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1

Energy Conservation Analysis of Three-Row-Hole Hollow Blocks  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-1-1 Energy Conservation Analysis of Three-Row-Hole Hollow Blocks Gang Chen Huimin Li Zehua Liu School of Architecture, Resource & Environment...

Chen, G.; Li, H.; Liu, Z.

2006-01-01

2

Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

1980-12-01

3

Energy Consumption Analysis and Energy Conservation Evaluation of a Commercial Building in Shanghai  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Co ntrol Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-6-4 Energy Consumption Analysis and Energy Conservation Evaluation of a Commercial Building in Shanghai Chen Chen Yiqun Pan Zhizhong...

Chen, C.; Pan, Y.; Huang, Z.; Wu, G.

2006-01-01

4

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning ti ? R bl EWhy Conservation? Renewable Energy · Climate control reduces green house gases · Reduces

Delgado, Mauricio

5

Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

1996-07-01

6

Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies  

SciTech Connect

The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

1981-05-01

7

First Year Analysis of Industrial Energy Conservation in Texas A&M's Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center Program  

E-print Network

of Energy and managed by the University City Science Center, a non-profit organization, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of the EADC is to identify and recommend specific opportunities to conserve energy. In addition, the EADC may... that operates an Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC). The EADC program is funded by the Office of Industrial Programs, United States Department of Energy and monitored by the University City Science Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This paper...

Grubb, M. K.; Heffington, W. M.

8

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

9

LABORATORY IV CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

. · Calculate the gravitational potential energy of an object with respect to the earth. #12;PROBLEM #1: KINETIC conservation of energy. · Identify different types of energy when applying energy conservation to real systems of an object using video analysis. · Calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object. · Calculate the work

Minnesota, University of

10

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

2009-05-01

11

School Energy Management: An Analysis of Energy Conservation Measures under the Schools and Hospitals Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes a 1981 survey of public school districts receiving energy conservation measure (ECM) grants under the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Title III, Cycle 1. The report contains charts of data, analyses of projects, and sections presenting study design, data treatment, findings, and conclusions. The survey's purpose was

Hansen (Shirley J.) Associates, Inc., Lake Jackson, TX.

12

Investigating the Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Video Analysis: Four Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object's position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to "examine", rather than simply "assume", energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article describes

Bryan, J. A.

2010-01-01

13

Analysis of Energy Conservation Options for USDOE Child Development Center  

E-print Network

&M University Research sponsored by U. S. Department of Energy through Sandia National Laboratory, December 1993 ? 12/93 DRAFT - USDOE CDC Report, p. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES ii LIST OF TABLES iii ABSTRACT iv PREFACE v DISCLAIMER vi EXECUTIVE... (DOE) through Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). Neither the ESL, TEES, DOE, or SNL, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any...

Bou-Saada, T. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01

14

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial of Colleges (PGC) in Rajasthan, India suggests measures to mitigate the impending water and energy crisis that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy

Illinois at Chicago, University of

15

California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that required daily effort and vigilance than one-time consumer actions. Furthermore, many households continued many conservation efforts in the year following the crisis, and there was not an immediate "snap-back" to pre-crisis behaviors. Not only did households employ a variety of conservation strategies that required changes to their lifestyle, the majority did not believe that their quality of life had been reduced or that their conservation efforts involved sacrifices.

Gossard, Marcia Hill

16

Parametric analysis of alternative energy conservation measures in an office building in hot and humid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of demand for electrical energy in the rapidly expanding towns, cities and industries exceeds the growth of the power being made available. Therefore, energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in Saudi buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alternative energy conservation measures on energy requirements in office buildings in hothumid climates.

Imran Iqbal; Mohammad S. Al-Homoud

2007-01-01

17

Rural Energy-Conservation Program  

SciTech Connect

The Rural Energy Conservation Program is a Cooperative Extension Service educational program stressing improved energy efficiency and encouraging a self-help atmosphere among rural and small town residents. Included here are program promotion materials, project schedules, workshop agendas, heat loss and home insulation analysis worksheets, program evaluation worksheets, heating system analysis materials, and client interview data sheets. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

18

Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

1980-09-01

19

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

20

76 FR 9696 - Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EE-2008-BT-STD-0012] Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards...EE-2J, Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards...as well as from the Energy Information Administration...EIA). Historical price or cost data for...

2011-02-22

21

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

22

Energy Analysis and Energy Conservation Option for the Warehouse Facility at the Human Services Center Complex  

E-print Network

, Texas ESL-TR-86/09-03 SUMMARY The energy use of the warehouse facility at the Human Services Center Complex in Austin, Texas was analyzed using the DOE-2.1B building energy simulation program. An analysis was made for each building as specified... in Austin, Texas were analyzed using the DOE 2.1B building energy simulation program. An analysis was made for each building as specified in schematic designs and primary drawings. The energy consumption of the buildings were compared with the energy...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1986-01-01

23

Financing energy conservation projects  

SciTech Connect

Methods for financing energy conservation projects are outlined. The following topics are presented: two basic financing methods, direct leasing and direct leasing methods, project financing, direct lease example, and shared savings example.

Wainwwright, F.

1996-12-31

24

Cost-efficiency analysis in support of the energy conservation standards for refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect

The National Appliance Energy Conservation At (NAECA) of 1987 requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended energy-efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers along with several other appliances. This paper describes the cost-efficiency analysis of design options carried out in support of the proposed 1998 standards for refrigerator/freezers. These proposed standards are unique in that they have been reached by a consensus of various interested parties including the trade association of refrigerator and freezer manufacturers, environmental groups, state energy offices, and utility companies. In large part, these consensus standards are based on the analysis described in this paper. The analysis shows that, for example, for a 515-liter (18.2-ft{sup 3}) top-mount automatic-defrost refrigerator-freezer, the annual energy consumption can be reduced from 700 kWh/yr (2.52 GJ/yr) to 484 kWh/yr (1.74 GJ/yr) (30.9%) by the use of more efficient fan motors and compressors, improved gaskets, and insulation that is {1/2}-inch (12.7 mm) thicker. The energy use can be further reduced to 422 kWh/yr (1.52 GJ/yr) (39.8%) by employing improved heat exchangers, switching to adaptive defrost, and employing vacuum panel insulation instead of thicker walls and doors.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-12-31

25

Energy conservation measures  

SciTech Connect

The first four of the nineteen papers give a wide overview of the energy scene, with an historical perspective on energy systems. These were followed by papers concentrating on utility growth and load management, conservation in the building and construction industry and in transport, and recycling. The final three papers concentrated on energy applications in Kuwait.

Parker, J.D.

1984-01-01

26

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a description of energy and thermodynamics equations as applied to propulsion systems and the understanding of high speed flows. Conservation of energy concepts are discussed along with equations. A set of energy activities and problems are linked following the description. This page is a part of a much larger hyper-linked Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics site.

Project, Nasa G.

2005-12-25

27

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

28

Energy Analysis and Energy Conservation Options for the Addition to Records Storage Building  

E-print Network

analyzed using the DOE 2.1B building energy simulation program. An analysis was made for the building as specified in schematic designs and primary drawings. To reduce the solar heat gain of the building through the windows and skylights, a glass with high..., reducing the light level to 1.8 w/sf, use of solar film on the skylights and windows,- and changing the indoor temperature from 75 to 7 8. These options will not only reduce the peak loads but also reduce the total energy. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The cost...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1986-01-01

29

Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians Energy Conservation and Options Analysis - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant through the Department of Energy First Steps program in June of 2006. The primary purpose of the grant was to enable the Tribe to develop energy conservation policies and a strategy for alternative energy resource development. All of the work contemplated by the grant agreement has been completed and the Tribe has begun implementing the resource development strategy through the construction of a 1.0 MW grid-connected photovoltaic system designed to offset a portion of the energy demand generated by current and projected land uses on the Tribes Reservation. Implementation of proposed energy conservation policies will proceed more deliberately as the Tribe acquires economic development experience sufficient to evaluate more systematically the interrelationships between conservation and its economic development goals.

Paul Turner

2008-07-11

30

Selling energy conservation.  

PubMed

This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

Hinrichsen, D

1995-01-01

31

Energy Conservation: Student Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains six student activities on the topic of energy conservation and the impact of energy use on society. These materials are developed for use in middle schools for energy-related studies in many different subject areas. The activities each contain objectives, lesson plans, teaching tips, supplementary resources, and references. The top document on this page contains the Introduction and Table of Contents. The Primary Documents link can be opened to access the individual student activities. This is one of several similar modules and activity books regarding science, technology, and societal issues.

2012-01-27

32

Industrial Energy Conservation Technology  

SciTech Connect

A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

33

Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

projected operations. Energy conservation projects are evaluated with the model to define energy savings over the life of each project. A discounted cash flow analysis is formulated and an optimum set of projects yielding maximum rates of return are selected...

Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

1983-01-01

34

Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Energy Management and Conservation Plan December 2005 #12;Texas Transportation Institute December 2005 Energy Management and Conservation Plan Page 2 of 24 Table of Contents Section One: Executive: Reporting Progress #12;Texas Transportation Institute December 2005 Energy Management and Conservation Plan

35

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates both conservation of energy and circular motion. A roller coaster car starts on top of a hill, falls through a valley and travels over second hill, then goes through a loop. The depth of the valley, height of barrier, and size of the loop can be varied and the effect on the motion of the body can be viewed. If the velocity is too small or too large the car leaves the tracks. A motion diagram for the car is also available. This is part of a large collection of physics and math applets by the author.

Reddy, Surendranath

2006-06-06

36

Energy Analysis and Energy Conservation Options for the Supreme Court and Attorney General Buildings Final Report, Prepared for the Energy Efficiency Division, Texas Public Utility Commission  

E-print Network

's For The Supreme Court and Attorney General Buildings (KBtu/sf-yr) ABSTRACT The energy use and peak load requirement of the Supreme Court & Attorney General Buildings in Austin, Texas were analyzed using the DOE 2.IB building energy simulation program. An analysis... chosen for the preliminary studies to evaluate possible conservation strategies for reducing the energy use of these buildings. The Supreme Court and Attorney General buildings consist of four buildings. The DOE2.1B building energy simulation program [2...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1986-01-01

37

Supply Curves of Conserved Energy  

SciTech Connect

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

Meier, Alan Kevin

1982-05-01

38

California's Energy Policy: Conservation Works  

E-print Network

Conservation is the foundation of California's energy policy and the largest single source of the state's 'new energy supply'. Our goal is to use economic market forces and government programs to direct energy Investments away from our current...

Greene, D.

1982-01-01

39

Project Based Energy Conservation vs. Management Based Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Basic American Foods (BAF) is the largest potato dehydrator worldwide. This paper will trace the shift from a Project Based to Management Based energy conservation program. Second only to raw material, energy is one of the highest expenses at BAF...

Judy, K.; O'Brien, S.

40

Industrial Energy Conservation Potentials in North Carolina  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIALS IN NORTH CAROLINA MONJED G. BARAKAT Chief Engineer Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center North Carolina A & T State University HARMOHINDAR SINGH Associate Professor Architectural Engineering...; however, this luxury is not always affordable by the small and medium size manufacturers. The U.S. Department of Energy is helping these smaller companies by supporting Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC) at 13 universities throughout...

Barakat, M. G.; Singh, H.; Mallik, A. K.

41

Motivating People to Conserve Energy--Energy Conservation Education  

E-print Network

's most popular responses for specific recommendations for educational programs for engineers include: conbustion schools, water treatment seminars, short courses by miscellaneous professional societies, seminars by steam trap manufacturers, seminars... of an energy conservation program include proper equipment, efficient operating techniques, and an effective maintenance program. But, the most important part of any energy conservation pr ogram is lP'E(o)lP'nuE. Motivation of Management, Engineer s, Operator...

Cobb, D. L.; Jackson F.M.

1979-01-01

42

Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.

Green, Alan C.

1981-01-01

43

First Year Analysis of Industrial Energy Conservation in Texas A&M's Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center Program  

E-print Network

Tenth Annual INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE September 13-15, 1988 Adam's Mark Hotel Houston, Texas W.D.Turner Conference Director Technical Program Director Susan K. Gibson Proceedings Editor TEES Information Services Graphics & Layout... Sponsored by Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University Texas Governor's Energy Management Center Louisiana Department of Natural Resources Center for Energy and Mineral Resources, Texas A&M University FIRST YEAR...

Grubb, M. K.; Heffington, W. M.

44

Physics 321 Energy Conservation Potential Energy in  

E-print Network

Physics 321 Hour 7 Energy Conservation ­ Potential Energy in One Dimension Work-Energy Theorem = 1 work increases kinetic energy, negative work decreases kinetic energy Gravity Depending on initial is independent of path. If we know we also know . 1 2 y x Potential Energy If T is dependent only on the end

Hart, Gus

45

Energy Conservation and the Consumer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an explanation of what is known about the connections among consumer activities, the direct and indirect demands of these activities for energy and employment, and the consumer's options for energy conservation. A tax to be placed on energy and adjusted to wage levels is suggested. (Author/EB)

Hannon, Bruce

1975-01-01

46

Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study  

SciTech Connect

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

Krstulovich, S.F.

1986-11-12

47

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry because students have not yet been exposed to the idea of gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy. Students should be able to measure this by performing this activity. They will compare the velocity that

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

48

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

Not Available

1990-01-01

49

A Computer Analysis of Energy Use and Energy Conservation Options for a Twelve Story Office Building in Austin, Texas  

E-print Network

The energy use of the Travis Building at Austin, Texas was analyzed using the DOE 2.1B building energy simulation program. An analysis was made for the building as specified in the building plans and as operated by the personnel currently occupying...

Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.; Farad, M.

1986-01-01

50

Energy conservation principles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper and presentation discuss preliminary findings from energy audits conducted in cotton gins in six states including the allocation of motor horse power and kilowatt hours energy consumption per bale. General inferences will be drawn from information collected at gin plants of various bale...

51

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND GRAVITY WAVES IN SOUND-PROOF TREATMENTS OF STELLAR INTERIORS. II. LAGRANGIAN CONSTRAINED ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The speed of sound greatly exceeds typical flow velocities in many stellar and planetary interiors. To follow the slow evolution of subsonic motions, various sound-proof models attempt to remove fast acoustic waves while retaining stratified convection and buoyancy dynamics. In astrophysics, anelastic models typically receive the most attention in the class of sound-filtered stratified models. Generally, anelastic models remain valid in nearly adiabatically stratified regions like stellar convection zones, but may break down in strongly sub-adiabatic, stably stratified layers common in stellar radiative zones. However, studying stellar rotation, circulation, and dynamos requires understanding the complex coupling between convection and radiative zones, and this requires robust equations valid in both regimes. Here we extend the analysis of equation sets begun in Brown et al., which studied anelastic models, to two types of pseudo-incompressible models. This class of models has received attention in atmospheric applications, and more recently in studies of white-dwarf supernova progenitors. We demonstrate that one model conserves energy but the other does not. We use Lagrangian variational methods to extend the energy conserving model to a general equation of state, and dub the resulting equation set the generalized pseudo-incompressible (GPI) model. We show that the GPI equations suitably capture low-frequency phenomena in both convection and radiative zones in stars and other stratified systems, and we provide recommendations for converting low-Mach number codes to this equation set.

Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Lecoanet, Daniel [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Wood, Toby S., E-mail: vasil@cita.utoronto.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

2013-08-20

52

Qualifying Energy Conservation Bonds  

E-print Network

will not come after you or your project. 10 20% Savings Clarified ESL-KT-13-12-39 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 11 Joshua Briggs Vice President Green Campus Partners, LLC 732.917.2322 | Office 720...

Briggs, J.

2013-01-01

53

Energy conservation in industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses combustion and heat recovery, engines and batteries, and applications and technologies. Some of the topics covered include: energy-saving technologies; heat exchangers, fluidized bed exchangers, industrial heat pumps; fluidized bed combustion; waste heat recovery; orc machines and cascading; engines and flywheels; new types of engines; advanced batteries; fuel cell; chemical industry and catalysis; metallurgy; textile industry; food industry; microwave applications; and cement and glass ceramic industry.

Strub, A.S.; Ehringer, H.

1984-01-01

54

Energy Conservation in Sensor and  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Energy Conservation in Sensor and Sensor-Actuator Networks Ivan Stojmenovic 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Homogeneous Sensor Networks Recent technological advances have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power, and multifunctional sensor devices. Large collections of these devices organized

Stojmenovic, Ivan

55

Energy conservation in swine buildings  

SciTech Connect

Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

1980-05-01

56

Teaching the conservation of energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fourth-year students in eight classes were tested over a three-year period to determine the ease or difficulty with which they learned the conservation principle. A major focus was on ideas they held about the nature of energy before beginning the course. Results and implications for physics instruction are presented.

Solomon, Joan

2005-11-28

57

The Thermodynamics of Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

THE THERMODYNAMICS OF ENERGY CONSERVAXION LARRY C. WITTE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON HOUSTON, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper is part of a session dealing with the fundamentals of energy conservation. The paper... is intended to be a tutorial for engineers who have not been trained in ther modynamics, or have not practiced recently and need some refresher material. The first and second laws of thermodynamics will be reviewed in this paper from the context of how...

Witte, L. C.

58

75 FR 5544 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public Meeting and...energy conservation standards for certain metal halide lamp fixtures. This document announces...Document for energy conservation standards for metal halide lamp fixtures and provide...

2010-02-03

59

Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.  

