background field which can be set to simulate the expected mission background levels. During calibration, the sensor under test is also exposed to expected mission temperatures and pressures within the test chamber. Capability exists to convert the facility for exoatmospheric testing. The configuration of the system is described along with hardware elements and changes made to date are addressed.

  19. Low radioactivity spectral gamma calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Bowman, H.R.; Huang, L., H.; Lavelle, M.J.; Smith, A.R.; Hearst, J.R.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1986-01-01

    A low radioactivity calibration facility has been constructed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This facility has four calibration models of natural stone that are 3 ft in diameter and 6 ft long, with a 12 in. cored borehole in the center of each model and a lead-shielded run pipe below each model. These models have been analyzed by laboratory natural gamma ray spectroscopy (NGRS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for their K, U, and Th content. Also, 42 other elements were analyzed in the NAA. The /sup 222/Rn emanation data were collected. Calibrating the spectral gamma tool in this low radioactivity calibration facility allows the spectral gamma log to accurately aid in the recognition and mapping of subsurface stratigraphic units and alteration features associated with unusual concentrations of these radioactive elements, such as clay-rich zones.

  20. Space Power Facility Reverberation Chamber Calibration Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Catherine C.; Dolesh, Robert J.; Garrett, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the process and results of calibrating the Space Environmental Test EMI Test facility at NASA Plum Brook Space Power Facility according to the specifications of IEC61000-4-21 for susceptibility testing from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. The chamber passed the field uniformity test, in both the empty and loaded conditions, making it the world's largest Reverberation Chamber.

  1. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (∼10{sup −9} - 10{sup −8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  2. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (˜10-9 - 10-8 Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  3. The Berkeley extreme ultraviolet calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Jelinsky, Patrick; Malina, Roger F.

    1988-01-01

    The vacuum calibration facilities of the Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley are designed for the calibration and testing of EUV and FUV spaceborne instrumentation (spectral range 44-2500 A). The facility includes one large cylindrical vacuum chamber (3 x 5 m) containing two EUV collimators, and it is equipped with a 4-axis manipulator of angular-control resolution 1 arcsec for payloads weighing up to 500 kg. In addition, two smaller cylindrical chambers, each 0.9 x 1.2 m, are available for vacuum and thermal testing of UV detectors, filters, and space electronics hardware. All three chambers open into class-10,000 clean rooms, and all calibrations are referred to NBS secondary standards.

  4. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  5. High precision Woelter optic calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, R.I.; Remington, B.A.; Schwinn, T.

    1994-05-02

    We have developed an off-line facility for very precise characterization of the reflectance and spatial resolution of the grazing incidence Woelter Type 1 x-ray optics used at Nova. The primary component of the facility is a high brightness, ``point`` x-ray source consisting of a focussed DC electron beam incident onto a precision manipulated target/pinhole array. The data are recorded with a selection of detectors. For imaging measurements we use direct exposure x-ray film modules or an x-ray CCD camera. For energy-resolved reflectance measurements, we use lithium drifted silicon detectors and a proportional counter. An in situ laser alignment system allows precise location and rapid periodic alignment verification of the x-ray point source, the statically mounted Woelter optic, and the chosen detector.

  6. SPRT Calibration Uncertainties and Internal Quality Control at a Commercial SPRT Calibration Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of the Fluke Corporation operates two accredited standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration facilities, one at the Hart Scientific factory in Utah, USA, and the other at a service facility in Norwich, UK. The US facility is accredited through National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and the UK facility is accredited through UKAS. Both provide SPRT calibrations using similar equipment and procedures, and at similar levels of uncertainty. These uncertainties are among the lowest available commercially. To achieve and maintain low uncertainties, it is required that the calibration procedures be thorough and optimized. However, to minimize customer downtime, it is also important that the instruments be calibrated in a timely manner and returned to the customer. Consequently, subjecting the instrument to repeated calibrations or extensive repeated measurements is not a viable approach. Additionally, these laboratories provide SPRT calibration services involving a wide variety of SPRT designs. These designs behave differently, yet predictably, when subjected to calibration measurements. To this end, an evaluation strategy involving both statistical process control and internal consistency measures is utilized to provide confidence in both the instrument calibration and the calibration process. This article describes the calibration facilities, procedure, uncertainty analysis, and internal quality assurance measures employed in the calibration of SPRTs. Data will be reviewed and generalities will be presented. Finally, challenges and considerations for future improvements will be discussed.

  7. Review of neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques: new needs for emerging fields.

    PubMed

    Gressier, V

    2014-10-01

    Neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques have been developed since the middle of the 20th century to support research and nuclear power energy development. The technical areas needing reference neutron fields and related instruments were mainly cross section measurements, radiation protection, dosimetry and fission reactors, with energy ranging from a few millielectronvolts to about 20 MeV. The reference neutron fields and calibration techniques developed for these purposes will be presented in this paper. However, in recent years, emerging fields have brought new needs for calibration facilities and monitoring techniques. These new challenges for neutron metrology will be exposed with their technical difficulties. PMID:24344349

  8. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  9. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  10. Improved ground calibration results from Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.; Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan; Versteeg, Maarten H.

    2014-07-01

    Four compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs have been built by Southwest Research Institute and successfully operated on different planetary missions. These spectrographs underwent a series of ground radiometric calibrations before delivery to their respective spacecraft. In three of the four cases, the in-flight measured sensitivity was approximately 50% lower than the ground measurement. Recent tests in the Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF) explain the discrepancy between ground and flight results. Revised ground calibration results are presented for the Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons-Alice, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lyman- Alpha Mapping Project, and Juno-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) and are then compared to the original ground and flight calibrations. The improved understanding of the calibration system reported here will result in improved ground calibration of the upcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)-UVS.

  11. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  12. Comparative Calibration of Heat Flux Sensors in Two Blackbody Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Saunders, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of heat flux sensor calibrations in two blackbody facilities: the 25 mm variable temperature blackbody (VTBB) primary facility and a recently developed 51 mm aperture spherical blackbody (SPBB) facility. Three Schmidt-Boelter gages and a Gardon gage were calibrated with reference to an electrical substitution radiometer in the VTBB. One of the Schmidt-Boelter gages thus calibrated was used as a reference standard to calibrate other gages in the SPBB. Comparison of the Schmidt-Boelter gages calibrations in the SPBB and the VTBB agreed within the measurement uncertainties. For the Gardon gage, the measured responsivity in the SPBB showed a gradual decrease with increasing distance from the aperture. When the gage was located close to the aperture, a distance less than the aperture radius, the responsivity in the SPBB agreed with VTBB measurements. At a distance of about three times the aperture radius, the responsivity showed a decrease of about 4 %. This is probably due to higher convection loss from the Gardon gage surface compared to the Schmidt-Boelter sensor.

  13. Establishment of 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration fields produced using the 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the Facility of Radiation Standards, Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko

    2016-03-01

    A 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, produced by the nuclear reaction of (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O, has been established at the Facility of Radiation Standards (FRS) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency for calibration purposes. Basic dosimetric quantities (i.e. averaged gamma-ray energy, air-kerma-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients and air kerma rates at the point of test) have been precisely determined through a series of measurements using the NaI(Tl) spectrometer and an ionisation chamber coupled with an appropriate build-up material. The measurements obtained comply with values recommended by the International Organization for Standardization for an 'R-F field'. The neutron contamination component for the field has also been measured by means of a conventional neutron dose equivalent meter (the so-called neutron rem-counter) and determined to be ∼ 0.5 % of the total dose equivalent. PMID:26012483

  14. Facility calibration unit of Hobby Eberly Telescope wide field upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Smith, Michael P.; Haeuser, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) will be equipped with new Facility Calibration Unit (FCU). The FCU is in support of VIRUS and the facility instruments and consists of the head and source box. The FCU head, connected to the source box through two liquid light guides, is attached to the bottom of the WFU Wide-Field Corrector (WFC) and can be deployed into the beam to inject calibration light through the WFC whenever calibration is needed. A set of Fresnel lenses is used in the FCU head to mimic the caustics of M1 as much as possible to re-produce the telescope’s focal plane illumination pattern. Various imaging/non-imaging optical components (e.g. Compound Parabolic Concentrators, cone reflectors, condenser lenses) are used for efficient coupling between different types of calibration lamps and light guides, covering wavelengths from 350nm to 1800nm. In addition, we developed an efficient and tunable Light-Emitting Diode (LED) based source and coupler for UV and Visible spectral flat field calibration. This paper presents the designs, prototypes, and as-built components / subsystems of the FCU.

  15. Energy calibration of a multilayer photon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The job of energy calibration was broken into three parts: gain normalization of all equivalent elements; determination of the functions for conversion of pulse height to energy; and gain stabilization. It is found that calorimeter experiments are no better than their calibration systems - calibration errors will be the major source of error at high energies. Redundance is found to be necessary - the system should be designed such that every element could be replaced during the life of the experiment. It is found to be important to have enough data taken during calibration runs and during the experiment to be able to sort out where the calibration problems were after the experiment is over. Each layer was normalized independently with electrons, and then the pulse height to energy conversion was determined with photons. The primary method of gain stabilization used the light flasher system. (LEW)

  16. Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagawa, Paul S.

    2004-09-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

  17. Energy Calibration of the JLab Bremsstrahlung Tagging System

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan Stepanyan; S. Boyarinov; H. Egiyan; D. Dale; L. Guo; M. Gabrielyan; L. Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Bernhard Mecking; A. Teymurazyan; I. Nakagawa; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Michael Wood

    2007-03-01

    In this report, we present the energy calibration of the Hall B bremsstrahlung tagging system at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The calibration was performed using a magnetic pair spectrometer. The tagged photon energy spectrum was measured in coincidence with e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs as a function of the pair spectrometer magnetic field. Taking advantage of the internal linearity of the pair spectrometer, the energy of the tagging system was calibrated at the level of {+-} 0.1% E{sub {gamma}}. The absolute energy scale was determined using the e{sup +}e{sup -} rate measurements close to the end-point of the photon spectrum. The energy variations across the full tagging range were found to be <3 MeV.

  18. Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Doihara, Ryouji; Terao, Yoshiya; Takamoto, Masaki

    A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor: k = 2). The primary standard is based on a static and gravimetric method with a flying start and finish. The facility consists of two test rigs using kerosene and light oil as working fluids. The test lines for the flowmeters are 50, 100 and 150 mm in diameter and three servo positive displacement meters are used as working standards. To verify the calibration performance, a Coriolis flowmeter, a turbine meter and a positive displacement flowmeter have been calibrated at both test rigs. Furthermore, an international comparison with SP, Swedish National Testing Research Institute, was carried out. A screw-type positive displacement flowmeter was selected as the transfer standard and was calibrated at NMIJ and SP. The result shows that the two national standards at the two institutes agree within the quoted expanded uncertainties.

  19. Preliminary calibration and test results from the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, Linwood W.; Fuller, Dennis E.

    1986-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) was operated to design condition of 120 million Reynolds number at a Mach number of 1.0. All systems were checked out except plenum isolation valves; modifications are being made to heaters on the actuators. Initial steady-state calibration indicates excellent steady flow characteristics. The first test of the Pathfinder 1 model indicated significant Reynolds number effects. Some effect of temperature on instrumentation were obtained. The cause of these effects is being evaluated.

  20. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  1. CEOS database of worldwide calibration facilities and validation test sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James J.; Wanchoo, Lalit; Le, Truong

    2001-02-01

    12 Since 1995, the CEOS Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) Database has provided the international Earth remote sensing science community with a) a central repository for information on current and planned Calibration/Validation activities and b) a means to foster collaboration on common Cal/Val issues. The Cal/Val Database uses an ORACLE relation database management system to store the data and is accessed via the World Wide Web (WWW) using PERL scripts to search and query the database. The search queries are structured such that users can define any combination of fields, either through selection of valids, or by directly typing the information. All query results are displayed in the text form. The text displays are interactive allowing the user to point and click to access more detailed information. System functionality provides an on-line form of all of the three questionnaires for submitting new information and allows a user with the assigned password to edit archived information for their facility. This functionality allows users to update information, as it becomes available. In 2000, the Cal/Val database was updated through a process of additional surveying of existing and planned Cal/Val capabilities to support the NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and other international Earth observing missions. A set of three updated questionnaires was prepared: one for calibration laboratories, one for test sites, and one for field instruments. The information requested included: a description of the facility, instruments available, instrument characteristics, types of measurements performed, programs/projects that have used the facility, etc. These questionnaires with cover letter were mailed to over 250 research groups that included CEOS members and facilities within the USA. The information collected from worldwide facilities was used to construct and update this on-line database for use not only by the CEOS members, but also the broader international Earth

  2. Introduction to a calibration facility for hard X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu; Li, XinQiao; Xie, YaNing; Liu, CongZhan; Zhang, Shu; Wu, JinJie; Zhang, Jian; Li, XuFang; Zhang, YiFei; Li, Bing; Hu, HongLiang; Chen, YuPeng; Jiang, Wei; Li, ZeShu

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces the current configuration of the Hard X-ray Calibration Facility (HXCF) in 2014, which is used to calibrate the high energy X-ray detectors that will be onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) satellite, China's first astronomy satellite. The HXCF consists of an X-ray tube, a skid platform system, a double crystal monochromator, a "T" structure mechanism, a collimator, an adjustable beam, a background shielding box, as well as the box of the control system. The HXCF covers 15-100 keV energy band and has a high fraction of monochromatic light (exceeding 92 % at 15-100 keV) and good monochromaticity (1‰ level). The flux of the monochromatic light is around 104 photons cm-2 s-1. This HXCF could be used to calibrate the energy linearities, the energy resolutions and detection efficiencies of hard X-ray detectors.

  3. Jet energy calibration at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, Ariel

    2015-11-10

    In this study, jets are one of the most prominent physics signatures of high energy proton–proton (p–p) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are key physics objects for precision measurements and searches for new phenomena. This review provides an overview of the reconstruction and calibration of jets at the LHC during its first Run. ATLAS and CMS developed different approaches for the reconstruction of jets, but use similar methods for the energy calibration. ATLAS reconstructs jets utilizing input signals from their calorimeters and use charged particle tracks to refine their energy measurement and suppress the effects of multiple p–p interactions (pileup). CMS, instead, combines calorimeter and tracking information to build jets from particle flow objects. Jets are calibrated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and a residual in situ calibration derived from collision data is applied to correct for the differences in jet response between data and Monte Carlo.

  4. Jet energy calibration at the LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartzman, Ariel

    2015-11-10

    In this study, jets are one of the most prominent physics signatures of high energy proton–proton (p–p) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are key physics objects for precision measurements and searches for new phenomena. This review provides an overview of the reconstruction and calibration of jets at the LHC during its first Run. ATLAS and CMS developed different approaches for the reconstruction of jets, but use similar methods for the energy calibration. ATLAS reconstructs jets utilizing input signals from their calorimeters and use charged particle tracks to refine their energy measurement and suppress the effects of multiplemore » p–p interactions (pileup). CMS, instead, combines calorimeter and tracking information to build jets from particle flow objects. Jets are calibrated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and a residual in situ calibration derived from collision data is applied to correct for the differences in jet response between data and Monte Carlo.« less

  5. Slănic-Prahova low background calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Celarel, Aurelia; Duliu, O G; Bercea, S; Cenusa, C

    2016-03-01

    The reduced background of 2 nSv h(-1) of the Slănic-Prahova Low Background Radiation Laboratory allowed installing a calibration stand for low-dose-rates dosimetry. The stand is provided with (60)Co, (137)Cs and (241)Am low activity sources. A Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt-calibrated AUTOMESS 6150 AD-6 dose rate meter with a 6150 AD-b/H external probe was used to check to what extent this stand could serve as a low background calibration facility. A detailed analysis of possible uncertainties in measuring dose rates evidenced an extended uncertainty related to the certified calibration as well as instrument readings of about 3 % for a confidence level of 95 %. In these conditions, the experimentally determined dose rates for all three gamma ray sources and for source-to-probe distances varying between 0.3 and 2.0 m confirmed a good correlation between the calculated and measured dose rates. At the same time, dose rates perfectly obey to an inverse squared distances law. PMID:26001826

  6. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  7. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  8. Calibration of the delayed-gamma neutron activation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Zhao, X.; Rarback, H.M.; Yasumura, S.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Moore, R.I.; Lo Monte, A.F.; Vodopia, K.A.; Liu, H.B.; Economos, C.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Weber, D.A.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Joel, D.D.

    1996-02-01

    The delayed-gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory was originally calibrated using an anthropomorphic hollow phantom filled with solutions containing predetermined amounts of Ca. However, 99{percent} of the total Ca in the human body is not homogeneously distributed but contained within the skeleton. Recently, an artificial skeleton was designed, constructed, and placed in a bottle phantom to better represent the Ca distribution in the human body. Neutron activation measurements of an anthropomorphic and a bottle (with no skeleton) phantom demonstrate that the difference in size and shape between the two phantoms changes the total body calcium results by less than 1{percent}. To test the artificial skeleton, two small polyethylene jerry-can phantoms were made, one with a femur from a cadaver and one with an artificial bone in exactly the same geometry. The femur was ashed following the neutron activation measurements for chemical analysis of Ca. Results indicate that the artificial bone closely simulates the real bone in neutron activation analysis and provides accurate calibration for Ca measurements. Therefore, the calibration of the delayed-gamma neutron activation system is now based on the new bottle phantom containing an artificial skeleton. This change has improved the accuracy of measurement for total body calcium. Also, the simple geometry of this phantom and the artificial skeleton allows us to simulate the neutron activation process using a Monte Carlo code, which enables us to calibrate the system for human subjects larger and smaller than the phantoms used as standards. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.}

  9. FCC-ee: Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Koratzinos, M.; Blondel, A.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Zimmermann, F.

    2015-06-02

    The FCC-ee aims to improve on electroweak precision measurements, with goals of 100 ke V on the Z mass and width, and a fraction of MeV on the W mass. Compared to LEP, this implies a much improved knowledge of the center-of-mass energy when operating at the Z peak and WW threshold. This can be achieved by making systematic use of resonant depolarization. A number of issues have been identified, due in particular to the long polarization times. However the smaller emittance and energy spread of FCC-ee with respect to LEP should help achieve a much improved performance.

  10. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  11. New PTB thermal neutron calibration facility: first results.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Wershofen, H; Wiegel, B; Zimbal, A

    2014-10-01

    A new thermal neutron calibration facility based on a moderator assembly has been set up at PTB. It consists of 16 (241)Am-Be radionuclide sources mounted in a graphite block, 1.5 m wide, 1.5 m high and 1.8 m deep. The sources are distributed to eight different positions, at a mean distance of ∼1.25 m from the front face of the moderator. The neutron field at the reference position, 30 cm in front of the moderator device and 75 cm above the floor, has been characterised using calculations, Bonner sphere measurements and gold foil activation. First results are shown. The field is highly thermalised: 99 % in terms of fluence. It is quite homogenous within a 20 cm×20 cm area, but the absolute value of the thermal neutron fluence rate is small and yields an ambient dose equivalent rate of 3 µSv h(-1). PMID:24403346

  12. Energy calibration of the fly's eye detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The methods used to calibrate the Fly's eye detector to evaluate the energy of EAS are discussed. The energy of extensive air showers (EAS) as seen by the Fly's Eye detector are obtained from track length integrals of observed shower development curves. The energy of the parent cosmic ray primary is estimated by applying corrections to account for undetected energy in the muon, neutrino and hadronic channels. Absolute values for E depend upon the measurement of shower sizes N sub e(x). The following items are necessary to convert apparent optical brightness into intrinsical optical brightness: (1) an assessment of those factors responsible for light production by the relativistic electrons in an EAS and the transmission of light thru the atmosphere, (2) calibration of the optical detection system, and (3) a knowledge of the trajectory of the shower.

  13. Detailed Calibration of SphinX instrument at the Palermo XACT facility of INAF-OAPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymon, Gburek; Collura, Alfonso; Barbera, Marco; Reale, Fabio; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Plocieniak, Stefan; Podgorski, Piotr; Trzebinski, Witold; Varisco, Salvatore

    The Solar photometer in X-rays (SphinX) experiment is scheduled for launch late summer 2008 on-board the Russian CORONAS-Photon satellite. SphinX will use three silicon PIN diode detectors with selected effective areas in order to record solar spectra in the X-ray energy range 0.3-15 keV with unprecedented temporal and medium energy resolution. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the SphinX instrument will give for the first time possibility of observing solar soft X-ray variability from the weakest levels, ten times below present thresholds, to the largest X20+ flares. We present the results of the ground X-ray calibrations of the SphinX instrument performed at the X-ray Astronomy Calibration and Testing (XACT) facility of INAF-OAPA. The calibrations were essential for determination of SphinX detector energy resolution and efficiency. We describe the ground tests instrumental set-up, adopted measurement techniques and present results of the calibration data analysis.

  14. Preliminary designs for X-ray source modifications for the Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop preliminary designs for modifications to the X-ray source of the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) the production of an unpolarized X-ray beam, (2) modification of the source to provide characteristic X-rays with energies up to 40 keV, and (3) addition of the capability to calibrate instruments in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region.

  15. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Shahnazi, K.; Koss, P.; Sanders, E.

    2007-06-15

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of {+-}0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of {+-}0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  16. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  17. Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.

    PubMed

    Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards. PMID:24140880

  18. High energy forming facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciurlionis, B.

    1967-01-01

    Watertight, high-explosive forming facility, 25 feet in diameter and 15 feet deep, withstands repeated explosions of 10 pounds of TNT equivalent. The shell is fabricated of high strength steel and allows various structural elements to deform or move elastically and independently while retaining structural integrity.

  19. Definition of energy-calibrated spectra for national reachback

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Christopher L.; Hertz, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the timeliness and accuracy of analysis results of spectra submitted to National Reachback, particularly for the detection of threat items. Many spectra submitted for analysis include either a calibration spectrum using 137Cs or no calibration spectrum at all. The single line provided by 137Cs is insufficient to adequately calibrate nonlinear spectra. A calibration source that provides several lines that are well-spaced, from the low energy cutoff to the full energy range of the detector, is needed for a satisfactory energy calibration. This paper defines the requirements of an energy calibration for the purposes of National Reachback, outlines a method to validate whether a given spectrum meets that definition, discusses general source considerations, and provides a specific operating procedure for calibrating the GR-135.

  20. Testing of a prototype of calibration facility for noble gas monitoring using 41Ar.

    PubMed

    Saibathulham, Holnisar; Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsum, Pujadi

    2012-09-01

    A prototype of a calibration facility for noble gas monitoring using (41)Ar in the PTKMR-BATAN has been tested. The facility was designed in such a way that the standard source of gas can be reused. The radioactive (41)Ar source was obtained by thermal neutron reaction of (40)Ar(n, γ)(41)Ar using a thermal neutron flux of 4.8×10(13) neutrons per cm(2) per second in two minutes on the multipurpose G.A. Siwabessy Reactor (Batan, Serpong, Indonesia). Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the radioactivity and purity of (41)Ar. The spectrum of the (41)Ar observed yields an energy of 1294 keV because of the highest intensity (99.2%). The activity of (41)Ar was 2821 kBq and 4% of the expanded uncertainty. The time required for (41)Ar to reach homogeneity was 7 min, and the effectiveness of resuse was 53%. PMID:22516716

  1. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  2. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D

    2013-09-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements. PMID:23955030

  3. Thermal energy storage test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ternes, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal behavior of prototype thermal energy storage units (TES) in both heating and cooling modes is determined. Improved and advanced storage systems are developed and performance standards are proposed. The design and construction of a thermal cycling facility for determining the thermal behavior of full scale TES units is described. The facility has the capability for testing with both liquid and air heat transport, at variable heat input/extraction rates, over a temperature range of 0 to 280 F.

  4. Characterization of the Neutron Fields in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Radiation Calibration Laboratory Low Scatter Calibration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2009-09-04

    In June 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) revised its rule on Occupational Radiation Protection, Part 10 CFR 835. A significant aspect of the revision was the adoption of the recommendations outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Report 60 (ICRP-60), including new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated internal dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. ICRP-60 uses the quantities defined by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) for personnel and area monitoring including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d). A Joint Task Group of ICRU and ICRP has developed various fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients which are published in ICRP-74 for both protection and operational quantities. In February 2008, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) replaced its old pneumatic transport neutron irradiation system in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RCL) Low Scatter Calibration Facility (B255, Room 183A) with a Hopewell Designs irradiator model N40. The exposure tube for the Hopewell system is located close to, but not in exactly the same position as the exposure tube for the pneumatic system. Additionally, the sources for the Hopewell system are stored in Room 183A where, prior to the change, they were stored in a separate room (Room 183C). The new source configuration and revision of the 10 CFR 835 radiation weighting factors necessitate a re-evaluation of the neutron dose rates in B255 Room 183A. This report deals only with the changes in the operational quantities ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms 'neutron dose' and 'neutron dose rate' will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose equivalent and ambient neutron dose rate equivalent unless otherwise stated.

  5. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  6. Automatic Energy Calibration of Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-19

    The software provides automatic method for calibrating the energy scale of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and scintillation gamma-ray spectrometers, using natural background radiation as the source of calibration gamma rays. In field gamma-ray spectroscopy, radioactive check sources may not be available; temperature changes can shift detector electronic gain and scintillator light output; and a user’s experience and training may not include gamma-ray energy calibration. Hence, an automated method of calibrating the spectrometer using natural background wouldmore » simplify its operation, especially by technician-level users, and by enhancing spectroscopic data quality, it would reduce false detections. Following a typically one-minute count of background gamma-rays, the measured spectrum is searched for gamma-ray peaks, producing a list of peak centroids, in channels1. Next, the ratio algorithm attempts to match the peak centroids found in the search to a user-supplied list of calibration gamma-ray energies. Finally, if three or more calibration energies have been matched to peaks, the energy equation parameters are determined by a least-squares fit2, and the spectrum has been energy-calibrated. The ratio algorithm rests on the repeatable but irregular spacing of the background gammaray energies—together they form a unique set of ratios, when normalized to the highest energy calibration gamma ray; so too, the corresponding peak centroids in the spectrum. The algorithm matches energy ratios to peak centroid ratios, to determine which peak matches a given calibration energy.« less

  7. Automatic Energy Calibration of Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-19

    The software provides automatic method for calibrating the energy scale of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and scintillation gamma-ray spectrometers, using natural background radiation as the source of calibration gamma rays. In field gamma-ray spectroscopy, radioactive check sources may not be available; temperature changes can shift detector electronic gain and scintillator light output; and a user’s experience and training may not include gamma-ray energy calibration. Hence, an automated method of calibrating the spectrometer using natural background would simplify its operation, especially by technician-level users, and by enhancing spectroscopic data quality, it would reduce false detections. Following a typically one-minute count of background gamma-rays, the measured spectrum is searched for gamma-ray peaks, producing a list of peak centroids, in channels1. Next, the ratio algorithm attempts to match the peak centroids found in the search to a user-supplied list of calibration gamma-ray energies. Finally, if three or more calibration energies have been matched to peaks, the energy equation parameters are determined by a least-squares fit2, and the spectrum has been energy-calibrated. The ratio algorithm rests on the repeatable but irregular spacing of the background gammaray energies—together they form a unique set of ratios, when normalized to the highest energy calibration gamma ray; so too, the corresponding peak centroids in the spectrum. The algorithm matches energy ratios to peak centroid ratios, to determine which peak matches a given calibration energy.

  8. Calibration facilities at Hanford for gamma-ray and fission-neutron well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Well-logging tools that detect gamma rays emitted from earth formations need to be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations o radionuclides based on detected gamma rays. These facilities are typically special models having a hole to insert tools and having sufficient physical size to simulate actual earth formations containing known amounts of radionuclides. The size, generally 3 to 5 feet in diameter and 4 to 6 feet tall, is such that the source of radiation appears infinite in extent to a tool detecting the radiation inside the model. Such models exist at Hanford as concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th. Data collected in these models allow calibration of the logging system to measure radionuclide concentrations in formations around boreholes in the field. The accuracy of the calculated field concentrations depends on the correctness of the original calibration, the statistical precision of the data, and the similarity of the logging conditions to the calibration conditions. Possible methods for analyzing the data collected in the calibration facilities are presented for both spectral and total-count gamma-ray systems. Corrections are typically needed for the effects of steel casing in boreholes and the presence of water rather than air in the holes. Data collected in the calibration models with various steel casings and borehole fluids allow such correction factors to be determined.

  9. Low frost-point humidity generator. [calibration facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, L.

    1973-01-01

    A low frost-point humidity generator has been developed at NBS to provide a capability for calibration, testing, and research at very low levels of water vapor content in such gases as atmospheric air, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The generator produces frost points from -30 to -100 C at ambient pressures from 500 to 200,000 pascals (0.005 to 2 atm.). This is equivalent to mixing ratios of 4 micrograms to 51 grams of water vapor per kilogram of dry air and to vapor pressures of .0014 to 38 pascals. The generated test gas can be fed to a test chamber with independent temperature control between +25 and -100 C. The uncertainty of the frost point in the test chamber is estimated not to exceed 0.05 deg C.

  10. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  11. Energy and Educational Facilities: Costs and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    An analysis of energy costs and conservation in educational facilities in the United States is presented in this report. Tables and text give dollar figures for energy expenditures in education since the first oil embargo. Energy conservation through facilities management and through facilities modification is stressed. Recommendations are…

  12. Evaluation of “Autotune” calibration against manual calibration of building energy models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chaudhary, Gaurav; New, Joshua; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Im, Piljae; O’Neill, Zheng; Garg, Vishal

    2016-08-26

    Our paper demonstrates the application of Autotune, a methodology aimed at automatically producing calibrated building energy models using measured data, in two case studies. In the first case, a building model is de-tuned by deliberately injecting faults into more than 60 parameters. This model was then calibrated using Autotune and its accuracy with respect to the original model was evaluated in terms of the industry-standard normalized mean bias error and coefficient of variation of root mean squared error metrics set forth in ASHRAE Guideline 14. In addition to whole-building energy consumption, outputs including lighting, plug load profiles, HVAC energy consumption,more » zone temperatures, and other variables were analyzed. In the second case, Autotune calibration is compared directly to experts’ manual calibration of an emulated-occupancy, full-size residential building with comparable calibration results in much less time. Lastly, our paper concludes with a discussion of the key strengths and weaknesses of auto-calibration approaches.« less

  13. X-Ray Calibration Facility/Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. A. S.; Howard, R. T.; Watson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The advanced video guidance sensor was tested in the X-Ray Calibration facility at Marshall Space Flight Center to establish performance during vacuum. Two sensors were tested and a timeline for each are presented. The sensor and test facility are discussed briefly. A new test stand was also developed. A table establishing sensor bias and spot size growth for several ranges is detailed along with testing anomalies.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  15. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  16. Energy calibration of Cherenkov Telescopes using GLAST data

    SciTech Connect

    Bastieri, D.; Busetto, G.; Piano, G.; Rando, R.; Saggion, A.; De Angelis, A.; Longo, F.

    2007-07-12

    We discuss the possibility of using the observations by GLAST of steady gamma sources, as the Crab Nebula and some selected AGNs, to calibrate the Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) and improve their energy resolution, in particular. We show that at around 100 GeV, exploiting the features in the spectrum of the Crab Nebula, the absolute energy calibration uncertainty of Cherenkov telescopes can be reduced to < 10%.

  17. An upcoming TSI mission and a new pre-flight calibration facility (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Walter, B.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) has been selected to fly on the Norwegian satellite NORSAT-1 with a projected launch date in 2015. The CLARA experiment will weigh less than 2.5 kg, including the control electronics and data acquisition systems. The triple-cavity design will provide redundancy and allow for on-board tracking of the degradation of the receiver cavities. The TSI data will be traceable to multiple ground based standards via pre-flight end-to-end calibrations. A new calibration and characterization facility for solar radiometers is available for this purpose at PMOD/WRC in Davos, Switzerland. The facility uses a heliostat to produce a wide solar beam where the CLARA and a reference radiometer can be placed side by side on an optical bench. The beam can also be used for characterization experiments on the component level to determine cavity reflectance, scattered light characteristics and other relevant parameters. Additionally we plan to calibrate the CLARA at the TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) at LASP, Boulder, Colorado. We will present the mission outline of the CLARA/NORSAT-1 experiment and give an overview of the capabilities of the new calibration facility at PMOD/WRC.