PubMed

In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers. PMID:25583494

Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

2015-02-10

60

Concord Consortium: Atoms and Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module lets students interactively explore how the Law of Conservation of Energy applies at the atomic level. It includes multiple simulations on topics that include kinetic and potential energy, energy conversion, energy transfer in open systems, and analysis of energy graphs. This item is part of the Concord Consortium, a nonprofit research and development organization dedicated to transforming education through technology. The Consortium develops deeply digital learning innovations for science, mathematics, and engineering. Users may register for additional free access to a Teacher's Guide and capability to capture data.

2008-08-09

61

The politics of energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

After a decade of debate about U.S. energy policy, the two political parties reached consensus that conservation is needed to achieve energy efficiency and to ensure adequate future supplies. But what is the most effective spur to energy conservation. In this book, Pietro S. Nivola argues that basic pricing reform in all energy sectors, though politically controversial, should be the heart of a national energy plan. Petroleum prices were fully deregulated in 1981, but wasteful pricing formulas still plague other important energy sectors like natural gas and electricity. In tracing congressional action on various energy bills in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the author shows that federal policymakers often bypassed or delayed important decisions on pricing reform. He analyzes how special interest groups, public opinion, and geographically based influences have affected congressional voting patterns and led to compromises that resulted in ineffective, or even harmful, legislation. He also addresses the role of governmental leaders and institutions in shaping the legislation. Beyond these various pressures, Nivola asserts, the conflict in Congress over energy pricing stems from intense political convictions about the role of government. One side in the congressional debate persistently attempted to use federal energy pricing policy to solve general problems of social inequity.

Nivola, P.

1986-01-01

62

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects  

E-print Network

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects A.Keller, S. Hughes, S. Bennett, M, the Metropolitan Water District, the California Urban Water Conservation Council, Santa Clara Valley Water District) as a result of energy and water conservation; ~ Determined total cost of implementing the conservation

Keller, Arturo A.

63

Decision support for energy conservation promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective energy conservation program in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, equipment, and materials. Governments use different mechanisms or policy instruments such as pricing policy (PP), regulation and legislation (RL), training and education, fiscal and financial incentives (FFI), and R&D to promote energy conservation. Effective implementation of energy conservation

M. M. Kablan

2004-01-01

64

ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

1975-01-01

65

Energy conservation in ice skating rinks  

SciTech Connect

An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

1980-01-01

66

A compendium of energy conservation success stories  

SciTech Connect

Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

Not Available

1988-09-01

67

A Practical Approach to Process Analysis and Improvement for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

of the atmosphere [7]. The available energy concept was given by Gibbs and later developed further by Keenan [7]. In steady-state flow system, the available energy of a mixture, where such factors as kinetic and potential energies are neglected, is defined...", Chem. Eng. in a Changing World (W. T. Koetsier ed.), pp.483, Elsevier Pub. (1976) [7] Keenan, J. H., "Availability and Irreversibility in Thermodynamics", British Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.2, July, pp.183 (1951) [8] Gaggioli, R. A. and P...

Shiroko, K.; Umeda, T.

1980-01-01

68

Energy conservation using face detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

2011-10-01

69

78 FR 14717 - Energy Conservation Standards for Set-Top Boxes: Availability of Initial Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rate), DOE conducts the LCC and PBP analysis by modeling both the uncertainty and variability in the inputs using Monte Carlo simulation and probability distributions. The primary outputs of the LCC and PBP analyses are: (1) Average...

2013-03-07

70

Analysis of Energy Conservation Options for USDOE Child Development Center, Final Summary Report  

E-print Network

Research sponsored by U. S. Department of Energy through Sandia National Laboratory, Contract No. AK-8010 December 1993 Revised December 1994 12/94 - USDOE CDC Report, p. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF FIGURES ii LIST OF TABLES iii ABSTRACT iv PREFACE v... Station (TEES) and was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). Neither the ESL, TEES, DOE, or SNL, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability...

Bou-Saada, T. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01

71

Analysis of Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks , K.J.Blow1  

E-print Network

and quality of service in an ad-hoc wireless sensor network. Nodes can be either sleeping, where spent in the sleeping state will decrease throughput and increase packet loss and delivery delay. However there is a complex relationship between sleeping time and energy consumption. Increasing

Kent, University of

72

78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule...This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for...final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for...louvered sides as 24,999 British thermal units per hour (Btu/...

2013-07-16

73

Energy Management and the Conservation Investment Decision  

E-print Network

in hard economic times such as we are exper iencing today. 5. Energy conservation increases profits through the reduction of overhead and the multiplier effect. The energy costs avoided flow directly to the bottom line as profit. 6. Energy... conservation increases the value of your company in three ways. As you invest in energy conservation, the value of these investments increase the value of your assets and profits increase by the reduction of overhead and cost avoidance. Good...

DeLozier, T. C.

1983-01-01

74

78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for...2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) erroneously specified...louvered sides as 24,999 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h...identify the proposed rule for Energy Conservation Standards...

2013-04-08

75

Energy-conserving site design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information useful to landscape architects, architects, planners, engineers, students, and homeowners is presented. The concepts and examples needed to create more energy-efficient landscapes are described. The book is organized into five sections, including: an overview and history of energy-efficient design research; detailed information and new strategies on site analysis and planning; energy-efficient landscape design of clustered and single residences; alternative

McPherson

1984-01-01

76

Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that

Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

2014-01-01

77

The Impact of Deregulation on Energy Conservation and DSM Measures  

E-print Network

. In the new market, the economics of energy conservation and demand side management options will depend on price signals from the market. Unfortunately, the market is always changing and therefore affecting an end user's cost/benefit analysis. This problem...

Brasovan, M. W.

2002-01-01

78

76 FR 70865 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1904-AB79 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers Correction In rule document 2011-22329 appearing on pages 57516 through 57612 in the...

2011-11-16

79

Energy Conservation in China North Industries Corporation  

E-print Network

ENERGY CONSERVATION IN CHINA NORTH INDUSTRIES CORPORATION Wang Tian You, Chen Hua De, Jing Xing Chu, Ling Rui Fu, China North Industries Corporation Beijing, People's Republic of China ABSTRACT This paper describes an overview of the energy... conservation in China North Industries Corporation. It shows how the corporation improves energy effi ciencies and how it changes constitution of fuel-- converting oil consumption to coal. Energy management organization, energy balance in plants...

You, W. T.; De, C. H.; Chu, J. X.; Fu, L. R.

80

Energy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

Bazjanac, Vladimir

1981-01-01

81

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity packet for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and

Bakke, Ruth

82

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

83

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

84

76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...80221-1112-80221-F2] Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat...amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP...NEPA for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan...

2011-07-29

85

Effective Energy Conservation in the Operating Unit  

E-print Network

plant to improve upon the energy conservation program within each operating unit. Guidelines based on proven experience were developed to build a broad-based program that effectively manages energy usage and its reduction at its end use....

Korich, R. D.

1982-01-01

86

Conservation as an alternative energy source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

Allen, D. E.

1978-01-01

87

Energy conservation in health-care facilities  

SciTech Connect

As energy expenditures continue their dramatic rise in the health-care industry, they absorb a larger portion of hospital budgets and prompt managers to seek ways to conserve energy and reduce consumption. Hospital managers, however, may be forced by capital constraints to choose between medical and energy conservation investments. The author examines some of the issues (including fairness, legal and financial impediments, and medical practices) involved in reducing health care costs. He makes practical suggestions for improving facility efficiency that include a strategy for energy management and a checklist of ideas. The case histories of 25 medical facilities illustrate conservation opportunities. 18 references, 34 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

Hunt, V.D. (comp.)

1983-01-01

88

76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of Smart Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards...comments on the request for information on ``smart'' appliances is extended to September...related to the analytical treatment of ``smart'' appliances in the development of...

2011-09-12

89

Energy Conservation. Educational Facilities Digest 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because today's schools consume large amounts of energy and, consequently, pay high energy bills, the term "energy cirsis" is no exaggeration to describe the situation facing educators and school administrators. Schools everywhere are under pressure to use less electricity, natural gas, heating oil, and gasoline. While energy conservation

Council of Educational Facility Planners, Columbus, OH.

90

LABORATORY I: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HEAT  

E-print Network

Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HEAT In 1101 labs, you used conservation on each object's properties such as its specific heat capacity, latent heat and mass, as well these concepts: - Heat capacity, specific heat, and latent heat of fusion · Use heat capacities to determine

Minnesota, University of

91

Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers  

SciTech Connect

This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

1985-06-01

92

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2012-07-01

93

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2014-07-01

94

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2010-07-01

95

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2011-07-01

97

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2014-01-01

98

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2011-01-01

99

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2010-01-01

100

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2013-01-01

101

14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609 Section 152...AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall...

2012-01-01

102

The Cost of Conserved Energy As An Investment Statistic  

E-print Network

The cost of conserved energy (CCE) is an investment statistic that simplifies comparison of conservation measures among themselves and against competing energy supplies. A formula for calculating the cost of conserved energy formula is presented. A...

Meier, A. K.

1984-01-01

103

Canada's Voluntary Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

Industrial Energy Conservation in Canada is organized and promoted through a voluntary program that is administered by industry. Industry is divided into fifteen sectors, each of which is represented by a Voluntary Task Force. Information exchange...

Wolf, C. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

104

The Gulf Coast Energy Conservation Society  

E-print Network

membership, recent meeting topics, and examples of some benefits to society members are also presented. The Gulf Coast Energy Conservation Society was the outcome of informal meetings between Amoco, Union Carbide, and Monsanto back in 1973 and has grown...

Faulkner, C. R.

1979-01-01

105

Education and Training for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

A successful energy conservation program at a large industrial complex depends on the participation and active contribution of the entire staff. To achieve this goal it is essential for people to have an overall understanding and insight as well...

Sorotzkin, J.

1982-01-01

106

Energy Conservation Through Education and Training  

E-print Network

A successful energy conservation program at a large industrial complex depends on the participation and active contribution of the entire staff. In order to achieve this goal it is essential for people to have an overall understanding and insight...

Sorotzkin, J.

1981-01-01

107

Energy Conservation Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures that can be effected in the architecture and engineering of new and existing school buildings are listed. Guidelines are also offered for general school operation and maintenance. (MLF)

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

108

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-print Network

COOLING TOWERS -- ENERGY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES Cooling Water Optimization Dr. JACK MATSON Environmental Engg. Dept. University of Houston Houston, Texas A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower...

Matson, J.

109

Conserve Energy by Optimizing Air Compressor System  

E-print Network

CONSERVE ENERGY BY OPTIMIZING AIR COMPRESSOR SYSTEM Verle A. Williams, P.E., CEM Verle A. Williams & Associates, Inc. San Diego, California ABSTRACT There are many opportunities to conserve 2. Two 20-hp cooling water cirulating pumps (one... energy within an Industrial Plant without adver operating and one standby). sely impacting the operation or production. Many of these represent only relatively small savings, 3. One 20-hp closed circuit cooling tower with when compared to the overall...

Williams, V. A.

110

76 FR 25622 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Et'' means thermal efficiency; ``EER'' means energy efficiency ratio...means seasonal energy efficiency ratio...means British thermal units per hour...existing Federal energy conservation standards...specify a ``thermal...

2011-05-05

111

78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...regarding the amended energy conservation standard...standards on electric thermal storage programs...the appliance as thermal energy for use during peak...company electric thermal storage (ETS) program...Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and...

2013-02-26

112

75 FR 19296 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standards for Residential Furnaces and Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...amend the test procedures for furnaces and boilers, and the energy conservation standards...Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers'' or ``NOPM for Energy...

2010-04-14

113

Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation

Hassani, Sadri

2005-01-01

114

Energy Conservation on Campus. Volume I. Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high cost of energy and the curtailment of primary preferred fuel has upset many long-standing maintenance and operation policies, forcing institutions to look quickly for ways to reduce energy usage. This booklet is designed to assist institutions of higher education in establishing or upgrading energy conservation programs. The development

Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

115

Living Lightly: Energy Conservation in Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a series of papers which promote the concepts of energy conservation and offer safe and convenient ways of handling all aspects of our lives affected by energy without having to depend in any way on fossil fuels or nuclear power. These changes, which can be brought about in homes and in energy flows affected by the

Bender, Tom

116

Comparison of Teaching Methods for Energy Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three sections, taught by different instructors, of Conceptual Physics were taught energy conservation using three different techniques: traditional no visualization, energy bar charts, and energy bars. Performance of the groups of students on final exam questions is compared and contrasted.

Horner, M. L.; Jeng, Monwhea; Lindell, Rebecca S.

2007-11-25

117

Net zero building energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

Kadam, Rohit

118

Energy Conservation Through Effective Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various ways in which the demand for energy could be decreased, focusing not so much on discouraging demand by increasing prices, as on reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency of energy utilization in buildings and in industry. (JR)

Berg, Charles A.

1973-01-01

119

Students' Knowledge of Energy and Attitudes to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected by pencil-and-paper instruments from 33 students in grade 10 in Perth, Western Australia. Data indicated that students were only slightly knowledgeable about energy and energy conservation; they had slightly positive attitudes toward energy conservation. (MNS)

Vlahov, Stephen J.; Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

120

Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

1975-01-01

121

Water and energy conservation in irrigated agriculture  

SciTech Connect

There are many aspects to energy usage in irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture requires machinery and machinery requires energy inputs. This paper discusses some of the technology that is being used to reduce energy consumption in the general area of irrigation. Subjects covered include irrigation scheduling, varietal testing, electric load management of pumping plants, equipment selection, conservation tillage, solar and wind energy applications, and others. 12 refs.

Kroutil, W.F.; Fischbach, P.E.

1981-01-01

122

Energy Conservation Checklist for Universities and Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several specific success stories are included here from institutions that have had energy conservation programs long enough to establish meaningful statistics. They illustrate why it is not unreasonable for most institutions to meet the federal objective of a 15% reduction in energy consumption, even if 1973 is used as the base year, but with some

Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

123

Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition  

SciTech Connect

The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

1988-04-01

124

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-print Network

efficient due to a higher exiting flue gas temperature. Energy savings in process heaters can basically be achieved in the following two ways: a. by optimazation of energy use b. with energy recovery systems which are studied in more detail. 40... turnaround. - trimming of combustion conditions, mainly draft and air excess. This should be done frequently to compensate for load variations, but the actual si tuation is often that air registers and flue gas dampers are left sufficient~ open to allow...

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01

125

75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday,...

2010-04-27

126

The role of renewable energy in energy management and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a crucial issue for sustainable developments. Conventional energy sources will remain the main supply of energy for the world. The importance of renewable energy sources and their current advances are discussed with a special emphasis on energy conservation policy. The paper will focus briefly on various techniques of integrated renewable with existing energy systems. It is concluded that

U. A. Elani; S. H. Alawaji; S. M. Hasnain

1996-01-01

127

Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.  

PubMed

The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies. PMID:23359745

Hannon, Bruce

2013-03-13

128

Radiant heat for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that human comfort could be provided in otherwise chilly surroundings by filling the occupied space with electromagnetic energy of centimeter wavelength. Very considerable reductions in the consumption of energy required for the heating of buildings should result from the lowering of interior temperatures thereby permitted

R. V. Pound

1980-01-01

129

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

130

Energy conservation in museums and historic buildings  

SciTech Connect

The special environmental needs of museums and historic buildings can be met through methods that conserve energy as well. The research reported in this article is a result of a project undertaken to assess the energy conservation possibilities in such buildings. The irreplaceable nature of museum collections and the historic structures which often house them mandates that proper care be taken not to cause any irreversible damage in the process of saving energy. This article outlines specific heating, cooling and humidity control guidelines to follow, and recommends that all such buildings have an energy audit performed on their facilities. It also describes an energy use data base which has been compiled to show the actual energy consumption of museums.

Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

1983-08-01

131

Graphical Methods in Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

It goes without saying that more efficient use of electrical energy results in savings for both companies and their customers, but effective communication of such information to customers, clients, management, and anyone else without technical...

McAlister, J.

132

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-print Network

An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United...

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01

133

Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

1981-12-01

134

Education and Training Promote Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROMOTE ENERGY CONSERVATION Norman w. Steele Hercules Incorporated Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Significant progress has been made in reducing energy consumption via housekeeping, maintenance, procedural changes... chemical companies in the United has reduced its energy consumption by States with its headquarters located in about 14% when measured against the base wilmington, Delaware. Net sales in 1979 year of 1972. The chemical industry has were $2.4 billion...

Steele, N. W.

1980-01-01

135

Cost Effectiveness Analysis for Conservation Investments  

E-print Network

conservation projects. It reduce fuel consumption by 94,000 BOE per might pertain to a production line, a year serves as a starting point for setting plant, an operating division, or an entire a reasonable energy reduction target. corporation. The inventory...,584,000 12,000 132 15 6,219,000 94,000 *1 BOE = 5.8 million Btu TABLE 1. HYPOTHETICAL INVENTORY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION PROJECTS. 624 ESL-IE-84-04-107 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume II, Houston, TX, April...

Reid, M. W.

1984-01-01

136

First Year Analysis of Industrial Energy Conservation/Management of the Texas A&M University- Kingsville Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center  

E-print Network

of Energy. The Center is managed by the University City Science Center, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the 1993-94 academic year, the Center conducted 15 energy audits of small and medium sized manufacturing plants in South Texas. The SIC...

Medina, M. A.; Elkassabgi, Y.

137

The Energy Conservation Curriculum Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a model which responds to the need for a systematic, conceptual framework for understanding energy. The specific vehicle for enhancing this understanding for the model is postsecondary adult vocational education. The model is intended to assist educators in designing and developing curricula tailored to the needs and interests of

Haveman, Jacqueline E.; O'Connell, Kathryn

138

Energy conservation: will it work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans can develop the motivation and technology to limit the rate of energy growth and still have a very good, though possibly quite different, world. A slowdown in the rate of growth will result partly from an approaching saturation level of cars, buildings, and appliances. Shortages of materials and resources in the next few years will lengthen the time scales

Lees

1975-01-01

139

Energy Conservation in Industrial Lighting  

E-print Network

are changed. LI FECOST - $+ I 2000 l ' I i f lUfo1lNAIRES CLEANED ONLY I _, / WHEN LAMP IS CHANGED 1500 t 20% SAVINGS [ o---J-o-- ! Iii LIFECOST i --0--~ 1000 lUMINAIRES CLEANEDt L ! ONCE A YEAR liOTE: ENERGY SAVINGS IS 351:. 500 t I AREA: 900...

Meharg, E.

1979-01-01

140

77 FR 40530 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determine Installed Price C. Energy Use Analysis D...manufacturer selling price and product efficiency...evaluating as potential energy conservation standards...manufacturer selling price, sales taxes, distribution...of the product (energy cost, water...

2012-07-10

141

77 FR 3404 - Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers: Public Meeting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determine Installed Price C. Energy Use Analysis D...manufacturer selling price and equipment efficiency...is evaluating for energy conservation standards...manufacturer selling price, sales taxes, distribution...of the equipment (energy cost, water...

2012-01-24

142

76 FR 17573 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment: Public Meeting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determine Installed Price C. Energy Use Analysis D...manufacturer selling price and equipment efficiency...is evaluating for energy conservation standards...manufacturer selling price, sales taxes, distribution...of the equipment (energy cost and...

2011-03-30

143

Conceptual Physics Conservation of Energy Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This topic is broken into units to help in formulating cohesive, effective lessons. Clicking on each unit title will display appropriate activities, lesson plans, or labs. Units are intended to help students understand the interconnectedness of the concepts of conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum underpinning the basis for much of physics. Units are not listed in a prescribed order.

The Physics Front

2011-09-20

144

Energy Conservation: Implementing an Effective Campus Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the physical plant environment and temperature control equipment at Eastfield College (Texas), this paper explains how redirected efforts toward energy conservation can result in important cost/usage savings. Electricity billing rates are explained to provide a stronger usage strategy for cost effectiveness. Two methods of reducing

Marsee, Jeff

145

STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

1 STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION In the Matter of ) ____________________________________) Order No. 10-1201-20 I. AUTHORITY AND PURPOSE Pursuant to Pub. Resources Code, § 25210 and Cal. Code, as well as the natural gas projects before the Commission in 2009 and 2010. The Committee

146

Adjusting Your Water Heater to Conserve Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- In this lab-based activity the students will use their knowledge about the law of conservation of energy to explain the loss of heat by warm water to cold water. Then, the students will use these concepts to design and carry an experiment to determine the unknown temperature of a hot water sample.

Nour Sinada, Woodbury Junior High, Woodbury, MN, based on the an original activity from the curriculum of 9th grade physical science in South Washington County Schools and from the USAFA Department of Chemistry

147

Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

1981-01-01

148

Low-Tech Energy Conservation for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institute of Architects National Committee on Architecture for Education presents this guide which addresses methods of energy conservation in school buildings with simple design, construction, and equipment-control technology so that trained and creative people can take over functions normally done by machinery and automated

Stein, Benjamin

149

Waste recycling for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

This book explains the philosophy and practice of resource and energy recovery; it provides pratical guidance for everyone involved in recycling and recovery procedures. Particular attention is directed towards mechanical sorting and to the classification of urban and industrial refuse; to refuse-derived fuels and their storage, handling, and incineration; and to the operational procedures which apply to recycling plants of all kinds. Carefully selected case histories describe important industrial recycling applications which function in Europe and in the USA; these highlight the benefits and the financial returns which can be achieved by thoughtful recycling.

Kut, D.; Hare, G.

1981-01-01

150

International Energy Conservation Code 2012 & 2015  

E-print Network

International Energy Conservation Code 2012 & 2015 Whats the Difference? ESL-KT-14-11-42 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Codes Specialist Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station shirleyellis...@tamu.edu Shirley Ellis ESL-KT-14-11-42 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Agenda Overview and Intent of IECC Scope and Administration, Definitions, Design Conditions, Existing Buildings, Referenced Standards...

Ellis, S.

2014-01-01

151

Pumping arrangements to conserve energy  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of unique constructional improvements in constructions involved in pumping. The invention is particularly adapted in deep well pumps which may be water or oil pumps or otherwise. The invention greatly reduces the mass of moving parts thereby proportionately reducing the energy required for pumping operations. Dual pistons are utilized which reciprocate oppositely, being connected by a cable passing over a pulley. Heavy sucker rods and pistons are eliminated. The pistons are light-weight with light-weight bellows-type seals. The pistons are activated by way of cables rather than sucker rods. Further gains are realized by minimizing the size of the piping utilized. This end is realized by way of an offset staggered relationship of the operating pistons in a smaller pipe or by way of plural pistons arranged in vertical array or assembly.

Ely, R.H.; Haynes, L.E.

1980-03-04

152

Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures  

SciTech Connect

ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

1980-01-01

153

75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced...

2010-05-28

154

Studying the Laws of Conservation of Momentum and Energy using a Ballistic Pendulum Conservation of Energy  

E-print Network

that it only changes form. If an object loses energy in one form it gains some or radiates some in another form. This is mainly due to energy be converted to other forms other than kinetic during the collision, these forms mayStudying the Laws of Conservation of Momentum and Energy using a Ballistic Pendulum Theory

Yu, Jaehoon

155

Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing  

SciTech Connect

Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

Levine, A.; Raab, J.

1981-03-01

156

Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice  

SciTech Connect

Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

Not Available

1980-05-01

157

Integrated energy and water conservation modeling  

SciTech Connect

Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is required to provide federal facility managers with a clear determination of the impact of water conservation practices on energy consumption. This paper introduces the WATERGY model, which is a spreadsheet model to analyze total energy savings associated with water conservation efforts. The contribution of this effort is the development of a synergistic model based on engineering algorithms as opposed to lumped parameter estimates. The model explicitly details the relationships between direct and indirect water and energy savings. Irrigation, plumbing fixture, appliance, and boiler blowdown savings comprise the direct water component of the model. Reduction in leakage and unaccounted-for water in the distribution system are calculated as indirect water savings. Direct energy savings are calculated for hot water production. Indirect energy savings associated with distribution and collection, electric line losses, and unaccounted-for gas are determined by the model. Data sources, algorithms, and engineering assumptions used in the development of the model are detailed. The model capabilities are demonstrated for a hypothetical federal facility.

Monsabert, S. de; Liner, B.L. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1998-04-01

158

Regional Urban Planning for Energy Conservation: Alternative Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of urban and regional planners in redesigning land use patterns which reinforce energy conservation while preserving satisfying living conditions. A model for evaluating energy conservation planning alternatives for Perth, Australia is described. (AM)

Manohar, Shri

1982-01-01

159

Measures and Investment Options for Community Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Municipalities and electric and gas utilities have for the past decade offered ratepayers incentives for conserving energy. The energy conservation strategies used have varied depending on the goals of the local utility. The cost-effectiveness...

Myers, M. S.; Korinchock, D.

1986-01-01

160

Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities: executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use is presented. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major energy end-use sectors. The analysis employs a systematic process for both identifying and screening candidate energy conservation research areas. The study team was comprehensive in its review of aggregate energy consumption and employed explicit criteria to evaluate the technology research areas.

Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

1981-11-01

161

Work and Energy Problem: Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A pendulum of unknown mass is suspended from a platform and swings as shown in the animation (assume negligible loss of energy due to air resistance; position is shown in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-21

162

Energy Conservation in the Bell System  

E-print Network

the co 11 ector is heated to steam which powers a generator to create elec tricity. The processed steam then becomes hot water which is used in the building's heating and air conditioning units. The solar furnace is rated at 7.5 kWh of electricity...-04-21 Proceedings from the Fifth Industrial Energy Conservation Technology Conference Volume 1, Houston, TX, April 17-20, 1983 control system, and solar energy systems for di rect conversion and building heating and cooling. Continuing development...

Draper, W. C.

1983-01-01

163

Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document is designed as a reference manual on energy and provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans. The manual offers energy conservation

Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria

164

77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EESEP0216] State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office...State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

2012-03-12

165

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.

Banks, Robert S.; Rainer, David

1980-03-01

166

77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket Number EERE-2010-BT-STD-0048...INFORMATION: Background Title III, Part B of the Energy Policy and Conservation...Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' Part C of Title III of EPCA (42...

2012-02-24

167

Energy Conservation: Guidelines for Action. Suggested Guidelines for Local School District Development of Energy Conservation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum guidelines for the local development of energy conservation programs in public schools reflect an interdisciplinary educational approach--the result of a coordinated effort by industry, commerce, education, and government agencies concerned with the energy crisis. The scope and nature of the problem, with its implications for education

Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

168

Running Head: Ecosystem Energy and Conservation1 Ecosystem Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and3  

E-print Network

1 Running Head: Ecosystem Energy and Conservation1 2 Ecosystem Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and3 Management Strategies4 5 Andrew James Hansen6 Ecology energy levels as a strategic framework to help identify conservation priorities and22 those management

Hansen, Andrew J.

169

Energy Conservation at the Gravitational Collapse  

E-print Network

We apply the principle of energy conservation to the motion of the test particle in gravitational field by requiring that its energy, gained by gravitation, has to be balanced by decrease of its rest mass. Due to the change of mass in gravitational field Newton's force law between gravitating bodies is modified, too. With this modified force law we build up the the classical field theory of gravitation in which all relevant field quantities are in the definition domain $r\\in [0,\\infty)$ finite and positive. We show that under such circumstances, the energy release at any gravitational collapse is finite. On the other side, the energy conservation leads to an equation which relates the mass change of the test particle due to gravitation and the metric of the corresponding gravitational field. The mass change in Newton's gravitational field lead to a remarkable simple metric which shifts, in contrast to the Schwarzschild metric, the horizon of events to the gravity center of the gravitational collapse.

V. Majernik

2006-09-12

170

Applying QTL analysis to conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both analytical and molecular tools currently exist that can be used to prolifically apply quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis\\u000a to the study of natural populations. In this communication, we review and exemplify the use of QTL mapping tools and genetic\\u000a modeling for conservation geneticists. We simulate populations inspired by relevant cases that can be encountered in the field\\u000a and analyze

Franois Besnier; Arnaud Le Rouzic; Jos M. lvarez-Castro

2010-01-01

171

Risk of producing energy - and conserving it  

SciTech Connect

The idea that society can have a free lunch in the form of a risk-free energy system is rapidly fading away. All energy systems have some risk to human health, and for some it can be substantial. Nuclear power seems to have both a low occupational and public risk compared to other forms. In addition to this, some original research is presented with calculations on some of the risk associated with sealing up houses to keep heat in. When the effects of the accumulated radon is included, the risk per unit energy saved for this form of conservation can be great. Indeed, it appears to be much greater than the public risk of nuclear power.

Inhaber, H.; Caton, G.; Gove, R.

1981-01-01

172

Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects

Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

173

Selling Energy Conservation Projects to Top Management  

E-print Network

. The General Description should contain a detailed description of the project's implementa tion and the pros and cons.of the project. Also included should be an evaluation of the possible effects of the project on eXisting operation(s). Reference... percent a year for the next 10 years. Energy inflation today has been running ahead of that rate. However, a conservative approach to these figures will likely cause the project to be con sidered more favorably. TABLE I TEN YEAR SAVINGS ESTIMATE...

Jonsson, K. A.

1983-01-01

174

Energy savings analysis for energy monitoring and control systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy savings analysis report and software was developed to calculate savings when implementing typical energy conservation strategies. The analysis is based on ASHRAE Bin methods. Strategies include: scheduled start/stop, optimized start/stop, and temperature reset.

Flagg, Ken; Pierpoint, William

1995-01-01

175

Skating on Thin Ice: Evolution of Conservation in Energy Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are we physicists so often drawn into the nexus of energy policy and governance? There are several explanations. First, we are quite accustomed to this phenomenon of ``cause and effect,'' so we instinctively examine those two ends as well as the connections between them (i.e., what happens between a lump of coal and a light bulb). That way of thinking makes energy production and consumption intiminately connected and ``conservation'' naturally becomes a technological strategy rather than an appendage. Strangely, however, ``conservation'' in our society (called ``The Cowboy Economy'' by economist Kenneth Boulding) has been widely interpreted as competitive with supply and ridiculed as only a minor option, entailing denial of an amenity. After nearly a half-century of dialogue, innovation, and frustration, the rationality of what I call the ``physics'' perspective seems to have come of age. The evolution of relevant science and technology and public policy has advanced markedly, reflected and sustained at the national level by a succession of organizations. The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the Federal Office of Energy Conservation, the Federal Energy Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Not surprisingly, physicists continue to play key roles in the inculcation of science and analysis into the policy and governance. This requires, as implied by C.P. Snow, a bridging and strengthening of the thin ice between science and society. We still have a long road to travel.

Gibbons, Jack

2009-05-01

176

Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Dry Ice Slider-Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy concepts are fundamentally important for describing and analyzing systems ranging from subatomic particles to spiral galaxies. In general, students first encounter such concepts in introductory courses that typically focus on forms of energy, energy transfer, and conservation laws. Within these courses, conservation of mechanical energy is

Gales, Jenna; Baker, Blane

2008-01-01

177

77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2007 established minimum energy conservation...power supply circuit ``used to convert...current or lower-voltage AC current to...power supply circuit that is used...current or lower-voltage AC current to...for multiple- voltage EPSs, expressed...equation for minimum average...

2012-03-27

178

Energy Conservation and Pomeron Loops in High Energy Evolution  

E-print Network

We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation and also important colour suppressed effects. We implement our formalism in a Monte Carlo simulation and compare the results to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron, where we see that there is a good agreement between the data and our model.

Emil Avsar

2006-10-04

179

Electrorheology for energy production and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national security, we believe that our technology is important and will have a strong impact on energy production and conversation in the future.

Huang, Ke

180

Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

1980-01-01

181

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS  

SciTech Connect

We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

1980-01-01

182

ECP (Environmental Conservation Project) Report, No. 5, March 1976. Planning for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The culmination of the Environmental Law Institute's Energy Conservation Project will be a series of handbooks addressed to state and local officials, legislators, and interested citizens setting out suggested strategies for conserving energy. This issue of the ECP Report publishes the first of a series of draft chapters from these handbooks - a

Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC.

183

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER...

2011-01-01

184

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER...

2010-01-01

185

Electrorheology for Efficient Energy Production and Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, most of our energy comes from liquid fuels. The viscosity plays a very important role in liquid fuel production and conservation. For example, reducing the viscosity of crude oil is the key for oil extraction and its transportation from off-shore via deep water pipelines. Currently, the dominant method to reduce viscosity is to raise oil's temperature, which does not only require much energy, but also impacts the environment. Recently, based on the basic physics of viscosity, we proposed a new theory and developed a new technology, utilizing electrorheology to reduce the viscosity of liquid fuels. The method is energy-efficient, and the results are significant. When this technology is applied to crude oil, the suspended nanoscale paraffin particle, asphalt particles, and other particles are aggregated into micrometer-size streamline aggregates, leading to significant viscosity reduction. When the temperature is below 0^oC and the water content inside the oil becomes ice, the viscosity reduction can be as high as 75%. Our recent neutron scattering experiment has verified the physical mechanism of viscosity reduction. In comparison with heating, to reach the same level of viscosity reduction, this technology requires less than 1% of the energy needed for heating. Moreover, this technology only takes several seconds to complete the viscosity reduction, while heating takes at least several minutes to complete.

Tao, R.; Du, Enpeng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

2011-03-01

186

Building Energy Use and Conservation in Cycle VIII of the Texas Institutional Conservation Program  

E-print Network

energy saving measures. Such measures include both maintenance and operation (H&O) measures (generally regarded as "low-cost, no-cost") and energy conservation (ECH) measures (generally more expensive and requiring outside skills). Implementation cost...

Schrecengost, R. C.; Lum, S. K.; Notman, J. R.; Sattler, D. R.; Heffington, W. M.

1986-01-01

187

The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.  

PubMed

Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally. PMID:24460528

Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

2014-02-18

188

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Conservation Standards 431.110 Energy conservation standards and... must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level...subpart E. Product Size Energy conservation standard a ...Product Size Minimum thermal insulation Unfired hot...

2014-01-01

189

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conservation Standards 431.110 Energy conservation standards and... must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level...subpart E. Product Size Energy conservation standard a ...Product Size Minimum thermal insulation Unfired hot...

2012-01-01

190

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conservation Standards 431.110 Energy conservation standards and... must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level...subpart E. Product Size Energy conservation standard a ...Product Size Minimum thermal insulation Unfired hot...

2013-01-01

191

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conservation Standards 431.110 Energy conservation standards and... must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level...subpart E. Product Size Energy conservation standard a ...Product Size Minimum thermal insulation Unfired hot...

2010-01-01

192

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conservation Standards 431.110 Energy conservation standards and... must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level...subpart E. Product Size Energy conservation standard a ...Product Size Minimum thermal insulation Unfired hot...