  18. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN645 and 646). Calibration lab shield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-645 and -646). Calibration lab shield door. Ralph M. Parsons 1229-17 ANP/GE-6-645-MS-1. April 1957. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 037-0645-40-693-107369 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Bandwidth and spectral stray light effects in the NASA GSFC Radiometric Calibration Facility primary transfer radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Cooper, John W.; Marketon, John E.; Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Butler, James J.

    2006-08-01

    As part of an effort to reduce uncertainties in the radiometric calibrations of integrating sphere sources and standard lamp irradiance sources, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Radiometric Calibration Facility's (RCF) primary radiometer was characterized at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS). Based on those measurements, a nominal slit scattering function was developed for the radiometer. This allowed calculations of band averaged spectral radiances and irradiances for the radiometer's measurements of sphere and standard lamp sources, respectively. From these calculations the effects of bandwidth and spectral stray light were isolated for measurements in the blue spectral region. These effects, which depend on the spectral distribution of the source being measured, can be as large as 8% for measurements at 400 nm. The characterization results and a correction algorithm for these effects are presented here.

  20. Tires-to-energy facility cost issues

    SciTech Connect

    Manugian, D.

    1994-12-31

    Tires-to-energy facilities enable the US government to dispose stockpiled used tires while generating useful energy at the same time. One of such facilities burns an average of 10 million tires and produces almost 200,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity a year. The cost issues associated with these facilities are discussed in this paper. 7 refs.

  1. Cross calibration of telescope optical throughput efficiencies using reconstructed shower energies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. M. W.; Parsons, R. D.; Hofmann, W.; Bernlöhr, K.

    2016-02-01

    For reliable event reconstruction of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), calibration of the optical throughput efficiency is required. Within current facilities, this is achieved through the use of ring shaped images generated by muons. Here, a complementary approach is explored, achieving cross calibration of elements of IACT arrays through pairwise comparisons between telescopes, focussing on its applicability to the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Intercalibration of telescopes of a particular type using eventwise comparisons of shower image amplitudes has previously been demonstrated to recover the relative telescope optical responses. A method utilising the reconstructed energy as an alternative to image amplitude is presented, enabling cross calibration between telescopes of varying types within an IACT array. Monte Carlo studies for two plausible CTA layouts have shown that this calibration procedure recovers the relative telescope response efficiencies at the few per cent level.

  2. Characterization of neutron reference fields at US Department of Energy calibration fields.

    PubMed

    Olsher, R H; McLean, T D; Mallett, M W; Seagraves, D T; Gadd, M S; Markham, Robin L; Murphy, R O; Devine, R T

    2007-01-01

    The Health Physics Measurements Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a study of neutron reference fields at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) calibration facilities. To date, field characterisation has been completed at five facilities. These fields are traceable to the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) through either a primary calibration of the source emission rate or through the use of a secondary standard. However, neutron spectral variation is caused by factors such as room return, scatter from positioning tables and fixtures, source anisotropy and spectral degradation due to source rabbits and guide tubes. Perturbations from the ideal isotropic point source field may impact the accuracy of instrument calibrations. In particular, the thermal neutron component of the spectrum, while contributing only a small fraction of the conventionally true dose, can contribute a significant fraction of a dosemeter's response with the result that the calibration becomes facility-specific. A protocol has been developed to characterise neutron fields that relies primarily on spectral measurements with the Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) rotating neutron spectrometer (ROSPEC) and the LANL Bonner sphere spectrometer. The ROSPEC measurements were supplemented at several sites by the BTI Simple Scintillation Spectrometer probe, which is designed to extend the ROSPEC upper energy range from 5 to 15 MeV. In addition, measurements were performed with several rem meters and neutron dosemeters. Detailed simulations were performed using the LANL MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the magnitude of source anisotropy and scatter factors. PMID:17496290

  3. Calibration of Electric Field Induced Energy Level Shifts in Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    1999-10-01

    Argon is a commonly used gas in a number of discharges. As such it is an ideal candidate for spectroscopic based electric field measurements within the sheath and bulk discharge regions. Recently, measurements demonstrated the use of the Stark induced shifts of high lying energy levels in Argon to make spatially and temporally resolved electric field measurements [1]. However, that method relied on the cross calibration of known and calculable shifts in helium discharges to calibrate, in-situ, the energy level shifts in Argon. This poster shows the use of an atomic beam system to calibrate the electric field induced shift of high lying energy levels directly. In addition, data on very high lying argon levels, up to the 20 F manifold, were obtained. Comparison of our electric field induced energy level shift calibration curves with previous work will be shown. The possibility of using this system to calibrate energy level shifts in other gases of technological interest to the microelectronics and lighting industry will be discussed. [1]. J. B. Kim, K. Kawamura, Y. W. Choi, M. D. Bowden, K. Muraoka and V. Helbig, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 26(5), 1556 (1998). This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories and supported by the United States Department of Energy (DE-AC04-94AL85000).

  4. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  5. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%). PMID:27131714

  6. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  7. How to calibrate the jet energy scale?

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, K.; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-01-01

    Top quarks dominantly decay into b-quark jets and W bosons, and the W bosons often decay into jets, thus the precise determination of the jet energy scale is crucial in measurements of many top quark properties. I present the strategies used by the CDF and D0 collaborations to determine the jet energy scale. The various cross checks performed to verify the determined jet energy scale and evaluate its systematic uncertainty are also discussed.

  8. Calibration of the SphinX experiment at the XACT facility in Palermo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Varisco, S.; Calderone, G.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Trzebinski, W.; Plocieniak, S.; Kordylewski, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Three of the four detectors of the SphinX experiment to be flown on the Russian mission Coronas-Photon have been measured at the XACT Facility of the Palermo Observatory at several wavelengths in the soft X-ray band. We describe the instrumental set-up and report some measurements. The analysis work to obtain the final calibration is still in progress.

  9. -30° C to 960° C Variable Temperature Blackbody (VTBB) Radiance Temperature Calibration Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Hao, X.; Wang, T.; Dong, W.

    2015-12-01

    A blackbody radiance temperature calibration facility (RTCF) has recently been established at the National Institute of Metrology, China, offering calibration and verification services for variable temperature blackbody (VTBB) radiation sources. The RTCF includes reference VTBBs in the range of -30° C to 960° C and consists of a stirred liquid bath blackbody of -30° C to 80° C and water, cesium, and sodium heat-pipe blackbodies spanning 50° C to 960° C. In addition, the facility is equipped with a set of radiation thermometers with different working wavelengths (or wavebands); these thermometers are used to transfer radiance temperatures from the reference to customers' VTBBs. Cavities with V-notch grooves in the inner surface have an estimated emissivity from 0.99986 to 0.99994. The temperature control stability and temperature uniformity of VTBBs are characterized. Furthermore, we test the difference between a cavity and thermometer well temperatures and compare the radiance temperatures of the Cs and Na heat-pipe blackbodies. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of VTBBs' radiance temperatures at 10 \\upmu m (8 \\upmu m to 14 \\upmu m) is evaluated from 0.016° C to 0.23° C. The facility has been used to calibrate and characterize customers' VTBBs.

  10. Field parameters and dosimetric characteristics of a fast neutron calibration facility: experimental and Monte Carlo evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Gualdrini, G.; Monteventi, F.

    2002-01-01

    At the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection (IRP) the fast neutron calibration facility consists of a remote control device which allows locating different sources (Am-Be, Pu-Li, bare and D 2O moderated 252Cf) at the reference position, at the desired height from the floor, inside a 10×10×3 m 3 irradiation room. Either the ISO reference sources or the Pu-Li source have been characterised in terms of uncollided H*(10) and neutron fluence according to the ISO calibration procedures. A spectral fluence mapping, carried out with the Monte Carlo Code MCNP TM, allowed characterising the calibration point, in scattered field conditions, according to the most recent international recommendations. Moreover, the irradiation of personal dosemeters on the ISO water filled slab phantom was simulated to determine the field homogeneity of the calibration area and the variability of the neutron field (including the backscattered component) along the phantom surface. At the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection the calibration of neutron area monitors as well as personal dosemeters can now be performed according to the international standards, at the same time guaranteeing suitable conditions for research and qualification purposes in the field of neutron dosimetry.

  11. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL POLLUTION CONTROL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on energy requirements in municipal pollution control facilities for several major areas of interest. (1) Pumping energy for filtration and granular carbon adsorption of secondary effluent - Pumping requirements are developed for all elements of t...

  12. Calibration and Laboratory Test of the Department of Energy Cloud Particle Imager

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, GM; Um, J

    2012-02-17

    Calibration parameters from the Connolly et al. (2007) algorithm cannot be applied to the Department of Energy's (DOE) CPI because the DOE CPI is version 2.0. Thus, Dr. Junshik Um and Prof. Greg McFarquhar brought the DOE CPI to the University of Manchester, UK, where facilities for calibrating it were available. In addition, two other versions of CPIs (1.0 and 1.5) were available on-site at the University of Manchester so that an intercomparison of three different versions of the CPI was possible. The three CPIs (versions 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were calibrated by moving glass calibration beads and ice analogues of known size parallel to the object plane. The distance between the object plane and a particle, the particle's focus, its apparent maximum dimension, and a background image were measured in order to derive calibration parameters for each CPI version. The calibration parameters are used in two empirical equations that are applied to in situ CPI data to determine particle size and depth of field, and hence particle size distributions (PSDs). After the tests with the glass calibration beads to derive the calibration parameters, the three CPIs were installed at the base of the Manchester Ice Cloud Chamber and connected to air pumps that drew cloud through the sample volume. Warm liquid clouds at a temperature of 1-2 C and ice clouds at a temperature of -5 C were generated, and the resulting PSDs for each of the CPIs were determined by applying the results of each calibration.

  13. Managing Energy in Your Educational Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This booklet explains how to develop and implement a plan to manage energy in educational facilities. It can be used to identify energy savings opportunities and implement a plan to reduce energy costs. It discusses the following steps for creating an effective energy-use plan: (1) get started and organize for success; (2) look at energy use and…

  14. Canastota Renewable Energy Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Jillian; Hunt, Allen

    2013-12-13

    The project was implemented at the Madison County Landfill located in the Town of Lincoln, Madison County, New York. Madison County has owned and operated the solid waste and recycling facilities at the Buyea Road site since 1974. At the onset of the project, the County owned and operated facilities there to include three separate landfills, a residential solid waste disposal and recycled material drop-off facility, a recycling facility and associated administrative, support and environmental control facilities. This putrescible waste undergoes anaerobic decomposition within the waste mass and generates landfill gas, which is approximately 50% methane. In order to recover this gas, the landfill was equipped with gas collection systems on both the east and west sides of Buyea Road which bring the gas to a central point for destruction. In order to derive a beneficial use from the collected landfill gases, the County decided to issue a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the future use of the generated gas.

  15. Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Hans-Joachim

    Commercial spectrographic systems are usually supplied with some wave-length calibration, but it is essential that the experimenter performs his own calibration for reliable measurements. A number of sources emitting well-known emission lines are available, and the best values of their wavelengths may be taken from data banks accessible on the internet. Data have been critically evaluated for many decades by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA [13], see also p. 3. Special data bases have been established by the astronomy and fusion communities (Appendix B).

  16. High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Completed for Quantitative Laser Diagnostics Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2002-01-01

    A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, which was developed over the last 2 years, has just been completed. The High Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique as it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable, 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow's advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enables the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC). The validation of such numerical codes is often best achieved with nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques that meet these goals: information-rich (multispecies) and quantitative while providing good spatial and time resolution. Achieving these goals is a challenge for most nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques. Raman scattering is a technique that meets these challenges. Raman scattering occurs when intense laser light interacts with molecules to radiate light at a shifted wavelength (known as the Raman shift). This shift in wavelength is unique to each chemical species and provides a "fingerprint" of the different species present. The facility will first be used to gather a comprehensive data base of laser Raman spectra at high pressures. These calibration data will then be used to quantify future laser Raman measurements of chemical species concentration and temperature in this facility and other facilities that use Raman scattering.

  17. Energy calibration issues in nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy: observing small spectral shifts and making fast calibrations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-57Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4]= and 10%-57Fe and 90%-54Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4]= has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3–4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements. PMID:23955030

  18. A stoichiometric calibration method for dual energy computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Alexandra E; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo

    2014-04-21

    The accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation relies crucially on patient composition data. The computed tomography (CT) calibration methods based on the stoichiometric calibration of Schneider et al (1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41 111-24) are the most reliable to determine electron density (ED) with commercial single energy CT scanners. Along with the recent developments in dual energy CT (DECT) commercial scanners, several methods were published to determine ED and the effective atomic number (EAN) for polyenergetic beams without the need for CT calibration curves. This paper intends to show that with a rigorous definition of the EAN, the stoichiometric calibration method can be successfully adapted to DECT with significant accuracy improvements with respect to the literature without the need for spectrum measurements or empirical beam hardening corrections. Using a theoretical framework of ICRP human tissue compositions and the XCOM photon cross sections database, the revised stoichiometric calibration method yields Hounsfield unit (HU) predictions within less than ±1.3 HU of the theoretical HU calculated from XCOM data averaged over the spectra used (e.g., 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 140 kVp and 140/Sn kVp). A fit of mean excitation energy (I-value) data as a function of EAN is provided in order to determine the ion stopping power of human tissues from ED-EAN measurements. Analysis of the calibration phantom measurements with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source CT scanner shows that the present formalism yields mean absolute errors of (0.3 ± 0.4)% and (1.6 ± 2.0)% on ED and EAN, respectively. For ion therapy, the mean absolute errors for calibrated I-values and proton stopping powers (216 MeV) are (4.1 ± 2.7)% and (0.5 ± 0.4)%, respectively. In all clinical situations studied, the uncertainties in ion ranges in water for therapeutic energies are found to be less than 1.3 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm for protons, helium and carbon ions respectively, using a

  19. A stoichiometric calibration method for dual energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Alexandra E.; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation relies crucially on patient composition data. The computed tomography (CT) calibration methods based on the stoichiometric calibration of Schneider et al (1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41 111-24) are the most reliable to determine electron density (ED) with commercial single energy CT scanners. Along with the recent developments in dual energy CT (DECT) commercial scanners, several methods were published to determine ED and the effective atomic number (EAN) for polyenergetic beams without the need for CT calibration curves. This paper intends to show that with a rigorous definition of the EAN, the stoichiometric calibration method can be successfully adapted to DECT with significant accuracy improvements with respect to the literature without the need for spectrum measurements or empirical beam hardening corrections. Using a theoretical framework of ICRP human tissue compositions and the XCOM photon cross sections database, the revised stoichiometric calibration method yields Hounsfield unit (HU) predictions within less than ±1.3 HU of the theoretical HU calculated from XCOM data averaged over the spectra used (e.g., 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 140 kVp and 140/Sn kVp). A fit of mean excitation energy (I-value) data as a function of EAN is provided in order to determine the ion stopping power of human tissues from ED-EAN measurements. Analysis of the calibration phantom measurements with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source CT scanner shows that the present formalism yields mean absolute errors of (0.3 ± 0.4)% and (1.6 ± 2.0)% on ED and EAN, respectively. For ion therapy, the mean absolute errors for calibrated I-values and proton stopping powers (216 MeV) are (4.1 ± 2.7)% and (0.5 ± 0.4)%, respectively. In all clinical situations studied, the uncertainties in ion ranges in water for therapeutic energies are found to be less than 1.3 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm for protons, helium and carbon ions respectively, using a generic

  20. Development of a low background test facility for the SPICA-SAFARI on-ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieleman, P.; Laauwen, W. M.; Ferrari, L.; Ferlet, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Meinsma, L.; Huisman, R.

    2012-09-01

    SAFARI is a far-infrared camera to be launched in 2021 onboard the SPICA satellite. SAFARI offers imaging spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the wavelength range of 34 to 210 μm with detector NEP of 2•10-19 W/√Hz. A cryogenic test facility for SAFARI on-ground calibration and characterization is being developed. The main design driver is the required low background of a few attoWatts per pixel. This prohibits optical access to room temperature and hence all test equipment needs to be inside the cryostat at 4.5K. The instrument parameters to be verified are interfaces with the SPICA satellite, sensitivity, alignment, image quality, spectral response, frequency calibration, and point spread function. The instrument sensitivity is calibrated by a calibration source providing a spatially homogeneous signal at the attoWatt level. This low light intensity is achieved by geometrical dilution of a 150K source to an integrating sphere. The beam quality and point spread function is measured by a pinhole/mask plate wheel, back-illuminated by a second integrating sphere. This sphere is fed by a stable wide-band source, providing spectral lines via a cryogenic etalon.

  1. Design and characterization of a neutron calibration facility for the study of sub-keV nuclear recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, P. S.; Collar, J. I.; Whaley, P. M.

    2007-05-01

    We have designed and built a highly monochromatic 24 keV neutron beam at the Kansas State University Triga Mark-II reactor, as part of an experimental effort to demonstrate sensitivity in a large-mass detector to the ultra-low energy recoils expected from coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. The beam characteristics were chosen so as to mimic the soft recoil energies expected from reactor antineutrinos in a variety of targets, allowing to understand the response of dedicated detector technologies in this yet unexplored sub-keV recoil range. A full characterization of the beam properties (intensity, monochromaticity, contaminations, beam profile) is presented, together with first tests of the calibration facility using proton recoils in organic scintillator.

  2. Calibration of sonic flowmeters for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. F.; Salsman, G. G.; Hodges, C. E.

    1980-12-01

    Scientists at the Naval Coastal Systems Center (NCSC) at Panama City, Florida, have used a commercially available acoustic flowmeter to monitor critical flow conditions during an OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) funded study of the effects of biofouling on the efficiency of a prototype heat transfer system. Flowmeters of this type are particularly useful in applications requiring unimpeded flow; i.e., no sensor projecting into the moving fluid. Unfortunately, sonic flowmeters are somewhat difficult to calibrate and may be subject to drift. A method of calibration devised by NCSC may thus be of some interest to other users. It is the purpose of this report to document the special procedures used by test personnel to calibrate the flowmeters. Briefly, the calibration consisted of pumping sea water through the flowmeter into a tank suspended beneath a special load cell which provided an output voltage proportional to the weight of water in the tank. A programmable desktop calculator system was used to monitor changes in voltage as a function of time and convert these changes into flow rates for direct comparison with values read from the sonic flowmeter's digital display. Calibration checks were made at metered flows of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 gallons per minute (gpm). It was found that computed flows were essentially linear but differed from metered values by as much as 9.0 percent.

  3. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  4. Tectonic Motion Monitoring at the Altimeter Calibration Facility on Gavdos, Crete, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, F.; Soto, J. I.; Morales, J.; Comas, C.; Evans, K.; Pavlis, E. C.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Mertikas, S. P.

    2004-12-01

    The intense tectonic activity of Eastern Mediterranean is of great interest for many decades. Recently, sea-level monitoring and climate change studies generated great interest as well as for its regional oceanography. A plethora of observations has convincingly demonstrated the importance of the area for regional meteorological and climatologic changes affecting Eurasia and North Africa. GPS monitors tectonics, while tide gauges record the variations in Mean Sea Level (MSL). Continuous monitoring of tide gauge locations with GPS removes the uncertainties introduced by local tectonics, that contaminate the observed sea level variations. Such a global tide gauge network with long historical records is already used to calibrate satellite altimeters (e.g. on TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.), at present, a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort --TIGA. Crete hosts two of the oldest tide gauges in the regional network, at Souda Bay and Heraklion. A third site, state-of-the-art MSL monitoring facility in southwestern Crete was established, on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land, under a joint effort of the European Union, NASA, and the Swiss Federal Government. The site at Souda Bay is only 5 km away from the continuously operating GPS site at TUC, Chania, with a nearly seven year record of operation. The Gavdos facility is an ideal altimeter calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. This presentation focuses on this aspect of the project, the local and regional tectonic motions relative to the "stable" part of the Eurasian plate. The facility hosts in addition to two tide gauges, multiple GPS receivers, a DORIS beacon for positioning and orbit control, and a transponder for direct calibration. During 2003, the French Transportable Laser Ranging System (FTLRS) completed a co-location campaign at Chania, Crete, for improved orbit control over the site, and to ensure the best possible and most reliable

  5. White Dwarfs for Calibrating the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Wester, William; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Fix, Mees B.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Gulledge, Deborah J.; McDonald, Christopher P.; Allam, Sahar S.; James, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is surveying some 5000 square degrees in the southern hemisphere in the grizY filter system using the new Dark Energy Camera. In order to verify meeting photometric calibration requirements, we are obtaining imaging of several hundred white dwarfs (confirmed and candidates) to select nearly 100 or more hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs for spectroscopy in the DES footprint. The spectra that are obtained will be extracted and used to derive synthetic spectra that can be compared with DES measurements from imaging in each of the DES grizY filters. This comparison should be able to verify and help calibrate the survey to a level better than 2% photometrically and to better than 0.5% in colors. We will discuss the observational and modeling effort required to develop a well-characterized DAs sample and present some preliminary results. This set would form the basis of a larger set of southern hemisphere survey calibration stars, and additionally serve as a legacy calibration set in the upcoming era of the LSST survey and the giant segmented mirror observatories. These stars will be used to establish and monitor the color zero points for the DES photometric system and can be used to search for systematic errors in the color zero points over the DES footprint. These stars will also be used as some of the primary standards for the DES photometric system which will allow nightly atmospheric monitoring during DES operations.

  6. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  7. Synchrotron radiation calibration of the EUVE variable line-spaced diffraction gratings at the NBS SURF II facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinsky, P.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Miller, A.; Vallerga, J.; Malina, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) has a spectrometer which utilizes variable line-spaced, plane diffraction gratings in the converging beam of a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II mirror. The gratings, microchannel plate detector, and thin film filters have been calibrated with continuum radiation provided by the NBS SURF II facility. These were calibrated in a continuum beam to find edges or other sharp spectral features in the transmission of the filters, quantum efficiency of the microchannel plate detector, and efficiency of the gratings. The details of the calibration procedure and the results of the calibration are presented.

  8. Shielding calculations and verifications for the new Radiation Instrument Calibration Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    George, G. L.; Olsher, R. H.; Seagraves, D. T.

    2002-01-01

    MCNP-4C1 was used to perform the shielding design for the new Central Health Physics Calibration Facility (CHPCF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The problem of shielding the facility was subdivided into three separate components: (1) Transmission; (2) Skyshine; and (3) Maze Streaming/ Transmission. When possible, actual measurements were taken to verify calculation results. The comparison of calculation versus measurement results shows excellent agreement for neutron calculations. For photon comparisons, calculations resulted in conservative estimates of the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) compared to measured results. This disagreement in the photon measurements versus calculations is most likely due to several conservative assumptions regarding shield density and composition. For example, reinforcing steel bars (Rebar) in the concrete shield walls were not included in the shield model.

  9. Calibrating Building Energy Models Using Supercomputer Trained Machine Learning Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan; Edwards, Richard; Parker, Lynne Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrofit purposes. EnergyPlus is the flagship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for different types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manually by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building energy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the Autotune research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the different kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of EnergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-effective calibration of building models.

  10. Time-of-flight spectroscopy: energy calibration and consistensy check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunault, A.; Andersen, K. H.; Blanc, Y.; Fåk, B.; Godfrin, H.; Guckelsberger, K.; Scherm, R.

    1992-06-01

    A method for calibration of the energy transfers at a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer is presented: flight pamths and wavelength are determined to 10 -3 using the arrival times of neutron pulses and prompt capture γs from the sample. We also developed a method to check the reproducibility of a series of TFO data sets, each with over 50 000 data points.

  11. Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, W.G.; Patrick, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.

  12. Plasma Diagnostic Calibration and Characterizations with High Energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer Ali

    2009-06-05

    National Security Technologies’ High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility is unique in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The HEX provides fluorescent X-rays of 5 keV to 100 keV with fluence of 10^5–10^6 photons/cm^2/second at the desired line energy. Low energy lines can be filtered, and both filters and fluorescers can be changed rapidly. We present results of calibrating image plates (sensitivity and modulation transfer function), a Bremsstrahlung spectrometer (stacked filters and image plates), and the National Ignition Facility’s Filter- Fluorescer Experiment (FFLEX) high energy X-ray spectrometer. We also show results of a scintillator light yield and alignment study for a neutron imaging system.

  13. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Youvan, Douglas C.; Silva, Christopher M.; Bylina, Edward J.; Coleman, William J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.

    2002-09-24

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  14. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Youvan, Dougalas C.; Silva, Christopher M.; Bylina, Edward J.; Coleman, William J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.

    2003-12-09

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  15. The Marshall Space Flight Center Low-Energy Ion Facility: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Reynolds, J. W.; Chisholm, W. L., Jr.; Hunt, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Energy Ion Facility (LEIF) is designed for laboratory research of low-energy ion beams similar to those present in the magnetosphere. In addition, it provides the ability to develop and calibrate low-energy, less than 50 eV, plasma instrumentation over its full range of energy, mass, flux, and arrival angle. The current status of this evolving resource is described. It also provides necessary information to allow users to utilize it most efficiently.

  16. Energy calibration of a linear accelerator with photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    St. George, F.; Anderson, D.W.

    1982-05-01

    Photonuclear reactions have been used to calibrate the energy of a Sagittaire clinical electron accelerator between 10 and 30 MeV. Thresholds at 10.8 MeV for the /sup 63/Cu(..gamma..,n)/sup 62/Cu reaction and 29.7 MeV for the /sup 32/S(..gamma..,3p)/sup 29/Al reaction provided two energy points. The break in the /sup 16/O(..gamma..,n)/sup 15/O activation yield curve at 17.3 MeV was determined as an intermediate point. The relationship between electron kinetic enegy and current through the energy-analyzing magnet was found to be linear within 1.0% in this energy range.

  17. Preliminary Designs for Modifications to the X-Ray Source and Beam Monitor of the Marshall Space Flight Center's X-Ray Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary designs for modifications to the X-ray source and beam monitor of the MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility to meet requirements for the calibration of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility are considered. A rhodium plated copper target and rhodium foil filter are proposed as a source of X-rays of approximately 2.6 keV energy. Bragg scattering of the unpolarized X-ray beam from the present source through an angle of 90 deg by a single crystal placed on the axis of the guide tube is proposed as a source of approximately monoenergetic plane polarized X-rays. A sealed xenon proportional counter with a Beryllium window is proposed as a beam monitor for use between 2.5 and 8 keV to obtain improved detection efficiency.

  18. Calibrated Ultra Fast Image Simulations for the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruderer, Claudio; Chang, Chihway; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Bergé, Joel; Gamper, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Image simulations are becoming increasingly important in understanding the measurement process of the shapes of galaxies for weak lensing and the associated systematic effects. For this purpose we present the first implementation of the Monte Carlo Control Loops (MCCL), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig) and the image analysis software SExtractor. We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with one of the SV images, which covers ∼0.5 square degrees. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing six simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative importance of different parameters. For spatially constant systematic errors and point-spread function, the calibration of the simulation reaches the weak lensing precision needed for the DES SV survey area. Furthermore, we find a sensitivity of the shear measurement to the intrinsic ellipticity distribution, and an interplay between the magnitude-size and the pixel value diagnostics in constraining the noise model. This work is the first application of the MCCL framework to data and shows how it can be used to methodically study the impact of systematics on the cosmic shear measurement.

  19. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) calibration of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, J.; Garrick, J.

    1993-01-01

    Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) responsibilities for calibration of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) sensors included alignment calibration of the fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) and the fine Sun sensor (FSS), determination of misalignments and scale factors for the inertial reference units (IRU's), determination of biases for the three-axis magnetometers (TAM's) and Earth sensor assemblies (ESA's), determination of gimbal misalignments of the Solar/Stellar Pointing Platform (SSPP), and field-of-view calibration for the FSS's mounted both on the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) and on the SSPP. The calibrations, which used a combination of new and established algorithms, gave excellent results. Alignment calibration results markedly improved the accuracy of both ground and onboard Computer (OBC) attitude determination. SSPP calibration results allowed UARS to identify stars in the period immediately after yaw maneuvers, removing the delay required for the OBC to reacquire its fine pointing attitude mode. SSPP calibration considerably improved the pointing accuracy of the attached science instrument package. This paper presents a summary of the methods used and the results of all FDF UARS sensor calibration.

  20. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  1. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  2. 1998 Calibration of the Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Irby, Richard G.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    A calibration of the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 nozzles was performed in 1998. For each nozzle, three different typical facility operating test points were selected for calibration. Each survey consisted of measurements, at 340 separate locations across the 11 inch square nozzle exit plane, of pitot pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. Measurement density was higher (4/inch) in the boundary layer near the nozzle wall than in the core nozzle flow (1/inch). The results generated for each of these calibration surveys were contour plots at the nozzle exit plane of the measured and calculated flow properties which completely defined the thermodynamic state of the nozzle exit flow. An area integration of the mass flux at the nozzle exit for each survey was compared to the AHSTF mass flow meter results to provide an indication of the overall quality of the calibration performed. The percent difference between the integrated nozzle exit mass flow and the flow meter ranged from 0.0 to 1.3 percent for the six surveys. Finally, a comparison of this 1998 calibration was made with the 1986 calibration. Differences of less than 10 percent were found within the nozzle core flow while in the boundary layer differences on the order of 20 percent were quite common.

  3. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  4. Total facility energy management at Mercy Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In large facilities, successful energy management cannot be measured by a few projects, no matter how significant the energy savings. Large facilities today are comprised of extensive energy consuming systems. For every energy project developed, two more projects remain to be discovered. The successful energy manager is one who has completed ten projects, or twenty, or thirty, and is still finding more projects to do. Nothing is assumed to be as efficient as possible, and no part of any system is ignored. The successful energy manager is willing to take risks, not of being fired, but to use imagination, study engineering theory, exercise common sense, develop concept designs, calculate savings, sell projects to management, control designers, study equipment performance, pre-select contractors, manage the contractor efforts, solve inherent problems along the way, and then optimize the project after acceptance when the designers and contractors all walk off. Once the successful energy manager establishes his credibility, his problem becomes finding enough time to get the projects rolling as he dreams them up. He sees what others do not. As they say in the North, only the lead dog sees new scenery.

  5. Mass calibration of the energy axis in ToF-E elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersschaut, J.; Laricchiuta, G.; Sajavaara, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-03-01

    We report on procedures that we have developed to mass-calibrate the energy axis of ToF-E histograms in elastic recoil detection analysis. The obtained calibration parameters allow one to transform the ToF-E histogram into a calibrated ToF-M histogram.

  6. Regional analysis of energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F W; Meier, P M; Kleinman, L I

    1980-01-01

    This paper has examined some of the regional environmental parameters of energy facility siting, with emphasis on air quality impacts. An example of a siting optimization study was presented, and it was shown how difficult it presently is to specify an environmental objective function that is universally applicable. The importance of regional background effects was discussed, and long-range transport models were used to analyze the relative importance of local and long-range impacts.

  7. First preliminary results for the absolute calibration of the Chinese HY-2 altimetric mission using the CRS1 calibration facilities in West Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertikas, Stelios P.; Zhou, Xinghua; Qiao, Fangli; Daskalakis, Antonis; Lin, Mingsen; Peng, Hailong; Tziavos, Ilias N.; Vergos, George; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Frantzis, Xenophon

    2016-01-01

    In this work, absolute calibration of the Chinese HY-2 satellite altimetry mission is carried out, employing Pass No. 280 and the calibration facility, CRS1, located in the Southwest end of the island of Crete, Greece. Satellite Pass No. 280 is descending and follows a ground track almost parallel to the west coast of Crete. It comes close to the coast, at a distance of about 9 km from the CRS1 calibration site, and finally goes away south of Crete. The HY-2 sensor geophysical data records (S-GDR) have been incorporated into the calibration procedures and processing has taken place for cycles No. 54-62, at 20 Hz data rate. Some peculiarities in the HY-2 satellite altimeter data, as delivered and depicted in the I-GDR and S-GDR data, have also been noticed. All calibration results have been determined using a regional, precise and detailed geoid, along with a good knowledge of local ocean circulation and site characteristics and a well-defined sea-surface calibration methodology. The first preliminary results for the HY-2 altimeter calibration have shown that the initial cycles, up to No. 51, display an erratic behavior. After those cycles, the altimeter range bias values seem to be stable and reach a value of B = -45.6 cm ± 4.4 cm, when applying the net instrument corrections as provided in the GDR. If the relativistic effects of the satellite clocks are properly applied for the net instrument corrections, then the altimeter range bias goes down to B = -27 cm ± 3 cm. Also, preliminary cross-over analysis with the SARAL/AliKa and Jason-2 satellites show a bias of B = -23 cm, and B = -28.5 cm, respectively. The performance of the HY-2 on-board radiometer has also been examined in terms of the wet troposphere corrections and shows a mean difference of -1 cm ± 0.1 cm with respect to in-situ GNSS-derived corrections. Finally, the ionosphere path corrections of the HY-2 satellite show a difference of +1 cm ± 1.1 cm, when compared against the GNSS-derived ionosphere

  8. A ground calibration of the engineering model of the SXT onboard ASTRO-H using the ISAS 30m pencil beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, K.; Hayashi, T.; Ishida, M.; Maeda, Y.; Mori, H.; Sato, T.; Tomikawa, K.; Ishibashi, K.; Iizuka, R.; Okajima, T.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese ASTRO-H mission, planned to be launched in 2014, will carry several instruments for covering a wide energy range from a few keV to 600 keV. Among them there are four thin-foil-nested Wolter-I X-ray telescopes. Two of them are Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs) covering up to ~12 keV. Each of them focuses an image on the focal plane detectors of the CCD camera (SXI) and the calorimeter (SXS-XCS), respectively. In 2011, we performed a ground calibration of a quadrant engineering model (EM) of SXT that was fabricated at MASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The ground calibration was made with a combination of the measurements at the GSFC and Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) facilities. In this paper we report the results of the calibration at the ISAS 30m beamline facility. We used a raster san method with a pencil beam at the baseline length of 30m. An effective area and angular resolution of the EM quadrant were measured. The effective area is 147 cm2 at 1.49 keV and 116 cm2 at 4.51 keV, respectively, while the angular longer by ~20mm from nominal length. We also measured imaging performance in separate parts of nested mirrors. The angular resolution of parts at outer radius is larger than those at inner radius, and the quadrant have different focal lengths in radius.

  9. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF): Golden, CO - Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, Michael; VanGeet, Otto; Pless, Shanti; Gaul, Chris

    2015-03-01

    At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden, Colo., scientists and engineers work to overcome challenges related to how the nation generates, delivers and uses energy by modernizing the interplay between energy sources, infrastructure, and data. Test facilities include a megawatt-scale ac electric grid, photovoltaic simulators and a load bank. Additionally, a high performance computing data center (HPCDC) is dedicated to advancing renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. A key design strategy is to use waste heat from the HPCDC to heat parts of the building. The ESIF boasts an annual EUI of 168.3 kBtu/ft2. This article describes the building's procurement, design and first year of performance.

  10. Solar cell calibration facility validation of balloon flight data: a comparison of shuttle and balloon flight results

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, B.E.; Downing, R.G.; Sidwell, L.B.

    1985-10-01

    The Solar Cell Calibration Facility (SCCF) experiment was designed and built to evaluate the effect of the Earth's upper atmosphere on the calibration of solar cell standards. During execution of the experiment, a collection of carefully selected solar cells was flown on the shuttle, and reflown on a high-altitude balloon, then their outputs were compared. After correction to standard temperature and intensity values of 28 C and an Earth-Sun distance of 1 AU, the solar cell outputs during the two flights were found to be identical. The conclusion is therefore that the high-altitude balloon flights are very good vehicles for calibrating solar cells for use as space flight reference standards.

  11. Solar cell calibration facility validation of balloon flight data: A comparison of shuttle and balloon flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Sidwell, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Cell Calibration Facility (SCCF) experiment was designed and built to evaluate the effect of the Earth's upper atmosphere on the calibration of solar cell standards. During execution of the experiment, a collection of carefully selected solar cells was flown on the shuttle, and reflown on a high-altitude balloon, then their outputs were compared. After correction to standard temperature and intensity values of 28 C and an Earth-Sun distance of 1 AU, the solar cell outputs during the two flights were found to be identical. The conclusion is therefore that the high-altitude balloon flights are very good vehicles for calibrating solar cells for use as space flight reference standards.

  12. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  13. Neutron scattering facility for the calibration of the response to nuclear recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, J.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Gascon, J.; Huber, M.; Jagemann, T.; de Jésus, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Martineau, O.; Potzel, W.; Rüdig, A.; Schnagl, J.; Simon, E.; Stark, M.; Stern, M.; Wulandari, H.

    2002-02-01

    A possibility to search for elementary particles as dark matter candidates is to detect elastic scattering with cryogenic detectors. For the interpretation of the data one has to determine the detector response to nuclear recoils, the so-called quenching factors. They can differ for the heat-, for the scintillation- and for the ionization-signal and can be measured by scattering of neutrons. The CRESST- and the EDELWEISS-collaborations have set up a neutron scattering facility for cryogenic detectors at the tandem-accelerator of the Munich `Maier-Leibniz-Labor.' The scattering angle and the time-of-flight of the neutrons are measured by an array of liquid scintillator cells. The pulsed high energy (11 MeV) neutron beam is created by nuclear reaction of a 11B on a H2-gas target. The set-up and the results of first tests are presented. .

  14. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    On 2013 September 21-22, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, NM. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 h flight. In this paper, we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources and applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces. We describe the application of our calibration measurements to in-flight observations of the Crab Nebula.

  15. Issues in energy calibration, nonlinearity, and signal processing for gamma-ray microcalorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Mike W; Hoover, Andrew S; Bacrania, Mnesh K; Hoteling, Nathan; Croce, M; Karpius, P J; Ullom, J N; Bennett, D A; Horansky, R D; Vale, L R; Doriese, W B

    2009-01-01

    Issues regarding the energy calibration of high dynamic range microcalorimeter detector arrays are presented with respect to new results from a minor actinide-mixed oxide radioactive source. The need to move to larger arrays of such detectors necessitates the implementation of automated analysis procedures, which turn out to be nontrivial due to complex calibration shapes and pixel-to-pixel variability. Some possible avenues for improvement, including a more physics-based calibration procedure, are suggested.

  16. PreCam: A Step Towards the Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, S. S.; Tucker, D. L.; PreCam Team; DES Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  17. Precision Spectrophotometric Calibration System for Dark Energy Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, Michael S.

    2015-06-30

    For this research we build a precision calibration system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric calibration system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric calibration at the sub-pixel level. The calibration system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that a complete spectrophotometric calibration standard for spectroscopic survey instruments such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.

  18. Method to calibrate the absolute energy scale of air showers with ultrahigh energy photons.

    PubMed

    Homola, Piotr; Risse, Markus

    2014-04-18

    Calibrating the absolute energy scale of air showers initiated by ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic rays is an important experimental issue. Currently, the corresponding systematic uncertainty amounts to 14%-21% using the fluorescence technique. Here, we describe a new, independent method which can be applied if ultrahigh energy photons are observed. While such photon-initiated showers have not yet been identified, the capabilities of present and future cosmic-ray detectors may allow their discovery. The method makes use of the geomagnetic conversion of UHE photons (preshower effect), which significantly affects the subsequent longitudinal shower development. The conversion probability depends on photon energy and can be calculated accurately by QED. The comparison of the observed fraction of converted photon events to the expected one allows the determination of the absolute energy scale of the observed photon air showers and, thus, an energy calibration of the air shower experiment. We provide details of the method and estimate the accuracy that can be reached as a function of the number of observed photon showers. Already a very small number of UHE photons may help to test and fix the absolute energy scale. PMID:24785024

  19. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  20. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  1. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  2. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  3. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  4. Calibration of water-velocity meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehrle, William R.; Bowie, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, as part of its responsibility to appraise the quantity of water resources in the United States, maintains facilities for the calibration of water-velocity meters at the Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center's Hydraulic Laboratory Facility, NSTL, Mississippi. These meters are used in hydrologic studies by the Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Department of Energy, state agencies, universities, and others in the public and private sector. This paper describes calibration facilities, types of water-velocity meters calibrated, and calibration standards, methods and results.

  5. Ultra-low Energy Calibration of LUX detector using 127Xe Electron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongqing; Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. We present an absolute calibration of the liquid xenon electron recoil (ER) charge yield and fluctuations over an energy range 190 eVee to 33.2 keVee using low energy 127 Xe electron capture decay events from the LUX 85-day first WIMP search dataset. The sequence of gamma and X-ray cascade associated with 127 I produce clearly identified 2-vertex events in the LUX detector. We observe the K (33.2 keVee), L (5.2 keVee), M (1.1 keVee), and N (190 eVee) shell cascade events and verifiy the relative ratio of observed events for each shell. We extract both the mean and sigma of the charge signal yields (Qy) associated with the K, L, M, and N shell events. The N shell cascade analysis includes single extracted electron events, and represents the lowest energy ER in-situ measurements that have been explored in Xe.

  6. National Transonic Facility Wall Pressure Calibration Using Modern Design of Experiments (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Pamela J.; Everhart, Joel L.; DeLoach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) has been applied to wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center for several years. At Langley, MDOE has proven to be a useful and robust approach to aerodynamic testing that yields significant reductions in the cost and duration of experiments while still providing for the highest quality research results. This paper extends its application to include empty tunnel wall pressure calibrations. These calibrations are performed in support of wall interference corrections. This paper will present the experimental objectives, and the theoretical design process. To validate the tunnel-empty-calibration experiment design, preliminary response surface models calculated from previously acquired data are also presented. Finally, lessons learned and future wall interference applications of MDOE are discussed.

  7. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D.

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  8. Physics overview of the Fermilab Low Energy Antiproton Facility Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    A physics overview is presented of the Fermilab workshop to consider a possible high flux, low energy antiproton facility that would use cooled antiprotons from the accumulator ring of the Tevatron collider. Two examples illustrate the power of each a facility to produce narrow states at high rates. Physics topics to which such a facility may be applied are reviewed.

  9. Compton-edge-based energy calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors in Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Ju Hahn; Lee, Chun Sik; Sung Lee, Jae

    2011-05-01

    Accurate energy calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) is very important, but challenging for high-energy photons. In the present study, the calibration was improved by considering the Compton edge additionally to the existing low-energy calibration points. The result, indeed, was very encouraging. The energy-calibration errors were dramatically reduced, from, on average, 15.5% and 16.9% to 0.47% and 0.31% for the 356 (133Ba) and 662 keV (137Cs) peaks, respectively. The imaging resolution of a double-scattering-type Compton camera using DSSDs as the scatterer detectors, for a 22Na point-like source, also was improved, by ˜9%.

  10. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  11. Tissue-equivalent torso phantom for calibration of transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Dean, P.N.; Fisher, J.C.; Sundbeck, C.W.

    1986-01-16

    Several tissue-equivalent human-torso phantoms have been constructed for the calibration of counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic radionuclides. The phantoms contain a simulated human rib cage (in some cases, real bone) and removable model organs, and they include tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are the lungs, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with varying concentrations of added calcium was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues, including lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, cartilage, and bone. Foamed polyurethane was used to simulate lung tissue. Organs have been loaded with highly pure /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and other radionuclides of interest. The validity of the phantom as a calibration standard has been checked in separate intercomparison studies using human subjects whose lungs contained a plutonium simulant. The resulting phantom calibration factors generally compared to within +-20% of the average calibration factors obtained for the human subjects.

  12. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V. E-mail: martin.kaupp@tu-berlin.de; Kaupp, Martin E-mail: martin.kaupp@tu-berlin.de

    2014-11-28

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

  13. Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

    2014-11-01

    A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

  14. High-Energy Calibration of a BGO detector of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kienlin, Andreas von; Steinle, Helmut; Fishman, Gerald J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Godfrey, Gary L.

    2007-07-12

    The understanding of the instrumental response of the GLAST Burst Monitor BGO detectors at energies above the energy range which is accessible by common laboratory radiation sources (< 4.43 MeV), is important, especially for the later cross-calibration with the LAT response in the overlap region between {approx} 20 MeV to 30 MeV. In November 2006 the high-energy calibration of the GBM-BGO spare detector was performed at the small Van-de-Graaff accelerator at SLAC. High-energy gamma-rays from excited 8Be* (14.6 MeV and 17.5 MeV) and 16O* (6.1 MeV) were generated through (p, {gamma})-reactions by irradiating a LiF-target. For the calibration at lower energies radioactive sources were used. The results, including spectra, the energy/channel-relation and the dependence of energy resolution are presented.

  15. High-Energy Calibration of a BGO Detector of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Fishman, Gerald J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Godfrey, Gary L.; Steinle, Helmut; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2011-11-30

    The understanding of the instrumental response of the GLAST Burst Monitor BGO detectors at energies above the energy range which is accessible by common laboratory radiation sources (< 4.43 MeV), is important, especially for the later cross-calibration with the LAT response in the overlap region between {approx}20 MeV to 30 MeV. In November 2006 the high-energy calibration of the GBM-BGO spare detector was performed at the small Van-de-Graaff accelerator at SLAC. High-energy gamma-rays from excited {sup 8}Be* (14.6 MeV and 17.5 MeV) and {sup 16}O* (6.1 MeV) were generated through (p, {gamma})-reactions by irradiating a LiF-target. For the calibration at lower energies radioactive sources were used. The results, including spectra, the energy/channel-relation and the dependence of energy resolution are presented.

  16. The DECalS Software for the Dark Energy Survey Spectrophotometric Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Jason; Rheault, J. P.; DePoy, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    DECalS is a fully automated remote control program for the Dark Energy Survey spectrophotometric calibration system (DECal). Expected to be used roughly once a month to calibrate the Dark Energy Camera, DECalS provides a TCP/IP server with commands to give the user access to all aspects of the calibration. There is a separate "expert mode” used for installation and debugging purposes. Data gathered from the DECal system will track changes in the throughput of the compete optical path of the telescope system.

  17. SURVEY OF EPA FACILITIES FOR SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was done to assess the feasibility of applying solar thermal energy systems to EPA facilities. A survey was conducted to determine those EPA facilities where solar energy could best be used. These systems were optimized for each specific application and the system/facilit...

  18. Low-energy antiprotons physics and the FLAIR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, E.

    2015-11-01

    FLAIR, the Facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research has been proposed in 2004 as an extension of the planned FAIR facility at Darmstadt, Germany. FLAIR was not included into the modularized start version of FAIR, but the recent installation of the CRYRING storage ring at GSI Darmstadt has opened new perspectives for physics with low-energy antiprotons at FAIR.

  19. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  20. Energy response calibration of photon-counting detectors using X-ray fluorescence: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H-M; Ding, H; Ziemer, BP; Molloi, S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the application of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors in spectral imaging. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration and characterization of a photon-counting detector using X-ray fluorescence. A comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study was performed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) to investigate the optimal technique for X-ray fluorescence calibration. Simulations were conducted using a 100 kVp tungsten-anode spectra with 2.7 mm Al filter for a single pixel cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector with 3 × 3 mm2 in detection area. The angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence and scatter background was investigated by varying the detection angle from 20° to 170° with respect to the beam direction. The effects of the detector material, shape, and size on the recorded X-ray fluorescence were investigated. The fluorescent material size effect was considered with and without the container for the fluorescent material. In order to provide validation for the simulation result, the angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence from five fluorescent materials was experimentally measured using a spectrometer. Finally, eleven of the fluorescent materials were used for energy calibration of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The optimal detection angle was determined to be approximately at 120° with respect to the beam direction, which showed the highest fluorescence to scatter ratio (FSR) with a weak dependence on the fluorescent material size. The feasibility of X-ray fluorescence for energy calibration of photon-counting detectors in the diagnostic X-ray energy range was verified by successfully calibrating the energy response of a CZT-based photon-counting detector. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to implement the X-ray fluorescence calibration method for photon-counting detectors in a typical imaging laboratory. PMID:25369288

  1. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES. PMID:26597655

  2. Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

  3. Precise astronomical flux calibration and its impact on studying the nature of the dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Christopher W.; Brown, Yorke J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the luminosity of Type Ia supernovae versus redshift provided the original evidence for the accelerating expansion of the Universe and the existence of dark energy. Despite substantial improvements in survey methodology, systematic uncertainty in flux calibration dominates the error budget for this technique, exceeding both statistics and other systematic uncertainties. Consequently, any further collection of Type Ia supernova data will fail to refine the constraints on the nature of dark energy unless we also improve the state of the art in astronomical flux calibration to the order of 1%. We describe how these systematic errors arise from calibration of instrumental sensitivity, atmospheric transmission and Galactic extinction, and discuss ongoing efforts to meet the 1% precision challenge using white dwarf stars as celestial standards, exquisitely calibrated detectors as fundamental metrologic standards, and real-time atmospheric monitoring.

  4. A Calibration Facility for Dew Point in Air up to 1 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, P. A.; Bell, S. A.; Stevens, M.

    2015-12-01

    The provision of primary dew-point standards for humidified air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is well established, and measurement traceability to these standards provides confidence in a vast number of air humidity measurements. However, hygrometers are used industrially at a wide range of pressures. Both the performance of hygrometers and the properties of humid gases are known to vary with gas pressure. The pressure-dependence of gas non-ideality for air-water mixtures (water-vapor enhancement factor) is well enough known at moderate pressures, but there remains a need to characterize hygrometers at the pressure of use. To address this, a humidity calibration capability of wider scope is under development at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL). As an initial stage in the development of this capability, a humidity standard generating air or nitrogen in the dew-point range from -60° C to +10° C, at pressures up to 1 MPa (10 bar) has been validated for the calibration of hygrometers. The expanded uncertainty of the dew-point generator in this range with a coverage factor k= 2 is ± 0.07° C.

  5. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  6. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  7. Energy Conservation in School Facilities. Energy Conservation in Existing School Facilities: An Overview. Energy Conservation Materials Package Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

    School energy-saving strategies can be developed and implemented at three levels: (1) programmatic--the educational program and schedule of activities taking place at the school, (2) operational--how the facility and its supporting systems are run to house and support these educational activities, and (3) physical plant and its operating system.…

  8. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Katherine; Jensen, Mikael; Thisgaard, Helge; Publicover, Julia; Lapi, Suzanne; McQuarrie, Steve A; Ruth, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    This work recommends a new and simple-to-perform method for measuring the beam energy of an accelerator. The proposed method requires the irradiation of two monitor foils interspaced by an energy degrader. The primary advantage of the proposed method, which makes this method unique from previous energy evaluation strategies that employ the use of monitor foils, is that this method is independent of the detector efficiency calibration. This method was evaluated by performing proton activation of (nat)Cu foils using both a cyclotron and a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies. PMID:20926304

  9. Energy calibration of energy-resolved photon-counting pixel detectors using laboratory polychromatic x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hanbean; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Recently, photon-counting detectors capable of resolving incident x-ray photon energies have been considered for use in spectral x-ray imaging applications. For reliable use of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (ERPCDs), energy calibration is an essential procedure prior to their use because variations in responses from each pixel of the ERPCD for incident photons, even at the same energy, are inevitable. Energy calibration can be performed using a variety of methods. In all of these methods, the photon spectra with well-defined peak energies are recorded. Every pixel should be calibrated on its own. In this study, we suggest the use of a conventional polychromatic x-ray source (that is typically used in laboratories) for energy calibration. The energy calibration procedure mainly includes the determination of the peak energies in the spectra, flood-field irradiation, determination of peak channels, and determination of calibration curves (i.e., the slopes and intercepts of linear polynomials). We applied a calibration algorithm to a CdTe ERPCD comprised of 128×128 pixels with a pitch of 0.35 mm using highly attenuated polychromatic x-ray beams to reduce the pulse pile-up effect, and to obtain a narrow-shaped spectrum due to beam hardening. The averaged relative error in calibration curves obtained from 16,384 pixels was about 0.56% for 59.6 keV photons from an Americium radioisotope. This pixel-by-pixel energy calibration enhanced the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in images, respectively, by a factor of ~5 and 3 due to improvement in image homogeneity, compared to those obtained without energy calibration. One secondary finding of this study was that the x-ray photon spectra obtained using a common algorithm for computing x-ray spectra reasonably described the peaks in the measured spectra, which implies easier peak detection without the direct measurement of spectra using a separate spectrometer. The proposed method will be a useful alternative to

  10. Calibration of the Accuscan II IN Vivo System for High Energy Lung Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ovard R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the April 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for high energy lung counting. The source used for the calibration was a NIST traceable lung set manufactured at the University of Cincinnati UCLL43AMEU & UCSL43AMEU containing Am-241 and Eu-152 with energies from 26 keV to 1408 keV. The lung set was used in conjunction with a Realistic Torso phantom. The phantom was placed on the RMC II counting table (with pins removed) between the v-ridges on the backwall of the Accuscan II counter. The top of the detector housing was positioned perpendicular to the junction of the phantom clavicle with the sternum. This position places the approximate center line of the detector housing with the center of the lungs. The energy and efficiency calibrations were performed using a Realistic Torso phantom (Appendix I) and the University of Cincinnati lung set. This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibration including performance verification and validation counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for high energy lung counting and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  11. SU-E-I-38: Improved Metal Artifact Correction Using Adaptive Dual Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X; Elder, E; Roper, J; Dhabaan, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Methods: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Results: Highly attenuating copper rods cause severe streaking artifacts on standard CT images. EDEC improves the image quality, but cannot eliminate the streaking artifacts. Compared to EDEC, the proposed ADEC method further reduces the streaking resulting from metallic inserts and beam-hardening effects and obtains material decomposition images with significantly improved accuracy. Conclusion: We propose an adaptive dual energy calibration method to correct for metal artifacts. ADEC is evaluated with the Shepp-Logan phantom, and shows superior metal artifact correction performance. In the future, we will further evaluate the performance of the proposed method with phantom and patient data.

  12. Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

  13. Calibration of the Ames Anechoic Facility. Phase 1: Short range plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, D.; Soderman, P. T.; Karamcheti, K.; Koutsoyannis, S. P.; Hopkins, R.; Mclachlan, B.

    1980-01-01

    A calibration was made of the acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of a small, open-jet wind tunnel in an anechoic room. The jet nozzle was 102 mm diameter and was operated subsonically. The anechoic-room dimensions were 7.6 m by 5.5 m by 3.4 m high (wedge tip to wedge tip). Noise contours in the chamber were determined by various jet speeds and exhaust collector positions. The optimum nozzle/collector separation from an acoustic standpoint was 2.1 m. Jet velocity profiles and turbulence levels were measured using pressure probes and hot wires. The jet was found to be symmetric, with no unusual characteristics. The turbulence measurements were hampered by oil mist contamination of the airflow.

  14. Energy Conservation. Educational Facilities Digest 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, Columbus, OH.

    Because today's schools consume large amounts of energy and, consequently, pay high energy bills, the term "energy cirsis" is no exaggeration to describe the situation facing educators and school administrators. Schools everywhere are under pressure to use less electricity, natural gas, heating oil, and gasoline. While energy conservation…

  15. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  16. Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    AKHIL,ABBAS ALI; MARNAY,CHRIS; KIPMAN,TIMOTHY

    2003-05-01

    Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.

  17. Spectral response calibrations of x-ray diode photocathodes in the 50-5900 eV photon energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Simmons, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray diode photocathodes are employed in diagnostic instruments on the Helen laser at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston, UK. The photocathodes are mainly used in the Dante fast diode array and flat response diodes. These diagnostics enable the soft x-ray spectral emissions of laser irradiated targets to be determined. To derive quantitative spectral information, the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes must be known over the range of x-ray energies of interest. The photocathodes were manufactured in 1982, and were initially calibrated at that time. Since then further measurements have been performed in 1988 and 1999. The photocathodes have been exposed to a wide range of conditions during their lives, ranging from use in experiments to storage in a dry nitrogen environment. Reported here are the results of calibrations performed in 1999 at the soft x-ray calibration facility EXCALIBUR at AWE, Aldermaston, and at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven NY. An assessment of their current condition and an evaluation of the change in their response over time, and the possible reasons for these changes, are made.

  18. Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities: A Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Siting Work Group

    2002-08-01

    This handbook has been written for individuals and groups involved in evaluating wind projects: decision-makers and agency staff at all levels of government, wind developers, interested parties and the public. Its purpose is to help stakeholders make permitting wind facility decisions in a manner which assures necessary environmental protection and responds to public needs.

  19. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington's industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state's total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state's energy needs.

  20. 1990 Washington State directory of biomass energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1990-12-31

    This second edition is an update of biomass energy production and use in Washington State for 1989. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of known biomass users within the state and some basic information about their facilities. The data can be helpful to persons or organizations considering the use of biomass fuels. The directory is divided into three sections of biomass facilities with each section containing a map of locations and a data summary table. In addition, a conversion table, a glossary and an index are provided in the back of the directory. The first section deals with biogas production from wastewater treatment plants. The second section provides information on the wood combustion facilities in the state. This section is subdivided into two categories. The first is for facilities connected with the forest products industries. The second category include other facilities using wood for energy. The third section is composed of three different types of biomass facilities -- ethanol, municipal solid waste, and solid fuel processing. Biomass facilities included in this directory produce over 64 trillion Btu (British thermal units) per year. Wood combustion facilities account for 91 percent of the total. Biogas and ethanol facilities each produce close to 800 billion Btu per year, MSW facilities produce 1845 billion BTU, and solid fuel processing facilities produce 2321 billion Btu per year. To put these numbers in perspective, Washington`s industrial section uses 200 trillion Btu of fuels per year. Therefore, biomass fuels used and/or produced by facilities listed in this directory account for nearly 32 percent of the state`s total industrial fuel demand. This is a sizable contribution to the state`s energy needs.

  1. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  2. Towards a Precise Energy Calibration of the CUORE Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dally, Adam G.

    The mass of the neutrino may hold the key to many problems in cosmology and astrophysics. The observation of neutrino oscillations shows that neutrinos have mass, which was something that was not accounted for in the Standard Model of particle physics. This thesis covers topics relating to measuring the value of neutrino mass directly using bolometers. The first section will discuss the neutrino mass and different experiments for measuring the mass using bolometers. The mass of the neutrino can be measured directly from beta-decay or inferred from observation of neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta). In this work I present Monte Carlo and analytic simulation of the MARE experiment including, pile-up and energy resolution effects. The mass measurement limits of a micro-calorimeter experiments as it relates to the quantity of decays measured is provided. A similar simulation is preformed for the HolMES experiment. The motivation is to determine the sensitivity of such experiments and the detector requirements to reach the goal sensitivity. Another possible method for determining the neutrino mass is to use neutrinoless double beta decay. The second section will cover the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) detector calibration system (DCS). CUORE is a neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta) experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of 130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0 nubetabeta decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. Calibration is necessary to associate a known energy from a gamma with a voltage pulse from the detector. The DCS must overcome many design challenges. The calibration source must be placed safely and reliable within the detector. The temperature of the detector region of the cryostat must not be changed during calibration. To achieve this

  3. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    On September 21-22, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope, flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, N.M. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 hour flight. In this paper we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources, applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray-Light (SLF) Facility in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces.

  4. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  5. Energy Calibration of the BaBar EMC Using the Pi0 Invariant Mass Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, David J.; /Manchester U.

    2007-04-06

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter energy calibration method was compared with the local and global peak iteration procedures, of Crystal Barrel and CLEO-II. An investigation was made of the possibility of {Upsilon}(4S) background reduction which could lead to increased statistics over a shorter time interval, for efficient calibration runs. The BaBar software package was used with unreconstructed data to study the energy response of the calorimeter, by utilizing the {pi}{sup 0} mass constraint on pairs of photon clusters.

  6. Calibration procedure for a neutron monitor at energies below 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrn, A.; Blomgren, J.; Park, H.; Khurana, S.; Nolte, R.; Schmidt, D.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    2008-07-01

    A liquid scintillation detector aimed for neutron energy and fluence measurements in the energy region below 20 MeV has been calibrated using monoenergetic and white spectrum neutron fields. Careful measurements of the proton light output function and the response matrix have been performed allowing for the application of unfolding techniques using existing codes. The response matrix is used to characterize monoenergetic neutron fields produced by the T(d,n) reaction at low deuteron energies.

  7. Calibration of the Brookhaven National Laboratory delayed gamma neutron activation facility to measure total body calcium.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Stamatelatos, I E; Yasumura, S

    2000-05-01

    Differences in body size and shape can cause large variances in the in vivo results of neutron activation analysis. To introduce corrections for body size for the delayed gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, "reference man"-sized and "reference woman"-sized phantoms were constructed. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code also provided correction factors for people of different sizes. For individuals with a body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2) between 20 and 30, no correction was required. At BMIs greater than 30, the effects of neutron attenuation were significant and a correction factor of CF = -0.0192 x BMI + 1.5635 can be applied. PMID:10865727

  8. Techniques of absolute low energy x-ray calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in pulsed plasma research, materials science, and astrophysics have required many new diagnostic instruments for use in the low energy x-ray regime. The characterization of these instruments has provided a challenge to instrument designers and provided the momentum to improve x-ray sources and dosimetry techniques. In this paper, the present state-of-the-art in low energy x-ray characterization techniques is reviewed. A summary is given of low energy x-ray generator technology and dosimetry techniques including a discussion of thin window proportional counters and ionization chambers. A review is included of the widely used x-ray data bases and a sample of ultrasoft x-ray measuring procedures, chopped x-ray source generators, phase sensitive detection of ultralow currents, and angular divergence measurements.

  9. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson; Polly, Ben; Collis, Jon

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  10. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  11. Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-03-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors. PMID:25051546

  12. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  13. Analysis of calibration materials to improve dual-energy CT scanning for petrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyalasomavaiula, K.; McIntyre, D.; Jain, J.; Singh, J.; Yueh, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy CT-scanning is a rapidly emerging imaging technique employed in non-destructive evaluation of various materials. Although CT (Computerized Tomography) has been used for characterizing rocks and visualizing and quantifying multiphase flow through rocks for over 25 years, most of the scanning is done at a voltage setting above 100 kV for taking advantage of the Compton scattering (CS) effect, which responds to density changes. Below 100 kV the photoelectric effect (PE) is dominant which responds to the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), which is directly related to the photo electric factor. Using the combination of the two effects helps in better characterization of reservoir rocks. The most common technique for dual energy CT-scanning relies on homogeneous calibration standards to produce the most accurate decoupled data. However, the use of calibration standards with impurities increases the probability of error in the reconstructed data and results in poor rock characterization. This work combines ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy) and LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) analytical techniques to quantify the type and level of impurities in a set of commercially purchased calibration standards used in dual-energy scanning. The Zeff data on the calibration standards with and without impurity data were calculated using the weighted linear combination of the various elements present and used in calculating Zeff using the dual energy technique. Results show 2 to 5% difference in predicted Zeff values which may affect the corresponding log calibrations. The effect that these techniques have on improving material identification data is discussed and analyzed. The workflow developed in this paper will translate to a more accurate material identification estimates for unknown samples and improve calibration of well logging tools.