2011-01-01

193

Project Energize: Outcomes of a Community Confernece on Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help program planners and evaluators in providing insight as to what can be accomplished in an educational program dealing with energy conservation, this report is an evaluation of the outcomes of a community conference on energy conservation. There is a brief description of the day-long energy conference attended by 178 people (38 of

Driscoll, Patricia; Deshler, David

194

Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

195

Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Modern society uses massive amounts of energy. Usage rises as population and affluence increase, and energy production and use often have an impact on biodiversity or natural areas. To avoid a business-as-usual dependence on coal, oil, and gas over the coming decades, society must map out a future energy mix that incorporates alternative sources. This exercise can lead to radically different opinions on what a sustainable energy portfolio might entail, so an objective assessment of the relative costs and benefits of different energy sources is required. We evaluated the land use, emissions, climate, and cost implications of 3 published but divergent storylines for future energy production, none of which was optimal for all environmental and economic indicators. Using multicriteria decision-making analysis, we ranked 7 major electricity-generation sources (coal, gas, nuclear, biomass, hydro, wind, and solar) based on costs and benefits and tested the sensitivity of the rankings to biases stemming from contrasting philosophical ideals. Irrespective of weightings, nuclear and wind energy had the highest benefit-to-cost ratio. Although the environmental movement has historically rejected the nuclear energy option, new-generation reactor technologies that fully recycle waste and incorporate passive safety systems might resolve their concerns and ought to be more widely understood. Because there is no perfect energy source however, conservation professionals ultimately need to take an evidence-based approach to consider carefully the integrated effects of energy mixes on biodiversity conservation. Trade-offs and compromises are inevitable and require advocating energy mixes that minimize net environmental damage. Society cannot afford to risk wholesale failure to address energy-related biodiversity impacts because of preconceived notions and ideals. PMID:25490854

Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

2014-12-01

196

Energy Stable Flux Formulas For The Discontinuous Galerkin Discretization Of First Order Nonlinear Conservation Laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.

Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

197

Conserved energy without work or heat.  

PubMed

By merely observing the common empirical temperature that two like subsystems in contact reach, as a recordable function of their initial empirical temperatures and specific volumes, we can deduce logically a conserved energy function that depends only on empirical temperature and specific volume. What makes possible this offbeat 18th-century inference, quite free of any 19th-century concepts of "heat" or measurable mechanical work, is the Invariance Law of nature, whereby any four like subsystems must settle down to the same common temperatures regardless of which two-by-two pairings are made-so to speak, an "independence of path" property. Mathematically, the Invariance Law imposes Abel-like functional equations on the admissible functions. Remarkably, recourse to such temperature-equalization data renders it impossible to identify one constant in the energy function. By observing how two quite different substances come into equilibrium, or by utilizing "adiabatic slopes" at two points for one substance, or by observing its expansion into a vacuum, we can determine all its unknowns. Much of conventional expositions of the First and Second Laws seems derivable from the equation of state and the First Law's energy function. PMID:11607277

Samuelson, P A

1992-02-01

198

Emmy Noether on Conservation of Energy in the General Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emmy Noether proved two deep theorems, and their converses, on the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The work was done following Hilbert's discovery of the Hilbert-Einstein lagrangian and his derivation of the general theory from Hamilton's principle .The failure of local energy conservation in the general theory was a problem that concerned many at that time. Noether proved theorems which solved the problem. With her characteristically deep insight and thorough analysis, she proved very general theorems that have profoundly influenced modern physics. Einstein wrote to Hilbert ``Yesterday I received from Miss Noether a very interesting paper on invariant forms. I am impressed that one can comprehend these matters from so general a viewpoint. It would not have done the old guard at Gttingen any harm had they picked up a thing or two from her..."

Byers, Nina

2005-03-01

199

Energy Conservation: An Examination of Energy Conservation Mechanisms As They Relate to School Districts in Region XI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to supply information on energy conservation mechanisms that can be employed in schools to the public schools of Minnesota. The report begins by presenting guidelines for developing an energy conservation plan. The two models include the concept of Total Educational Energy Management as developed by the Colorado Department of

Kerns, Marilyn

200

Energy conservation in regenerated chemical absorption processes  

SciTech Connect

Energy savings from split-flow design modifications or the installation of absorber intercoolers are quantified for solvent-based separation processes. Absorber-stripper systems that use aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) or diethanolamine (DEA) to remove CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/S from natural gas streams are modeled. Use of split flow in regenerated chemical absorption processes with isothermal columns resulted in energy savings of over 50% for systems with large solute-recovery fractions. The energy savings are a linear function of the logarithm of percent unrecovered solute. Optimal values are found for the flow rate and withdrawal point of the split-flow stream. The optimal design and operating conditions for CO/sub 2/ systems with adiabatic columns are determined by the stripper column; the stripper exhibits a steam-consumption minimum with respect to the total solvent flow rate and the composition of the lean-solvent stream. In contrast, optimal conditions for H/sub 2/S systems are set by the absorber. These absorber-limited systems exhibit a steam consumption minimum for the lowest solvent flow which can achieve the specified solute recovery in the absorber. Absorber intercoolers conserve energy by reducing the solvent flow rate required for a specified solute recovery. The optimal intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler location is near an acid-gas-to-amine ratio halfway between the same ratios for the lean and rich solvent streams. The intercooler is optically sized by equating the absorber-solvent-feed temperature, the absorber-intercooler process-outlet temperature, and the cooling-water effluent temperature.

Thompson, R.E.

1986-01-01

201

Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing  

E-print Network

from waste heat streams for reuse in the processing operations. This paper addresses the recovery of waste heat and the storage of thermal energy as a means of energy conservation in food processing. An energy conservation project in a poultry...

Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

1980-01-01

202

75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation...Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2010-06-03

203

Investment Analysis: Proper Risk Evaluation makes Conservation Projects the RIGHT CHOICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investment opportunities in renewable and low environmental impact generation capacity are abundant, and green energy has become the media darling. In the shadows of this limelight are probably better opportunities for investment-conservation projects. Proper risk analysis is the essential tool used to divine between stereotypically mundane conservation projects and the more glamorous green power ones.Business analysts measure investment opportunities based

Mark S. Sankey

2009-01-01

204

Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction modification to improve energy efficiency.

Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

2009-12-31

205

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

206

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

207

A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have

Paesler, Michael

2012-01-01

208

Look beyond the Obvious Energy Savers to Conserve School Dollars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, school system's energy conservation project that insulated utility tunnels and pipes in two schools. Energy savings will pay back the insulation cost in less than two years. (MD)

Wisniewski, Adrian T.

1985-01-01

209

Energy Conservation Measures at an Automotive Instructional Facility  

E-print Network

Energy consumption and costs to operate an automotive technical training facility at Texas State Technical Institute in Waco have been significantly reduced through implementation of several energy conservation measures. This paper reviews building...

Godsey, F. W.

1989-01-01

210

77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1724, and 1730 RIN 0572-AC19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY...financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural...

2012-09-06

211

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-2-1 1 Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation Zongyi Shao Hongbing Chen Ping Wei Key Lab of HVAC Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01

212

The effectiveness of government initiatives in energy conservation  

E-print Network

Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been ...

Boshier, John F.

1978-01-01

213

Energy conservation in buildings: cogeneration and cogeneration coupled with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-conservation opportunity in an institutional building is studied through cogeneration with double-effect absorption chiller. Both, technical and economical feasibility is evaluated and presented. The typical electrical energy and cooling-load demand profiles of the buildings concerned are determined. Payback period, internal rate-of-return (IRR), net present value (NPV) and net profit of the Institute is determined through cash-flow analysis. Then, cogeneration coupling

K. H. Khan; M. G. Rasul; M. M. K. Khan

2004-01-01

214

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2011-07-01

215

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2014-07-01

216

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2010-07-01

217

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2014-07-01

218

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2013-07-01

219

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2013-07-01

220

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2011-07-01

222

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2012-07-01

223

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2010-07-01

224

Energy conservation at The University of Miami  

SciTech Connect

The University of Miami (UM) has embarked on a very important and worthwhile mission: {open_quotes}To make UM one of the most energy efficient Universities in the Nation by the year 2000.{close_quotes} In order for the University to meet this goal we knew we would need to take advantage of all the available technologies and address the freon issues. In June 1990 the Coral Gables Campus had five chilled Water Production Plants, each representing small independent systems serving from four to ten buildings. Because of energy conservation measures of the past (i.e. elimination, reheat, first generation lighting retrofits, and some diversity), each plant had excess capacity. At that time we also had identified about 600 tons of old falling apart air conditioning equipment. Our Capital Construction Program was beginning design efforts for a new Music Recital Hall and an addition to the Law Library. With all this considered it made sense to develop a common chilled water loop to connect these plants and provide a vehicle to capitalize on available capacity. As this concept took shape it became evident that a master chilled water loop encircling the entire campus would address the next 20 years of campus development. This 20 year plan would require various phases of development. Phase I would connect three chilled water production plants and enable us to supply chilled water to seven existing facilities with approximately 600 tons of old inefficient air conditioning equipment and supply chilled water to the new Law and Music facilities, (approximately 400 tons) without buying any additional chillers.

Atherton, V.; Anzoategui, F.

1995-06-01

225

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is to

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

226

Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

Grossman, Andrew James

227

Fort Gordon energy survey and analysis of boiler and chiller plants, Building 25910, Building 25330. Proposed energy conservation opportunities for Savannah District Corps of Engineers. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is the result of extensive field studies to determine the ability of the plants in the North Central and South Utility Buildings to meet current and future heating and cooling demands at Fort Gordon. As described in this document, the ability to meet these demands is based on providing utility services that are cost effective, efficient and reliable. The purpose of this report is to present four opportunities for Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) projects at Fort Gordon. Each ECIP consists of multiple Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs). Each ECIP and ECO is described in sufficient detail to support the application process for funding.

NONE

1995-04-03

228

A preliminary analysis of US CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction potential from energy conservation and the substitution of natural gas for coal in the period to 2010  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) is a product of burning fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of global CO/sub 2/ emissions amounting to 5.2 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC) in 1985. The control of CO/sub 2/ emissions would require control of energy production and use. US emissions were 1.25 PgC in 1985. National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) projections show total US emissions rising 38% by 2010 to 1.7 PgC. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) has sponsored research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to do a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and consequences of reducing US CO/sub 2/ emissions from 1985 levels by 10, 25 or 50 percent by either the year 1995 and 2010. In addition, DOE/CDRD sponsored a day-long roundtable attended by nine experts in the field to discuss this issue. Two methods of CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction were considered: energy intensity reductions (conservation), and substitution of natural gas for coal. The study did not address the contribution of other energy supply options or the feasibility of pre- or post-combustion CO/sub 2/ removal. Furthermore, the study made no attempt to explore specific policies that might be employed to achieve technically feasible CO/sub 2/ emissions reductions. This is not a policy document.

Edmonds, J.A.; Ashton, W.B.; Cheng, H.C.; Steinberg, M.

1989-02-01

229

Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs  

SciTech Connect

This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

1980-08-01

230

Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry  

PubMed Central

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 19802010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 20112025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

2013-01-01

231

Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.  

PubMed

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

2013-01-01

232

Power Conditioning and Control Applications for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

as possessing significant potential for energy conserving applications: switching power supplies, high frequency ballasts and AC synthesizers. On a national basis, it was estimated that industry could conserve 8.5, 42.2, 109.7 terawatt-hrs. (1012 watt...

Brushwood, J. S.

1982-01-01

233

13 CFR 120.330 - Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan? 120.330 Section 120...LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation 120.330 Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan? SBA may make or...

2014-01-01

234

Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

1982-10-01

235

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy Program Conservation Elements D Appendix D to Part 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Pt. 436,...

2010-01-01

236

10 CFR 431.25 - Energy conservation standards and effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and effective dates. 431.25 Section 431.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

2010-01-01

237

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy Program Conservation Elements D Appendix D to Part 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Pt. 436,...

2011-01-01

238

10 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - General Operations Energy Conservation Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General Operations Energy Conservation Measures C Appendix C to Part 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS...

2011-01-01

239

Vehicle energy conservation indicating device and process for use  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle energy conservation indicating device comprises an integrated instrument cluster functioning basically as a nomographic computing mechanism. The odometer distance traveled indicator computing mechanism is linked with the fuel indicating gauge mechanism such that a three variable equation computing mechanism is obtained. The three variables are distance traveled, quantity of fuel consumed and distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. Energy conservation is achieved by operating the vehicle under such performance conditions as to produce the highest possible value for distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. The instrument panel cluster brings the operator's attention to focus upon and continuously stimulated to conserving energy. Furthermore, the vehicle energy conservation indicating device can be adapted for recording these performance variables on tape type print out. The speedometer advises the vehicle operator when he is obeying or breaking the speed laws which are enforced and monitored by the police with specific punishment prescribed for violations of the law. At this time there is no comparable procedure for enforcing vehicle energy conservation. Thus, this direct read out of distance traveled per unit of energy will moderate the operation in an analogous manner similar to subliminal advertising. This device becomes the focal point of the instrument panel along with the speedometer, thereby providing constant motivation to obey both the speed and energy conservation laws.

Crump, J.M.

1980-01-29

240

Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwans energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwans textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving

Gui-Bing Hong; Te-Li Su; Jenq-Daw Lee; Tsung-Chi Hsu; Hua-Wei Chen

2010-01-01

241

ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

1975-01-01

242

Energy Challenges and Conservation Achievements in the Aluminum Industry  

E-print Network

energy requirements. This talk reviews the aluminum industry's and Alcoa's conservation activities of the past five post-embargo years. It highlights smelting improvements, still in the research and development stage, which nonetheless promise significant...

Sheldon, A. C.

1979-01-01

243

Designing for Energy Conservation - The Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital  

E-print Network

efficient and economically constructed has the winning combination. This paper details the design concepts of a 1984 Grand Award winner, the Cypress Fairbanks Medical Center Hospital, in the Fourth Annual Energy Conservation Design Award Competition....

Wiernik, L. B.; Ranzau, P. A.

1984-01-01

244

The Coupled Pendulum--A Demonstration of Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a classroom demonstration that illustrates the Law of Conservation of Energy. The demonstration utilizes a coupled pendulum device that can easily be constructed from ordinary monofilament fishing line and two metal pendulum bobs. (HM)

Record, Daniel J.

1978-01-01

245

The Institutional Conservation Program: A Funding Option for Energy Retrofits  

E-print Network

The Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) provides matching grants to K-12 schools, colleges/universities, and hospitals for energy-related retrofit studies and the implementation of capital projects identified, analyzed, and recommended...

Roberts, M.

1988-01-01

246

User-Oriented Software for Energy Conservation with Personal Computers  

E-print Network

Personal computers offer the potential for significantly easing the task of energy conservation engineering and management. Effective use of these powerful tools, however, requires good software. This paper describes a number of techniques...

Schmidt, P. S.; Fischer, D. B.; Barr, C. L.

1982-01-01

247

Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

Kraetsch, Gayla A.

1981-01-01

248

77 FR 4698 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...conservation standards for set-top boxes and network equipment. The comment period is extended...information relating to set-top boxes and network equipment [[Page 4699

2012-01-31

249

Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 9 C Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2013 doi:10.1017/S0376892913000015 Rethinking property rights: comparative analysis of conservation  

E-print Network

Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 9 C Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2013 doi:10.1017/S0376892913000015 Rethinking property rights: comparative analysis of conservation easements for wildlife conservation ADENA R. RISSMAN Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin

Rissman, Adena

250

STATE OF CALIFORNIA STATE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

: Vacant Associate: Vacant 3. Siting Committees · Blythe Solar Power Project Amendment Proceeding 09-AFC-6C1 STATE OF CALIFORNIA STATE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION In the Matter of: ) ENERGY COMMISSION ORDER ) Order No. 12-0509-2 Energy Commission Committees

251

Sample Energy Conservation Education Activities for Elementary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains learning activities for introducing energy and conservation concepts into the existing elementary school curriculum. The activities were developed by Palm Beach County teachers during a one-week workshop. A framework of ideas is divided into three functional categories: universe of energy, living systems and energy, and social

Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; LaHart, David E., Ed.

252

Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

253

Management and Conservation Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage impacts to prairie grouse from wind energy developments (e.g., collisions) are likely to be low because activities. The increased demand for renewable energy has raised concerns about the impacts of infrastructure

Beck, Jeffrey L.

254

Module 3: Energy Conservation in Agriculture: Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students about energy conservation in agriculture, lighting efficiency, efficient equipment, efficient tillage practices, and a number of other topics related to agricultural energy. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, Energy Log activity, and 65 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2013-11-20

255

Analysis of Non-Work-Conserving Processor Partitioning Policies ?  

E-print Network

Analysis of Non-Work-Conserving Processor Partitioning Policies ? E. Rosti1, E. Smirni2, G. Serazzi@dsi.unimi.it 2 Department of Computer Science, Vanderibilt Univeristy Nashville TN 37235, USA esmirni- vice. Techniques which allocate all available processors are known as work-conserving policies

Feitelson, Dror

256

10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates. [Reserved] 431.446 Section 431.446 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...

2010-01-01

257

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...

2011-01-01

258

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...

2010-01-01

259

Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

NONE

1998-01-01

260

Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and Management Strategies  

E-print Network

Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and Management Strategies of Conservation Biology #12;· A framework to grouping ecological systems based on ecosystem energy and habitat Protected areas Matrix Restoration Public education Overarching conservation priorities Framework

Hansen, Andrew J.