  14. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  15. Electron calibration of a high energy cosmic ray detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simnett, G. M.; Silverberg, R. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Gearhart, R. A.; Hagen, F. A.; Jones, W. V.; Kurz, R. J.; Ormes, J. F.; Price, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic ray electrons above 10 GeV was studied extensively. The spectrum is predicted to steepen at an energy which is related to the lifetime of electrons in the interstellar medium against losses due to inverse Compton collisions with photons and to synchrotron radiation in galactic magnetic fields. The experimental results diverge widely; the lack of agreement between the various measurements is due to a variety of experimental problems.

  16. Estimating Energy Expenditure from Heart Rate in Older Adults: A Case for Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Goldsmith, Jeff; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of free-living energy expenditure is vital to understanding changes in energy metabolism with aging. The efficacy of heart rate as a surrogate for energy expenditure is rooted in the assumption of a linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure, but its validity and reliability in older adults remains unclear. Objective To assess the validity and reliability of the linear function between heart rate and energy expenditure in older adults using different levels of calibration. Design Heart rate and energy expenditure were assessed across five levels of exertion in 290 adults participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Correlation and random effects regression analyses assessed the linearity of the relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure and cross-validation models assessed predictive performance. Results Heart rate and energy expenditure were highly correlated (r = 0.98) and linear regardless of age or sex. Intra-person variability was low but inter-person variability was high, with substantial heterogeneity of the random intercept (s.d. = 0.372) despite similar slopes. Cross-validation models indicated individual calibration data substantially improves accuracy predictions of energy expenditure from heart rate, reducing the potential for considerable measurement bias. Although using five calibration measures provided the greatest reduction in the standard deviation of prediction errors (1.08 kcals/min), substantial improvement was also noted with two (0.75 kcals/min). Conclusion These findings indicate standard regression equations may be used to make population-level inferences when estimating energy expenditure from heart rate in older adults but caution should be exercised when making inferences at the individual level without proper calibration. PMID:24787146

  17. ''Hybrid'' calibrations of a Dual Energy X-ray Scanner for material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, C.; Bartle, C. M.; West, J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Conventional x-ray tubes produce a fan-shaped x-ray beam covering a large spectrum of energies, which is why the fundamental law of x-ray attenuation is not readily applicable. As the mathematical formulation of the problem would be too cumbersome, calibrations using well-defined objects are carried out, which in turn allow the use of multienergy x-rays for measurements. Occasionally, such calibrations may not lead to the desired results. This could be for instance due to an insensitivity of x-rays towards low atomic number elements. Here we present such a case on hand the example of raw natural fibre. The DEXA parameters correlated with the fibre parameter wool base, but show distinct correlation for geographical regions of the origin of the wool. A calibration that is valid independently of geographical origin can be achieved by including independently measured parameters of the calibration body. We demonstrate a successful calibration that uses dual energy x-ray scanning technology as well as a size parameter of the fibre in the regression equation.

  18. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasin; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  19. A Neural Network for Off-Line Z Classification and Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, S.; Iacono Manno, C.M.

    2000-12-31

    In this work a neural network has been used to reconstruct the residual energy after the first stage and classify the atomic number of the particles detected in a Silicon-CsI {triangle}E-E telescope. The adopted net is described and the whole procedure has been compared with the standard calibration methods for the E stage.

  20. Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

    This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

  1. Statistical Calibration and Validation of a Homogeneous Ventilated Wall-Interference Correction Method for the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments will continue to be a primary source of validation data for many types of mathematical and computational models in the aerospace industry. The increased emphasis on accuracy of data acquired from these facilities requires understanding of the uncertainty of not only the measurement data but also any correction applied to the data. One of the largest and most critical corrections made to these data is due to wall interference. In an effort to understand the accuracy and suitability of these corrections, a statistical validation process for wall interference correction methods has been developed. This process is based on the use of independent cases which, after correction, are expected to produce the same result. Comparison of these independent cases with respect to the uncertainty in the correction process establishes a domain of applicability based on the capability of the method to provide reasonable corrections with respect to customer accuracy requirements. The statistical validation method was applied to the version of the Transonic Wall Interference Correction System (TWICS) recently implemented in the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The TWICS code generates corrections for solid and slotted wall interference in the model pitch plane based on boundary pressure measurements. Before validation could be performed on this method, it was necessary to calibrate the ventilated wall boundary condition parameters. Discrimination comparisons are used to determine the most representative of three linear boundary condition models which have historically been used to represent longitudinally slotted test section walls. Of the three linear boundary condition models implemented for ventilated walls, the general slotted wall model was the most representative of the data. The TWICS code using the calibrated general slotted wall model was found to be valid to within the process uncertainty for test section Mach numbers less

  2. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  3. Purchasing Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Paul

    This booklet examines the purchasing choices which will be available with the introduction of full competition for all electricity and gas supplies in the United Kingdom, giving schools the chance to make significant savings on energy costs. The guide offers detailed purchasing information on such topics as tariff structures, contract energy…

  4. Energy calibration of superconducting transition edge sensors for x-ray detection using pulse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerith, C.; Simmnacher, B.; Weiland, R.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Isaila, C.; Jochum, J.; Potzel, W.; Hoehne, J.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; May, T.

    2006-05-15

    Transition edge sensors (TESs) have been developed to be used as high-resolution x-ray detectors. They show excellent energy resolution and can be used in many applications. TESs are a special kind of calorimeters that can determine small temperature changes after x-ray absorption. Such a temperature change causes a strong resistance change (superconducting to normal-conducting phase transition) that can be measured. The energy calibration of a TES based spectrometer is problematic due to the nonlinear behavior of the detector response. In this article, a method is introduced to calibrate the energy scale of TES spectra. This is accomplished by calculating the energy dependence of the response of the detector operated in electrothermal feedback mode. Using this method a calibration accuracy of a few eV for an x-ray energy of 6 keV can be achieved. Examples of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements demonstrate the high quality of this method for everyday use of TES EDS detectors in material analysis. However, because the method relies only on a few very general assumptions, it should also be useful for other kinds of TES detectors.

  5. Empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) for cone-beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Philip; Berkus, Timo; Kachelriess, Marc

    2007-09-15

    Material-selective imaging using dual energy CT (DECT) relies heavily on well-calibrated material decomposition functions. These require the precise knowledge of the detected x-ray spectra, and even if they are exactly known the reliability of DECT will suffer from scattered radiation. We propose an empirical method to determine the proper decomposition function. In contrast to other decomposition algorithms our empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) technique requires neither knowledge of the spectra nor of the attenuation coefficients. The desired material-selective raw data p{sub 1} and p{sub 2} are obtained as functions of the measured attenuation data q{sub 1} and q{sub 2} (one DECT scan=two raw data sets) by passing them through a polynomial function. The polynomial's coefficients are determined using a general least squares fit based on thresholded images of a calibration phantom. The calibration phantom's dimension should be of the same order of magnitude as the test object, but other than that no assumptions on its exact size or positioning are made. Once the decomposition coefficients are determined DECT raw data can be decomposed by simply passing them through the polynomial. To demonstrate EDEC simulations of an oval CTDI phantom, a lung phantom, a thorax phantom and a mouse phantom were carried out. The method was further verified by measuring a physical mouse phantom, a half-and-half-cylinder phantom and a Yin-Yang phantom with a dedicated in vivo dual source micro-CT scanner. The raw data were decomposed into their components, reconstructed, and the pixel values obtained were compared to the theoretical values. The determination of the calibration coefficients with EDEC is very robust and depends only slightly on the type of calibration phantom used. The images of the test phantoms (simulations and measurements) show a nearly perfect agreement with the theoretical {mu} values and density values. Since EDEC is an empirical technique it inherently

  6. Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Grosswendt, B.

    2013-07-18

    Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/{mu}m value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal {sup 244}Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to {sup 137}Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

  7. An improved method of energy calibration for position-sensitive silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Huang, Tian-Heng; Liu, Zhong; Ding, Bing; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ma, Long; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Gan, Zai-Guo; Xiao-Hong, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors is achieved by parabolic fitting in the traditional method, where the systematic variations of vertex and curvature of the parabola with energy must be considered. In this paper we extend the traditional method in order to correct the fitting function, simplify the procedure of calibration and improve the experimental data quality. Instead of a parabolic function as used in the traditional method, a new function describing the relation of position and energy is introduced. The energy resolution of the 8.088 MeV α decay of 213Rn is determined to be about 87 keV (FWHM), which is better than the result of the traditional method, 104 keV (FWHM). The improved method can be applied to the energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors with various performances. Supported by ‘100 Person Project’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405224 and 11435014)

  8. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  9. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  10. Geant4 simulation of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility.

    PubMed

    Prokopovich, D A; Reinhard, M I; Cornelius, I M; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-09-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility is used for testing and calibrating both active and passive radiation dosemeters for radiation protection applications in space and aviation. Through a combination of a primary particle beam, target and a suitable designed shielding configuration, the facility is able to reproduce the neutron component of the high altitude radiation field relevant to the jet aviation industry. Simulations of the facility using the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) toolkit provide an improved understanding of the neutron particle fluence as well as the particle fluence of other radiation components present. The secondary particle fluence as a function of the primary particle fluence incident on the target and the associated dose equivalent rates were determined at the 20 designated irradiation positions available at the facility. Comparisons of the simulated results with previously published simulations obtained using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, as well as with experimental results of the neutron fluence obtained with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, are made. PMID:20511404

  11. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  12. Integrated Deployment and the Energy Systems Integration Facility: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Werner, M.; Spikes, A.; Komomua, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the workshop entitled: Integrated Deployment and the Energy Systems Integration Facility. In anticipation of the opening of the ESIF, NREL held the workshop August 21-23, 2012 and invited participants from utilities, government, industry, and academia to discuss renewable integration challenges and discover new ways to meet them by taking advantage of the ESIF's capabilities.

  13. The Smart Power Lab at the Energy Systems Integration Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Hannegan, Brian

    2015-06-11

    Watch how NREL researchers are using the Smart Power Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to develop technologies that will help the "smart homes" of the future perform efficiently and communicate effectively with the electricity grid while enhancing occupants' comfort and convenience.

  14. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  15. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Alfonso R.; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-07-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (˜1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material.

  16. Exploring the calibration of a wind forecast ensemble for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppelmann, Tobias; Ben Bouallegue, Zied; Theis, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    In the German research project EWeLiNE, Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES) are collaborating with three German Transmission System Operators (TSO) in order to provide the TSOs with improved probabilistic power forecasts. Probabilistic power forecasts are derived from probabilistic weather forecasts, themselves derived from ensemble prediction systems (EPS). Since the considered raw ensemble wind forecasts suffer from underdispersiveness and bias, calibration methods are developed for the correction of the model bias and the ensemble spread bias. The overall aim is to improve the ensemble forecasts such that the uncertainty of the possible weather deployment is depicted by the ensemble spread from the first forecast hours. Additionally, the ensemble members after calibration should remain physically consistent scenarios. We focus on probabilistic hourly wind forecasts with horizon of 21 h delivered by the convection permitting high-resolution ensemble system COSMO-DE-EPS which has become operational in 2012 at DWD. The ensemble consists of 20 ensemble members driven by four different global models. The model area includes whole Germany and parts of Central Europe with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km and a vertical resolution of 50 model levels. For verification we use wind mast measurements around 100 m height that corresponds to the hub height of wind energy plants that belong to wind farms within the model area. Calibration of the ensemble forecasts can be performed by different statistical methods applied to the raw ensemble output. Here, we explore local bivariate Ensemble Model Output Statistics at individual sites and quantile regression with different predictors. Applying different methods, we already show an improvement of ensemble wind forecasts from COSMO-DE-EPS for energy applications. In addition, an ensemble copula coupling approach transfers the time-dependencies of the raw

  17. Calibration of the NuSTAR High-energy Focusing X-ray Telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Markwardt, Craig B.; An, Hongjun; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Kitaguchi, Takao; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steve; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Walton, Dominic J.; Jørgen Westergaard, Niels; Zhang, William W.

    2015-09-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%-10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ˜10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What energy standards... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.165 What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities? Existing Federal facilities...

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What energy standards... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.165 What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities? Existing Federal facilities...

  20. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  1. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. The manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria are described. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility is presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  2. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    densities were approximately 20% to 30% of that called by ASHRAE 62.1. Formaldehyde was the most important contaminant of concern in retail stores investigated. Both stores exceeded the most conservative health guideline for formaldehyde (OEHHA TWA REL = 7.3 ppb). This study found that source removal and reducing the emission rate, as demonstrated in retail stores sampled in this study, is a viable strategy to meet the health guideline. Total volatile compound were present in retail stores at low concentrations well below health guidelines suggested by Molhave (1700microg /m 2) and Bridges (1000 microg /m2). Based on these results and through mass--balance modeling, different ventilation rate reduction scenarios were proposed, and for these scenarios the differences in energy consumption were estimated. Findings of all phases of this desertion have contributed to understanding (a) the trade-off between energy savings and ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality, and (b) the trade-off between energy savings and resets of indoor air temperature that do not compromise thermal comfort. Two models for retail stores were built and calibrated and validated against actual utility bills. Energy simulation results indicated that by lowering the ventilation rates from measured and minimum references would reduce natural gas energy use by estimated values of 6% to 19%. Also, this study found that the electrical cooling energy consumption was not significantly sensitive to different ventilation rates. However, increasing indoor air temperature by 3°C in summer had a significant effect on the energy savings. In winter, both energy savings strategies, ventilation reduction and decrease in set points, had a significant effect on natural gas consumption. Specially, when the indoor air temperature 21°C was decreased to 19.4°C with the same amount of ventilation rate of Molhaves guideline for both cases. Interestingly, the temperature of 23.8°C (75°F), which is the

  3. New approaches for the calibration of exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals.

    PubMed

    Maier, Toni M; Haasler, Matthias; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2016-08-21

    The ambiguity of exchange-energy densities is a fundamental challenge for the development of local hybrid functionals, or of other functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities. In this work, a systematic construction of semi-local calibration functions (CFs) for adjusting the exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals is provided, which directly links a given CF to an underlying semi-local exchange functional, as well as to the second-order gradient expansion of the exchange hole. Using successive steps of integration by parts allows the derivation of correction terms of increasing order, resulting in more and more complicated but also more flexible CFs. We derive explicit first- and second-order CFs (pig1 and pig2) based on B88 generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange, and a first-order CF (tpig1) based on τ-dependent B98 meta-GGA exchange. We combine these CFs with different long-range damping functions and evaluate them for calibration of LDA, B88 GGA, and TPSS meta-GGA exchange-energy densities. Based on a minimization of unphysical nondynamical correlation contributions in three noble-gas dimer potential-energy curves, free parameters in the CFs are optimized, and performance of various approaches in the calibration of different exchange-energy densities is compared. Most notably, the second-order pig2 CF provides the largest flexibility with respect to the diffuseness of the damping function. This suggests that higher-order CFs based on the present integration-by-parts scheme may be particularly suitable for the flexible construction of local hybrid functionals. PMID:27080804

  4. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  5. Technical energy audit of the Rifle Correctional Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This energy audit was initiated to pinpoint the reasons for the disproportionate budget share of energy costs at the Rifle Correctional Facility, one of Colorado's newest prisons. Conservation options and retrofits are discussed in detail as are the economics of improvements and rising energy costs. Because of the site's geographic situation, techniques of solar adaptation are discussed, although emphasis is on conservation strategies. Partial wood heating is also considered. Rifle's particular security system may also work to its advantage through the use of inmate labor as a cost-saving measure both during the improvements and as a long-term strategy.

  6. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  7. Energy calibration of a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Verbeni, Roberto; D'Astuto, Matteo; Krisch, Michael; Lorenzen, Maren; Mermet, Alain; Monaco, Giulio; Requardt, Herwig; Sette, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    The energy scale of a triple-axis x-ray spectrometer with meV energy resolution based on perfect silicon crystal optics is calibrated, utilizing the most recent determination of the silicon lattice parameter and its thermal expansion coefficient and recording the dispersion of longitudinal acoustic and optical phonons in a diamond single crystal and the molecular vibration mode in liquid nitrogen. Comparison of the x-ray results with previous inelastic neutron and Raman scattering results as well as with ab initio phonon dispersion calculations yields an overall agreement better than 2%. PMID:19044359

  8. Energy calibration of a high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeni, Roberto; D'Astuto, Matteo; Krisch, Michael; Lorenzen, Maren; Mermet, Alain; Monaco, Giulio; Requardt, Herwig; Sette, Francesco

    2008-08-15

    The energy scale of a triple-axis x-ray spectrometer with meV energy resolution based on perfect silicon crystal optics is calibrated, utilizing the most recent determination of the silicon lattice parameter and its thermal expansion coefficient and recording the dispersion of longitudinal acoustic and optical phonons in a diamond single crystal and the molecular vibration mode in liquid nitrogen. Comparison of the x-ray results with previous inelastic neutron and Raman scattering results as well as with ab initio phonon dispersion calculations yields an overall agreement better than 2%.

  9. Top-quark mass measurement in the dilepton channel using in situ jet energy scale calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Su

    2012-09-01

    We employ a top-quark mass measurement technique in the dilepton channel with in situ jet energy scale calibration. Three variables having different jet energy scale dependences are used simultaneously to extract not only the top-quark mass but also the energy scale of the jet from a single likelihood fit. Monte Carlo studies with events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider s=7TeV are performed. Our analysis suggests that the overall jet energy scale uncertainty can be significantly reduced and the top-quark mass can be determined with a precision of less than 1GeV/c2, including jet energy scale uncertainty, at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, H. J.; Choi, I. W.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, I J.; Nam, K. H.; Jeong, T. M.; Lee, J.

    2012-06-15

    The pointing instability of energetic electron beams generated from a laser-driven accelerator can cause a serious error in measuring the electron spectrum with a magnetic spectrometer. In order to determine a correct electron spectrum, the pointing angle of an electron beam incident on the spectrometer should be exactly defined. Here, we present a method for absolutely calibrating the electron spectrum by monitoring the pointing angle using a scintillating screen installed in front of a permanent dipole magnet. The ambiguous electron energy due to the pointing instability is corrected by the numerical and analytical calculations based on the relativistic equation of electron motion. It is also possible to estimate the energy spread of the electron beam and determine the energy resolution of the spectrometer using the beam divergence angle that is simultaneously measured on the screen. The calibration method with direct measurement of the spatial profile of an incident electron beam has a simple experimental layout and presents the full range of spatial and spectral information of the electron beams with energies of multi-hundred MeV level, despite the limited energy resolution of the simple electron spectrometer.

  11. Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Reppin, C.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays from an early design study employing Monte Carlo calculations. The response to 50 to 600 MeV solar neutrons was estimated from a simple model which did not consider secondary charged particles escaping into the veto shields. In view of numerous detections by the GRS of solar flares emitting high energy gamma rays, including at least two emitting directly detectable neutrons, the calibration of the high energy mode in the flight model has been recalculated by the use of more sophisticated Monte Carlo computer codes. New results presented show that the GRS response to gamma rays above 20 MeV and to neutrons above 100 MeV is significantly lower than the earlier estimates.

  12. Energy-management financing for state facilities and public schools

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has committed to facilitate comprehensive energy management for state facilities, schools, hospitals, local governments, and other nonprofit organizations. The goal is to install all cost effective improvements, those with an aggregate payback of 6 years or less, by using private sector financing. To meet this goal, several programs were developed under Iowa's Building Energy Management Program. The DNR established a nonprofit corporation, the State of Iowa Facilities Improvement Corporation. The corporation finances, installs, and leases improvements to state agencies. The savings from improvements are used to make the lease payment. The Iowa School Energy Bank was established to serve Iowa public schools and community colleges. Six-month interest-free loans are offered to the schools for engineering analyses. Lease financing is offered for improvements under a master lease agreement with a regional bank at a group municipal financing rate. The publication documents the development of both the State of Iowa Facilities Improvement Corporation and the Iowa School Energy Bank Program.

  13. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the COB Energy Facility

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    COB Energy Facility, LLC, a subsidiary of Peoples Energy Resources Corporation (PERC), proposes to construct a natural gas-fired, combined-cycle electric generating plant near Bonanza, Oregon. The Energy Facility would have a nominal generation capacity of 1,160 megawatts (MW). Electric power from the Energy Facility would enter the regional grid at the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) Captain Jack Substation via a proposed 7.2-mile electric transmission line. BPA must decide whether to grant the interconnection required to connect this proposed transmission line to the Captain Jack Substation. In addition, the proposed transmission line would cross some Federal lands. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) must decide whether to grant the necessary rights-of-way for the transmission line on approximately 44 acres of BLM land. Accordingly, BPA as the lead agency and BLM as the cooperating agency have prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) to fulfill the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Electrical consumers in the Pacific Northwest and western states need increased power generation to serve increasing demand, and high-voltage transmission service to deliver that power. BPA will grant the interconnection if it will help to provide an adequate and reliable power supply for the region, consistent with BPA's environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. BPA intends to act consistently with its Open Access Transmission Tariff in considering the interconnection request. BLM will grant the rights-of-way if they will authorize appropriate uses of public land consistent with applicable planning documents.

  15. High-energy x-ray backlighter spectrum measurements using calibrated image plates

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B.R.; Park, H.S.; Remington, B.A.; Izumi, N.; Chen, S.; Chen, C.; Kimminau, G.; Ali, Z.; Haugh, M.J.; Ma, Q.

    2012-10-10

    The x-ray spectrum between 18 and 88 keV generated by a petawatt laser driven x-ray backlighter target was measured using a 12-channel differential filter pair spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a series of filter pairs on a Ta mask coupled with an x-ray sensitive image plate. A calibration of Fuji{trademark} MS and SR image plates was conducted using a tungsten anode x-ray source and the resulting calibration applied to the design of the Ross pair spectrometer. Additionally, the fade rate and resolution of the image plate system were measured for quantitative radiographic applications. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into silver K{alpha} x rays from a petawatt laser target was measured using the differential filter pair spectrometer and compared to measurements using a single photon counting charge coupled device.

  16. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to qualify for an incentive payment...

  17. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to qualify for an incentive payment...

  18. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to qualify for an incentive payment...

  19. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to qualify for an incentive payment...

  20. 10 CFR 451.4 - What is a qualified renewable energy facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is a qualified renewable energy facility. 451.4 Section 451.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.4 What is a qualified renewable energy facility. In order to qualify for an incentive payment...

  1. Quantitative CT of lung nodules: Dependence of calibration on patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size for single- and dual-energy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Way, Ted W.; Schipper, Mathew J.; Larson, Sandra C.; Christodoulou, Emmanuel G.

    2009-07-15

    Calcium concentration may be a useful feature for distinguishing benign from malignant lung nodules in computer-aided diagnosis. The calcium concentration can be estimated from the measured CT number of the nodule and a CT number vs calcium concentration calibration line that is derived from CT scans of two or more calcium reference standards. To account for CT number nonuniformity in the reconstruction field, such calibration lines may be obtained at multiple locations within lung regions in an anthropomorphic phantom. The authors performed a study to investigate the effects of patient body size, anatomic region, and calibration nodule size on the derived calibration lines at ten lung region positions using both single energy (SE) and dual energy (DE) CT techniques. Simulated spherical lung nodules of two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/cc CaCO{sub 3}) were employed. Nodules of three different diameters (4.8, 9.5, and 16 mm) were scanned in a simulated thorax section representing the middle of the chest with large lung regions. The 4.8 and 9.5 mm nodules were also scanned in a section representing the upper chest with smaller lung regions. Fat rings were added to the peripheries of the phantoms to simulate larger patients. Scans were acquired on a GE-VCT scanner at 80, 120, and 140 kVp and were repeated three times for each condition. The average absolute CT number separations between the calibration lines were computed. In addition, under- or overestimates were determined when the calibration lines for one condition (e.g., small patient) were used to estimate the CaCO{sub 3} concentrations of nodules for a different condition (e.g., large patient). The authors demonstrated that, in general, DE is a more accurate method for estimating the calcium contents of lung nodules. The DE calibration lines within the lung field were less affected by patient body size, calibration nodule size, and nodule position than the SE calibration lines. Under- or overestimates in Ca

  2. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  3. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  4. High Energy Density Physics on LULI2000 Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Ozaki, N.; Ravasio, A.; Vinci, T.; Lepape, S.; Tanaka, K.; Riley, D.

    2006-07-01

    We present here a summary of some High Density Energy Physics experiments performed on the new facility LULI 2000. First, different flyer plate targets scheme have been tested loading shock in fused-quartz plate. Temperature data along the Hugoniot curve have been obtained. Second, a strongly coupled and degenerated Aluminium plasma has been probed by X-ray Thomson scattering. Compton shift from electrons has been observed in various density conditions.

  5. Effects of wind-energy facilities on grassland bird distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Jill A.; Buhl, Deb

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of renewable energy to meet worldwide demand continues to grow. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable sectors, but new wind facilities are often placed in prime wildlife habitat. Long-term studies that incorporate a rigorous statistical design to evaluate the effects of wind facilities on wildlife are rare. We conducted a before-after-control-impact (BACI) assessment to determine if wind facilities placed in native mixed-grass prairies displaced breeding grassland birds. During 2003–2012, we monitored changes in bird density in 3 study areas in North Dakota and South Dakota (U.S.A.). We examined whether displacement or attraction occurred 1 year after construction (immediate effect) and the average displacement or attraction 2–5 years after construction (delayed effect). We tested for these effects overall and within distance bands of 100, 200, 300, and >300 m from turbines. We observed displacement for 7 of 9 species. One species was unaffected by wind facilities and one species exhibited attraction. Displacement and attraction generally occurred within 100 m and often extended up to 300 m. In a few instances, displacement extended beyond 300 m. Displacement and attraction occurred 1 year after construction and persisted at least 5 years. Our research provides a framework for applying a BACI design to displacement studies and highlights the erroneous conclusions that can be made without the benefit of adopting such a design. More broadly, species-specific behaviors can be used to inform management decisions about turbine placement and the potential impact to individual species. Additionally, the avoidance distance metrics we estimated can facilitate future development of models evaluating impacts of wind facilities under differing land-use scenarios.

  6. Calibration of a Bonner sphere extension (BSE) for high-energy neutron spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Howell, R.M.; Burgett, E.A.; Wiegel, B.; Hertel, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work, we constructed modular multisphere system which expands upon the design of an existing, commercially available Bonner sphere system by adding concentric shells of copper, tungsten, or lead. Our modular multisphere system is referred to as the Bonner Sphere Extension (BSE). The BSE was tested in a high energy neutron beam (thermal to 800 MeV) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and provided improvement in the measurement of the neutron spectrum in the energy regions above 20 MeV when compared to the standard BSS (Burgett, 2008 and Howell et al., 2009). However, when the initial test of the system was carried-out at LANSCE, the BSE had not yet been calibrated. Therefore the objective of the present study was to perform calibration measurements. These calibration measurements were carried out using monoenergetic neutron ISO 8529-1 reference beams at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany. The following monoenergetic reference beams were used for these experiments: 14.8 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 565 keV, and 144 keV. Response functions for the BSE were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code, eXtended (MCNPX). The percent difference between the measured and calculated responses was calculated for each sphere and energy. The difference between measured and calculated responses for individual spheres ranged between 7.9 % and 16.7 % and the arithmetic mean for all spheres was (10.9 ± 1.8) %. These sphere specific correction factors will be applied for all future measurements carried-out with the BSE. PMID:22888283

  7. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  8. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  9. Calibration of the Multi-Factor HJM Model for Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, E.; Weron, A.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that using the toolkit of interest rate theory, already well known in financial engineering as the HJM model [D. Heath, R. Jarrow, A. Morton, {ITALIC Econometrica} 60, 77 (1992)], it is possible to derive explicite option pricing formula and calibrate the theoretical model to the empirical electricity market. The analysis is illustrated by numerical cases from the European Energy Exchange (EEX) in Leipzig. The multi-factor {ITALIC versus} one-factor HJM models are compared.

  10. Proton calibration of low energy neutron detectors containing (6)LiF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present calibrations is to measure the proton response of the detectors with accelerated beams having energies within the region of maximum intensities in the trapped proton spectrum encountered in near-Earth orbit. This response is compared with the responses of the spaceflight detectors when related to proton exposures. All of the spaceflight neutron measurements have been accompanied by TLD absorbed doses measurements in close proximity within the spacecraft. For purposes of comparison, the spaceflight TLD doses are assumed to be proton doses.

  11. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  12. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  13. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  14. Building energy analysis of Electrical Engineering Building from DesignBuilder tool: calibration and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, J.; Osma, G.; Caicedo, C.; Torres, A.; Sánchez, S.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This research shows the energy analysis of the Electrical Engineering Building, located on campus of the Industrial University of Santander in Bucaramanga - Colombia. This building is a green pilot for analysing energy saving strategies such as solar pipes, green roof, daylighting, and automation, among others. Energy analysis was performed by means of DesignBuilder software from virtual model of the building. Several variables were analysed such as air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, daylighting, and energy consumption. According to two criteria, thermal load and energy consumption, critical areas were defined. The calibration and validation process of the virtual model was done obtaining error below 5% in comparison with measured values. The simulations show that the average indoor temperature in the critical areas of the building was 27°C, whilst relative humidity reached values near to 70% per year. The most critical discomfort conditions were found in the area of the greatest concentration of people, which has an average annual temperature of 30°C. Solar pipes can increase 33% daylight levels into the areas located on the upper floors of the building. In the case of the green roofs, the simulated results show that these reduces of nearly 31% of the internal heat gains through the roof, as well as a decrease in energy consumption related to air conditioning of 5% for some areas on the fourth and fifth floor. The estimated energy consumption of the building was 69 283 kWh per year.

  15. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-04-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations.

  16. Comparison of energy calibration of Prognoz 5, 6, 7, and 8 and other hard-X-ray solar photometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnik, F.; Valnicek, B.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Jakimiec, J.

    1984-08-01

    The data obtained by the Prognoz 5, 6, 7, and 8 hard-X-ray photometers are compared with the measurements carried out by similar instruments aboard Solrad 11, ISEE 3, SMM, and Hinotori satellites. Using the method of relative-amplitude analysis, the apparent disagreement in the energy-discrimination-level calibration between the instruments is pointed out. The results of the comparison and possible sources of disagreement are given. An international effort to develop a system of uniform prelaunch calibration of photometers based on a reference calibration source is suggested.

  17. Energy management planning and control in a large industrial facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, L.; Korber, J.

    1995-06-01

    Eastman Kodak`s Kodak Park Manufacturing facility is a collection of hundreds of buildings and millions of square feet operated by dozens of semi-autonomous manufacturing units. The facility is served by a centralized Utilities system which cogenerates electricity and distributes steam, chilled water, compressed air, and several other services throughout the site. Energy management at Kodak Park has been active since the 70`s. In 1991, the Utilities Division took ownership of a site wide energy thrust to address capacity limitations of electric, compressed air and other services. Planning and organizing a program to meet Utilities Division goals in such a large complex site was a slightly daunting task. Tracking progress and keeping on schedule is also a challenge. The authors will describe innovative use of a project management software program called Open Plan{reg_sign} to accomplish much of the planning and control for this program. Open Plan{reg_sign} has been used since the initial planning to the current progress of about 50% completion of the program. Hundreds of activities performed by dozens of resource people are planned and tracked. Not only the usual cost and schedule information is reported, but also the schedule for savings in terms of kilowatt-hours, pounds of steam, etc. These savings schedules are very useful for tracking against energy goals and Utilities business planning. Motivation of the individual departments to participate in the program and collection of data from these departments will also be discussed.

  18. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and US conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies. 3 refs.

  19. Supercomputer Assisted Generation of Machine Learning Agents for the Calibration of Building Energy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan; Edwards, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrot pur- poses. EnergyPlus is the agship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for dierent types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manu- ally by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building en- ergy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the \\Autotune" research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the dierent kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of En- ergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-eective cali- bration of building models.

  20. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Traceability of acoustic emission measurements using energy calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Jones, B. E.

    2000-11-01

    Passive acoustic emission (AE) methods are becoming useful tools for integrity assessment of structures, monitoring of industrial processes and machines, and materials characterization. Unfortunately, there are no measurement standards for estimating the absolute strength of the AE sources. The lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare the results obtained in different laboratories or on different structures, and to obtain meaningful repeatability of measurements. Therefore, current methods only give a qualitative rather than quantitative indication of the change of state of structure or process. This communication outlines a way of calibrating AE transducer systems in situ using a pulsed-laser-generated thermoelastic AE energy source or a bouncing-ball-generated elastic impact AE energy source. The methods presented here should enable traceable measurement standards to be established for AE.

  1. ENERGY FACILITY SITING PROCEDURES, CRITERIA, AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared in support of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. Findings are presented on the adequacy of current review procedures, criteria, and public participation in energy facility siting (EFS) for nuclear and co...

  2. Reducing cooling energy consumption in data centres and critical facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Gareth

    Given the rise of our everyday reliance on computers in all walks of life, from checking the train times to paying our credit card bills online, the need for computational power is ever increasing. Other than the ever-increasing performance of home Personal Computers (PC's) this reliance has given rise to a new phenomenon in the last 10 years ago. The data centre. Data centres contain vast arrays of IT cabinets loaded with servers that perform millions of computational equations every second. It is these data centres that allow us to continue with our reliance on the internet and the PC. As more and more data centres become necessary due to the increase in computing processing power required for the everyday activities we all take for granted so the energy consumed by these data centres rises. Not only are more and more data centres being constructed daily, but operators are also looking at ways to squeeze more processing from their existing data centres. This in turn leads to greater heat outputs and therefore requires more cooling. Cooling data centres requires a sizeable energy input, indeed to many megawatts per data centre site. Given the large amounts of money dependant on the successful operation of data centres, in particular for data centres operated by financial institutions, the onus is predominantly on ensuring the data centres operate with no technical glitches rather than in an energy conscious fashion. This report aims to investigate the ways and means of reducing energy consumption within data centres without compromising the technology the data centres are designed to house. As well as discussing the individual merits of the technologies and their implementation technical calculations will be undertaken where necessary to determine the levels of energy saving, if any, from each proposal. To enable comparison between each proposal any design calculations within this report will be undertaken against a notional data facility. This data facility will

  3. Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Treuth, M S; Adolph, A L; Butte, N F

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) and activity calibrated against 24-h respiration calorimetry in 20 children. HR, oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and EE were measured during rest, sleep, exercise, and over 24 h by room respiration calorimetry on two separate occasions. Activity was monitored by a leg vibration sensor. The calibration day (day 1) consisted of specified behaviors categorized as inactive (lying, sitting, standing) or active (two bicycle sessions). On the validation day (day 2), the child selected activities. Separate regression equations for VO2, VCO2, and EE for method 1 (combining awake and asleep using HR, HR2, and HR3), method 2 (separating awake and asleep), and method 3 (separating awake into active and inactive, and combining activity and HR) were developed using the calibration data. For day 1, the errors were similar for 24-h VO2, VCO2, and EE among methods and also among HR, HR2, and HR3. The methods were validated using measured data from day 2. There were no significant differences in HR, VO2, VCO2, respiratory quotient, and EE values during rest, sleep, or over the 24 h between days 1 and 2. Applying the linear HR equations to day 2 data, the errors were the lowest with the combined HR/activity method (-2.6 +/- 5.2%, -4.1 +/- 5.9%, -2.9 +/- 5.1% for VO2, VCO2, and EE, respectively). To demonstrate the utility of the HR/activity method, HR and activity were monitored for 24 h at home (day 3). Free-living EE was predicted as 7,410 +/- 1,326 kJ/day. In conclusion, the combination of HR and activity is an acceptable method for determining EE not only for groups of children, but for individuals. PMID:9688868

  4. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  5. Derivation of the Data Reduction Equations for the Calibration of the Six-component Thrust Stand in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Kin C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the derivation of the data reduction equations for the calibration of the six-component thrust stand located in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility. The purpose of the calibration is to determine the first-order interactions between the axial, lateral, and vertical load cells (second-order interactions are assumed to be negligible). In an ideal system, the measurements made by the thrust stand along the three coordinate axes should be independent. For example, when a test article applies an axial force on the thrust stand, the axial load cells should measure the full magnitude of the force, while the off-axis load cells (lateral and vertical) should read zero. Likewise, if a lateral force is applied, the lateral load cells should measure the entire force, while the axial and vertical load cells should read zero. However, in real-world systems, there may be interactions between the load cells. Through proper design of the thrust stand, these interactions can be minimized, but are hard to eliminate entirely. Therefore, the purpose of the thrust stand calibration is to account for these interactions, so that necessary corrections can be made during testing. These corrections can be expressed in the form of an interaction matrix, and this paper shows the derivation of the equations used to obtain the coefficients in this matrix.

  6. Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeway, L.A.; Turn, S.Q.; Keffer, V.I.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2006-02-27

    A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility on the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. There were four main tasks performed for the plantwide energy assessment: 1) pump energy assessment in both field and factory operations, 2) steam generation assessment in the power production operations, 3) steam distribution assessment in the sugar manufacturing operation, and 4) electric power distribution assessment of the company system grid. The energy savings identified in each of these tasks were summarized in terms of fuel savings, electricity savings, or opportunity revenue that potentially exists mostly from increased electric power sales to the local electric utility. The results of this investigation revealed eight energy saving projects that can be implemented at HC&S. These eight projects were determined to have potential for $1.5 million in annual fuel savings or 22,337 MWh equivalent annual electricity savings. Most of the savings were derived from pump efficiency improvements and steam efficiency improvements both in generation and distribution. If all the energy saving projects were implemented and the energy savings were realized as less fuel consumed, there would be corresponding reductions in regulated air pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions from supplemental coal fuel. As HC&S is already a significant user of renewable biomass fuel for its operations, the projected reductions in air pollutants and emissions will not be as great compared to using only coal fuel for example. A classification of implementation priority into operations was performed for the identified energy saving projects based on payback period and ease of implementation.

  7. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practical methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.

  8. Characterization and calibration of a viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock model for inorganic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chambers, Robert S.; Tandon, Rajan; Stavig, Mark E.

    2015-07-07

    In this study, to analyze the stresses and strains generated during the solidification of glass-forming materials, stress and volume relaxation must be predicted accurately. Although the modeling attributes required to depict physical aging in organic glassy thermosets strongly resemble the structural relaxation in inorganic glasses, the historical modeling approaches have been distinctly different. To determine whether a common constitutive framework can be applied to both classes of materials, the nonlinear viscoelastic simplified potential energy clock (SPEC) model, developed originally for glassy thermosets, was calibrated for the Schott 8061 inorganic glass and used to analyze a number of tests. A practicalmore » methodology for material characterization and model calibration is discussed, and the structural relaxation mechanism is interpreted in the context of SPEC model constitutive equations. SPEC predictions compared to inorganic glass data collected from thermal strain measurements and creep tests demonstrate the ability to achieve engineering accuracy and make the SPEC model feasible for engineering applications involving a much broader class of glassy materials.« less

  9. Low Energy Calibration of Chandra/ACIS-S and the Diffuse X-ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, R. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Smith, R. K.; ACIS Team

    2000-10-01

    We present details of the reduction of the data, and calibration of the Chandra ACIS-S back-illuminated devices needed to interpret them, of a 100 ks observation of MBM 12, a nearby (d = 58--90 pc) molecular cloud. Snowden, McCammon & Verter (1993) used deep ROSAT PSPC observations of this cloud to measure the foreground 1/4 keV band emission from the Local Bubble. They also put strong upper limits on the foreground 0.5--1.0 keV band emission. Most, if not all, models for the Local Bubble predict that the emission in this bandpass is primarily due to O VII and O VIII lines. We report improvements to the calibration of the ACIS-S back-illuminated devices (S3 and S1) we have made to the energy scale, the quantum efficiency, and the background modeling which were needed for this analysis. This work was funded by NASA contract NAS8-39073.

  10. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. The NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel: Historical Overview, Facility Description, Calibration, Flow Characteristics, and Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bangert, Linda S.; Asbury, Scott C.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Bare, E. Ann

    1995-01-01

    The Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel is a closed-circuit single-return atmospheric wind tunnel that has a slotted octagonal test section with continuous air exchange. The wind tunnel speed can be varied continuously over a Mach number range from 0.1 to 1.3. Test-section plenum suction is used for speeds above a Mach number of 1.05. Over a period of some 40 years, the wind tunnel has undergone many modifications. During the modifications completed in 1990, a new model support system that increased blockage, new fan blades, a catcher screen for the first set of turning vanes, and process controllers for tunnel speed, model attitude, and jet flow for powered models were installed. This report presents a complete description of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel and auxiliary equipment, the calibration procedures, and the results of the 1977 and the 1990 wind tunnel calibration with test section air removal. Comparisons with previous calibrations showed that the modifications made to the wind tunnel had little or no effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the tunnel. Information required for planning experimental investigations and the use of test hardware and model support systems is also provided.

  12. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Doria, D; Kar, S; Ahmed, H; Alejo, A; Fernandez, J; Cerchez, M; Gray, R J; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Romagnani, L; Ruiz, J A; Sarri, G; Scullion, C; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states. PMID:26724017

  13. Econometrically calibrated computable general equilibrium models: Applications to the analysis of energy and climate politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schu, Kathryn L.

    Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements

  14. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  15. Absolute calibration of photostimulable image plate detectors used as (0.5-20 MeV) high-energy proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Mancić, A; Fuchs, J; Antici, P; Gaillard, S A; Audebert, P

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the absolute calibration of photostimulable image plates (IPs) used as proton detectors is presented. The calibration is performed in a wide range of proton energies (0.5-20 MeV) by exposing simultaneously the IP and calibrated detectors (radiochromic films and solid state detector CR39) to a source of broadband laser-accelerated protons, which are spectrally resolved. The final result is a calibration curve that enables retrieving the proton number from the IP signal. PMID:18681694

  16. Energy Calibration of a CdTe Photon Counting Spectral Detector with Consideration of its Non-Convergent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components. PMID:27077856

  17. Energy Calibration of a CdTe Photon Counting Spectral Detector with Consideration of its Non-Convergent Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Kang, Dong-Goo; Jin, Seung Oh; Kim, Insoo; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs) is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM) CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components. PMID:27077856

  18. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  19. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  20. Development of a low energy ion source for ROSINA ion mode calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jaeckel, Annette; Balsiger, Hans

    2006-10-15

    The European Rosetta mission on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will remain for more than a year in the close vicinity (1 km) of the comet. The two ROSINA mass spectrometers on board Rosetta are designed to analyze the neutral and ionized volatile components of the cometary coma. However, the relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft will be minimal and also the velocity of the outgassing particles is below 1 km/s. This combination leads to very low ion energies in the surrounding plasma of the comet, typically below 20 eV. Additionally, the spacecraft may charge up to a few volts in this environment. In order to simulate such plasma and to calibrate the mass spectrometers, a source for ions with very low energies had to be developed for the use in the laboratory together with the different gases expected at the comet. In this paper we present the design of this ion source and we discuss the physical parameters of the ion beam like sensitivity, energy distribution, and beam shape. Finally, we show the first ion measurements that have been performed together with one of the two mass spectrometers.

  1. Calibration of Energy-Specific TDDFT for Modeling K-edge XAS Spectra of Light Elements.

    PubMed

    Lestrange, Patrick J; Nguyen, Phu D; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-07-14

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has become a powerful technique in chemical physics, because of advances in synchrotron technology that have greatly improved its temporal and spectroscopic resolution. Our recent work on energy-specific time-dependent density functional theory (ES-TDDFT) allows for the direct calculation of excitation energies in any region of the absorption spectrum, from UV-vis to X-ray. However, the ability of different density functional theories to model X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of light elements has not yet been verified for ES-TDDFT. This work is a calibration of the ability of existing DFT kernels and basis sets to reproduce experimental K-edge excitation energies. Results were compared against 30 different transitions from gas-phase experiments. We focus on six commonly used density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP, PBE1PBE, BP86, HSE06, LC-ωPBE) and various triple-ζ basis sets. The effects of core and diffuse functions are also investigated. PMID:26575736

  2. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  3. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-06-07

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

  4. AET's new energy-efficient facility gears up for production

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, A.

    1993-01-01

    American Energy Technologies, Inc. (AET), a company based just north of Green Cove Springs, Florida, has become the largest manufacturer of solar thermal products in the U.S. Phase 1 of the construction of AET's new manufacturing facility, which commenced in October 1992, was completed in April 1993. It houses high-output tooling designed by AET to ensure affordable, high-quality solar thermal hardware which is rated among the most efficient in the world today. The AET facility has integrated a number of energy-efficient design considerations and conservation measures. The passive-solar design of the building minimizes direct solar gain in the summer and maximizes tropical winds for passive cooling. Strategically placed native landscaping requires minimal maintenance, thus reducing water consumption, and provides natural shading for the offices. The exterior walls are constructed of Poly Steel hollow-core styrofoam forms filled with pumped concrete. This design provides an insulation rate of R-22, a wind load of 160 mph, and a two-hour fire rating. The light-colored office and the plant's exterior skin assist in reducing the cooling load with the protection of Lomit, a spray-applied radiant barrier manufactured by SOLEC Corporation, which coats the office roof decks. Climate control for the manufacturing area is provided by an AET solar heating system which works in tandem with two LPG Amana Command Aire 80s for back up. Office space heating is supplied by a warm forced-air system by US Solar Corporation which utilizes a 320-square-foot solar array with a 1,000-gallon storage tank. Circulation is powered by a Siemens Solar Pro photovoltaic array and the thermal system also provides solar hot water for the manufacturing process.

  5. EnergySolution's Clive Disposal Facility Operational Research Model - 13475

    SciTech Connect

    Nissley, Paul; Berry, Joanne

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions owns and operates a licensed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Clive, Utah. The Clive site receives low-level radioactive waste from various locations within the United States via bulk truck, containerised truck, enclosed truck, bulk rail-cars, rail boxcars, and rail inter-modals. Waste packages are unloaded, characterized, processed, and disposed of at the Clive site. Examples of low-level radioactive waste arriving at Clive include, but are not limited to, contaminated soil/debris, spent nuclear power plant components, and medical waste. Generators of low-level radioactive waste typically include nuclear power plants, hospitals, national laboratories, and various United States government operated waste sites. Over the past few years, poor economic conditions have significantly reduced the number of shipments to Clive. With less revenue coming in from processing shipments, Clive needed to keep its expenses down if it was going to maintain past levels of profitability. The Operational Research group of EnergySolutions were asked to develop a simulation model to help identify any improvement opportunities that would increase overall operating efficiency and reduce costs at the Clive Facility. The Clive operations research model simulates the receipt, movement, and processing requirements of shipments arriving at the facility. The model includes shipment schedules, processing times of various waste types, labor requirements, shift schedules, and site equipment availability. The Clive operations research model has been developed using the WITNESS{sup TM} process simulation software, which is developed by the Lanner Group. The major goals of this project were to: - identify processing bottlenecks that could reduce the turnaround time from shipment arrival to disposal; - evaluate the use (or idle time) of labor and equipment; - project future operational requirements under different forecasted scenarios. By identifying

  6. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in

  7. Calibrating the imaging system of the high-energy solar spectroscopic imager (HESSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Knud; Bialkowski, Jacek; Burri, F.; Fivian, M.; Hajdas, W.; Mchedlishvili, A.; Ming, P.; Welte, J.; Zehnder, Alex

    2000-07-01

    The primary object of HESSI is to study the explosive energy release in solar flares. HESSI will image flares with spatial resolution ranging between 2 and 35 arcseconds over the energy range 3 keV to 20 MeV. The system is based on Fourier-transform imaging in connection with high-resolution Ge-detectors. HESSI uses 9 Rotating Modulation Collimators, each consisting of a pair of widely separated (1.55 m) grids mounted on the rotating spacecraft. The grid pitches range from 34 micron to 2.75 mm in steps of sqrt(3). This gives angular resolutions that are spaced logarithmically from 2.3 arcseconds to 3 arcmin, allowing sources to be imaged over a wide range of angular scales. In our design the most critical performance parameter, the relative twist between the two grids of each pair--can be very precisely monitored on ground (on a level of several arcseconds) by a special Twist Monitoring System (TMS). Extensive measurements and cross-calibrations between the TMS and several coordinate measuring machines before and after the environmental tests demonstrated the precision and stability of the alignment to be on the order of 5 arcseconds.

  8. Calibration and evaluation of an electronic sensor for rainfall kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Madden, L V; Wilson, L L; Ntahimpera, N

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT A novel sensor for measuring the kinetic energy of impacting raindrops, developed based on a soil-mass erosion sensor, was tested in the laboratory, with a rain simulator, and in the field. Drop impactions on the sensor-consisting of a piezoelectric crystal and associated electronics-produce an electrical charge that equals a fixed amount of energy. Calibration of the sensor was done in the laboratory using water drops of known diameter impacting with known velocity, and thus, with known kinetic energy. The relationship between pulse-count output of the sensor minus the background pulse counts when no drops were impacting (O; per min) and kinetic energy flux density (i.e., power [P; mJ cm(-2) min(-1)]) was found to be described by the formula P; = (0.204 + 0.065 . O)(0.67). The measurement threshold was 0.34 mJ cm(-2) min(-1). Using the sensor, generated rains with intensities of 23 to 48 mm/h were found to have powers of 0.4 to 2.2 mJ cm(-2) min(-1). In 2 years of field testing, 85 individual rain episodes were monitored, with mean intensities ranging from 0.1 to 42 mm/h. These rains had mean powers ranging from 0 to 5 mJ cm(-2) min(-1), and the highest power for a 5-min sampling period was 10 mJ cm(-2) min(-1). Both power and intensity varied greatly over time within rain episodes, and there was considerable variation in power at any given rain intensity, emphasizing the importance of measuring rather than simply predicting power. Although there was no known true power measurements for the generated or natural rains, estimates were realistic based on theoretical calculations, assuming that the gamma distribution represents raindrop sizes. The sensor is important in assessing the risk of rain splash dispersal of plant pathogens. PMID:18944873

  9. How well can calibrated Thornthwaite Mather models predict the variability in soil moisture observed in green infrastructure facilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture patterns influence hydrologic fluxes (infiltration/percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff) as well the biogeochemical processes (nutrient transformations, redox potential, etc), and ecosystem functions and services that depend on them. A new generation of urban water management practices (e.g. green infrastructure technologies) alter soil moisture patterns in potentially dramatic ways, for example by retrofitting soil media into and onto formerly impervious surfaces, and/or by routing impervious surface runoff to vegetated areas. However, the hydrologic models typically used to predict the impact of these new practices rarely track the soil moisture state. In this study, we use the Thornthwaite Mather (T/M) approach to simulate the variability in soil moisture observed in green roofs and urban tree pits. Soil moisture was monitored continuously at hourly time steps using Decagon soil moisture probes installed at three different depths in a green roof (for six months) and in a tree pit (for two months). Tipping bucket precipitation gages were also installed on each site. T/M models were constructed for each system, and calibrated separately to each of three different weeks of observations by adjusting the porosity, field capacity, and wilting point, as well as the mathmatical form of the soil moisture decay function until the lowest possible standard error was achieved. We present the variability in the best fit hydrologic properties derived from the three separate calibration exercises for each system. We then use the models to generate soil moisture time series over the entire periods of observation, and use this validation exercise to discuss the potential usefullness of the T/M approach in urban green infrastructure studies.

  10. Cogeneration energy-recovery facility feasibility study: environmental rport

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    Analyses are given of the impacts on the broad environment that will result from the construction and operation of the Nashville Electric Service Cogeneration Energy Recovery facility (NES CERF). Analyses are presented for water, waste-water, air and solid waste environmental impacts, as well as safety, health and socioeconomic considerations. The environmental, safety, health and socioeconomic impacts of the project will be minimal particularly when the positive secondary energy and landfill impacts are considered. All legal and administrative demands resulting from the proposed construction have and will be met. The time frame required to obtain necessary environmental permits will not require an extension of the construction schedule set up for the project. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations can be made: owner should monitor the CERF environmental responses and output as necessary in order to keep all environmental, safety, health and socioeconomic impacts at satisfactory levels; owner management should remain abreast of legislative developments in the areas of water, air and solid waste, in order to anticipate any necessary changes in procedures and operations; and frameworks should be set up to insure and maintain employee safety and operational training at peak levels.

  11. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and

  12. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  13. Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C; Ping, Y; Song, P M; Throop, A

    2007-12-10

    The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

  14. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... well as autoclave one of the facility have been constructed in accordance with the requirements of the... number 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1, and 2.4 as well as autoclave one of the facility have been constructed in... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services...

  15. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  16. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band filters centered at Ly{alpha} at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  17. TU-F-18A-05: An X-Ray Fluorescence Technique for Energy Calibration of Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S; Barber, W; Iwanczyk, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of energy response calibration of a Si strip photon-counting detector by using the x-ray fluorescence technique. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si strips. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing Ag, I, Ba, and Gd, were placed in small plastic aliquots with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known energies for materials. The energy resolution was derived from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the fluorescence peaks. In addition, the angular dependence of the recorded fluorescence spectra was studied at 30°, 60°, and 120°. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The recorded pulse height was calibrated with respect to photon energy and the gain and offset values were calculated to be 7.0 mV/keV and −69.3 mV, respectively. Negligible variation in energy calibration was observed among the four energy thresholds. The variation among different pixels was estimated to be approximately 1 keV. The energy resolution of the detector was estimated to be 7.9% within the investigated energy range. Conclusion: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the detector. The proposed x-ray fluorescence technique provides an accurate and efficient way to calibrate the energy response of a photon-counting detector.

  18. Simulating SiD Calorimetry: Software Calibration Procedures and Jet Energy Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, Ron; /SLAC

    2009-02-23

    Simulated calorimeter performance in the SiD detector is examined. The software calibration procedures are described, as well as the perfect pattern recognition PFA reconstruction. Performance of the SiD calorimeters is summarized with jet energy resolutions from calorimetry only, perfect pattern recognition and the SiD PFA algorithm. Presented at LCWS08[1]. Our objective is to simulate the calorimeter performance of the SiD detector, with and without a Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA). Full Geant4 simulations using SLIC[2] and the SiD simplified detector geometry (SiD02) are used. In this geometry, the calorimeters are represented as layered cylinders. The EM calorimeter is Si/W, with 20 layers of 2.5mm W and 10 layers of 5mm W, segmented in 3.5 x 3.5mm{sup 2} cells. The HAD calorimeter is RPC/Fe, with 40 layers of 20mm Fe and a digital readout, segmented in 10 x 10mm{sup 2} cells. The barrel detectors are layered in radius, while the endcap detectors are layered in z(along the beam axis).

  19. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  20. Accuracy of relativistic energy-consistent pseudopotentials for superheavy elements 111-118: Molecular calibration calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael

    2013-01-28

    Relativistic energy-consistent pseudopotentials modelling the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian with a finite nucleus model for the superheavy elements with nuclear charges 111-118 were calibrated in atomic and molecular calculations against fully relativistic all-electron reference data. Various choices for the adjustment of the f-potentials were investigated and an improved parametrization is recommended. Using the resulting pseudopotentials relativistic all-electron reference data can be reproduced at the self-consistent field level with average absolute (relative) errors of 0.0030 A (0.15%) for bond lengths and 2.79 N m{sup -1} (1.26%) for force constants for 24 diatomic test molecules, i.e., neutral or singly charged monohydrides, monofluorides, and monochlorides with closed-shell electronic structure. At the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory level the corresponding average deviations are 0.0033 A (0.15%) for bond lengths and 2.86 N m{sup -1} (1.40%) for force constants. Corresponding improved f-potentials were also derived for the pseudopotentials modelling in addition the leading contributions from quantum electrodynamics.

  1. Public participation in energy facility siting. Part 2; Future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlatch, E.E. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-08-01

    The first planning era for energy facility siting was typified by technological decision making in a climate of eminent domain. The second planning era, from 1970 to present, involves regulatory/adjudicatory decision making in a climate of adversarial proceedings. However, outcomes are not much different than in the first: Decisions are still largely made on technological grounds, sites are secretly selected and anonymously secured, and public participation has little effect on decisions. The result has been endgame litigation that delays needed projects increases cost, and polarizes participants. Utilities are understandably reluctant to plan large base-load plants, yet almost all projections of electricity use indicate that such plants will be needed after 1996, if not before. The author discusses how it is in the self-interest of all three principal actors---industry, environmental groups, and state and local government---to move beyond confrontation to a third planning era based on negotiation. Unassisted negotiation (open siting or open planning) and assisted negotiation (facilitation and mediation) promise to produce mutual gain for all parties through cooperative and creative problem solving. Most importantly, they lay the groundwork for future productive interaction.

  2. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  3. ENERGY PARTITIONING, ENERGY COUPLING (EPEC) EXPERIMENTS AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Dunlop, W H; Compton, S M; Kane, J O; Mirkarimi, P B; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2012-01-05

    The energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will simultaneously measure the coupling of energy into both ground shock and air-blast overpressure from a laser-driven target. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of seismic and air-blast phenomena caused by a nuclear weapon. In what follows, we discuss the motivation for our investigation and briefly describe NIF. Then, we introduce the EPEC experiments, including diagnostics, in more detail.

  4. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  5. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide (AERG): Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Healthcare Facilities (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Shekhar, D.; Pless, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities is part of a series of retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures (EEMs), the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) are intended to address key segments of the U.S. commercial building stock: retail stores, office buildings, K-12 schools, grocery stores, and healthcare facilities. The guides' general project planning considerations are applicable nationwide; the energy and cost savings estimates for recommended EEMs were developed based on energy simulations and cost estimates for an example hospital tailored to five distinct climate regions. These results can be extrapolated to other U.S. climate zones. Analysis is presented for individual EEMs, and for packages of recommended EEMs for two project types: existing building commissioning projects that apply low-cost and no-cost measures, and whole-building retrofits involving more capital-intensive measures.

  6. 78 FR 6091 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement Take notice that on December 12, 2012, Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership (Enbridge Energy), with the support...

  7. Studies on the effective energy of x-rays generated by ECR and their use for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeter badges in low energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    2005-04-01

    The effective energy of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) x-ray source has been altered by keeping a target disk at the cavity wall in the exit port. The source has been tuned for the effective energy of 40 and 70 keV. The use of the source for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeter badges in the low energy region (<150 keV) has been explored.

  8. Calibration of seasonal forecasts over Euro-Mediterranean region: improve climate information for the applications in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable climate information, calibrated for the specific geographic domain, are critical for an effective planning of operations in industrial sectors, and more in general, for all the human activities. The connection between climate and energy sector became particularly evident in the last decade, due to the diffusion of renewable energy sources and the consequent attention on the socio-economical effects of extreme climate events .The energy sector needs reliable climate information in order to plan effectively power plants operations and forecast energy demand and renewable output. On time-scales longer than two weeks (seasonal), it is of critical importance the optimization of global climate information on the local domains needed by specific applications. An application that is distinctly linked with climate is electricity demand forecast, in fact, especially during cold/hot periods, the electricity usage patterns are influenced by the use of electric heating/cooling equipments which diffusion is steadily increasing worldwide [McNeil & Letschert, 2007]. Following an approach similar to [Navarra & Tribbia, 2005], we find a linear relationship between seasonal forecasts main modes of temperature anomaly and the main modes of reanalysis on Euro-Mediterranean domain. Then, seasonal forecasts are calibrated by means of a cross-validation procedure with the aim of optimize climate information over Italy. Calibrated seasonal forecasts are used as predictor for electricity demand forecast on Italy during the summer (JJA) in the period 1990-2009. Finally, a comparison with the results obtained with not calibrated climate forecasts is performed. The proposed calibration procedure led to an improvements of electricity demand forecast performance with more evident effects on the North of Italy, reducing the overall RMSE of 10% (from 1.09 to 0.98). Furthermore, main principal components are visualized and put in relation with electricity demand patterns in

  9. Laser interferometer calibration station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campolmi, R. W.; Krupski, S. J.

    1981-10-01

    The laser interferometer is a versatile tool, used for calibration over both long and short distances. It is considered traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. The system developed under this project was to be capable of providing for the calibration of many types of small linear measurement devices. The logistics of the original concept of one location for calibration of all mics, calipers, etc. at a large manufacturing facility proved unworkable. The equipment was instead used for the calibration of the large machines used to manufacture cannon tubes.

  10. Technology for radiation efficiency measurement of high-power halogen tungsten lamp used in calibration of high-energy laser energy meter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Hu, Xiao Yang; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Chang, Yan

    2015-03-20

    The calibration method using a high-power halogen tungsten lamp as a calibration source has many advantages such as strong equivalence and high power, so it is very fit for the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. However, high-power halogen tungsten lamps after power-off still reserve much residual energy and continually radiate energy, which is difficult to be measured. Two measuring systems were found to solve the problems. One system is composed of an integrating sphere and two optical spectrometers, which can accurately characterize the radiative spectra and power-time variation of the halogen tungsten lamp. This measuring system was then calibrated using a normal halogen tungsten lamp made of the same material as the high-power halogen tungsten lamp. In this way, the radiation efficiency of the halogen tungsten lamp after power-off can be quantitatively measured. In the other measuring system, a wide-spectrum power meter was installed far away from the halogen tungsten lamp; thus, the lamp can be regarded as a point light source. The radiation efficiency of residual energy from the halogen tungsten lamp was computed on the basis of geometrical relations. The results show that the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency was improved with power-on time but did not change under constant power-on time/energy. All the tested halogen tungsten lamps reached 89.3% of radiation efficiency at 50 s after power-on. After power-off, the residual energy in the halogen tungsten lamp gradually dropped to less than 10% of the initial radiation power, and the radiation efficiency changed with time. The final total radiation energy was decided by the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency, the radiation efficiency of residual energy, and the total power consumption. The measuring uncertainty of total radiation energy was 2.4% (here, the confidence factor is two). PMID:25968513

  11. Integrated Framework for Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency in Healthcare Facilities Retrofit Projects.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Atefeh; Anumba, Chimay J; Messner, John I

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing focus on enhancing energy efficiency in healthcare facilities, many of which are decades old. Since replacement of all aging healthcare facilities is not economically feasible, the retrofitting of these facilities is an appropriate path, which also provides an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures. In undertaking energy efficiency retrofits, it is vital that the safety of the patients in these facilities is maintained or enhanced. However, the interactions between patient safety and energy efficiency have not been adequately addressed to realize the full benefits of retrofitting healthcare facilities. To address this, an innovative integrated framework, the Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency (PATSiE) framework, was developed to simultaneously enhance patient safety and energy efficiency. The framework includes a step -: by -: step procedure for enhancing both patient safety and energy efficiency. It provides a structured overview of the different stages involved in retrofitting healthcare facilities and improves understanding of the intricacies associated with integrating patient safety improvements with energy efficiency enhancements. Evaluation of the PATSiE framework was conducted through focus groups with the key stakeholders in two case study healthcare facilities. The feedback from these stakeholders was generally positive, as they considered the framework useful and applicable to retrofit projects in the healthcare industry. PMID:27492415

  12. Construction, testing and development of large wind energy facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windheim, R. (Editor); Cuntze, R. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Building large rotor blades and control of oscillations in large facilities are discussed. It is concluded that the technical problems in the design of large rotor blades and control of oscillations can be solved.

  13. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  14. A Novel Technique for Accurate Intensity Calibration of Area X-ray Detectors at Almost Arbitrary Energy.