261

The Nonlinear Spring and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an air track experiment demonstrating the transfer of mechanical energy from elastic potential to kinetic. Discusses four methods for calculating energy stored in the spring. Included are pictures, typical data, and graphs. (YP)

Sherfinski, John

1989-01-01

262

A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

Not Available

1990-12-01

263

Energy Conservation Project Evaluation by Investment Equivalents  

E-print Network

of capital which can be spent to save a unit of energy and still meet the criteria for profitability.' 'Investment Equivalents' can be calculated easily for any form of energy, at any location. The 'Investment Equivalent' can be used to screen energy saving...

Larson, R. J.

1984-01-01

264

Energy conservation techniques for hospital buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art technologies for the energy efficiency in the hospitals' sector. Hospitals are responsible for a top-heavy amount of energy demand and joint emissions, due to their 24\\/7 operation and extra requirements they use larger energy amount than a commercial building. In addition, they need high quality and

Dionysia Kolokotsa; Theocharis Tsoutsos; Sotiris Papantoniou

2012-01-01

265

CALIFORNIA ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION  

E-print Network

CEC-RPS-Track. This form was adopted by the Energy Commission as part of the Guidebook on April 21). The changes to this form are designed to aid Energy Commission staff in further verifying RPS procurement so that the facilities are easily identifiable when the forms are reviewed by Energy Commission staff

266

Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

2013-04-01

267

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Alpac Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Alpac Corporation in Seattle, Washington. Alpac is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into operation and maintenance (O and M) measures and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1984-12-01

268

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Tree Top, Cashmere Plant.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Tree Top, Incorporated in Cashmere, Washington. Tree Top is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-02-01

269

Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each

Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

270

Some Experience with Training for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Invented Here." A process designer with a great 173 ESL-IE-85-05-32 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 '< idea for energy efficiency may find himself rebuffed at the plant level... distillation system is analyzed. 174 ESL-IE-85-05-32 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 This unit would then be placed down in a site energy system such as the one shown on Figure 2...

Kenney, W. F.; Garcia, E.

271

78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...program that will implement the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to...

2013-02-06

272

78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program...authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to...

2013-08-16

273

The Texas Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

Industry is Texas' largest consumer of energy (46+% of total). With foresight of the escalating cost of energy, it was apparent these additional costs to industry would have two adverse effects. First, the cost of their product to the consumer would...

Waldrop, T.

1982-01-01

274

Energy Conservation Within the Paper Machine Room  

E-print Network

Pulp and paper mills are one of the major industrial consumers of energy, a great deal of which is wasted, misused or recoverable. An "energy audit" is conducted on a typical fine paper mill, a step-by-step program is followed which reveals...

Walker, P. J.; Erskine, K. J.

1979-01-01

275

Energy Conservation: Better Living Through Thermodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shortcomings of the usual definition of energy efficiency are identified. Suggestions are general for better use of fossil fuels. Studies done by the American Physics Society (APS) are discussed and recommendations made for an improved definition of energy efficiency are described. (Author/EB)

Metz, William D.

1975-01-01

276

Energy conservation techniques for centrifugal chillers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sudden rise of the cost of energy forces the industry to re-evaluate its standards, design, and operational practices and long-range objectives so that the energy consumption of HVAC equipment does not place an unexpected financial burden on the owner. The main source of chilled water for large air conditioning systems is the centrifugal refrigeration machine and the engineer involved

Holbay

1976-01-01

277

Realistic Industrial Scale Energy Optimization: Part I - Organizing and Executing Energy Conservation Projects  

E-print Network

With increased cost and reduced availability of energy, plant managers are reviewing their options to optimize energy utilization to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with the organization and execution of an energy conservation program which...

Jones, W. T.

1982-01-01

278

www.energy.ca.gov/recovery/documents/funding_summary.pdf 1 Energy Efficiency & Conservation  

E-print Network

www.energy.ca.gov/recovery/documents/funding_summary.pdf 1 Energy Efficiency & Conservation Block, local government and tribal government to support the development of energy efficiency and conservation://doe-iips.pr.doe. gov/iips/faopor.nsf/1be0f2271893ba198525644b006bc0be/ daf445e535572106852576310046fae5?OpenDocument

279

Conservation, An In-Plant Energy Resource  

E-print Network

Potential energy savings of 90 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year on existing facilities in basic steel alone are attainable through retrofitting and improvement in operations. Areas covered include reheat furnaces, soaking pits, cover...

Skudneski, L. A.

1980-01-01

280

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Office of building Technologies (OBT) pursues advanced energy efficiency and renewable technologies and accelerates the rate of adoption of these technologies in the residential and commercial sectors through research, development, and demonstration.

Not Available

1991-05-01

281

Conservation of Fluid Mass and Energy by RELAP5-3D during a SBLOCA  

SciTech Connect

Mass and energy balances were performed to check the accuracy of RELAP5-3Ds solution during a loss-of-coolant accident initiated by a small break in a typical pressurized water reactor. Mass and energy balances were performed for the combined liquid and gas phases and the gas phase by itself. The analysis showed that RELAP5-3D adequately conserved mass and energy for the combined fluid and the gas phase.

Cliff B. Davis

2009-08-01

282

Energy Conservation in the Bell System  

E-print Network

O~/er man agement and control system, and solar energy sys tems for direct conversion and bUilding heating and cooling. Continuing development and imple mentati on of innovati ve energy effecti ve measures are expected as a resul t of the conti nued... negatively affected employee welfare and morale. This program covers the fol lowing major areas: ? Electric power for the operation of switching and transmission equipment for the U.S. nationwide telecommunications network. Electric power and fuel fo...

Williamson, J. W.

1982-01-01

283

Energy Conservation Program in Kuwait: A Local Perspective  

E-print Network

ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN KUWAIT: A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE Ali E. H. Hajiah, PhD Department of Building and Energy Technologies Environment and Urban Development Division Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885, 13109....2.2, DOE-1). Technical report. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, KISR 6633, Kuwait. 13. Al Mulla Ali, A. and G.P. Maheshwari 2005. The impact of air-conditioning efficiency in the peak Load demand. Third International conference on Energy...

Hajiah, A. E.

2006-01-01

284

The French National Energy Conservation Program - The Case of Industry  

E-print Network

THE FRENCH NATIrnAL ENERGY CONSERVATIrn PROGRAM THE CASE OF INDUSTRY JACQUES ZYSS HEAD OF THE INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE DIVISION ENERGY CONSERVATION AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY-FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE France is certainly one... that was characterized by an accelerated renovation of the means of production accompanied by a steady decline in the cost of energy, after allowance for inflation. In the 1960's, french industry went through considerable structural changes and opened itself widely...

Zyss, J.

1980-01-01

285

Utility energy conservation programs for the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation has been alive and well in the pulp and paper industry for many years. In the early 70s and 80s, each paper mill or organization worked independently to reduce their total energy consumption. Now in the 1990s, federal and state legislation (i.e. State of Minnesota Omnibus Energy Bill) make it advantageous for pulp and paper mills to share

P. L. Jackson; W. L. Bundschuh; M. D. Weaver; J. R. Thompson

1994-01-01

286

Energy conservation in dissipative processes: Teacher expectations and strategies associated with imperceptible thermal energy  

E-print Network

Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in dissipative scenarios in which kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy (e.g., a ball rolls to a stop). We find that teachers expect that when they can see the motion associated with kinetic energy, they should be able to perceive the warmth associated with thermal energy. Their expectations are violated when the warmth produced is imperceptible. In these cases, teachers reject the idea that the kinetic energy transforms to thermal energy. Our observations suggest that apparent difficulties with energy conservation may have their roots in a strong and productive association between forms of energy and their perceptible indicators. We see teachers resolve these ch...

Daane, Abigail R; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E

2014-01-01

287

Home retrofitting for energy conservation and solar considerations  

SciTech Connect

This manual explains both the key concepts behind our need for and our impact on energy usage, as well as a nuts-and-bolts explanation of how to improve the energy efficiency of your home. By reviewing both the concepts and practices of energy conservation, the manual presents a comprehensive picture of how home energy use is effected by the inhabitants and by the structure itself. The manual begins with an explanation of why we are looking at energy, then proceeds to explain how the heat transfer occurs between houses and humans. Next is a chapter on energy audits and how to use them, followed by a comprehensive section on energy conservation actions to do now to reduce energy use. Conservation actions include low cost/no cost measures, schemes to reduce infiltration, how to increase insulation, and what to do with windows and doors, heating and heat distribution systems, and water heaters. Solar energy options are then briefly explained, as well as the all important issues of financing and tax credits. The manual concludes with a bibliography to direct the reader to more sources of information.

Not Available

1981-10-01

288

Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

Keyfitz, Barbara

2014-02-15

289

Opportunities for energy conservation in the developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Energy problems faced by developing countries are explored and opportunities for saving energy and for using fuels other than petroleum in the modern sector are assessed. Specific resources assessed include oil and gas, coal, hydropower, and traditional fuels. Trends in commercial energy consumption by the developing countries are assessed and the domestic fuel resources of these countries are examined. Patterns of commercial energy use in several LDCs including Sri Lanka, Haiti, India, Kenya, Egypt, the Phillippines, the Republic of Korea, and Brazil are examined. Sri Lanka and Haiti are the subjects for case studies reported in the appendixes. Opportunities for conservation in the modern sector, which include most industrial activities, transportation, and electric power generation as well as some agricultural activities and large residential and commercial buildings, are discussed. The concluding section explores policies which might be initiated by LDC governments to encourage energy conservation. (MCW)

Koshel, P.; Allen, E.L.; Cecelski, E.; Dougher, R.; Ring, L.

1981-03-01

290

STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

by extending financial and technical assistance to public entities to support direct uses, planning, pursuant to the Public Resources Code, sections 25213 and 25218, subdivision (e), in order to carry out is to strearnline the application procedure for geothermal energy grants and loans authorized by Public Resources

291

Energy Conservation: Three Projects That Worked.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compact design and insulation cut energy use at a junior high school in Rexon (New Brunswick). Loma Linda University in California has reduced consumption of natural gas by installing cogeneration equipment. Morningside College in Sioux City (Iowa) has replaced deteriorating windows. (Author/MLF)

American School and University, 1981

1981-01-01

292

Geographyinformed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc Routing  

E-print Network

that it can consume 40% to 60% less energy than an un- modi#12;ed ad hoc routing protocol. Moreover maintaining application #12;delity. 1. INTRODUCTION Multihop, ad hoc networking has been the focus of many-hop communication in wireless, ad hoc networks #3; This research is supported by the Defense Advanced Re- search

Heidemann, John

293

A. La Rosa Lecture Notes ENERGY CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

all right ... Each block weights 20 grams constant grams20 grams50-box)theof(weight seenblocks cm40-watertheofheight grams20 grams50-box)theof(weight seenblocks ofnumber In the complexity of her the following points: When we are calculating the energy, sometimes it leaves the system and goes away

La Rosa, Andres H.

294

University of Minnesota Energy Conservation and Use  

E-print Network

than two million square feet while our utility carbon footprint has been reduced. This has been similarly sized boilers, reducing both the cost and carbon footprint of energy production. This translates with coal into the boiler. It should also be noted that while oat hulls reduce our carbon footprint

Gulliver, Robert

295

Higher-order energy-conserving gyrokinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

A higher-order self-consistent energy-conserving gyrokinetic system of equations is derived. It is shown that additional terms appear in the quasineutrality condition. These terms are nonlinear in the electric field. The derivation includes higher-order terms in the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian (needed for the energy conservation) and employs a variational principle that automatically provides all the conservation laws through the Noether theorem. The equations derived here can be applied in certain transition layers such as the stellarator transport barriers caused by the transition between the electron and ion root regimes. The theory may also be of interest for the edge plasma, where the nonlinear terms in the quasineutrality equation could be relevant. The equations derived are simple enough and can readily be used in gyrokinetic codes.

Mishchenko, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)

2011-02-15

296

Energy Conservation in the Bell System  

E-print Network

to maintain its semi-conductor memory if electricity fails. A rechargeable battery, recently invented at Bell Labs, uses a new compound - vanadium disulfide - to produce about twice the voltage of nickel/cadmium cells. In contrast to other batteries, the new... developed automated electroplating process for producing high-quality electrical connectors for switching systems is resulting in significant savings in materials, space, costs, and energy. Simul taneously, the continuous-strip process will have...

Del Grande, M. R.

1979-01-01

297

Alternatives for energy conservation in a baghouse  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comparison of alternate cases and how to achieve optimum energy consumption and economic benefits from baghouses or fabric filters for particulate control on coal fired boilers. Various components of baghouses are reviewed with an evaluation of fan efficiencies, duct routing, duct turning vanes, insulation, lagging, types of dampers and damper installations. Also discussed are cleaning cycle modes, ways to reduce baghouse pressure drop and dust reentrainment. A computer model to optimize the cleaning cycle is also discussed.

Bakken, P.J.; Horney, F.A.

1982-06-01

298

Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources  

SciTech Connect

The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-03-01

299

Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making

Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

300

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

adhered to the requirements of the State Vehicle Fleet Management Plan (SVFMP) as provided by the Office's fleet data management system reports, vehicle scheduling calendars, accounting systems and employeeTexas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan 3rd Quarterly Report

301

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

adhered to the requirements of the State Vehicle Fleet Management Plan (SVFMP) as provided by the Office's fleet data management system reports, vehicle scheduling calendars, accounting systems and employeeTexas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan 1st Quarterly Report

302

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

adhered to the requirements of the State Vehicle Fleet Management Plan (SVFMP) as provided by the Office's fleet data management system reports, vehicle scheduling calendars, accounting systems and employeeTexas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan 2nd Quarterly Report

303

Texas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

adhered to the requirements of the State Vehicle Fleet Management Plan (SVFMP) as provided by the Office's fleet data management system reports, vehicle scheduling calendars, accounting systems and employeeTexas Transportation Institute Energy Management and Conservation Plan 4th Quarterly Report

304

Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives  

E-print Network

A stationary blast freezer processing 22-lb cartons of sardines in 19,000 pound lots was modified to improve efficiency and to conserve energy. Baffles were first added to produce uniform air flow. Maximum measured freeze times of 12.6 hours fell...

Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

2004-01-01

305

Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact

Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

2014-01-01

306

Worker Participation in Energy and Natural Resources Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey and case studies of workplaces in the U.S. and Japan, this article reviews and assesses the role of worker participation in tackling critical problems associated with energy and natural resources conservation. Certain wider implications for labor-management relations are also discussed. (Author/CT)

Kornbluh, Hy; And Others

1985-01-01

307

Hypothermia and Energy Conservation: A Tradeoff for Elderly Persons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between concern for health and adoption of elderly persons of a lowered winter nighttime thermostat setting. Findings from two surveys of elderly respondents (N=232) who maintained separate owner-occupied residences showed that health and thermal comfort were major reasons for nonadoption of this energy conservation measure.

Macey, Susan M.

1989-01-01

308

Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

HEAT RECOVERY AND INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION Claudia C. Buckley Q-dot Corporation Garland, ABSTRACT Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A...

Buckley, C. C.

1984-01-01

309

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards 431.77 Energy conservation standards and...must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels...Btu per hour or more, the thermal efficiency at the...

2011-01-01

310

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards 431.77 Energy conservation standards and...must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels...Btu per hour or more, the thermal efficiency at the...

2014-01-01

311

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards 431.77 Energy conservation standards and...must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels...Btu per hour or more, the thermal efficiency at the...

2010-01-01

312

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards 431.77 Energy conservation standards and...must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels...Btu per hour or more, the thermal efficiency at the...

2013-01-01

313

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards 431.77 Energy conservation standards and...must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels...Btu per hour or more, the thermal efficiency at the...

2012-01-01

314

75 FR 22031 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket No. EE-DET-03-001] RIN 1904-AA86 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...Determination Concerning the Potential for Energy Conservation Standards for...

2010-04-27

315

Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima  

SciTech Connect

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

1980-03-01

316

Identifying Opportunities for Industrial Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

. Experience, however, is tempering our enthusiasm for simply finding new supplies. We now realize that: (1) foreign supplies of oil and gas are uncertain and dependence on imports leaves us strategically and economically vulnerable; (2) th~ high costs..., and the mix of energy sources (i.e., natural gas, coal, oil, b i om ass, etc.) nee de d tome e tind u s t ria 1 demand; and (5) assessing the potential impacts of various government policies (e.g., those that affect fuel and equipment costs...

Hoffman, A. R.

1981-01-01

317

Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting  

E-print Network

. Worn out lamps and dirty fixtures trap light and waste energy. In the formula to predict l'ighting levels, a light loss factor (LLF) is entered. There are two aspects to the light loss factor, the first is the deterioration loss of the lamps... as they age, and the second is based on dirt. Dirt and dust settle on the lamps, lenses and reflecting surfaces. Different fixtures have different characteristics. An actual study has shown that if you had cleaned the fixtures every three years, you would...

Zekowski, G.

1979-01-01

318

Lining Over Refractory - Conserve Energy and Capital  

E-print Network

achieved. In refinery heaters, continuous heat times be difficult to finance, even though resulting treaters, etc., a great deal of valuable time can be energy savings normally provide a relatively quick saved during turnaround due to faster cool... in the refractory lining using an electro-pneumatic hammer drill. The holes are usually drilled to a depth of about 3 inches with a 1/4 inch diameter carbide drill bit. If the exist ing refractory is lightweight, such as insulating firebrick, a 3/16 inch...

Jost, M. L.; Barrows, G. L.

1980-01-01

319

Energy conservation in solid waste management in Bangladesh  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of solid wastes has a characteristic pattern in Bangladesh in the context of the general habits and socio-economic status of the population. Extensive resource recovery from solid wastes is being carried out at various stages of disposal. The characteristics of solid wastes at the final disposal site indicate that they contain more than 90% of organic wastes. Hence, anaerobic digestion of these wastes serves a dual purpose in the conservation of energy and of valuable crop nutrients for efficient recycling especially in an agriculture-based economy. This also improves overall environmental sanitation and reduces environmental degradation. In this paper, different recycling and reuse options for solid wastes are critically discussed from the energy recovery and energy conservation point of view. It has been shown that the resource recovery from solid wastes would minimize the energy problem and would lead to a net reduction of greenhouse gases, particularly in the developing world.

Rahman, M.H. [Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-12-31

320

Mutational analysis of evolutionarily conserved ACTH residues.  

PubMed

alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)1-24, the minimal ACTH sequence required for full activity, differ only by the 10 C-terminal amino acids of ACTH1-24. Interestingly, these ten C-terminal residues have been highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. To understand the functional constraints of these 10 amino acids we analyzed the effects of mutating these residues on steroidogenic activity in vivo and in vitro. Alanine substitutions of some of the first four amino acid residues (the basic core residues KKRR, 15-18) greatly reduces ACTH activity in vitro and in vivo; replacement of mutant alanines at residues 15 and 17 with glutamine residues partially restores ACTH activity. Thus, for ACTH receptor binding and activation, the amino acid residues 15-18 are important for their side chains. Surprisingly, conversion of the five C-terminal residues (20-24) to alanines increases ACTH activity in vivo over that of native ACTH. With respect to receptor binding and activity, the last five amino acid residues are important only for the peptide length they contribute; however, with respect to serum stability, their side chains are significant. PMID:14980791

Costa, Jessica L; Bui, Stephanie; Reed, Peggy; Dores, Robert M; Brennan, Miles B; Hochgeschwender, Ute

2004-03-01

321

FACT SHEET ON ENERGY CONSERVATION AT WASTE CLEANUP SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The fact sheet describes considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for remediation projects involving groundwater pump and treat systems. The document presents the findings of conducting an energy analysis at several sites and indicates lessons learned an...

322

Saving Money Through Employee Motivation and Participation in Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

SAVING MOOEY THROUGH EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PARTICIPATION IN ENERGY CONSERVATION WARD TOMLIN GARRETT MANUFACTURING LIMITED REXDALE, ONTARIO. CANADA It is a particular pleasure for me to be here with you today to take part in the Texas... in a company where only a small amount of energy is used as a proportion of total cost of operating. Garrett Manufacturing Limited (GML) , is located in Rexdale, Ontario, Canada. GML has world charter responsibility for Temperature Control Systems...

Tomlin, W.

1980-01-01

323

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for transportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is charged with long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research and development of promising transportation technologies that are unlikely to be undertaken by the private sector alone. OTT activities are designed to develop an advanced technology base within the U.S. transportation industry for future manufacture of more energy-efficient, fuel-flexible, and environmentally sound transportation systems. OTT operations are focused on three areas: advanced automotive propulsion systems including gas turbines, low heat rejection diesel, and electric vehicle technologies; advanced materials development and tribology research; and research, development, demonstration, test, and evaluation (including field testing in fleet operations) of alternative fuels. Five papers describing the transportation technologies program have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1990-11-01

324

Energy Conservation Through Industrial Cogeneration Systems  

E-print Network

Typical Axial Turbine SATURN 800 kW CENTAUR 2700 kW MARS 7400 kW Figure 3. Solar Gas Turbine Generator Sets 23 ESL-IE-79-04-03 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 Exhaust Heat Utilization... (Btu/kW) Saturn Centaur Mus 300 300 300 48,050 135,508 276,359 49.2 139 287 848 836 781 13.22 39.84 BO.52 800 2628 6865 49.20 140.0 288.9 4361 4783 4113 Figure 6. Turbine Exhaust Used as Combustion Air in 200 psi Boiler 25 ESL-IE-79...

Solt, J. C.

1979-01-01

325

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

326

Evaluation of Energy Conservation Measures by Model Simulation  

E-print Network

Graw-Hill, Inc. 3. Liu. M.. A. Athar. Y. Zhu, and D. E. Claridge. 1995. "Reduce Building Energy Consumption by Improving the Supply Air Temperature Schedule and Recommissioning the Terminal Boxes." Energy Systems Laboratory Report: ESL-TR-95/01-04. Texas A... temperature, can result in significant energy savings. This paper presents a case study of these energy conservation control schemes in a dual duct VAV building on the Texas A&M campus in College Station, the Hanington Education Tower. The current system...

Giebler, T.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01

327

77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the new/amended test procedures, the new...link to the docket Web page can be found...material through its Web site or other electronic...reflected in the proposed test procedure amendments...individual company Web sites, marketing...conservation standards and test procedures,...

2012-05-16

328

An overview and critical evaluation of the relationships between land use and energy conservation, executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships between land use patterns and energy conservation are assessed. The interrelationships between land and energy uses in a new conceptual framework are ordered, those nascent policies and research programs which have linked land use with energy conservation are evaluated, and, a prioritized research and action agenda for hastening energy conservation through the land use management mechanism is developed.

W. C. Priest; K. M. Happy

1976-01-01

329

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO DESIGNERS SID-D: ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

SID-D SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO DESIGNERS SID-D: ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION JANUARY 2014 PAGE 1 OF 8 ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION Related Sections U-M Design Guideline Sections: SID-B - OPR: Energy and Water Conservation Report Format-Projects $2M to $10M Construction Cost Energy and Water

Kamat, Vineet R.

330

Energy Conservation: Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document 1: Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives of Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservation measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as required; develop standards of energy consumption for Alberta schools by school type and size, and on the basis of

Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

331

VEGETATION ANALYSIS OF UPLAND BURREN GRASSLANDS OF CONSERVATION INTEREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the classification of grassland and heath communities found within the Burren uplands of Co. Clare and identifies threats to their integrity. Quadrats were taken on a range of sites, focusing on semi-natural, upland grassland and heath of conservation interest. Before analysis, the data set was divided into a heath group and a grassland group based on cover

Sharon Parr; Grace O'Donovan; Stephen Ward; John A. Finn

2009-01-01

332

Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry  

SciTech Connect

While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

1986-06-01

333

Effects of energy conservation in residential and commercial buildings.  

PubMed

In 1977, heating, cooling, lighting, and other operations in residential and commercial buildings used 27 quads (1 quad = 10(15) British thermal units) of energy. This is more than one-third of the nation's total energy budget. Future trends in energy use in buildings are likely to depend strongly on fuel prices and government policies designed to save energy. Three scenarios are examined: (i) a base line in which fuel prices rise as projected by the Department of Energy; (ii) a conservation case that includes higher gas and oil prices plus the regulatory, financial incentive, and information programs authorized by the 94th Congress and proposed in the April 1977 National Energy Plan; and (iii) another conservation case that also includes new technologies (more efficient equipment, appliances, and structures). These scenarios are analyzed for changes in energy use, costs, and employment by means of detailed engineering-economic models of energy use in residential and commercial buildings developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and input-output analyses developed at the University of Illinois. PMID:17781246

Hirst, E; Hannon, B

1979-08-17

334

Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time  

E-print Network

The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

Kaiser, Gerald

2015-01-01

335

Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time  

E-print Network

The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. The related 'complex radiation impedance density' is introduced to represent the field's local reluctance to radiate.

Gerald Kaiser

2015-01-05

336

75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...determine product price, (3) energy-use characterization...sources to define how prices are marked up as the...the customer. 3. Energy Use Characterization...increased equipment prices and reduced spending on energy. 10....

2010-03-15

337

75 FR 28801 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program: Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program...DE-FOA-0000013) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

2010-05-24

338

Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS).  

PubMed

The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm(-1), assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric CO stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities. PMID:25459630

Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

2015-02-01

339

Conservation of Moroccan manuscript papers aged 150, 200 and 800 years. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preservation of manuscripts and archive materials is a serious problem for librarians and restorers. Paper manuscript is subjected to numerous degradation factors affecting their conservation state. This research represents an attempt to evaluate the conservation restoration process applied in Moroccan libraries, especially the alkaline treatment for strengthening weakened paper. In this study, we focused on six samples of degraded and restored paper taken from three different Moroccan manuscripts aged 150, 200 and 800 years. In addition, the Japanese paper used in restoration has been characterized. A modern paper was also analyzed as reference. A three-step analytical methodology based on infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis was developed before and after restoration in order to determine the effect of the consolidation treatment on the paper structure. The results obtained by XRD and ATR-FTIR disclosed the presence of barium sulfate (BaSO4) in all restored paper manuscripts. The presence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in all considered samples was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The application of de-acidification treatment causes significant changes connected with the increase of intensity mostly in the region 1426 cm-1, assigned to the asymmetric and symmetric Csbnd O stretching mode of calcite, indicating the effectiveness of de-acidification procedure proved by the rise of the alkaline reserve content allowing the long term preservation of paper. Observations performed by SEM magnify the typical paper morphology and the structure of fibbers, highlighting the effect of the restoration process, manifested by the reduction of impurities.

Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Lakhiari, Hamid; Kerbal, Abdelali; Doumenq, Pierre; Mille, Gilbert; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

2015-02-01

340

Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982  

SciTech Connect

Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

None

1981-01-01

341

Energy Responsibility Accounting - An Energy Conservation Tool for Industrial Facilities  

E-print Network

As energy costs continue to rise faster than the rate of inflation, industrial energy management becomes a more important issue in the control of manufacturing costs. Energy Responsibility Accounting (ERA) is a tool which improves management...

Kelly, R. L.

1980-01-01

342

76 FR 18127 - Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public Meeting and Availability of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1904-AC00 Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures: Public Meeting and...establishing energy conservation standards for metal halide lamp fixtures (MHLFs); the analytical...appliance_standards/commercial/metal_halide_lamp_fixtures.html....

2011-04-01

343

Forecasting the Market Penetration of Energy Conservation Technologies: The Decision Criteria for Choosing a Forecasting Model  

E-print Network

An important determinant of our energy future is the rate at which energy conservation technologies, once developed, are put into use. At Synergic Resources Corporation, we have adapted and applied a methodology to forecast the use of conservation...

Lang, K.

1982-01-01

344

An Investigation of Window and Lighting Systems using Life Cycle Cost Analysis for the Purpose of Energy Conservation in Langford Building A at Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

for this building. In the Southwestern United States, a building's windows can be responsible for a significant loss of energy. The windows and inefficient light bulbs can result in high utility costs and high labor charges from more frequent lighting maintenance...

Hwang, Hea Yeon

2012-07-16

345

75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75...case of a small electric motor which...average full load efficiency of not less...

2010-04-05

346

Soil-, water-, and energy-conserving tillage - Southern Plains  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes some conservation cropping systems that have been developed through research. The cropping systems were: dryland wheat-fallow with stubble mulch, dryland wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated wheat-chemical fallow-sorghum, irrigated sorghum double-cropped after winter wheat, and irrigated annual sorghum. For these cropping systems, the affect of tillage method upon soil water storage, crop yield, and energy use is discussed. 15 refs.

Allen, R.R.; Musick, J.T.; Unger, P.W.; Wiese, A.F.

1981-01-01

347

Industrial Energy Conservation in Central America and Panama  

E-print Network

for special groups; and 3) audit~ Institute Chamber of Industry of Guatemala individualized tecnnical assistance to specific A fourth category includes complementary CIG plants. ASI Salvadorean Industrial Association activities such as data base...' representa tives are not adequately trained, and are equip ment importers rather?than service people. Admittedly, the market for much of the spe cialized energy conservation equipment available in the U.S. today is small. Nevertheless, Tables 6 and 7...

Oven, M. J.; Pashkevich, P. A.

348

An Asymmetric and Asynchronous Energy Conservation Protocol for Vehicular Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) improve passenger\\/pedestrian safety and transportation productivity through the use of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communication technologies. Communication protocols in these environments must meet strict delay requirements due to the high moving speed of the vehicles. In this paper, we propose an energy-conservative MAC layer protocol, named DSRC-AA, based on IEEE 802.11 that provides power saving to

Shan-hung Wu; Chung-min Chen; Ming-syan Chen

2010-01-01

349

An Energy Conservation Program in the Food Industry  

E-print Network

, covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye frozen vegetables, Jell-O desserts and Kool-Aid powdered drink mixes are some of the more prominent ones. The company also manufactures some food ingredients...AN ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Carl T. Farner General Foods Corporation White Plains, General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known...

Farner, C. T.

350

Gaining Top Management Support for Energy Conservation Programs  

E-print Network

. Why was 1 The art of forecasting anything in the process anxious? The reasons were all non-technical: industries is not nearly as well developed as the tools we have for solving the technical problems ? It was my personal money. which result from... ahead? Another problem which top management has in facing energy conservation investments is a certain reluctance to invest in what historically has been viewed as quote non-productive unquote facilities. This results from the natural tendency...

Kenney, W. F.

1984-01-01

351

Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs in Illinois  

E-print Network

-one Class A audits were conducted during petroleum fuels." 1979. Assistance is prpvided through the dissemination of 2) INR completed 30 boiler efficiency checks and a i information about, advice on, and demonstration of boiler efficiency workbook... by the end of 1979. i , 0" conservation practices, fuel switching opportunities INR developed a manual for a waste heat recover1 and renewable energy sources. Primary attention is program during 1979. I given to citizens, businesses and institutions most...

Thomas, S. K.

1980-01-01

352

Pressure Swing Adsorption: An Energy Conservation Success Story  

E-print Network

PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION AN ENERGY CONSERVATION SUCCESS STORY Paul E. Kennedy, P.E. McGill, Joel D. Hill McGill Americas, ABSTRACT Pressure swing adsorption is being success fully used as an efficient separation process in refining..., chemical, petrochemical and gas proces sing industries. This separa tion process pro vides a simple and economical alternative to conventional means. Gasoline vapor recovery is a good example of a pressure swing adsorption solution to an air pollution...

Kennedy, P. E.; Hill, J. D.

353

What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.  

PubMed

This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. PMID:24178312

Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

2013-12-15

354

The spatial fourth-order energy-conserved S-FDTD scheme for Maxwell's equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop a new spatial fourth-order energy-conserved splitting finite-difference time-domain method for Maxwell's equations. Based on the staggered grids, the splitting technique is applied to lead to a three-stage energy-conserved splitting scheme. At each stage, using the spatial fourth-order difference operators on the strict interior nodes by a linear combination of two central differences, one with a spatial step and the other with three spatial steps, we first propose the spatial high-order near boundary differences on the near boundary nodes which ensure the scheme to preserve energy conservations and to have fourth-order accuracy in space step. The proposed scheme has the important properties: energy-conserved, unconditionally stable, non-dissipative, high-order accurate, and computationally efficient. We first prove that the scheme satisfies energy conversations and is in unconditional stability. We then prove the optimal error estimates of fourth-order in spatial step and second-order in time step for the electric and magnetic fields and obtain the convergence and error estimate of divergence-free as well. Numerical dispersion analysis and numerical experiments are presented to confirm our theoretical results.

Liang, Dong; Yuan, Qiang

2013-06-01

355

A Digital Game-Based Learning System for Energy Education: An Energy COnservation PET  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy education has been conducted to equip learners with relevant energy conservation knowledge for many years. However, learners seldom put the knowledge into practice and even have few ideas about how to reduce energy consumption. To this end, there is a need to address this issue to improve the efficiency of energy education. One of the

Yang, Jie Chi; Chien, Kun Huang; Liu, Tzu Chien

2012-01-01

356

Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as

Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

357

76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy...Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. This correction revises the DFR's discussion...Anderson (central air conditioners and heat pumps), U.S. Department of Energy,...

2011-07-06

358

77 FR 59719 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...following policy alternatives: (1) No new...5) voluntary energy efficiency targets...purchases. While these alternatives may mitigate to...determined that the energy savings of these regulatory alternatives are at least...

2012-10-01

359

Overcoming barriers to residential conservation: do energy audits help  

SciTech Connect

A study on the effects of energy audits on the pace and choice of household investment in energy-saving improvements in the home is reported. An evaluation based on the household's assessment of the usefulness of the audit which was provided for their home was performed. The number and types of recent conservation actions among audited and unaudited samples of households are compared. The audit's effect on household knowledge about the economically attractive options for their home and on the choice of recent improvements is assessed. Possible reasons are suggested for the weak effect of audits in stimulating activity and reorienting investment choices. (LEW)

Hoffman, W.L.

1982-12-01

360

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of Smart Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...standards and qualification as an ENERGY STAR product. DATES: Written comments and...submitted a joint petition to the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances...consider a five percent credit to the ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid...

2011-08-05

361

Intraventricular vorticity favors conservation of kinetic energy along the cardiac cycle: analysis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy by post-processing color-doppler images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: This study assesses if the left ventricle (LV) filling vortex developed during diastole may be a mechanism that improves systolic efficiency. 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 37 healthy volunteers were studied. Recently, we have developed and validated a method that derives two-dimensional maps of the LV flow from standard color-Doppler sequences. Two-dimensional maps of instantaneous LV flow were obtained, and circulation, energy and position of the main and secondary vortices were calculated along the cardiac cycle. At aortic valve opening (AVO) the vortex circulation is higher in DCM subjects than healthy volunteers. However, the position of the vortex is farthest form LV outflow tract (LVOT), and this results in lower flow velocity in LVOT at AVO. This phenomenon is altered in patients with DCM.