    PubMed

    Moy, J P; Hammersley, A P; Svensson, S O; Thompson, A; Brown, K; Claustre, L; Gonzalez, A; McSweeney, S

    1996-01-01

    A novel intensity uniformity calibration method for area X-ray detectors is described. In diffraction experiments, amorphous lithium glass plates, containing doping elements chosen for their K edges just below the energy of the main beam, replace the crystallographic samples for the calibration measurement. The fluorescent emission excited by the X-ray beam is almost isotropic. It has exactly the same geometry as the diffracted radiation, and can be obtained at the same wavelength by proper selection of the element and excitation energy. A sample 2theta scan allows the emission distribution as a function of angle to be characterized with an accuracy of a fraction of a percent. This allows a flat-field correction of similar accuracy. The quality of crystallographic data collected with an X-ray image intensifier/CCD detector was significantly improved by flat-field correction using an Sr-doped lithium tetraborate glass. This technique can be applied to X-ray energies from 5 to 50 KeV; the calibration sample is small, stable and easily handled. PMID:16702651

  15. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  16. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  17. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  18. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  19. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  20. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  1. Feasibility of a small central cogenerated energy facility: Energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. N.

    1982-10-01

    The thermal economic feasibility of a small cogenerated energy facility designed to serve several industries in the Stockyards area was investigated. Cogeneration options included two dual fuel diesels and two gas turbines, all with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired boiler cases, also low sulphur coal and municipal refuse. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The fired boiler cogeneration systems employed back pressure steam turbines. The refuse fired cases utilized electrical capacities, 8500 to 52,400 lbm/hr and 0 to 9.9 MW (e), respectively. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which was displaced was sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act). The facility was operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Moored Balloons, and the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Facilities in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Mark; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Arctic Observing Networks are essential to meet growing policy, social, commercial, and scientific needs. Calibrated, high-quality arctic geophysical datasets that span ten years or longer are especially important for climate studies, climate model initializations and validations, and for related climate policy activities. For example, atmospheric data and derived atmospheric forcing estimates are critical for sea-ice simulations. International requirements for well-coordinated, long-term, and sustained Arctic Observing Networks and easily-accessible data sets collected by those networks have been recognized by many high-level workshops and reports (Arctic Council Meetings and workshops, National Research Council reports, NSF workshops and others). The recent Sustaining Arctic Observation Network (SAON) initiative sponsored a series of workshops to "develop a set of recommendations on how to achieve long-term Arctic-wide observing activities that provide free, open, and timely access to high-quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits." This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the

  3. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  4. A Model School Facility for Energy (with Related Video)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Seth; Crutchfield, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Energy modeling can be a powerful tool for managing energy-reduction concepts for an institution. Different types of energy models are developed at various stages of a project to provide data that can verify or disprove suggested energy-efficiency measures. Education institutions should understand what an energy model can do and, more important,…

  5. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2005-02-01

    This report documents the findings of the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) assessment at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, by a team of PNNL engineers under contract to the Installation Management Agency (IMA) Southeast Region Office (SERO). Funding support was also provided by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The purpose of the assessment was to determine how energy is consumed at Fort Buchanan, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

  6. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  7. Calibration of heavy ion beam probe energy analyzer using mesh probe in the JFT-2M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Miura, Y.; Ido, T.; Hamada, Y.

    2003-09-01

    A direct calibration technique for a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer using the mesh probe is established. When an ac bias voltage (±1.0 kV, 50 Hz) is applied to the inner mesh box and He gas is puffed into the vacuum vessel after setting the sample volume within the inner mesh box, it is confirmed that the normalized difference (ND) depends linearly on the applied bias voltage. The slope of the ND with respect to the bias voltage, d(ND)/d(Φbias), shows the clear dependence on the in-plane entrance angle to the analyzer slit that is expected from the ideal analyzer model. Although the mesh transparency of the beam is about 40%, good signal to noise ratio is obtained with a beam current of about 10 μA, and the uncertainty for an absolute calibration of the energy analyzer is less than 10%. Calibration results are in good agreement with previous results using a standard gas target method.

  8. Energy resource recovery facility for Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    An outline of factors which should be considered in planning a solid waste facility is presented. The following topics are considered: (1) information on the technical findings; (2) existing waste disposal facilities, future systems, and waste characteristics; (3) markets for the waste resources are identified; (4) presents a rational means for site evaluation by assigning numerical values to four principal factors in decision making; (5) the refuse derived fuel system and the modular combustion system is described; (6) risks and implementation issues for the most promising systems are identified.

  9. Calibration of an Energy Water Balance Model Using Satellite Data of Land Surface Temperature for the Upper Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbari, Chiara, Mancini, Marco; Li, Jiren; Su, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out among the project “Application of remote sensing and other space technology to hydrology and water resources (ID 5281)”. This poster presents a new methodology for the calibration of distributed hydrological models at basin scale by constraining an internal model variable, the pixel-scale equilibrium temperature. Soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters are then calibrated in each pixel of the domain according to the comparison between observed and simulated land surface temperature minimizing the differences. The model algorithm solves the system of energy and mass balances in terms of a representative equilibrium temperature (RET) that is the land surface temperature that closes the energy balance equation and so governs the fluxes of energy and mass over the basin domain. This equilibrium surface temperature, which is a critical model state variable, is comparable to LST as retrieved from operational remote sensing data (MODIS and AATSR). A traditional “trial and error” calibration procedure is also applied by comparing only discharge measurements in the available cross section. The distributed hydrological energy water balance model (FEST-EWB - Flash-flood Event-based Spatially-distributed rainfall-runoff Transformation- Energy Water Balance) has been implemented for the Upper Yangtze River basin with an extent of about 1,000,000 Km2 at spatial resolution of 5km and temporal resolution of 1 hour. Results are provided in terms of hourly evapotranspiration, soil moisture and land surface temperature maps for the period between 2000 to 2004 where ground and satellite data are available for engineering and environmental applications as parsimonious irrigation, real time flood forecast, and quantitative water resources availability. The model accuracy was controlled from the comparison with traditional discharge daily data series and also from the comparison between model and satellite land surface temperature used as a proxy

  10. SU-D-204-01: Dual-Energy Calibration for Breast Density Measurement Using Spectral Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H; Cho, H; Kumar, N; Sennung, D; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of minimizing the systematic errors in dual-energy breast density quantification induced by the use of tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms as the calibration basis materials. Methods: Dual-energy calibration using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms was performed on a spectral mammography system based on scanning multi-slit Si strip photon-counting detectors. The plastic phantom calibration used plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms as the basis materials, which have different x-ray attenuation properties compared to water and lipid in actual breast tissue. Two methods were used to convert the dual-energy decomposition measurements in plastic phantom thicknesses into true water and lipid basis. The first method was based entirely on the theoretical x-ray attenuation coefficients of the investigated materials in the mammographic energy range. The conversion matrix was determined from least-squares fitting of the target material using the reported attenuation coefficients of water and lipid. The second method was developed based on experimental calibrations, which measured the low-and high-energy signals of pure water and lipid of known thicknesses. A non-linear rational function was used to correlate the decomposed thicknesses to the known values, so that the conversion coefficients can be determined. Both methods were validated using independent measurements of water and lipid mixture phantoms. The correlation of the dual-energy decomposition measurements and the known values were studied with linear regression analysis. Results: There was an excellent linear correlation between the converted water thicknesses and the known values. The slopes of the linear fits were determined to be 0.63 and 1.03 for the simulation and experimental results, respectively. The non-linear fitting in the experimental approach reduced the root-mean-square (RMS) errors from approximately 3.4 mm to 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The results suggested

  11. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  12. 75 FR 39926 - Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (DOE/EIS-0415)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...The Western Area Power Administration (Western) received a request from Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin Electric) to interconnect its proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project (Project) to Western's transmission system. Basin Electric's Project includes the construction of a new 300-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired combined-cycle generation facility in Brookings County, South......

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities? 102-74.165 Section 102-74.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.165 - What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What energy standards must Federal agencies follow for existing facilities? 102-74.165 Section 102-74.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY...

  15. 76 FR 52966 - Kawailoa Wind Energy Generation Facility, Oahu, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ...), Hawaiian goose (Branta sandvicensis), and Hawaiian hoary bat, which have collided with the wind turbine...-turbine commercial wind energy generation facility at Kawailoa on Kamehameha Schools' Kawailoa Plantation..., Hawaii. The proposed facility will consist of 30 wind turbine generators (WTGs), a maintenance...

  16. Dosimetric calibration of solid state detectors with low energy β sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Pia Toni, Maria; Capote, Roberto; Pena, Juan; Pasciuti, Katia; Bovi, Maurizio; Perrone, Franco; Azario, Luigi; Lazzeri, Mauro; Gaudino, Diego; Piermattei, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    A PTW Optidos plastic scintillation and a PTW natural diamond detectors were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water with β fields produced by 90Sr + 90Y and 85Kr reference sources. Each source was characterized at the Italian National Metrological Institute - the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of ENEA (ENEA-INMRI) - for two different series, 1 and 2, of ISO reference β-particle radiation fields. Beam flattening filters were used for the series 1 β fields to give uniform absorbed dose rates over a large area at a source-to-reference plane distance of 30 cm. The series 2 β fields were produced at source-to-reference plane distance of 10 cm, without the beam flattening filters, in order to obtain higher absorbed dose rates. The reference absorbed dose rate values were directly determined by the Italian national standard for β-particle dosimetry (a PTW extrapolation ionization chamber) for the series 1 β fields and by a calibrated transfer standard chamber, (a Capintec thin fixed-volume parallel plate ionization chamber) for the series 2 β fields. Finally the two solid state detectors were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water with the series 2 β field. The expanded uncertainties of the calibration coefficients obtained for the plastic scintillation dosimeter were 10% and 12% (2SD) for the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr sources, respectively. The expanded uncertainties obtained for the diamond dosimeter were 10% (2SD) and 16% (2SD) for the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr sources, respectively. The good results obtained with the 90Sr + 90Y and the 85Kr β sources encourage to implement this procedure to calibrate this type of detectors at shorter distances and with other β sources of interest in brachytherapy, for example the 106Ru source.

  17. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  18. Ingham County Medical Care Facility solar energy project (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-20

    A complete set of as-built drawings for the Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility's solar water heating system is included. These drawings accompany report No. DOE/CS/32382-T1 and DOE/CS/32382-T2. (LS)

  19. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  20. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  2. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  3. 75 FR 10243 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 19, 2010, Enbridge...

  4. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  5. Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

    2007-10-01

    Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

  6. Energy Management for School Administrators: Curriculum Infusion Facilities Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Service Center Region 7, Kilgore, TX.

    Presented are the state guidelines and framework for the infusion of energy education into the Texas public school curriculum. Designed to assist teachers, administrators, and other school personnel in the process of infusing energy education concepts, this guide focuses on the basic concerns and needs of the people as related to energy and…

  7. Calibration and Finite Element Implementation of an Energy-Based Material Model for Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to analyze the complex thermo-mechanically coupled material behavior of shape memory alloys during product engineering. The benefit of the simulations strongly depends on the quality of the underlying material model. In this contribution, we discuss a variational approach which is based solely on energetic considerations and demonstrate that unique calibration of such a model is sufficient to predict the material behavior at varying ambient temperature. In the beginning, we recall the necessary equations of the material model and explain the fundamental idea. Afterwards, we focus on the numerical implementation and provide all information that is needed for programing. Then, we show two different ways to calibrate the model and discuss the results. Furthermore, we show how this model is used during real-life industrial product engineering.

  8. DOE (Department of Energy) radiological calibrations intercomparison program: Results of fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.K.; McDonald, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    In Fiscal Year 1989, the instrument sets were used to intercompare calibration fields associated with {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}AmBe and {sup 252}Cf. The results of the delivered-to-measured exposure rate and absorbed dose rate ratios were 1.00 {plus minus} 0.01 for photon measurements, 1.01 {plus minus} 0.01 for TLD measurements, 1.00 {plus minus} 0.02 for neutron measurements and a ratio of 1.03 for beta measurements. From the excellent agreement shown here it is evident that the radiological calibration intercomparison program is achieving its objective. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. A case study of energy savings and environmental impact reduction for a textile facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, D.K.; Risi, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    The Industrial Energy Center (IEC) is a university-based energy management group dedicated to improving energy efficiency in industrial facilities throughout Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. The goal of the IEC is to assist area industries by increasing their cost effectiveness and product quality in terms of energy use in manufacturing. The IEC aspires to become the responsive resource for industries who are seeking a manufacturing advantage, or experiencing problems, related to the usage and management of energy. Fulfilling these goals is accomplished through a combination of energy training and education, on-site surveys of various energy-intensive processes, technical assistance, and applied research. The underlying purpose of all the energy-awareness efforts is to motivate the implementation of a formal, permanent, energy management program as an integral part of the client`s operation. The initial survey report is only a partial list of energy-related cost savings opportunities. The IEC will continue to make its services available if more in-depth training or advising is desired to implement an energy management program or the energy conservation measures (ECM) identified in the report, or if, after the facility has acted on the initial recommendations, additional assistance is desired to identify further ECMs. The IEC was invited to performed an energy survey at a textile finishing facility in southwestern Virginia. The remainder of this paper is dedicated to an overview of this energy survey and a discussion of the conservation measures identified.

  10. Energy management in long-term care facilities: a hot or cold issue?

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Discenza, R

    1981-01-01

    Conservation of energy resources through total energy management programs is receiving considerable attention in the health services sector. Although the total energy management concept has been favorably implemented in hospitals, the record is not entirely clear for other health care institutions. Thirty-one Arizona and 37 Minnesota long-term care facilities were surveyed to examine the attitudes, knowledge and practice of energy management in the nursing home context. Specific questions were directed toward average monthly energy costs, energy consumption, energy conservation methods implemented, energy conservation methods planned for future implementation, and administrator attitudes on the energy management problem. The results of this study indicate that energy is not perceived to be a major problem in long-term care facilities. Administrators generally lack basic knowledge about energy consumption and energy-related characteristics of their facilities. Few long-range plans and programs have been established to address energy problems. These results suggest the need for new energy policies in the health care system, particularly for institutions other than hospitals. PMID:10253193

  11. Lidar Calibration Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Nicolae, Doina; Mona, Lucia; Belegante, Livio; D'Amico, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the newly established Lidar Calibration Centre, a distributed infrastructure in Europe, whose goal is to offer services for complete characterization and calibration of lidars and ceilometers. Mobile reference lidars, laboratories for testing and characterization of optics and electronics, facilities for inspection and debugging of instruments, as well as for training in good practices are open to users from the scientific community, operational services and private sector. The Lidar Calibration Centre offers support for trans-national access through the EC HORIZON2020 project ACTRIS-2.

  12. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, F.; Kemp, G. E.; Barrios, M. A.; Pino, J.; Scott, H.; Ayers, S.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.; Regan, S. P.; Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Agliata, A.; Yaakobi, B.; Marshall, F. J.; Hamilton, R. A.; Jaquez, J.; Farrell, M.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-11-15

    The calibration campaign of the National Ignition Facility X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) was carried out at the OMEGA laser facility. Spherically symmetric, laser-driven, millimeter-scale x-ray sources of K-shell and L-shell emission from various mid-Z elements were designed for the 2–18 keV energy range of the NXS. The absolute spectral brightness was measured by two calibrated spectrometers. We compare the measured performance of the target design to radiation hydrodynamics simulations.

  13. NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

  14. NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    characterization program benefited from the 30-year operational experience of the CERES EOS sensors, as well as a stronger emphasis of radiometric characterization in the Statement of Work with the sensor provider. Improvements to the pre-flight program included increased spectral, spatial, and temporal sampling under vacuum conditions as well as additional tests to characterize the primary and transfer standards in the calibration facility. Future work will include collaboration with NIST to further enhance the understanding of the radiometric performance of this equipment prior to flight. The current effort summarizes these improvements to the CERES FM-5 pre-flight sensor characterization program, as well as modifications to inflight calibration procedures and operational tasking. In addition, an estimate of the impacts to the system level accuracy and traceability is presented.

  15. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for US Army Garrison, Japan - Honshu Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Kora, Angela R.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-03-09

    This report documents an assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Installation Management Command (IMCOM) Pacific Region Office (PARO). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at five U.S. Army Garrison-Japan (USAG-J) installations in the Honshu area, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

  16. Past, present and future low energy antiproton facilities at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Belochitskii, P.; Breuker, H.; Butin, F.; Carli, C.; Eriksson, T.; Maury, S.; Oelert, W.; Pasinelli, S.; Tranquille, G.

    2014-05-01

    Low energy antiprotons are available for physics experiments at CERN since the 1980s and have been used by a large variety of experiments. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR has been constructed as a complementary use of antiprotons available at that time for high energy physics and delivered beam to experiments mainly using slow extraction. After completion of LEAR exploitation, the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) was constructed (adaptation of the existing Antiproton Collector, AC) to allow for a simpler low energy antiproton scheme (only one accelerator operated with Antiprotons) with fast extraction well suited for trap experiments. The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring ELENA is a small synchrotron presently constructed to further decelerate antiprotons from the AD in a controlled manner, and to reduce emittances with the help of an electron cooler to improve the capture efficiencies of existing experiments and allow for additional ones.

  17. Statistical Electronic Structure Calibration Study of the CCSD(T*)-F12b Method for Atomization Energies.

    PubMed

    Feller, David

    2015-07-16

    In the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12b coupled cluster method only the singles and doubles component of the energy benefits from inclusion of terms involving the interelectronic distance. Consequently, only that component exhibits accelerated convergence with respect to the 1-particle basis set. The smaller perturbative triples component converges at the same rate as the corresponding piece in standard CCSD(T). With the alternative CCSD(T*)-F12b method the triples correlation energy is scaled up by the ratio of explicitly correlated to standard second-order perturbation theory correlation energies in an attempt to better approximate the basis set limit. An extensive and diverse 212 molecule collection of reference total atomization energies, developed with large basis sets (up to aug-cc-pV9Z in some cases) and standard CCSD(T), was used to calibrate the performance of CCSD(T*). Scaling of the (T) energy led to improved results relative to raw F12b values but only provided a statistical advantage over previously proposed complete basis set extrapolation techniques for the smallest basis sets. With larger sets, scaling (T) produced noticeably poorer results, sometimes by a factor of 2. In agreement with earlier studies, basis set extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b was found to exhibit a systematic bias toward overestimating reference atomization energies with an error that increases with the magnitude of the valence correlation energy. PMID:25730633

  18. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Margarone, D.; Parasiliti Palumbo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Russo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G. F.; Salamone, S.

    2014-10-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy.

  19. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  20. Energy Dependence of Measured CT Numbers on Substituted Materials Used for CT Number Calibration of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Jabbari, Nasrollah; aghdasi, Mehdi; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For accurate dose calculations, it is necessary to provide a correct relationship between the CT numbers and electron density in radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy dependence of measured CT numbers on substituted materials used for CT number calibration of radiotherapy TPSs and the resulting errors in the treatment planning calculation doses. Materials and Methods In this study, we designed a cylindrical water phantom with different materials used as tissue equivalent materials for the simulation of tissues and obtaining the related CT numbers. For evaluating the effect of CT number variations of substituted materials due to energy changing of scanner (kVp) on the dose calculation of TPS, the slices of the scanned phantom at three kVp's were imported into the desired TPSs (MIRS and CorePLAN). Dose calculations were performed on two TPSs. Results The mean absolute percentage differences between the CT numbers of CT scanner and two treatment planning systems for all the samples were 3.22%±2.57% for CorePLAN and 2.88%±2.11% for MIRS. It was also found that the maximum absolute percentage difference between all of the calculated doses from each photon beam of linac (6 and 15 MV) at three kVp's was less than 1.2%. Discussion The present study revealed that, for the materials with effective low atomic number, the mean CT number increased with increasing energy, which was opposite for the materials with an effective high atomic number. We concluded that the tissue substitute materials had a different behavior in the energy ranges from 80 to 130 kVp. So, it is necessary to consider the energy dependence of the substitute materials used for the measurement or calibration of CT number for radiotherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27391672

  1. Energy Efficient Florida Educational Facilities: Phase VI. Progress Report: Phase I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.

    A Florida study examined differences in energy uses in two adjacent portable classrooms to determine if these types of facilities can be made more energy efficient through retrofitting. Retrofitting included an efficient lighting system, new air conditioners, and reflective white metal roofs. Data show the white metal roofing reduced roof,…

  2. 76 FR 26320 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility... NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (the licensee), to withdraw its January 27, 2011, application for...

  3. The Economy of Energy Conservation in Educational Facilities. A Report. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    This is an update of the 1973 edition of a guide for energy conservation in schools. This Educational Facilities Laboratories publication is an information source for teachers, school administrators, school maintenance personnel, school designers, or anyone interested in conserving energy in schools. Topics discussed include: (1) life-cycle…

  4. 78 FR 13695 - Information Collection: Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is notifying the public that we have submitted an information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. This ICR concerns the paperwork requirements in the regulations under ``Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on......

  5. Groundwater Remediation and Alternate Energy at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Holger

    2008-01-01

    White Sands Test Facility Core Capabilities: a) Remote Hazardous Testing of Reactive, Explosive, and Toxic Materials and Fluids; b) Hypergolic Fluids Materials and Systems Testing; c) Oxygen Materials and System Testing; d) Hypervelocity Impact Testing; e)Flight Hardware Processing; and e) Propulsion Testing. There is no impact to any drinking water well. Includes public wells and the NASA supply well. There is no public exposure. Groundwater is several hundred feet below ground. No air or surface water exposure. Plume is moving very slowly to the west. Plume Front Treatment system will stop this westward movement. NASA performs on-going monitoring. More than 200 wells and zones are routinely sampled. Approx. 850 samples are obtained monthly and analyzed for over 300 different hazardous chemicals.

  6. Energy deposition evaluation for ultra-low energy electron beam irradiation systems using calibrated thin radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S; Mori, Y; Nonaka, T; Hattori, T; Kasamatsu, Y; Haraguchi, D; Watanabe, Y; Uchiyama, K; Ishikawa, M

    2016-05-01

    For evaluation of on-site dosimetry and process design in industrial use of ultra-low energy electron beam (ULEB) processes, we evaluate the energy deposition using a thin radiochromic film and a Monte Carlo simulation. The response of film dosimeter was calibrated using a high energy electron beam with an acceleration voltage of 2 MV and alanine dosimeters with uncertainty of 11% at coverage factor 2. Using this response function, the results of absorbed dose measurements for ULEB were evaluated from 10 kGy to 100 kGy as a relative dose. The deviation between the responses of deposit energy on the films and Monte Carlo simulations was within 15%. As far as this limitation, relative dose estimation using thin film dosimeters with response function obtained by high energy electron irradiation and simulation results is effective for ULEB irradiation processes management. PMID:27250416

  7. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  8. Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

  9. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  10. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  11. Identification and energy calibration of hadronically decaying tau leptons with the ATLAS experiment in pp collisions at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bedikian, S.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J. Da; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. 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C.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savard, P.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Saadi, D. Shoaleh; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Denis, R. D. St.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the trigger and offline reconstruction, identification and energy calibration algorithms for hadronic decays of tau leptons employed for the data collected from pp collisions in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC center-of-mass energy . The performance of these algorithms is measured in most cases with decays to tau leptons using the full 2012 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb. An uncertainty on the offline reconstructed tau energy scale of 2-4 %, depending on transverse energy and pseudorapidity, is achieved using two independent methods. The offline tau identification efficiency is measured with a precision of 2.5 % for hadronically decaying tau leptons with one associated track, and of 4 % for the case of three associated tracks, inclusive in pseudorapidity and for a visible transverse energy greater than 20 . For hadronic tau lepton decays selected by offline algorithms, the tau trigger identification efficiency is measured with a precision of 2-8 %, depending on the transverse energy. The performance of the tau algorithms, both offline and at the trigger level, is found to be stable with respect to the number of concurrent proton-proton interactions and has supported a variety of physics results using hadronically decaying tau leptons at ATLAS.

  12. Energy-Efficiency & Water Institute Research Facility, Purdue University, (IN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nnanna, Agbai

    2015-01-30

    The renovation of the Schneider Avenue Building to construct two research laboratories within the building is complete. The research laboratories are for the Purdue Calumet Water Institute and the Energy Efficiency and Reliability Center. The Water Institute occupies approximately 1000+ SF of research space plus supporting offices. The Energy-Efficiency Center occupies approximately 1000+ SF that houses the research space. The labs will enhance the Water & Energy Institute’s research capabilities necessary to tackle these issues through the development of practical approaches critical to local government and industry. The addition of these research laboratories to the Purdue University Calumet campus is in both direct support of the University’s Strategic Plan as well as the 2008 Campus Master Plan that identifies a 20% shortage of research space.

  13. The DFVLR wind-energy test facility 'Ulrich Huetter' on Schnittlinger Berg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussmann, Alfred

    1986-11-01

    The DFVLR test facility for wind-energy systems (named after Ulrich Huetter, the designer of the 100-kW GFRP-rotor W 34 wind turbine first manufactured and tested in the 1950s) is described and illustrated with photographs. The history of the facility is traced, and current operations in gathering, archiving, processing, interpreting, and documenting performance-test data are outlined. The facility includes instrumentation for rotor telemetry, gondola motion measurements, and ground measurements and provides testing services to private users on both contract and leasing bases.

  14. Strategies for energy benchmarking in cleanrooms and laboratory-type facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sartor, Dale; Piette, Mary Ann; Tschudi, William; Fok, Stephen

    2000-06-01

    Buildings with cleanrooms and laboratories are growing in terms of total floor area and energy intensity. This building type is common in institutions such as universities and in many industries such as microelectronics and biotechnology. These buildings, with high ventilation rates and special environmental considerations, consume from 4 to 100 times more energy per square foot than conventional commercial buildings. Owners and operators of such facilities know they are expensive to operate, but have little way of knowing if their facilities are efficient or inefficient. A simple comparison of energy consumption per square foot is of little value. A growing interest in benchmarking is also fueled by: A new U.S. Executive Order removing the exemption of federal laboratories from energy efficiency goals, setting a 25% savings target, and calling for baseline guidance to measure progress; A new U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE initiative, Laboratories for the 21st Century, establishing voluntary performance goals and criteria for recognition; and A new PG and E market transformation program to improve energy efficiency in high tech facilities, including a cleanroom energy use benchmarking project. This paper identifies the unique issues associated with benchmarking energy use in high-tech facilities. Specific options discussed include statistical comparisons, point-based rating systems, model-based techniques, and hierarchical end-use and performance-metrics evaluations.

  15. Energy Conservation in Operation and Maintenance of Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Christopher; Burnau, Teresa

    1981-01-01

    Colleges and universities will need to maintain economic stability in the face of decreasing energy supplies, periodic fuel shortages, increasing prices, and tighter budgets. The necessary physical plant measures and the commitment required of the entire campus community are discussed. (MLW)

  16. The Economy of Energy Conservation in Educational Facilities. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts, this report sets forth available information for school architects and administrators facing the energy crisis. The booklet tells specifically how economies can be effected in the operation and maintenance of school buildings; in the modernization of existing schools; and in the planning of…

  17. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  18. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  19. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) External Stakeholders Workshop: Workshop Proceedings, 9 October 2008, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Komomua, C.; Kroposki, B.; Mooney, D.; Stoffel, T.; Parsons, B.; Hammond, S.; Kutscher, C.; Remick, R.; Sverdrup, G.; Hawsey, R.; Pacheco, M.

    2009-01-01

    On October 9, 2008, NREL hosted a workshop to provide an opportunity for external stakeholders to offer insights and recommendations on the design and functionality of DOE's planned Energy Systems Infrastructure Facility (ESIF). The goal was to ensure that the planning for the ESIF effectively addresses the most critical barriers to large-scale energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) deployment. This technical report documents the ESIF workshop proceedings.

  1. Calibration Of Oxygen Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalenski, M. A.; Rowe, E. L.; Mcphee, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Readings corrected for temperature, pressure, and humidity of air. Program for handheld computer developed to ensure accuracy of oxygen monitors in National Transonic Facility, where liquid nitrogen stored. Calibration values, determined daily, based on entries of data on barometric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Output provided directly in millivolts.

  2. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  3. Energy use and engineering audits at state-owned facilities in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1980-01-01

    The contents and results of two large computerized data bases maintained by the Minnesota Department of Administration are described and analyzed. One contains information on monthly fuel use from 1972 through 1978 for 42 large state facilities: community colleges, state universities, hospitals, prisons, and office buildings. The second contains the results of detailed engineering audits performed at 41 such institutions. The audits cover 270 buildings and include 2010 individual energy conservation recommendations. Several data base management issues are discussed. These include errors and their identification, development of simple and consistent definitions for key terms, and collection of information on the major determinants of energy use and conservation potentials at these facilities.

  4. Radiometric calibration and performance trends of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nathaniel; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

    2015-10-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments help to study the impact of clouds on the earth's radiation budget. There are currently five instruments- two each on board Aqua and Terra spacecraft and one on the Suomi NPP spacecraft to measure the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy, which represent two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 are on Terra, FM 3 and 4 are on Aqua, and FM5 is on Suomi NPP. The measurements are made by three sensors on each instrument: a shortwave sensor that measures the 0.3-5 microns wavelength band, a window sensor that measures the water vapor window between 8-12 microns, and a total sensor that measures all incident energy (0.3- >100 microns). The required accuracy of CERES measurements of 0.5% in the longwave and 1% in the shortwave is achieved through an extensive pre-launch ground calibration campaign as well as on-orbit calibration and validation activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for the FM1-FM4 instruments incorporate the latest calibration methodologies to improve on the Edition-3 data products. In this paper, we discuss the updated calibration methodology and present some validation studies to demonstrate the improvement in the trends using the CERES Edition-4 data products for all four instruments.

  5. SU-E-T-491: Importance of Energy Dependent Protons Per MU Calibration Factors in IMPT Dose Calculations Using Monte Carlo Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Randeniya, S; Mirkovic, D; Titt, U; Guan, F; Mohan, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), energy dependent, protons per monitor unit (MU) calibration factors are important parameters that determine absolute dose values from energy deposition data obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of MC-computed absolute dose distributions to the protons/MU calibration factors in IMPT. Methods: A “verification plan” (i.e., treatment beams applied individually to water phantom) of a head and neck patient plan was calculated using MC technique. The patient plan had three beams; one posterior-anterior (PA); two anterior oblique. Dose prescription was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. Of the total MUs, 58% was delivered in PA beam, 25% and 17% in other two. Energy deposition data obtained from the MC simulation were converted to Gy using energy dependent protons/MU calibrations factors obtained from two methods. First method is based on experimental measurements and MC simulations. Second is based on hand calculations, based on how many ion pairs were produced per proton in the dose monitor and how many ion pairs is equal to 1 MU (vendor recommended method). Dose distributions obtained from method one was compared with those from method two. Results: Average difference of 8% in protons/MU calibration factors between method one and two converted into 27 % difference in absolute dose values for PA beam; although dose distributions preserved the shape of 3D dose distribution qualitatively, they were different quantitatively. For two oblique beams, significant difference in absolute dose was not observed. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that protons/MU calibration factors can have a significant impact on absolute dose values in IMPT depending on the fraction of MUs delivered. When number of MUs increases the effect due to the calibration factors amplify. In determining protons/MU calibration factors, experimental method should be preferred in MC dose calculations

  6. Walkthrough screening evaluation field guide. Natural phenomena hazards at Department of Energy facilities: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, S.J.; Eli, M.W.; Salmon, M.W.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a large inventory of existing facilities. Many of these facilities were not designed and constructed to current natural phenomena hazard (NPH) criteria. The NPH events include earthquakes, extreme winds and tornadoes, and floods. DOE Order 5480.28 establishes policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE facilities. DOE is conducting a multiyear project to develop evaluation guidelines for assessing the condition and determining the need for upgrades at DOE facilities. One element of the NPH evaluation guidelines` development involves the existing systems and components at DOE facilities. This effort is described in detail in a cited reference. In the interim period prior to availability of the final guidelines, DOE facilities are encouraged to implement an NPH walk through screening evaluation process by which systems and components that need attention can be rapidly identified. Guidelines for conducting the walk through screening evaluations are contained herein. The result of the NPH walk through screening evaluation should be a prioritized list of systems and components that need further action. Simple and inexpensive fixes for items identified in the walk through as marginal or inadequate should be implemented without further study. By implementing an NPH walk through screening evaluation, DOE facilities may realize significant reduction in risk from NPH in the short term.