Alhama, Marta; Benito, Yolanda; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Perez-David, Esther; Barrio, Alicia; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez Mansilla, Ana; Fernandez Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

2011-11-01

362

End-use energy characterization and conservation potentials at DoD Facilities: An analysis of electricity use at Fort Hood, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the application of the LBL`s End-use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA) to a DoD installation and presents hourly reconciled end-use data for all major building types and end uses. The project initially focused on achieving these objectives and pilot-testing the methodology at Fort Hood, Texas. Fort Hood, with over 5000 buildings was determined to have representative samples of nearly all of the major building types in use on DoD installations. These building types at Fort Hood include: office, administration, vehicle maintenance, shop, hospital, grocery store, retail store, car wash, church, restaurant, single-family detached housing, two and four-plex housings, and apartment building. Up to 11 end uses were developed for each prototype, consisting of 9 electric and 2 gas; however, only electric end uses were reconciled against known data and weather conditions. The electric end uses are space cooling, ventilation, cooking, miscellaneous/plugs, refrigeration, exterior lighting, interior lighting, process loads, and street lighting. The gas end uses are space heating and hot water heating. Space heating energy-use intensities were simulated only. The EDA was applied to 10 separate feeders from the three substations at Fort Hood. The results from the analyses of these ten feeders were extrapolated to estimate energy use by end use for the entire installation. The results show that administration, residential, and the bar-rack buildings are the largest consumers of electricity for a total of 250GWh per year (74% of annual consumption). By end use, cooling, ventilation, miscellaneous, and indoor lighting consume almost 84% of total electricity use. The contribution to the peak power demand is highest by residential sector (35%, 24 MW), followed by administration buildings (30%), and barrack (14%). For the entire Fort Hood installation, cooling is 54% of the peak demand (38 MW), followed by interior lighting at 18%, and miscellaneous end uses by 12%.

Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S.

1995-05-01

363

10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions...agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

2010-01-01

364

10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions...agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

2011-01-01

365

75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...types of systems into the...screening analysis based on information gathered...prototype designs that have...the present analysis entails some...For more information on NEMS...Modeling System: An Overview...develops information that provides...technologies or design options that...preliminary analysis public...

2010-09-27

366

Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents  

SciTech Connect

Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

McClelland, L.

1980-10-01

367

Summary of UTMB O&M Project: Energy Conservation Potential in Five Buildings  

E-print Network

average ambient temperature and dew point to predict daily average chilled water and hot water energy consumption. Finally, the predicted energy consumption is compared with the measured consumption. If the predicted consumption matches measured energy... conservation simulation & savings calculations. The building energy consumption is minimized using energy conservation measures while the following conditions are satisfied: (i) room temperature should not be changed; Texas State Energy Conservation Office...

Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, T. A.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

1993-01-01

368

Hard habits to break energy conservation patterns in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of energy conservation behavior started much later in Scandinavian countries than in the United States. There is little research under way in Scandinavian on the conditions under which individuals might be willing to decrease their energy use. Nor is there much information available about how consumers would respond to increases in electricity fees. An energy analyst recently suggested that the greatest potential to save energy in Sweden lies in lifestyle changes because the buildings already meet some of the highest thermal standards in the world. Lifestyle changes would certainly be necessary were Sweden to phase out its nuclear power plants because of environmental concerns. Thus, to find out if a phaseout of nuclear power is feasible in Scandinavia, it is necessary to examine the potential for lifestyle changes in the domestic, or household, sector. 2 tabs.

Loefstedt, R.E. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

1993-03-01

369

75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit), it will remain in effect until...CAMR was vacated by the D.C. Circuit in its decision in New Jersey...energy efficiency standard be a minimum level of energy efficiency...

2010-03-09

370

Energy conservation potential of the US Department of Energy interim commercial building standards  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project conducted to demonstrate the whole-building energy conservation potential achievable from full implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interim Energy Conservation Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. DOE`s development and implementation of energy performance standards for commercial buildings were established by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, Public Law (PL) 94-385, 42 USC 6831 et seq., hereinafter referred to as the Act. In accordance with the Act, DOE was to establish performance standards for both federal and private sector buildings ``to achieve the maximum practicable improvements in energy efficiency and use of non-depletable resources for all new buildings``.

Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.

1993-12-01

371

76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The new information obtained...of product information of available...baseline product designs, design...preliminary analysis, developed...for split systems indicated...no other system changes...engineering analysis based on...DOE sought information on the performance...not just of design point...

2011-04-21

372

78 FR 55889 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...equipment. The information obtained...specific design of a given system, as well...LSHXs in its analysis. For more...efficiency information relating...and trade system in the United...For more information, please...preliminary analysis, DOE developed...costs for the design option...

2013-09-11

373

78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of...Electric Motor Design Letter b...Efficient Cooling System i. Reduce...Screening Analysis 1. Technology...Modeling System: An Overview...develops information that provides...and NEMA Design B, general...preliminary analysis public meeting...Improve cooling system design. Stray-Load...Out......

2013-12-06

374

75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office...residential central air conditioners and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and...document for central air conditioners and heat pumps. The comment period is extended to...

2010-05-14

375

76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...decreases the minimum required energy...an electronic circuit enabling the...nominal efficacy voltage lamp watts factor...a higher open circuit voltage, the ballast with the higher open circuit voltage will...

2011-04-11

376

77 FR 31964 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...benefits will depend on the projected price trends of dishwashers, as the consumer...dishwashers is a function of dishwasher prices. The Primary, Low Benefits, and...Benefits Estimates utilize forecasts of energy prices and housing starts from the...

2012-05-30

377

76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) and for Certain Commercial and Industrial...Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

2011-11-08

378

Technology Utilization House Study Report. [For Energy Conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of Project TECH are: (1) to construct a single family detached dwelling for demonstrating the application of advanced technology and minimizing the requirement for energy and utility services, and (2) to help influence future development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water management systems with building configuration and construction materials. Components and methods expected to be cost effective over a 20 year span were studied. Emphasis was placed on the utilization of natural heating and cooling characteristics. Orientation and location of windows, landscaping, natural ventilation, and characteristics of the local climate and microclimate were intended to be used to best advantage. Energy conserving homes are most efficient when design for specific sites, therefore project TECH should not be considered a prototype design suitable for all locations. However, it does provide ideas and analytical methods which can be applied to some degree in all housing.

1974-01-01

379

Toward an energy-conserving model of spontaneous wavefunction collapse  

E-print Network

Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. A well-known problem of the original models is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we define the first collapse model which, besides applying also to (non-relativistic) identical particles, guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a proper non-linear stochastic modification of the Schr\\"odinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise.

Andrea Smirne; Angelo Bassi

2014-08-27

380

California experience with energy conservation standards for buildings  

SciTech Connect

Results of California's development and implementation study of its Title 24 Energy Conservation standards are presented. The Title 24 standards are compared with the National Building Energy Performance Standards. Results shown implementation difficulties occurred in starting up the program and information dissemination. Local enforcement practices proved variable and ambiguities in the standards created special problems for building officals. These problems are discussed in detail. Innovative approaches such as use of computer calculations proved difficult for approval and this problem is discussed. Attitudes toward standards are described. Details on the structure of the home building industry in California are given. Measures taken by the California Energy Commission to review and update thr standards are described. (MCW)

Feinbaum, R.

1981-05-01

381

78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...magnitudes. DOE plans to model both the uncertainty and the variability in the inputs to the LCC and PBP analysis using Monte Carlo simulation and probability distributions. As a result, the LCC and PBP results will be displayed as...

2013-02-01

382

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service  

SciTech Connect

During the past 5 years, the Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (CAREIRS) developed into a highly- utilized information service, serving the information needs of homeowners, small businesses, community groups, libraries, and the educational sector. CAREIRS also responded to increasing numbers of DOE controlled correspondence. CAREIRS successfully was able to inform the general public about energy conservation and renewable energy technologies, thus meeting the goals of the project. Quality and timely information was expeditiously produced and delivered on a wide variety of related energy topics. Moreover, through an automated system, we were able to maintain, organize and update statistical information, as well as information on the technologies. Significant changes occurred during the life of this contract. During the Base Year, in 1986, Advanced Sciences, Inc. (ASI) managed publications development, response activities, and intermediary networking, and Franklin Research Center (FRC) provided subcontractor support in the key areas of data base maintenance, telephone response activities, and library management, from its offices in Philadelphia, PA. On July 1, 1987, ASI became sole CAREIRS contractor and consolidated all project operations in the Washington, DC area. ASI set up the toll-free hotline and energy library in its Arlington, VA office, converted the automated inquiry response system from a mainframe to an in-house microcomputer environment, and automated the library catalog system onto the microcomputer system. The transition occurred smoothly with no major disruptions; requests were answered during the transition within the time allowed by the contract. Following a reorganization in 1989, management of CAREIRS was transferred from the Office of Renewable Energy to the newly-formed Office of Technical and Financial Assistance.

Not Available

1991-01-01

383

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the past 5 years, the Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (CAREIRS) developed into a highly- utilized information service, serving the information needs of homeowners, small businesses, community groups, libraries, and the educational sector. CAREIRS also responded to increasing numbers of DOE controlled correspondence. CAREIRS successfully was able to inform the general public about energy conservation and renewable energy technologies, thus meeting the goals of the project. Quality and timely information was expeditiously produced and delivered on a wide variety of related energy topics. Moreover, through an automated system, we were able to maintain, organize and update statistical information, as well as information on the technologies. Significant changes occurred during the life of this contract. During the Base Year, in 1986, Advanced Sciences, Inc. (ASI) managed publications development, response activities, and intermediary networking, and Franklin Research Center (FRC) provided subcontractor support in the key areas of data base maintenance, telephone response activities, and library management, from its offices in Philadelphia, PA. On July 1, 1987, ASI became sole CAREIRS contractor and consolidated all project operations in the Washington, DC area. ASI set up the toll-free hotline and energy library in its Arlington, VA office, converted the automated inquiry response system from a mainframe to an in-house microcomputer environment, and automated the library catalog system onto the microcomputer system. The transition occurred smoothly with no major disruptions; requests were answered during the transition within the time allowed by the contract. Following a reorganization in 1989, management of CAREIRS was transferred from the Office of Renewable Energy to the newly-formed Office of Technical and Financial Assistance.

Not Available

1991-12-31

384

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model  

E-print Network

0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model C.J. Scogings and K.A. Hawick Computer Science-based artificial life models are commonly constructed without a strict energy conservation rule. We report

Hawick, Ken

385

Modified energy-momentum conservation laws and vacuum Cherenkov radiation  

E-print Network

We present a general parametrization for the leading order terms in a momentum power expansion of a non-universal Lorentz-violating, but rotational invariant, kinematics and its implications for two-body decay thresholds. The considered framework includes not only modified dispersion relations for particles, but also modified energy-momentum conservation laws, something which goes beyond effective field theory. As a particular and relevant example, bounds on the departures from special relativistic kinematics from the non-observation of vacuum Cherenkov radiation are discussed and compared with those obtained within the effective field theory scenario.

Carmona, J M; Romeo, B

2014-01-01

386

Energy-conserving and passive-solar construction details  

SciTech Connect

Diagrams are presented which show construction details for insulating foundations, walls, joists, roofs, and other components of energy-conserving residential and light commercial buildings; glazing systems; installing thermal mass; rock beds; and a passive hot air collector. The emphasis is on using commercially available building materials in new applications to minimize costs and maximize thermal design. The costs are given which are typical of what builders have incurred in different parts of the country. The thermal performance figures and comments are included. (LEW)

Taylor, R D

1981-04-01

387

Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation  

E-print Network

The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity for a plane wave in a moving isotropic uniform medium. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.

Changbiao Wang

2015-01-19

388

Functional and Structural Analysis of the Conserved EFhd2 Protein  

PubMed Central

EFhd2 is a novel protein conserved from C. elegans to H. sapiens. This novel protein was originally identified in cells of the immune and central nervous systems. However, it is most abundant in the central nervous system, where it has been found associated with pathological forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. The physiological or pathological roles of EFhd2 are poorly understood. In this study, a functional and structural analysis was carried to characterize the molecular requirements for EFhd2s calcium binding activity. The results showed that mutations of a conserved aspartate on either EF-hand motif disrupted the calcium binding activity, indicating that these motifs work in pair as a functional calcium binding domain. Furthermore, characterization of an identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that introduced a missense mutation indicates the importance of a conserved phenylalanine on EFhd2 calcium binding activity. Structural analysis revealed that EFhd2 is predominantly composed of alpha helix and random coil structures and that this novel protein is thermostable. EFhd2s thermo stability depends on its N-terminus. In the absence of the N-terminus, calcium binding restored EFhd2s thermal stability. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding on EFhd2 functional and structural properties, and introduce it into the family of canonical EF-hand domain containing proteins. PMID:22973849

Acosta, Yancy Ferrer; Rodrguez Cruz, Eva N.; Vaquer, Ana del C.; Vega, Irving E.

2013-01-01

389

Affordable housing through energy conservation: A guide to designing and constructing energy efficient homes  

SciTech Connect

PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. This data base was compiled using over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. This extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Regression techniques in PEAR permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to over 800 US locations based on climate parameters. PEAR is designed as a user-friendly program that can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts, and as a nontechnical energy calculation method by architects, homebuilders, homeowners, and others in the building industry. Technical documentation of the PEAR program and the database is given elsewhere (see References). 3 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01

390

Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

None

1980-05-01

391

Implementation planning for industrial energy conservation: approach and methodology  

SciTech Connect

Details of an industry-specific Conservation Technology Implementation Branch implementation plan is described in detail. CTIB has conducted implementation planning in the steel, pulp/paper, and agriculture/food processing industries, but in FY 1981, CTIB plans to conduct planning for the chemicals, petroleum refining, aluminum, glass, cement, and textile industries. Guidelines are presented for each contractor for each industry toward a common methodology in terms of approach, areas of analysis, assumptions, and reporting. The major parts of the CTIB plan are: an implementation study consisting of technology selection, market demand analysis, and policy analysis, and a plan consisting of a detailed description and schedule of future CTIB actions, followed by a recommended system for monitoring market results when the plan is implemented. (MCW)

Alston, T.G.; Falk, G.; Grogan, P.J.; Katz, D.; Tatar, J.

1981-01-01

392

77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0053] Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2012-12-31

393

77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy...authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or...

2012-05-30

394

76 FR 37549 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department...residential central air conditioners and heat pumps identical to those set forth in a...

2011-06-27

395

77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and 6.89 trillion gallons of water, amounts DOE considers significant...purchases, using commercial coin laundries or repairing their...benefits of energy savings, water savings, positive NPV of consumer...and 5.33 trillion gallons of water, amounts DOE considers...

2012-05-31

396

79 FR 7845 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for External Power Supplies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...medical devices or that power the charger of a...EPACT 2005), Public Law 109-58 (Aug...term ``external power supply.'' That...to prescribe test procedures related to the energy...Consumption of External Power Supplies'') (codifying the EPS test procedure). On December...

2014-02-10

397

76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of each design option was...consumption of each system design was calculated...and information gathered...engineering analyses and for complete...split-system heat pumps...and the MIA analysis of conventional...for more information on the standards-case...and product designs into...

2011-06-27

398

76 FR 57515 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...refrigerant as a design option for the...included the lack of information regarding (1...heat exchanger designs that would alleviate...consider dual system approaches and...low-charge designs using existing...considered in the analysis, because of...insufficient information regarding...

2011-09-15

399

78 FR 55781 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...refrigeration system. This approach...screening analysis, which it bases on information gathered...prototype designs that could...reviewed design options...market share information to determine...separate analyses on all three...refrigeration systems. Using the...requests information on any changes...refrigeration system......

2013-09-11

400

Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey  

SciTech Connect

The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

Not Available

1980-04-15

401

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07

402

A review of the health effects of energy conserving materials.  

PubMed Central

The energy conservation movement has promoted both greater use of insulating materials and the reduction of heat losses by sealing air leaks. The release of volatile or airborne materials from the installation of these building materials under these conditions has resulted in an exacerbated indoor air pollution with the potential for certain health and safety hazards. Consequently, a comparative review of the health and safety hazards, exposure standards, and regulatory action associated with the more commonly used insulating materials with particular respect to current energy conservation measures was undertaken. The materials reviewed included asbestos, urea-formaldehyde foam, polyvinyl chloride, cellulosic insulations, fibrous glass, mineral wool, and vermiculite. Although no longer used, the past installation of asbestos in a friable form is the greatest potential health hazard. The exposure to formaldehyde gas from its release from urea-formaldehyde foam has elicited subjective complaints of sensory irritation and unresolved controversy and regulatory action regarding its toxicity to humans. Lesser health problems have been associated with the more widely used fibrous glass and mineral or rock wools. PMID:6342431

Levin, L; Purdom, P W

1983-01-01

403

Energy-conserving schemes for wind farm aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational demands compel researchers to use coarse grids for the study of wind farm aerodynamics, which necessitates the use of accurate numerical schemes. Energy- conserving (EC) schemes are designed to enforce the conservation of Kinetic Energy (KE), an invariant property of incompressible flows. These schemes are numerically stable and free from artificial dissipation, even on coarse grids and could be used as an alternative to high-order pseudo-spectral schemes. This article details tests on EC schemes in the context of Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Results suggest that the accuracy of EC schemes is influenced by the Subgrid Scale model used for the LES. EC methods use central schemes that lead to dispersion, which is more apparent with a less-dissipative Scale Similarity model. Whereas, the purely dissipative Smagorinsky's model reduces the dispersion and generates a smoother solution but at the cost of accuracy in terms of predicting the KE. Although the impact of EC schemes and SGS models on the LES of wind farms is yet to be assessed, a simple LES of a model wind farm uncovers that EC schemes are quite suitable for wind farm aerodynamics.