  7. High Energy Density Studies at the OMEGA laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehly, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The primary emphasis of the scientific program at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. We report on high-energy-density (HED) experiments that use the OMEGA laser to produce multi-megabar shocks in materials of interest to the national fusion effort and the associated HED sciences. We present measurements of the behavior of shocked diamond, in both the single-crystal and ultranano-crystalline forms used as an ablator material in fusion capsules. Using the impedance-matching technique both the Hugoniot and release behaviors are measured with respect to multiple reference materials. The release of shocked diamond into liquid deuterium is also measured. We present the results of sound-speed measurements in shocked quartz which is also used as a reference for sound speed measurements in CH and fused silica. This is done using an unsteady wave analysis that tracks the propagation of small perturbations in shock pressure as they traverse the shocked material from `piston' to shock front. The arrival times of these perturbations, as compared to the same in a reference material, provides the sound speed in the shock material. We also present results of optical and x-ray probing of shock waves in foam targets and solid targets, as well as the release plumes of shock material after shock breakout. The import of these measurements to the fusion program and basic HED science will be discussed and plans for future work presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  8. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  9. 77 FR 32621 - Developing Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects at Federal Facilities Using Private Capital Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Developing Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects at Federal Facilities Using Private Capital Draft AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... draft guidebook entitled Federal Renewable Energy Guide: Developing Large-Scale Renewable...

  10. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  11. Closing the US Fuel Cycle: Siting Considerations for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Facilities - Siting the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, A.; Boger, J.; Perry, J.

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), launched in February, 2006, proposes to introduce used nuclear fuel recycling in the United States (U.S.) with improved proliferation-resistance and a more effective waste management approach. This program is evaluating ways to close the fuel cycle in a manner that introduces the most advanced technologies of today and builds on recent breakthroughs in U.S. national laboratories while drawing on international and industry partnerships. Central to moving this advanced fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to commercial implementation is the development and siting of three proposed GNEP facilities: the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). These three projects are envisioned to introduce used fuel separations, advanced fuel fabrication, and fast reactor technology in a manner that efficiently recycles material, produces the most energy out of the existing inventory of used fuel, and improves our ability to manage nuclear waste. The CFTC and ABR are sited under GNEP but will depend on industry involvement and will not be covered by this paper. This paper will cover considerations for siting the AFCF. The AFCF will provide the U.S. with the capabilities required to evaluate technologies that separate used fuel into reusable material and waste in a proliferation-resistant manner. The separations technology demonstration capability is coupled with a remote transmutation fuel fabrication demonstration capability in an integrated manner that demonstrates advanced safeguard technologies. In conclusion: As a flexible, multi-purpose demonstration facility, the AFCF will provide the U.S. with a powerful and unique capability to quickly bring innovative nuclear fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to the commercial market with high confidence. The siting of AFCF capabilities at one or more of the six DOE laboratories being evaluated

  12. Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kienlin, Andreas von; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Kippen, R. Marc

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

  13. Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Diehl, Roland; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R.Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2011-11-29

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

  14. Recent Activities at the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility at NSCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustabad, Scott; Bollen, Georg; Brodeur, Maxime; Lincoln, David; Novario, Samuel; Redshaw, Matthew; Ringle, Ryan; Schwarz, Stefan; Valverde, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    The Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility, for high precision Penning trap mass measurements, has been relocated and upgraded for the expansion of the thermalized beam program at NSCL. I will summarize the changes to the facility and will focus on recent atomic mass measurements of candidates for neutrinoless double- β decay experiments including 82Se and 48Ca. I will also present the first results from the recent successful LEBIT commissioning experiment and will conclude by discussing the exciting future opportunities with the upgraded facility. This work was supported by Michigan State University, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1102511, and the Office of Science US Dept of Energy under Grant 03ER-41268.

  15. Recent results from the TwinSol low-energy RIB facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Kolata, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report on some of the recent developments and experimental work done at the twin-solenoid low-energy radioactive-ion-beam (RIB) facility TwinSol installed at the U Notre Dame 10 MV FN tandem accelerator. The TwinSol facility is a joint project of the University of Michigan (UM) and the University of Notre Dame (UND), and includes several U.S. and foreign collaborators. A number of significant experiments including RIB-induced transfer reactions, elastic scattering, resonant scattering, and fusion at energies near and well below the Coulomb barrier have been performed with this facility. Several of these as well as future work and upgrades planned will be described.

  16. Evaluating Sediment Stability at Offshore Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. A.; Magalen, J.; Roberts, J.; Chang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Development of offshore alternative energy production methods through the deployment of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) devices (e.g. wave, tidal, and wind generators) in the United States continues at a rapid pace, with significant public and private investment in recent years. The installation of offshore MHK systems includes cabling to the shoreline and some combination of bottom foundation (e.g., piles, gravity bases, suction buckets) or anchored floating structure. Installation of any of this infrastructure at the seabed may affect coastal sediment dynamics. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate the interrelationships between hydrodynamics and seabed dynamics and the effects of MHK foundations and cables on sediment transport. If sufficient information is known about the physical processes and sediment characteristics of a region, hydrodynamic and sediment transport models may be developed to evaluate near and far-field sediment transport. The ultimate goal of these models and methods is to quantitatively evaluate changes to the baseline seabed stability due to the installation of MHK farms in the water. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and validate wave, current, and sediment transport models (i.e., a site analysis) that may be used to estimate risk of sediment mobilization and transport. While the methodology and examples have been presented in a draft guidance document (Roberts et al., 2013), the current report presents an overall strategy for model validation, specifically for a case study in the Santa Cruz Bight, Monterey Bay, CA. Innovative techniques to quantify the risk of sediment mobility has been developed to support these investigations. Public domain numerical models are utilized to estimate the near-shore wave climate (SWAN: Simulating Waves Near-shore) and circulation and sediment transport (EFDC: Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) regimes. The models were validated with field hydrodynamic data. Sediment size information was

  17. The National Ignition Facility: the path to a carbon-free energy future.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Christopher J

    2012-08-28

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centres on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality. PMID:22802504

  18. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  19. Estimating breast thickness for dual-energy subtraction in contrast-enhanced digital mammography using calibration phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kristen C.; Kwon, Young Joon; Aziz, Moez Karim; Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (DE CE-DM) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the perfusion and vasculature of the breast. DE images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image pairs. We hypothesized that the optimal DE subtraction weighting factor is thickness-dependent, and developed a method for determining breast tissue composition and thickness in DE CE-DM. Phantoms were constructed using uniform blocks of 100% glandular-equivalent and 100% adipose-equivalent material. The thickness of the phantoms ranged from 3 to 8 cm, in 1 cm increments. For a given thickness, the glandular-adipose composition of the phantom was varied using different combinations of blocks. The logarithmic LE and logarithmic HE signal intensities were measured; they decrease linearly with increasing glandularity for a given thickness. The signals decrease with increasing phantom thickness and the x-ray signal decreases linearly with thickness for a given glandularity. As the thickness increases, the attenuation difference per additional glandular block decreases, indicating beam hardening. From the calibration mapping, we have demonstrated that we can predict percent glandular tissue and thickness when given two distinct signal intensities. Our results facilitate the subtraction of tissue at the boundaries of the breast, and aid in discriminating between contrast agent uptake in glandular tissue and subtraction artifacts.

  20. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  1. 76 FR 11823 - Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.; Kewaunee Power Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Dominion Energy Kewaunee, Inc.; Kewaunee Power Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-43 for an Additional 20-Year Period; Record of Decision Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  2. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of uranium hexafluoride into any module of the National... documents. The ADAMS accession numbers for the documents related to this document are: Inspection...

  3. The Top 10 Energy Wasters in K-12 Facilities (and What to Do about Them)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Every year, K-12 facilities waste millions of dollars in excess energy consumption. Those dollars may take the form of lost heat through walls, windows, doors, and roofs. Or the villain may be poorly conceived or mismanaged control systems. Those excess funds that districts are sending to the local utility companies could be invested "at home" to…

  4. Geotechnical and geologic design considerations for a shelf mounted OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-04-01

    Topics relating to the siting of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility off the coast of Oahu, Hawaii are discussed. Anticipated site conditions which would affect information requirements; potential foundation schemes used to identify key geotechnical parameters; techniques available for exploration and site characterization; and geologic and geotechnical factors and uncertainties that may be associated with site exploration and design information are discussed.

  5. 77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... testing facilities on the OCS (72 FR 62673). An applicant has submitted a lease proposal to BOEM pursuant... the Federal Register (72 FR 62673), BOEM announced that it had established an interim policy under... renewable energy activities and initiatives (73 FR 21152). BOEM also took into consideration the...

  6. 76 FR 61735 - Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Incidental Take Permit; Auwahi Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI... Boulevard, Room 3-122, Honolulu, HI 96850. You may also send comments by facsimile to (808) 792-9580....

  7. Replacement of Lighting Fixtures with LED Energy Efficient Lights at the Parking Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    David Brien

    2012-06-21

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Tribe) owns a six-story parking facility adjacent to its Potawatomi Bingo Casino (the Casino) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well as a valet parking facility under the Casino (collectively, the Parking Facility). The Parking Facility contained 205-watt metal halide-type lights that, for security reasons, operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Starting on August 30, 2010, the Tribe replaced these fixtures with 1,760 state-of-the-art, energy efficient 55-Watt LED lights. This project resulted in an immediate average reduction in monthly peak demand of 238 kW over the fourth quarter of 2010. The average reduction in monthly peak demand from October 1 through December 31, 2010 translates into a forecast annual electrical energy reduction of approximately 1,995,000 kWh or 47.3% of the pre-project demand. This project was technically effective, economically feasible, and beneficial to the public not only in terms of long term energy efficiency and associated emissions reductions, but also in the short-term jobs provided for the S.E. Wisconsin region. The project was implemented, from approval by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to completion, in less than 6 months. The project utilized off-the-shelf proven technologies that were fabricated locally and installed by local trade contractors.

  8. Finding a Place for Energy: Siting Coal Conversion Facilities. Resource Publications in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzonetti, Frank J.; Eckert, Mark S.

    The process of identifying, licensing, and developing energy facility sites for the conversion of coal into more useful forms is the focus of this book, intended for geography students, professors, and researchers. The use of domestic coal resources will ameliorate U.S. dependency on imported fuel. However, because coal is a bulky, dirty fuel…

  9. Neural networks for calibration tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

  10. Handbook for the implementation of IAEA inspection activities at Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, N.R.; Thomas, K.E.; Coady, K.J.; Desmond, W.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Nonproliferation Support Program (NSP) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has responsibility for supporting and aiding implementation of international and multilateral programs, agreements, and treaties at domestic facilities. In late 1995, the {open_quotes}Readiness Planning Guide for Nonproliferation Visits{close_quotes} (DOE 470.1-1) was issued to assist DOE sites prepare for the host foreign delegations visiting DOE facilities. Since then, field and head-quarters programs have expressed a need for a document that addresses domestic safeguards and security activities, specifically planning for and hosting International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical visits and inspections. As a result, OSS/NSP conducted a workshop to prepare a handbook that would contain guidance on domestic safeguards and security preparation and follow-on activities to ensure that this handbook could be utilized by all facilities to improve operational efficiencies and reduce implementation problems. The handbook has been structured to provide detailed background and guidance concerning the obligation, negotiation, inspection, and reporting processes for IAEH safeguards activities in DOE nuclear facilities as well as the lessons-learned by currently inspected facilities and how-we-do-it implementation examples. This paper will present an overview of the preparation and content of this new Handbook.

  11. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P. ); Short, S.A. ); McDonald, J.R. ); McCann, M.W. Jr. and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA ); Murray, R.C. ); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and He

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  13. Calibration of TLD badges for photons of energy above 6 MeV and dosimetric intricacies in high energy gamma ray fields encountered in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S; Bakshi, A K

    2002-01-01

    CaSO4:Dy and LiF TLDs do not exhibit photon energy dependence beyond +/-55% for photons in the energy range from 1 MeV to about 7 MeV. However, when sandwiched between metal filters or used in TLD badge holders having metal filters, the response changes for irradiation from high energy photons as compared to that from 60Co gamma rays (generally used for reference calibrations). This effect is about the same for both the lower atomic number TLD (LiF) and higher atomic number TLD (CaSO4:Dy). For TLDs held on the surface of the phantom and irradiated in collimated photon beams, the response of TLDs without any filter or those under the open window of the TLD badge is considerably reduced due to insufficient build-up to high energy photons, whereas for uncollimated radiation fields from power reactors, an over-response is observed. It is observed that the use of inappropriate encapsulation of dosemeters would cause a significant error not only in the estimation of doses due to penetrating radiations but also in the estimation of beta doses in the mixed fields of beta radiation, high energy gamma rays and high energy electrons often encountered in the fields of pressurised heavy water reactors. PMID:12018745

  14. The new postirradiation examination facility of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walt, P.L. van der; Aspeling, J.C.; Jonker, W.D.; Sliep, A.S.J.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The Pelindaba Hot Cell Complex (HCC) forms an important part of the infrastructure and support services of the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) of South Africa. It is a comprehensive, one-stop facility designed to make South Africa self-sufficient in the fields of spent-fuel qualification and verification, reactor pressure vessel surveillance program testing, ad hoc failure analyses for the nuclear power industry, and research and development studies in conjunction with the Safari I material test reactor (MTR) and irradiation rigs. Local technology and expertise was used for the design and construction of the HCC, which start up in 1980. The facility was commissioned in 1990.

  15. Moving from self-regulation to external regulation of Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.J.; Dawson, J.; Lee, D.W.

    1999-03-01

    This paper discusses the initiative to transfer the regulation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The paper gives an overview of some of the major technical, policy and legal issues that accompany this initiative. The paper focuses on specific issues and how they may be affected by external regulation of occupational radiation protection at DOE facilities. Differences between the NRC and the DOE approach to regulating nuclear safety are compared and contrasted. Some projected impacts from this transition are examined. Finally, recommendations are provided that may enhance the transition, increasing the likelihood of successful external NRC regulation.

  16. Status of the low-energy super-heavy element facility at RIKEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Ito, Y.; Arai, F.; Kaji, D.; Kimura, S.; Morimoto, K.; Haba, H.; Jeong, S.; Koura, H.; Miyatake, H.; Morita, K.; Reponen, M.; Ozawa, A.; Sonoda, T.; Takamine, A.; Wollnik, H.

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate nuclei produced via fusion-evaporation reactions, especially super-heavy elements (SHE), we have begun construction of a facility for conversion of fusion-evaporation residues (EVR) to low-energy beams. At the base of this facility is a small cryogenic gas cell utilizing a traveling wave RF-carpet, located directly following the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, which will thermalize EVRs to convert them into ion beams amenable to ion trapping. We present here the results of initial studies of this small gas cell.

  17. High-energy quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields: existing facilities and future needs.

    PubMed

    Pomp, S; Bartlett, D T; Mayer, S; Reitz, G; Röttger, S; Silari, M; Smit, F D; Vincke, H; Yasuda, H

    2014-10-01

    The argument that well-characterised quasi-monoenergetic neutron (QMN) sources reaching into the energy domain >20 MeV are needed is presented. A brief overview of the existing facilities is given, and a list of key factors that an ideal QMN source for dosimetry and spectrometry should offer is presented. The authors conclude that all of the six QMN facilities currently in existence worldwide operate in sub-optimal conditions for dosimetry. The only currently available QMN facility in Europe capable of operating at energies >40 MeV, TSL in Uppsala, Sweden, is threatened with shutdown in the immediate future. One facility, NFS at GANIL, France, is currently under construction. NFS could deliver QMN beams up to about 30 MeV. It is, however, so far not clear if and when NFS will be able to offer QMN beams or operate with only so-called white neutron beams. It is likely that by 2016, QMN beams with energies >40 MeV will be available only in South Africa and Japan, with none in Europe. PMID:24153422

  18. Energy Calibration for a Sensitive Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay: Using the Cuoricino Experience to Prepare for CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejzak, Larissa M.

    Neutrinos, which were long believed to be massless particles, are now known to have a tiny finite mass. A thorough understanding of the properties of their masses may provide vital clues to the history of the development of the universe as we know it. An intensive experimental search is underway for evidence of a Majorana mass component to the neutrino via many current and upcoming detectors seeking to observe the rare nuclear process neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta). These detectors must be able to achieve very low backgrounds and a precise understanding of their energy scales. This paper presents the experimental approach of one of these 0nubetabeta experiments, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), and the attendant challenges of achieving excellent energy calibration performance in the detector from the perspectives of both hardware design and analysis. Experience and data from Cuoricino, the predecessor of CUORE, have been extensively leveraged to prepare optimized operational procedures for CUORE. The expected sensitivity profile of CUORE as a function of time is also presented and compared with those of other leading 0nubetabeta experiments.

  19. The calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers for the measurement of absorbed dose in electron beams of low to medium energies. Part 1: the NACP chamber.

    PubMed

    Cross, P; Freeman, N

    1996-09-01

    A study was made of calibrating the NACP plane parallel chamber in electron beams from linear accelerators of a different manufacture with energies, Ep,o' from 4.4 to 19.1 MeV, and also in 4 and 6 MV photon beams as well as a cobalt60 beam. The photon beam measurements were both IN-AIR and IN-PHANTOM. With the exception of the lowest energy electron beam (nominal 5 MeV), the ND values from measurements in the electron beams were within +/- 1% of the average value from the three different methods according to the AAPM TG 39 protocol. The preferred method of calibration of an electron chamber is of course in an electron beam at R100 in water. This can still be done in medium energy electron beams (nominal 7 to 14 MeV) for the NACP chamber with the same degree of accuracy and precision as with AAPM TG 39 methodology. Alternatively the traditional cobalt-60 calibration beam can be replaced by a low energy (4-6MV) photon beam for in-phantom calibrations at 50 mm depth, giving comparable results, and with no more uncertainties than those obtained in electron beams. PMID:8936730

  20. Electron calibration of instrumentation for low energy, high intensity particle measurements at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Daly, S. F.; Eraker, J. H.; Perkins, M. A.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Unique identification of the high intensity, impulsively accelerated charged particle fluxes discovered during Mariner 10's first encounter with Mercury (March 1974) requires a detailed knowledge of the responses of the two University of Chicago charged particle telescopes to low energy fluxes over a wide dynamic range of flux levels. The results of detailed analyses show that these telescopes can separate and identify unambiguously the presence of electron and proton fluxes for a wide range of electron spectra and intensities in the relevant overall range of about 30 keV to 2 MeV.

  1. Calibration of an imaging crystal spectrometer for low x-ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.

    2008-01-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer was designed for the Hanbit magnetic mirror device to observe spectra of heliumlike neon at 13.4474 A. The spectrometer consists of a spherically bent mica crystal and an x-ray sensitive vacuum charge coupled device camera. This spectrometer can provide spatially resolved spectra, making it possible to obtain profiles of the ion charge state distribution from line ratios and profiles of the plasma rotation velocity from Doppler shift measurements. The paper describes measurements of spectral resolution of this instrument for low x-ray energies.

  2. Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joanne K; Witt, Matthew J; Johanning, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring devices were deployed at FaBTest in Falmouth Bay, UK, a marine renewable energy device testing facility during trials of a wave energy device. The area supports considerable commercial shipping and recreational boating along with diverse marine fauna. Noise monitoring occurred during (1) a baseline period, (2) installation activity, (3) the device in situ with inactive power status, and (4) the device in situ with active power status. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of the sound recording at FabTest during these different activity periods of a wave energy device trial. PMID:26610976

  3. Post-occupancy energy efficiency evaluation of a LEED Platinum Federal Government facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tincher, Theresa

    The purpose of this study was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEEDRTM) certification system and its relevance to Federal policies, building codes, and building standards, develop experience with whole building energy modeling, and determine the actual post-occupancy energy usage as compared with developed model and design projections. This thesis hypothesized the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED rating system compared favorably to other policies, codes, and standards in use at the time, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamations' LEED Platinum Lower Colorado Regional Office Green Building (LCROGB), located in Boulder City, Nevada, operated at least as energy efficiently as designed. Both hypotheses were shown to be true. Based on the design and development requirements for the 49,818 square foot LCROGB being studied, the primary building requirements addressed were the U.S. Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, and the LEED V2009 certification system for new construction. LEED V2009 certification requirements compared favorably by either meeting or exceeding other stated requirements. The whole building energy simulation, QUick Energy Simulation Tool (eQUEST) Version 3.65, was used for the study, and baseline and proposed models were developed. The eQUEST results compared favorably with the designer's simulations developed using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) Version 4.5. eQUEST predicted a 32.7% savings in overall energy usage, compared to the HAP 38.9% prediction. In 2013, the LCROGB used 600,042 kWh of energy, and 60% was electrical and 40% was natural gas. This usage demonstrated high building efficiency with an Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of 41.1 kBtu/sf/yr. Following more than two years of post-occupancy operation, the LCROGB was electrically more efficient than predicted by either HAP or eQUEST, although the facility was

  4. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.

    2011-08-15

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented.

  5. A range-based method to calibrate a magnetic spectrometer measuring the energy spectrum of the backward electron beam of a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccolini, E.; Rocchi, F.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Tartari, A.

    2011-08-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of plasma focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A plasma focus device is being developed for this purpose, and there is a need for characterizing its electron beam, particularly, insofar as the energy spectrum is concerned. The instrument used is a magnetic spectrometer. To calibrate this spectrometer, a procedure relying on the energy-range relation in Mylar® has been devised and applied. By measuring the transmission through increasing thicknesses of the material, electron energies could be assessed and compared to the spectrometer readings. Thus, the original calibration of the instrument has been extended to higher energies and also to better accuracy. Methods and results are presented.

  6. Use of positive ion appearance curves for energy scale calibration in electron beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chantry, P.J.

    1989-02-01

    Linearly extrapolated ion appearance curves are frequently used to obtain a corrected electron energy scale in electron beam experiments. The relative merits of the rare gases are critically examined using the published total ion collection data of Rapp and Englander-Golden. For each gas the error in the linearly extrapolated threshold has been calculated as a function of the extent of the data included in the linear regression fit. The results clearly indicate that He is the best choice in this context, allowing the linear fit to be extended to 8 eV above threshold without introducing any significant error. With Xe the error is less than 0.07 eV, provided the fitted data does not extend beyond 7 eV above the threshold. The worst choice is argon, for which the error increases rapidly with the range of the fit, and can exceed 0.3 eV.

  7. Ultraviolet stimulated electron source for use with low energy plasma instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Kevin; Harper, Ron; Funsten, Herb; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a versatile, compact electron source that can produce a mono-energetic electron beam up to 50 mm in diameter from 0.1 to 30 keV with an energy spread of <10 eV. By illuminating a metal cathode plate with a single near ultraviolet light emitting diode, a spatially uniform electron beam with 15% variation over 1 cm2 can be generated. A uniform electric field in front of the cathode surface accelerates the electrons into a beam with an angular divergence of <1° at 1 keV. The beam intensity can be controlled from 10 to 109 electrons cm-2 s-1.

  8. FEDS user`s guide: Facility energy screening. Release 2.10

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US DOE Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) and the US Army Construction Engineering REsearch Laboratory (USA-CERL). FEDS is a multi-level energy analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (energy) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, which is a top-down, first-pass energy systems analysis and energy resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities, and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. The basic intent of the model is to provide an installation with the information necessary to determine the minimum life-cycle cost (LCC) configuration of the installation`s energy generation and consumption infrastructure. The model has no fuel or technology bias; it simply selects the technologies that will provide an equivalent or superior level of service (e.g., heating, cooling, illumination) at the minimum LCC.

  9. Risk perception and public acceptance toward a highly protested Waste-to-Energy facility.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Tao, Yun

    2016-02-01

    The application of Waste-to-Energy treatment in Municipal Solid Waste faces strong protest by local communities, especially in cities with high population densities. This study introduces insight into the public awareness, acceptance and risk perception toward Waste-to-Energy through a structured questionnaire survey around a Waste-to-Energy facility in Shanghai, China. The Dichotomous-Choice contingent valuation method was applied to study the willingness to accept of residents as an indicator of risk perception and tolerance. The factors influencing risk perception and the protest response choice were analyzed. The geographical distributions of the acceptance of Waste-to-Energy facility and protest response were explored using geographical information systems. The findings of the research indicated an encouraging vision of promoting Waste-to-Energy, considering its benefits of renewable energy and the conservation of land. A high percentage of protest willingness to accept (50.94%) was highlighted with the effect of income, opinion about Waste-to-Energy, gender and perceived impact. The fuzzy classification among people with different opinions on compensation (valid 0, positive or protest willingness to accept) revealed the existing yet rejected demand of compensation among protesters. Geographical distribution in the public attitude can also be observed. Finally significant statistical relation between knowledge and risk perception indicates the need of risk communication, as well as involving public into whole management process. PMID:26577458

  10. Kinematic Models of Southern California Deformation calibrated to GPS Velocities and a Strain Energy Minimization Criterion: How do they Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault slip rates inferred from GPS-calibrated kinematic models may be influenced by seismic-cycle and other transient effects, whereas models that minimize strain energy ("TSEM models") represent average deformation rates over geological timescales. To explore differences in southern California fault slip rates inferred from these two approaches, I have developed kinematic, finite-element models incorporating the UCERF3 block model-bounding fault geometry and slip rates from the UCERF3 report (Field et al., 2014). A fault segment (the "Ventura-Oak Ridge segment") was added to represent shortening accommodated collectively by the San Cayetano, Ventura, Oak Ridge, Red Mountain and other faults in the Transverse Ranges. Fault slip rates are randomly sampled from ranges given in the UCERF3 report, assuming a "boxcar" distribution, and models are scored by their misfit to GPS site velocities or to their total strain energy, for cases with locked and unlocked faults. Both Monte Carlo and Independence Sampler MCMC methods are used to identify the best models of each category. All four suites of models prefer low slip rates (i.e. less than about 5 mm/yr) on the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system. For TSEM models, low rates (< 12 mm/yr) are strongly preferred for the San Gorgonio segment of the SAF. The GPS-constrained, locked model prefers a high slip rate for the Imperial Fault (over 30 mm/yr), though the TSEM models prefer slip rates lower than 30 mm/yr. When slip rates for the Ventura-Oak Ridge fault system are restricted to less than 5 mm/yr, GPS-constrained models show a preference for high slip rates on the southern San Jacinto and Palos Verde Faults ( > 13 and > 3 mm/yr, respectively), and a somewhat low rate for the Mojave segment of the SAF (25-34 mm/yr). Because blind thrust faults of the Los Angeles Basin are not represented in the model, the inferred Ventura-Oak Ridge slip rate should be high, but the opposite is observed. GPS-calibrated models decisively prefer a

  11. Computer simulation of an alternate-energy-based, high-density brooding facility

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate a poultry brooding facility characterized by high-density cage or floor brooding, environmental housing, ventilation heat recovery, solar energy collection, and biogas generation. Repeated simulations revealed the following: (1) Solar collection and ventilation heat recovery could reduce fossil fuel use by 12 and 91%, respectively. Combining solar collection and heat recovery may reduce fossil fuel use by only an additional 1.5%. (2) Methane generation can provide more energy on a yearly basis than is required for supplemental heat for brooding. Seasonal energy demands do not match supplies from methane generation and shortages may occur in winter as well as excesses in summer. A digester operated in the thermophilic temperature range produces more net energy than one operated in the mesophilic range. (3) Operating expenses for the simulated cage facility exceeded conventional brooding. (4) Relative humidity patterns of certain areas create the need for complex controls to properly maintain the internal environment. (5) Feed and fuel account for nearly 100% of the operating expenses of brooding. Controlling heat and ventilation with a microprocessor may be the only way to optimize the environment of a broiler brooding facility.

  12. Energy infrastructure of the United States and projected siting needs: Scoping ideas, identifying issues and options. Draft report of the Department of Energy Working Group on Energy Facility Siting to the Secretary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on Energy Facility Siting, chaired by the Policy Office with membership from the major program and staff offices of the Department, reviewed data regarding energy service needs, infrastructure requirements, and constraints to siting. The Working Group found that the expeditious siting of energy facilities has important economic, energy, and environmental implications for key Administration priorities.

  13. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting an Energy Audit in Industrial Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2010-10-07

    Various studies in different countries have shown that significant energy-efficiency improvement opportunities exist in the industrial sector, many of which are cost-effective. These energy-efficiency options include both cross-cutting as well as sector-specific measures. However, industrial plants are not always aware of energy-efficiency improvement potentials. Conducting an energy audit is one of the first steps in identifying these potentials. Even so, many plants do not have the capacity to conduct an effective energy audit. In some countries, government policies and programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency. However, usually only limited technical and financial resources for improving energy efficiency are available, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. Information on energy auditing and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to industrial plants. This guidebook provides guidelines for energy auditors regarding the key elements for preparing for an energy audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities, conducting cost-benefit analysis, preparing energy audit reports, and undertaking post-audit activities. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist energy auditors and engineers in the plant to conduct a well-structured and effective energy audit.

  14. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  15. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Building Operation for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic pricing electricity tariffs, now the default for large customers in California (peak demand of 200 kW and higher for PG&E and SCE, and 20 kW and higher for SDG&E), are providing Federal facilities new opportunities to cut their electricity bills and help them meet their energy savings mandates. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has created this fact sheet to help California federal facilities take advantage of these opportunities through “rate-responsive building operation.” Rate-responsive building operation involves designing your load management strategies around your facility’s variable electric rate, using measures that require little or no financial investment.

  16. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  17. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  18. Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiant Energy (OSPREy): Calibration and Validation of Current and Next-Generation NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Bernhard, Germar; Morrow, John H.; Booth, Charles R.; Comer, Thomas; Lind, Randall N.; Quang, Vi

    2012-01-01

    A principal objective of the Optical Sensors for Planetary Radiance Energy (OSPREy) activity is to establish an above-water radiometer system as a lower-cost alternative to existing in-water systems for the collection of ground-truth observations. The goal is to be able to make high-quality measurements satisfying the accuracy requirements for the vicarious calibration and algorithm validation of next-generation satellites that make ocean color and atmospheric measurements. This means the measurements will have a documented uncertainty satisfying the established performance metrics for producing climate-quality data records. The OSPREy approach is based on enhancing commercial-off-the-shelf fixed-wavelength and hyperspectral sensors to create hybridspectral instruments with an improved accuracy and spectral resolution, as well as a dynamic range permitting sea, Sun, sky, and Moon observations. Greater spectral diversity in the ultraviolet (UV) will be exploited to separate the living and nonliving components of marine ecosystems; UV bands will also be used to flag and improve atmospheric correction algorithms in the presence of absorbing aerosols. The short-wave infrared (SWIR) is expected to improve atmospheric correction, because the ocean is radiometrically blacker at these wavelengths. This report describes the development of the sensors, including unique capabilities like three-axis polarimetry; the documented uncertainty will be presented in a subsequent report.

  19. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nenov, Artur Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  20. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nenov, Artur; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040-1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  1. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenov, Artur; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040-1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  2. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  3. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  4. 78 FR 20950 - Department of Energy Facilities Covered Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... FR 13360) to include an additional determination made on this subject through April 5, 2013. FOR... (DOL) by Executive Order 13179 (65 FR 77487). In section 2(c)(vii) of that Executive Order, DOE was... list of these three types of facilities covered under EEOICPA on January 17, 2001 (66 FR 4003),...

  5. Fort Irwin integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Sitewide Energy Project identification for buildings and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Irwin facility located near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 16 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present valve (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  6. A simple atomic force microscopy calibration method for direct measurement of surface energy on nanostructured surfaces covered with molecularly thin liquid films

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Ralf; Talke, Frank E.; Etsion, Izhak

    2009-05-15

    A simple calibration method is described for the determination of surface energy by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on nanostructured surfaces covered with molecularly thin liquid films. The method is based on correlating pull-off forces measured in arbitrary units on a nanostructured surface with pull-off forces measured on macroscopically smooth dip-coated gauge surfaces with known surface energy. The method avoids the need for complex calibration of the AFM cantilever stiffness and the determination of the radius of curvature of the AFM tip. Both of the latter measurements are associated with indirect and less accurate measurements of surface energy based on various contact mechanics adhesion models.

  7. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  8. A comparison of theoretical solutions of the three-layer coaxial diffusion approximation of the borehole with measurements at the Zielona Góra calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Drabina, A; Dwora, D; Loskiewicz, J; Zorski, T

    2001-05-01

    Czubek has obtained a practically successful solution of a two-layer borehole geometry using the neutron diffusion approximation. Czubek and Woznicka solved the more realistic three-layer borehole model, which includes a middle layer consisting of mud-cake or steel tubing, in this approximation. The comparison with experimental data for 15-mm thick steel tubes shows some discrepancies. By using an exact Monte Carlo solution of the Boltzmann equation for calculating the migration length, measurements agree more closely with the "general calibration curve". This opens opportunities for cased borehole logging. PMID:11258536

  9. Production of high energy and low flux protons using 2D(3He,p)4He for space detector calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Tesmer, J. R.

    2014-08-01

    In this report, we want to demonstrate that besides the conventional use for elemental analysis and depth profiling by ion beam analysis (IBA), particles generated through ion-solid interactions in IBA may find other novel and important applications. Specifically, we use Rutherford backscattered and nuclear reaction produced high energy proton particles to calibrate an energetic particle subsystem (called ZEP) of the Space and Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (SABRS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To simulate low radiation flux in the space, we have devised an experiment that uses an ultrathin (∼51.8 nm) self-support gold foil to scatter a proton beam from a 3 MV Tandem accelerator into the ZEP subsystem. Direct backscattering from the thin gold foil produces proton particles with tunable energies of 0.2-6.0 MeV and desired counting rates of <10 kHz. To extend the proton particle energy beyond the Tandem's limit of 6 MeV, a high Q-value nuclear reaction, 2D + 3He → p + 4He + 18.352 MeV, was used. This reaction allows us to obtain as high as 25.6 MeV proton particles on our 3 MV tandem accelerator, more than 4 times as high as the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy, and has greatly extended our proton energy range for this calibration activity. Preliminary ZEP subsystem calibration results are presented.

  10. Effects of wind-energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Jill A; Buhl, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of renewable energy to meet worldwide demand continues to grow. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable sectors, but new wind facilities are often placed in prime wildlife habitat. Long-term studies that incorporate a rigorous statistical design to evaluate the effects of wind facilities on wildlife are rare. We conducted a before-after-control-impact (BACI) assessment to determine if wind facilities placed in native mixed-grass prairies displaced breeding grassland birds. During 2003-2012, we monitored changes in bird density in 3 study areas in North Dakota and South Dakota (U.S.A.). We examined whether displacement or attraction occurred 1 year after construction (immediate effect) and the average displacement or attraction 2-5 years after construction (delayed effect). We tested for these effects overall and within distance bands of 100, 200, 300, and >300 m from turbines. We observed displacement for 7 of 9 species. One species was unaffected by wind facilities and one species exhibited attraction. Displacement and attraction generally occurred within 100 m and often extended up to 300 m. In a few instances, displacement extended beyond 300 m. Displacement and attraction occurred 1 year after construction and persisted at least 5 years. Our research provides a framework for applying a BACI design to displacement studies and highlights the erroneous conclusions that can be made without the benefit of adopting such a design. More broadly, species-specific behaviors can be used to inform management decisions about turbine placement and the potential impact to individual species. Additionally, the avoidance distance metrics we estimated can facilitate future development of models evaluating impacts of wind facilities under differing land-use scenarios. PMID:26213098

  11. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.

  12. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) Testing Facility for Distributed Energy Storage (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer.J.; Lundstrom, B.; Simpson, M.; Pratt, A.

    2014-06-01

    The growing deployment of distributed, variable generation and evolving end-user load profiles presents a unique set of challenges to grid operators responsible for providing reliable and high quality electrical service. Mass deployment of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) has the potential to solve many of the associated integration issues while offering reliability and energy security benefits other solutions cannot. However, tools to develop, optimize, and validate DESS control strategies and hardware are in short supply. To fill this gap, NREL has constructed a power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) test facility that connects DESS, grid simulator, and load bank hardware to a distribution feeder simulation.

  13. Improving measurement quality assurance for photon irradiations at Department of Energy facilities. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For radiation-instrument calibration to be generally acceptable throughout the US, direct or indirect traceability to a primary standard is required. In most instances, one of the primary standards established at NIST is employed for this purpose. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is an example of a program employing dosimetry based on the NIST primary photon-, beta particle- and neutron-dosimetry standards. The NIST primary dosimetry standards for bremsstrahlung were first established in the 1950s. They have been updated since then on several occasions. In the 1970s, Technical Committee 85 of the International Standards Organization (ISO) started its work on establishing sets of internationally acceptable, well-characterized photon beams for the calibration of radiation-protection instruments. It is the intent of this paper to make a detailed comparison between the current NIST and the most up-to-date ISO techniques. At present, 41 bremsstrahlung techniques are specified in ISO 4037 while NIST supports a total of 32 techniques. Given the existing equivalences, it makes sense to try to extend the NIST techniques to cover more of the ISO Narrow Spectrum and High Air-Kerma Rate Series. These extensions will also allow the possibility for use of ISO beam techniques in future revisions of the DOELAP standard, which has been suggested by DOE. To this end, NIST was funded by DOE to procure material and make adaptations to the existing NIST x-ray calibration ranges to allow NIST to have the capability of producing all the ISO bremsstrahlung techniques. The following sections describe the steps that were taken to achieve this.

  14. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's Opportunity for Energy Savings Through Improved Management of Facility Lighting"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) highlighted the importance of reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil and conserving scarce energy resources. The Department of Energy, as the designated lead agency for promoting new technologies, providing leadership for energy conservation and helping Federal agencies reduce energy costs, plays a pivotal role in achieving the Recovery Act's energy related goals. The Department spends nearly $300 million per year in energy costs for its 9,000 buildings at 24 sites. Electricity costs, totaling $190 million, account for close to two-thirds of the Department's total energy expenditures, with roughly 40 percent or $76 million of those costs attributable to the cost of lighting. New lighting technologies and advanced lighting systems offer the Department the opportunity to significantly reduce energy consumption; decrease operating costs at its sites throughout the country; and, demonstrate the benefits of using new lighting technologies that are currently being developed in its laboratories and by other sources. Because of its energy conservation leadership role, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department's facilities had implemented lighting conservation measures.

  15. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  16. The effect of a compression paddle on energy response, calibration and measurement with mammographic dosimeters using ionization chambers and solid-state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourdakis, C. J.; Boziari, A.; Koumbouli, E.

    2009-02-01

    A compression paddle is always used in mammography x-ray examinations, in order to improve image quality and reduce patient doses. Although clinical dose measurements should be performed with the paddle to interfere with the x-ray beam, calibration of mammography dosimeters is performed free in air without the presence of the paddle. The paddle hardens the x-ray beam, which has an impact on a dosimeter performance, particularly on high-energy-dependent detectors. Due to the paddle, clinical mammography x-ray systems may exhibit beams with HVL values exceeding those of the IEC 61267 RQR-M series qualities at which dosimeters are usually calibrated. In this study, the influence of the paddle in mammography dosimetry is examined, in Mo/Mo anode/filter x-ray qualities. PMMA slabs of 1, 2 and 3 mm thickness and Al foils of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm thicknesses were used to simulate the paddles, producing beams with HVL values from 0.28 up to 0.43 mmAl. In these qualities, four solid-state (ST) detectors and three ionizations chambers (IC) were calibrated in terms of Kair and NK and kQ were deduced. The results showed that all IC and two modern-type ST dosimeters have a flat energy response in the above HVL range (less than 3%), so their calibration factor at RQR-M2 quality could be safely used for clinical measurements. Two other ST dosimeters exhibit up to 20% energy response, so differences up to 15% in dose measurement may be observed if the effect of paddle on their performance is ignored. Finally, the need of additional mammographic calibration qualities to the existing IEC 61267 RQR-M series is examined and discussed.

  17. The effect of a compression paddle on energy response, calibration and measurement with mammographic dosimeters using ionization chambers and solid-state detectors.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, C J; Boziari, A; Koumbouli, E

    2009-02-21

    A compression paddle is always used in mammography x-ray examinations, in order to improve image quality and reduce patient doses. Although clinical dose measurements should be performed with the paddle to interfere with the x-ray beam, calibration of mammography dosimeters is performed free in air without the presence of the paddle. The paddle hardens the x-ray beam, which has an impact on a dosimeter performance, particularly on high-energy-dependent detectors. Due to the paddle, clinical mammography x-ray systems may exhibit beams with HVL values exceeding those of the IEC 61267 RQR-M series qualities at which dosimeters are usually calibrated. In this study, the influence of the paddle in mammography dosimetry is examined, in Mo/Mo anode/filter x-ray qualities. PMMA slabs of 1, 2 and 3 mm thickness and Al foils of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mm thicknesses were used to simulate the paddles, producing beams with HVL values from 0.28 up to 0.43 mmAl. In these qualities, four solid-state (ST) detectors and three ionizations chambers (IC) were calibrated in terms of Kair and N(K) and k(Q) were deduced. The results showed that all IC and two modern-type ST dosimeters have a flat energy response in the above HVL range (less than 3%), so their calibration factor at RQR-M2 quality could be safely used for clinical measurements. Two other ST dosimeters exhibit up to 20% energy response, so differences up to 15% in dose measurement may be observed if the effect of paddle on their performance is ignored. Finally, the need of additional mammographic calibration qualities to the existing IEC 61267 RQR-M series is examined and discussed. PMID:19168939

  18. Evaluation test of the energy monitoring device in industrial electron beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Corda, U.; Cornia, G.; Kovács, A.

    2009-07-01

    The electron beam energy monitoring device, previously developed and tested under standard laboratory conditions using electron beams in the energy range 4-12 MeV, has now been tested under industrial irradiation conditions in high-energy, high-power electron beam facilities. The measuring instrument was improved in order to measure high peak current delivered at low pulse repetition rate as well. Tests, with good results, were carried out at two different EB plants: one equipped with a LUE-8 linear electron accelerator of 7 MeV maximum energy used for cross-linking of cables and for medical device sterilization, and the other with a 10 MeV Rhodotron type TT 100 used for in-house sterilization.

  19. Proposal for continuously-variable neutrino beam energy for the NuMI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Mikhail; Kopp, Sacha; Messier, Mark; Harris, Deborah A.; Hylen, Jim; Para, Adam; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The NuMI Facility was intended to be flexibly changed between 3 energies of beams, LE, ME, and HE. However, the changeover requires extensive downtime to move and realign horns and the target. We propose to implement a flexible arrangement where the target can be remotely moved in the beamline direction to change the beam energy and the horns remain fixed. In addition to having the attractive feature of keeping the horn optics fixed, the motion of the target can be performed more quickly and hence on a more frequent basis. We discuss potential increases in statistics in the high energy region, systematic cross-checks available, and the improved beam monitoring capabilities with such variable energy beams.

  20. Energy Management: A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry, Comp.; Rowe, Peter, Comp.

    This publication is a guide to the Total Educational Energy Management (TEEM) approach for energy conservation at community colleges. This guide includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and…

  1. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  2. Seismic Evaluation Procedure for Glove Boxes at U.S. Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C

    2001-06-01

    At U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, safety analyses and facility-specific actions require the evaluation of mechanical and electrical equipment subjected to seismic hazards. A seismic evaluation procedure has been developed by the DOE to provide comprehensive guidance for consistent seismic evaluations of equipment and distribution systems in DOE facilities using experience data from past seismic events and shake table tests. The DOE Seismic Evaluation Procedure (SEP) is adapted from the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG) Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP) used by the nuclear power industry. The DOE SEP builds on the procedures and screening criteria in the SQUG GIP by incorporating DOE-specific requirements and guidance and broadening the application of the experience-based methodology to equipment classes which are either unique to DOE facilities or not contained in the SQUG GIP. These equipment classes include piping systems, HEPA filters, glove boxes, underground tanks, canisters and gas cylinders, WAC ducts, storage racks, etc. This paper addresses the seismic evaluation procedures developed uniquely for glove boxes.

  3. Best Available Technology (BAT) guidance for radiological liquid effluents at US Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.T. Jr. ); Ikenberry, T.A. ); Baker, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in DOE Order 5400.5 (1990), directs operators of DOE facilities to apply the Best Available Technology (BAT) to control radiological liquid effluents from these facilities when specific conditions are present. DOE has published interim guidance to assist facility operators in knowing when a BAT analysis is needed and how such an analysis should be performed and documented. The purpose of the guidance is to provide a uniform basis in determining BAT throughout DOE and to assist in evaluating BAT determinations during programmatic audits. The BAT analysis process involves characterizing the effluent source; identifying and selecting candidate control technologies; evaluating the potential environmental, operational, resource, and economic impacts of the control technologies; developing an evaluation matrix for comparing the technologies; selecting the BAT; and documenting the evaluation process. The BAT analysis process provides a basis for consistent evaluation of liquid effluent releases, yet allows an individual site or facility the flexibility to address site-specific issues or concerns in the most appropriate manner.

  4. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-07

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of {epsilon} = A{Epsilon}{sup a}+B{Epsilon}{sup b}, where {epsilon} is efficiency, {Epsilon} is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a ''knee'' at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  5. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-01

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of ɛ = AΕa+BΕb, where ɛ is efficiency, Ε is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a "knee" at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  6. Improved spatial monitoring of air temperature in forested complex terrain: an energy-balance based calibration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. M.; Thomas, C. K.; Pypker, T. G.; Bond, B. J.; Selker, J. S.; Unsworth, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has great potential for spatial monitoring in hydrology and atmospheric science. DTS systems have an advantage over conventional individual temperature sensors in that thousands of quasi-concurrent temperature measurements may be made along the entire length of a fiber at 1 meter increments by a single instrument, thus increasing measurement precision. However, like any other temperature sensors, the fiber temperature is influenced by energy exchange with its environment, particularly by radiant energy (solar and long-wave) and by wind speed. The objective of this research is to perform an energy-balance based calibration of a DTS fiber system that will reduce the uncertainty of air temperature measurements in open and forested environments. To better understand the physics controlling the fiber temperature reported by the DTS, alternating black and white fiber optic cables were installed on vertical wooden jigs inside a recirculating wind tunnel. A constant irradiance from six 600W halogen lamps was directed on a two meter section of fiber to permit controlled observations of the resulting temperature difference between the black and white fibers as wind speed was varied. The net short and longwave radiation balance of each fiber was measured with an Eppley pyranometer and Kipp and Zonen pyrgeometer. Additionally, accurate air temperature was recorded from a screened platinum resistance thermometer, and sonic anemometers were positioned to record wind speed and turbulence. Relationships between the temperature excess of each fiber, net radiation, and wind speed were developed and will be used to derive correction terms in future field work. Preliminary results indicate that differential heating of fibers (black-white) is driven largely by net radiation with wind having a smaller but consistent effect. Subsequent work will require field verification to confirm that the observed wind tunnel correction algorithms are

  7. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-20

    The COB Energy Facility would be constructed on a site near the rural community of Bonanza, in Klamath County, Oregon. Generating components of the project would be constructed in either one or two phases, including four air-cooled combustion turbine generators fueled with natural gas, four heat recovery steam generators, and two steam turbines. Additional facilities include a new 7.2-mile-long 500-kV transmission line, a new 4.1-mile-long natural gas pipeline, a 2.8-mile-long water pipeline, a 20-acre wastewater evaporation pond or a 3,770-foot-long irrigation pipeline to deliver wastewater to a 31-acre pasture, a 4.7-acre stormwater infiltration basin, a 1.5-acre stormwater retention pond, and various tanks, buildings, exhaust stacks, parking, and storage areas. Natural gas to fuel the combustion turbines would be supplied by way of a new 4.1-mile-long, 20-inch-diameter pipeline from a Gas Transmission Northwest's Bonanza Compressor Station. The new pipeline would be constructed within private easements adjacent to or near Klamath County road rights-of-way. Although COB Energy Facility generators would use air-cooled condensers, the project would use an average of 72 gallons per minute for steam production and station service, up to a maximum of 210 gallons per minute. The source of this water would be one existing and two new wells near the project site, drawing from a deep aquifer consistent with a State of Oregon water right permit expected to be incorporated into the State energy facility site certificate. Process wastewater would either be used to irrigate pasture or held in a lined pond to evaporate. Sanitary water would be routed to an onsite septic tank then discharged to a leach field. No wastewater would be discharged to surface waters. The COB Energy Facility would interconnect to the FCRTS at Captain Jack Substation, 7.2 miles south of the project site. PERC would construct a new 500-kV transmission line from the project site to Captain Jack

  8. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  9. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  10. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  11. Description and calibration of the Langley Hypersonic CF4 tunnel: A facility for simulating low gamma flow as occurs for a real gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midden, Raymond E.; Miller, Charles G., III

    1985-01-01

    The Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel is a Mach 6 facility which simulates an important aspect of dissociative real-gas phenomena associated with the reentry of blunt vehicles, i.e., the decrease in the ratio of specific heats (gamma) that occurs within the shock layer of the vehicle. A general description of this facility is presented along with a discussion of the basic components, instrumentation, and operating procedure. Pitot-pressure surveys were made at the nozzle exit and downstream of the exit for reservoir temperatures from 1020 to 1495 R and reservoir pressures from 1000 to 2550 psia. A uniform test core having a diameter of circa 11 in. (0.55 times the nozzle-exit diameter) exists at the maximum value of reservoir pressure and temperature. The corresponding free-stream Mach number is 5.9, the unit Reynolds number is 4 x 10 to the 5th power per foot, the ratio of specific heats immediately behind a normal shock is 1.10, and the normal-shock density ratio is 12.6. When the facility is operated at reservoir temperatures below 1440 R, irregularities occur in the pitot-pressure profile within a small region about the nozzle centerline. These variations in pitot pressure indicate the existence of flow distrubances originating in the upstream region of the nozzle. This necessitates testing models off centerline in the uniform flow between the centerline region and either the nozzle boundary layer or the lip shock originating at the nozzle exit. Samples of data obtained in this facility with various models are presented to illustrate the effect of gamma on flow conditions about the model and the importance of knowing the magnitude of this effect.

  12. GLOBAL SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRAB NEBULA IN THE PROSPECT OF THE PLANCK SATELLITE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacIas-Perez, J. F.; Mayet, F.; Aumont, J.

    2010-03-01

    Within the framework of the Planck satellite polarization calibration, we present a study of the Crab Nebula spectral energy distribution (SED) over more than six decades in frequency ranging from 1 to 10{sup 6} GHz (from 299 to 2.99 x 10{sup -4} mm). The Planck satellite mission observes the sky from 30 to 857 GHz (from 9.99 to 0.3498 mm) and therefore we focus on the millimeter region. We use radio and submillimeter data from the WMAP satellite between 23 and 94 GHz (from 13 to 3.18 mm), from the Archeops balloon experiment between 143 (2.1 mm) and 545 GHz (0.55 mm), and a compendium of other Crab Nebula observations. The Crab SED is compared to models including three main components: synchrotron that is responsible for the emission at low and high frequencies, dust that explains the excess of flux observed by the IRAS satellite, and an extra component on the millimeter regime. From this analysis, we conclude that the unpolarized emission of the Crab Nebula at microwave and millimeter wavelengths is the same synchrotron emission as the one observed in the radio domain. Therefore, we expect the millimeter emission of the Crab Nebula to be polarized with the same degree of polarization and orientation as the radio emission. We set upper limits on the possible errors induced by any millimeter extra component on the reconstruction of the degree and angle of polarization at the percent level as a maximum. This result strongly supports the choice by the Planck collaboration of the Crab Nebula emission for performing polarization cross-checks in the range 30 (299 mm) to 353 GHz (0.849 mm).

  13. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Day, Robin; Strickland, M. Dale

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post

  14. Thermal neutron calibration of a tritium extraction facility using the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au(n,. gamma. )/sup 198/Au cross section ratio for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute tritium activities in a neutron-activated metallic lithium samples have been measured by liquid scintillation methods to provide data needed for the determination of capture-to-fission ratios in fast breeder reactor spectra and for recent measurements of the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He cross section. The tritium extraction facility used for all these experiments has now been calibrated by measuring the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au/n,..gamma..)/sup 198/Au activity ratio for thermal neutrons and comparing the result with the well-known cross sections. The calculated-to-measured activity ratio was found to be 1.033 +- 0.018. 2 figures, 20 tables.

  15. High energy X-ray pinhole imaging at the Z facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, L. Armon; Ampleford, David J.; Coverdale, Christine A.; Argo, Jeffrey W.; Owen, Albert C.; Jaramillo, Deanna M.

    2016-06-01

    A new high photon energy (hν > 15 keV) time-integrated pinhole camera (TIPC) has been developed as a diagnostic instrument at the Z facility. This camera employs five pinholes in a linear array for recording five images at once onto an image plate detector. Each pinhole may be independently filtered to yield five different spectral responses. The pinhole array is fabricated from a 1-cm thick tungsten block and is available with either straight pinholes or conical pinholes. Each pinhole within the array block is 250 μm in diameter. The five pinholes are splayed with respect to each other such that they point to the same location in space, and hence present the same view of the radiation source at the Z facility. The fielding distance from the radiation source is 66 cm and the nominal image magnification is 0.374. Initial experimental results from TIPC are shown to illustrate the performance of the camera.

  16. High energy X-ray pinhole imaging at the Z facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McPherson, L. Armon; Ampleford, David J.; Coverdale, Christine A.; Argo, Jeffrey W.; Owen, Albert C.; Jaramillo, Deanna M.

    2016-06-06

    A new high photon energy (hv > 15 keV) time-integrated pinhole camera (TIPC) has become available at the Z facility for diagnostic applications. This camera employs five pinholes in a linear array for recording five images at once onto an image plate detector. Each pinhole may be independently filtered to yield five different spectral responses. The pinhole array is fabricated from a 1-cm thick tungsten block and is available with either straight pinholes or conical pinholes. Each pinhole within the array block is 250 μm in diameter. The five pinholes are splayed with respect to each other such that theymore » point to the same location in space, and hence present the same view of the target load at the Z facility. The fielding distance is 66 cm and the nominal image magnification is 0.374. Initial experimental results are shown to illustrate the performance of the camera.« less

  17. Enthalpy By Energy Balance for Aerodynamic Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center Arc Jet Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; MacDonald, Christine L.; Martinez, Edward R.; Balboni, John A.; Anderson, Karl F.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Arc Jet Facilities' Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) has been instrumented for the Enthalpy By Energy Balance (EB2) method. Diagnostic EB2 data is routinely taken for all AHF runs. This paper provides an overview of the EB2 method implemented in the AHF. The chief advantage of the AHF implementation over earlier versions is the non-intrusiveness of the instruments used. For example, to measure the change in cooling water temperature, thin film 1000 ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are used with an Anderson Current Loop (ACL) as the signal conditioner. The ACL with 1000 ohm RTDs allows for very sensitive measurement of the increase in temperature (Delta T) of the cooling water to the arc heater, which is a critical element of the EB2 method. Cooling water flow rates are measured with non-intrusive ultrasonic flow meters.

  18. A New Facility for High-Energy Neutron-Induced Fission Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, A.; Carlsson, M.; Einarsson, L.; Haag, N.; Pomp, S.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Mermod, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Tippawan, U.; Dangtip, S.

    2005-05-24

    A new facility is constructed for measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections in the 20-180 MeV energy region versus the np scattering cross section, which is adopted as the primary neutron standard. The advantage of the experiment compared to earlier studies is that the fission-fragment detection and the neutron-flux measurement via np scattering are performed simultaneously and at the same position in the beam, and, therefore, many sources of systematic errors cancel out. Further reduction of systematic errors is achieved due to 'embedded' determination of effective solid angle of particle detectors using {alpha}-particles from the radioactive decay of the target nuclei. The performance of the facility is illustrated by first data obtained for angular distributions of fission fragments in the 238U(n,f) reaction.

  19. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of Critical Telecommunications Facilities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D. G.; Arent, D. J.; Johnson, L.

    2006-06-01

    This paper documents a probabilistic risk assessment of existing and alternative power supply systems at a large telecommunications office. The analysis characterizes the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to significant telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improving the robustness of telecommunication facilities is to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power during power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide additional on-site electric power sources to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  20. Advanced spectral fiber optic sensor systems and their application in energy facility monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, Reinhardt; Ecke, Wolfgang; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Lindner, Eric; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2011-06-01

    Various spectral-encoded fiber optic sensor concepts and advanced system solutions for application in energy facility monitoring have been investigated. The technological maturity, high performance and reliability of multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor arrays and networks for the measurement of temperature, dynamic strain, air flow, and magnetic field distributions in electric power generators increasing their efficiency will be demonstrated by selected examples of field testing under harsh environmental conditions. For high-temperature combustion monitoring in gas turbines, beside silica FBGs with enhanced temperature stability also sapphire FBGs and Fabry-Perot sensors have been tested and evaluated as well as fiber-based black-body thermal radiation sensors. Finally, the potential of FBG sensors for application in cryo-energetic facilities such as super-conductive high-power motors and experimental nuclear fusion reactors will be discussed.

  1. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  2. Calibration of the AXAF Observatory: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; ODell, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) will soon begin its exploration of the x-ray universe, providing unprecedented angular and spectral resolution. Also unprecedented is the ambitious goal of calibrating the AXAF observatory to an accuracy of a few percent. Toward this end, AXAF science and engineering teams undertook an extensive calibration program at component, subsystem, and system levels. This paper is an overview of the system-level calibration activities, conducted over the past year at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF).

  3. Energy Efficiency for Florida Educational Facilities: The 1996 Energy Survey of Florida Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Danny S.; Dutton, Wanda L.; McIlvaine, Janet E. R.

    Florida has recently completed a survey of energy use and related physical and operational characteristics of the state's public schools. This report presents results from 1,298 surveys received (680 providing matching utility data) revealing that total energy costs for the Florida school system totaled $205 million in 1995. Other data show that…

  4. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  5. High-energy neutron dosimetry at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, M.W.; Vasilik, D.G.; Littlejohn, G.J.; Cortez, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron energy spectrum measurements performed at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility indicated potential areas for high energy neutron exposure to personnel. The low sensitivity of the Los Alamos thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) to high energy neutrons warranted issuing a NTA dosimeter in addition to the TLD badge to employees entering these areas. The dosimeter consists of a plastic holder surrounding NTA film that has been desiccated and sealed in a dry nitrogen environment. A study of the fading of latent images in NTA film demonstrated the success of this packaging method to control the phenomenon. The Los Alamos NTA dosimeter is characterized and the fading study discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. An optimization model for energy generation and distribution in a dynamic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is described using linear programming for the optimum generation and distribution of energy demands among competing energy resources and different economic criteria. The model, which will be used as a general engineering tool in the analysis of the Deep Space Network ground facility, considers several essential decisions for better design and operation. The decisions sought for the particular energy application include: the optimum time to build an assembly of elements, inclusion of a storage medium of some type, and the size or capacity of the elements that will minimize the total life-cycle cost over a given number of years. The model, which is structured in multiple time divisions, employ the decomposition principle for large-size matrices, the branch-and-bound method in mixed-integer programming, and the revised simplex technique for efficient and economic computer use.

  7. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  8. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diazdelarubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, Robert E.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a (ge) 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of approximately 50 separated in time by approximately 0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments.

  9. Aquifer thermal energy storage at Mid-Island postal facility: Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brown, D.R.; Vail, L.W.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on how experiences gained from early full-scale projects are used as guides in the design, installation, and operation of future projects. One early system, built in the mid-1980s, is the US Postal Service (USPS) Mid-Island Mail Processing Facility (MPF), in Melville, New York. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of the MPF`s workroom is provided by an ATES system, which is operated year-round to provide a source for both heating and cooling, in combination with a triethylene glycol (TEG) liquid-desiccant system for humidity control. Because the facility affords a unique opportunity to study this innovative system, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) entered into agreements with the USPS, the US Geological Survey (USGS), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority) to assess the operation and performance of the system. Two essentially independent questions were to be addressed by the project. The first question was: ``How does the MPF ATES/TEG technology compare to conventional technologies?`` The second was: ``What can be done to make operation of the USPS MPF more economical?`` Modelling of the MPF ATES/TEG HVAC system and its loads helped to address both of these questions by showing how much energy is used by the different system components. This report is divided into six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 provides system background. Section 3 describes PNL`s technical performance assessment of the system. Section 4 discusses the life-cycle cost assessment. An operational assessment of the liquid-desiccant system is discussed in Section 5. Section 6 contains conclusions of this study.

  10. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of inertial fusion energy. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, R.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NM will use a {ge}1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. NIF will conduct more than 600 shots per year. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: Essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development, such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF.

  11. Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-07-15

    On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

  12. Facilities to Support Beamed Energy Launch Testing at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, Michael L.

    2003-05-01

    The Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL) has been characterizing material responses to laser energy in support of national defense programs and the aerospace industry for the past 26 years. This paper reviews the overall resources available at LHMEL to support fundamental materials testing relating to impulse coupling measurement and to explore beamed energy launch concepts. Located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, LHMEL is managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory Materials Directorate AFRL/MLPJ and operated by Anteon Corporation. The facility's advanced hardware is centered around carbon dioxide lasers producing output power up to 135kW and neodymium glass lasers producing up to 10 kilojoules of repetitively pulsed output. The specific capabilities of each laser device and related optical systems are discussed. Materials testing capabilities coupled with the laser systems are also described including laser output and test specimen response diagnostics. Environmental simulation capabilities including wind tunnels and large-volume vacuum chambers relevant to beamed energy propulsion are also discussed. This paper concludes with a summary of the procedures and methods by which the facility can be accessed.

  13. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  14. Avian fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America: A comparison of recent approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Loss, Scott R.; Smallwood, K. Shawn; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2016-01-01

    Three recent publications have estimated the number of birds killed each year by wind energy facilities at 2012 build-out levels in the United States. The 3 publications differ in scope, methodology, and resulting estimates. We compare and contrast characteristics of the approaches used in the publications. In addition, we describe decisions made in obtaining the estimates that were produced. Despite variation in the 3 approaches, resulting estimates were reasonably similar; about a quarter- to a half-million birds are killed per year by colliding with wind turbines.

  15. Future is new focus at energy department`s Rocky Flats facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-11-12

    After several years of intensive effort to address radioactive pollution threatening nearby communities, officials at the Energy Department`s Rocky Flats plant now are turning their attention to the site`s plutonium buildings and finding a cleanup challenge of equally daunting proportions. Containing and mopping up off-site soil and water contamination remains the first priority at the Colorado facility, but site environmental managers say the huge volumes of plutonium and associated radioactive waste stored in Rocky Flats` aging building pose increasingly urgent safety concerns.

  16. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100 mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20 GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [ http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  17. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

  18. Calorimeters for pulsed lasers: calibration.

    PubMed

    Thacher, P D

    1976-07-01

    A calibration technique is developed and tested in which a calorimeter used for single-shot laser pulse energy measurements is calibrated with reference to a cw power standard using a chopped cw laser beam. A pulsed laser is required only to obtain the relative time response of the calorimeter to a pulse. With precautions as to beam alignment and wavelength, the principal error of the technique is that of the cw standard. Calibration of two thermopiles with cone receivers showed -2.5% and -3.5% agreement with previous calibrations made by the National Bureau of Standards. PMID:20165270

  19. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  20. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.