Mehta, Dhruv; van Zuijlen, Alexander; Bijl, Hester

2014-06-01

404

The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-based systems for energy conservation are now a growing area of research in multiagent systems, with applications ranging from energy management and control on the smart grid, to energy conservation in residential buildings, to energy generation and dynamic negotiations in distributed rural communities. Contributing to this area, my thesis presents new agent-based models and algorithms aiming to conserve energy in commercial buildings. More specifically, my thesis provides three sets of algorithmic contributions. First, I provide online predictive scheduling algorithms to handle massive numbers of meeting/event scheduling requests considering flexibility , which is a novel concept for capturing generic user constraints while optimizing the desired objective. Second, I present a novel BM-MDP ( Bounded-parameter Multi-objective Markov Decision Problem) model and robust algorithms for multi-objective optimization under uncertainty both at the planning and execution time. The BM-MDP model and its robust algorithms are useful in (re)scheduling events to achieve energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty over user's preferences. Third, when multiple users contribute to energy savings, fair division of credit for such savings to incentivize users for their energy saving activities arises as an important question. I appeal to cooperative game theory and specifically to the concept of Shapley value for this fair division. Unfortunately, scaling up this Shapley value computation is a major hindrance in practice. Therefore, I present novel approximation algorithms to efficiently compute the Shapley value based on sampling and partitions and to speed up the characteristic function computation. These new models have not only advanced the state of the art in multiagent algorithms, but have actually been successfully integrated within agents dedicated to energy efficiency: SAVES, TESLA and THINC. SAVES focuses on the day-to-day energy consumption of individuals and groups in commercial buildings by reactively suggesting energy conserving alternatives. TESLA takes a long-range planning perspective and optimizes overall energy consumption of a large number of group events or meetings together. THINC provides an end-to-end integration within a single agent of energy efficient scheduling, rescheduling and credit allocation. While SAVES, TESLA and THINC thus differ in their scope and applicability, they demonstrate the utility of agent-based systems in actually reducing energy consumption in commercial buildings. I evaluate my algorithms and agents using extensive analysis on data from over 110,000 real meetings/events at multiple educational buildings including the main libraries at the University of Southern California. I also provide results on simulations and real-world experiments, clearly demonstrating the power of agent technology to assist human users in saving energy in commercial buildings.

Kwak, Jun-young

405

Data acquisition system for energy conservation demonstration complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data acquisition system (DAS) was developed for unmanned operation at an energy conservation engineering test facility to monitor an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) house, a solar wet-plate system house, a standard air-source heat-pump house, and an air-heating-type solar collector in parallel with an air-to-air heat pump experiment. The DAS scans 160 channels each hour and records instantaneous temperature readings, integrated heat flows, weather data, and electric power consumed. The data system comprises standard, commercially available data system components where feasible. Special attention was given to selection of devices yielding high resolution and stability at the liquid flow rates and temperatures typical of such systems. System control by a proved computer-controller with an uninterruptible power source has resulted in greater than 99% availability of the DAS.

Miller, D. R.; Miller, G. N.

406

New and Retrofitted Facilities for Energy Conservation. Information Series No. 152.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of sixteen knowledge transformation papers, this paper presents an overview of considerations and methods for accomplishing energy conservation in the schools. First, the National Energy Act of 1978 is outlined with special attention to the school and hospital energy conservation grant program. In the next section on energy

Kowle, Carol P.

407

Alternative Energy Choices, Conservation, and Management: A Primer for Advanced Manufacturing Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing managers need to understand the interrelated links between advanced manufacturing technology, primary and alternative energy choices, energy output values and costs, and energy conservation over the life of a project. Through an overview of these topics and the managers energy conservation processing optimization model developed in this paper, manufacturing managers, engineering technologists, and academics gain greater insight to the

Jeffrey M. Ulmer; Troy E. Ollison

2008-01-01

408

Conservation or energy development: Consumer perceptions of alternate solutions to the energy crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify segments of the population on the basis of what they believe would ensure energy\\u000a for the futureconservation or energy\\/technological development. To the extent that technology is perceived to be the solution,\\u000a a potential danger exists that consumers will not commit to an energy-conscious lifestyle except as required by increasing\\u000a energy costs. The

Richard M. Durand; Subhash Sharma

1982-01-01

409

Space and energy conservation housing prototype unit development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction plans are discussed for a house which will demonstrate the application of advanced technology to minimize energy requirements and to help direct further development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water systems with building configuration and construction materials. Housing unit designs are provided and procedures for the analysis of a variety of housing strategies are developed.

Sunshine, D. R.

1975-01-01

410

The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Appendix II of The Woodlands Metro Center Energy Study near Houston consists of the following: Metro Center Program, Conventional Plan Building Prototypes and Detail Parcel Analysis, Energy Plan Building Prototypes, and Energy Plan Detail Parcel Analysis.

Not Available

1980-03-01

411

Education for energy conservation and alternate energy in the state of Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to cover the opinions of secondary vocational and non-vocational teachers of agriculture, industrial arts, and trade and industry in the State of Nevada regarding the salient aspects of energy conservation and alternate-energy use. A questionnaire was developed to seek answers to the questions of who was teaching these concepts, to whom, to what degree, how much

Coyle

1981-01-01

412

LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM  

E-print Network

Lab V - 1 LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM In this lab you will use conservation of momentum enough information for a complete analysis of collisions in terms of forces. Conservation principles can of the complicated details of the collision process itself, but conservation of energy alone is usually not enough

Minnesota, University of

413

Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report  

SciTech Connect

The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

Not Available

1982-07-01

414

Effect of energy and momentum conservation on fluid resonances for resonant magnetic perturbations in a tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the impact of momentum and energy conservation of the collision operator in the kinetic description for Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in a tokamak is studied. The particle conserving differential collision operator of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type is supplemented with integral parts such that energy and momentum are conserved. The application to RMP penetration in a tokamak shows that energy conservation in the electron collision operator is important for the quantitative description of plasma shielding effects at the resonant surface. On the other hand, momentum conservation in the ion collision operator does not significantly change the results.

Leitner, Peter; Heyn, Martin F.; Kernbichler, Winfried [Fusion@AW, Institut fr Theoretische PhysikComputational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Ivanov, Ivan B. [Fusion@AW, Institut fr Theoretische PhysikComputational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics, Ulyanovskaya 1, Petrodvoretz 198504 (Russian Federation); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast (Russian Federation); Kasilov, Sergei V. [Fusion@AW, Institut fr Theoretische PhysikComputational Physics, TU Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ul. Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

2014-06-15

415

Energy conservation in the food industry. (Latest citations from Food Science Technology abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning energy conservation in the food industry. Energy requirements, basic approaches to energy audits, plant design, and the equipment and fuel for food processing are discussed. Alternative energy sources, energy recovery and other energy saving devices are considered as measures for conservation. Energy saving techniques and measures in dairies, meat packing plants, breweries, and various other processing plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 158 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

416

Energy Sector Market Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

2006-10-01

417

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources (1) In...

2013-04-01

418

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources (1) In...

2011-04-01

419

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources (1) In...

2010-04-01

420

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources (1) In...

2014-04-01

421

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources (1) In...

2012-04-01

422

Large climate-moderating envelopes for enclosed structures: a preliminary evaluation of energy conservation potential  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was made of the basic impacts of putting a large secondary enclosure around a number of functions and thereby creating a Large Climate Moderating Envelope (LCME). This study is a preliminary estimate of the energy conservation benefits of an LCME. A hypothetical LMCE design was chosen and a coupled fluid dynamic and energy transport analysis was performed to estimate the energy conservation potential of this design. The heat transfer models included insolation, outside air temperature and wind, thermal radiation exchange with the sky, and between the fabric and ground and thermal storage in the earth mass beneath the LCME. The energy transported within the fluid by the buoyancy driven circulation was modeled as an incompressible fluid utilizing the Boussinesq approximation. The climatic conditions were assumed to vary in smooth repeating daily cycles. The numerical simulation of climatic variation was continued until the results within the LCME achieved a repeating daily cycle. The results for selected seasonally characteristic days were utilized to estimate the annual energy consumption of structures within an LCME relative to similar structures exposed to the exterior environment. The relative annual energy savings for summer-dominated climates was estimated to be approx. 70%. The energy savings for a winter-dominated climate LCME were estimated to be somewhat smaller but the LCME concept could offer significant benefits for agricultural applications for this type of climate.

Wendt, R.L.; Giles, G.E.; Park, J.E.

1981-12-01

423

Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)  

SciTech Connect

The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-09-01

424

A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the simulation of nonlinear aspects of the flow over steep topography, a potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations is derived. It is pointed out that a family of schemes can conserve total energy for general flow and potential enstrophy for flow with no mass flux divergence. The newly derived scheme is a unique member of this family, that conserves both potential enstrophy and energy for general flow. Comparison by means of numerical experiment with a scheme that conserves (potential) enstrophy for purely horizontal nondivergent flow demonstrated the considerable superiority of the newly derived potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme, not only in suppressing a spurious energy cascade but also in determining the overall flow regime. The potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for a spherical grid is also presented.

Arakawa, A.; Lamb, V. R.

1981-01-01

425

Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at . Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting. PMID:12760745

Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin; Mendoza, Luis; Engstrm, Pr; Jareborg, Niclas; Wasserman, Wyeth W

2003-01-01

426

Vavilov's Paradox: On Paper, It's a Violation of the Energy Conservation Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the energy flux-density of two beams of light of equal energy that are intersected at a given angle. Examines an apparent contradiction to the physics law of conservation of energy known as Vavilov's paradox. (MDH)

Fabrikant, V. A.

1992-01-01

427

Rebuild America Program Brazos Valley Energy Conservation Coalition Quarterly Report for July September 1998  

E-print Network

The Brazos Valley Energy Conservation Coalition (BVECC), administered by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL) of Texas A&M University, in College Station, Texas received notification of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE)-Rebuild America award...

Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01

428

78 FR 79637 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Set-Top Boxes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...through the American Energy Manufacturing Technical...established the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...enable the Secretary of Energy to classify additional...test procedures used by industry to measure the...

2013-12-31

429

Techniques for energy conservation in ac motor-driven systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for energy conservation of reducing losses in ac motor driven systems were compared. The impact on electric utility system as a harmonics, power factor of operation, and Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) is considered. The techniques evaluated are: (1) the NASA Power Factor Controller, a simple device for reducing power losses in lightly loaded ac motors; (2) wanlass motor modification, a scheme of reconnecting motor windings with capacitors in series, to improve the motor efficiencies under all loading conditions; (3) conventional variable frequency solid state inverters which control the speed of ac motors by producing adjustable frequency ac voltage; and (4) frequency drives and schemes including cycloconverters, slip recovery scheme, Exxon Alternating Current Synthesizer, Venturini conversion technique, permanent magnet synchronous motors, and the Phase Liner device.

Mohan, N.

1981-09-01

430

Molecular mechanism of energy conservation in polysulfide respiration  

PubMed Central

Bacterial polysulfide reductase (PsrABC) is an integral membrane protein complex responsible for quinone coupled reduction of polysulfide, a process important in extreme environments such as deep-sea vents and hot springs. We determined the structure of polysulfide reductase from Thermus thermophilus at 2.4 resolution, revealing how the PsrA subunit recognizes and reduces its unique poly anionic substrate. The integral membrane subunit PsrC was characterized using the natural substrate menaquinone-7 and inhibitors, providing a comprehensive representation of a quinone binding site and revealing the presence of a water filled cavity connecting the quinone binding site on the periplasmic side to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that polysulfide reductase could be a key energy-conserving enzyme of the T. thermophilus respiratory chain, utilizing polysulfide as the terminal electron acceptor and pumping protons across the membrane via a previously unknown mechanism. PMID:18536726

Jormakka, Mika; Yokoyama, Ken; Yano, Takahiro; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Akimoto, Satoru; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Curmi, Paul; Iwata, So

2010-01-01

431

Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal

Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

2012-01-01

432

Students' Misunderstandings about the Energy Conservation Principle: A General View to Studies in Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper serves to review previously reported studies on students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle (the first law of thermodynamics). Generally, studies in literature highlighted students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle stem from preliminaries about energy concept in daily life. Since prior

Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir

2007-01-01

433

National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

434

Energy Conservation Error in the Material Point Method for Solid Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material point method (MPM) for solid mechanics conserves mass and momentum by construction, but energy conservation is not explicitly enforced. Material constitutive response and internal energy are carried on discrete points (material points), while the governing equations are solved on an overlying grid. The constitutive response (and internal energy) may be updated at the beginning or end of a

S. G. Bardenhagen

2002-01-01

435

Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

SciTech Connect

Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

none,

1982-01-01

436

Conservative Cascade of Kinetic Energy in Compressible Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical nature of compressible turbulence is of fundamental importance in a variety of astrophysical settings. We investigate the question: "At what scales does the mechanism of pressure-dilatation operate?" and present the first direct evidence that mean kinetic energy cascades conservatively beyond a transitional "conversion" scale range despite not being an invariant of the dynamics. We use high-resolution 10243 subsonic and transonic simulations. The key quantity we measure is the pressure-dilatation cospectrum, E PD(k), where we show that it decays at a rate faster than k -1 in wavenumber in at least the subsonic and transonic regimes. This is sufficient to imply that mean pressure-dilatation acts primarily at large scales and that kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional scale range. However, we observe that small-scale dynamics remains highly compressible locally in space and that the statistical decoupling in the energy budgets is unrelated to the existence of a subsonic scale range. Our results suggest that an extension of Kolmogorov's inertial-range theory to compressible turbulence is possible.

Aluie, Hussein; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui

2012-06-01

437

Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

Garrett-Price, B.A.

1985-02-01

438

Energy Conservation Recommendations, Implementation Costs, and Projected Paybacks for Georgia's Targeted Schools and Hospitals Conservation Program  

E-print Network

Schools and Hospitals Program because its objective is to involve facilities which have never participated in the traditional DOE funded Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) due to economic hardships. The program was specifically directed at non...

Brown, M. L.; Moore, D. M.

1988-01-01

439

Generating heavy particles with energy and momentum conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel algorithm, called REGGAE, for the generation of momenta of a given sample of particle masses, evenly distributed in Lorentz-invariant phase space and obeying energy and momentum conservation. In comparison to other existing algorithms, REGGAE is designed for the use in multiparticle production in hadronic and nuclear collisions where many hadrons are produced and a large part of the available energy is stored in the form of their masses. The algorithm uses a loop simulating multiple collisions which lead to production of configurations with reasonably large weights. Program summaryProgram title: REGGAE (REscattering-after-Genbod GenerAtor of Events) Catalogue identifier: AEJR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9608 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed. Operating system: Originally designed on Linux PC with g++, but it has been compiled and ran successfully on OS X with g++ and MS Windows with Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, as well. RAM: This depends on the number of particles which are generated. For 10 particles like in the attached example it requires about 120 kB. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The task is to generate momenta of a sample of particles with given masses which obey energy and momentum conservation. Generated samples should be evenly distributed in the available Lorentz-invariant phase space. Solution method: In general, the algorithm works in two steps. First, all momenta are generated with the GENBOD algorithm. There, particle production is modeled as a sequence of two-body decays of heavy resonances. After all momenta are generated this way, they are reshuffled. Each particle undergoes a collision with some other partner such that in the pair center of mass system the new directions of momenta are distributed isotropically. After each particle collides only a few times, the momenta are distributed evenly across the whole available phase space. Starting with GENBOD is not essential for the procedure but it improves the performance. Running time: This depends on the number of particles and number of events one wants to generate. On a LINUX PC with 2 GHz processor, generation of 1000 events with 10 particles each takes about 3 s.

Mere, Michal; Melo, Ivan; Tomik, Boris; Balek, Vladimr; ?ern, Vladimr

2011-12-01

440

Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the following topics:

Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

441

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate

Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

442

College Industrial Park : An Innovative Approach to Energy Conservation Through the Use of Geothermal Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology campus and Merle West Medical Center has been discharged to an open drainage ditch adjacent to the City's College Industrial Park since 1964. Over the past few years there has been increasing concern for conservation and preservation of the geothermal aquifers in Klamath Falls, Oregon. An effective way of improving the energy

1986-01-01

443

Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in Jaipur: Testing the Energy Conservation Building Code  

SciTech Connect

The Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India is constructing two new buildings on its campus that allow it to test implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which Rajasthan made mandatory in 2011. PNNL has been working with MNIT to document progress on ECBC implementation in these buildings.

Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Yu, Sha

2014-03-26

444

The significance of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy of a radiating charge  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that energy is conserved during runaway motion of a radiating charge, and during free fall of a charge in a field of gravity. The decisive role of the Schott energy in this connection is made clear. Also it is pointed out that a proton and a neutron fall with the same acceleration in a uniform gravitational field although the proton radiates and the neutron does not.

O. Gron

2010-07-03

445

Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects  

SciTech Connect

Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

1980-01-01

446

Home Energy Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the second part of a two-part exercise in which students perform an audit and analysis of energy consumption in their homes. In this part, students will estimate the amount of energy they use in their homes and investigate how their lifestyle impacts this amount. They will consider various sources of energy loss and the number of air exchanges per hour. Then, they will use the parameters they measured in the previous exercise (Home Energy Audit) and an online calculator to determine energy costs. They will then consider ways to reduce these costs. These two activities should be done in conjunction with one another.

John Pratte

447

Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely consistent among taxonomic groups for forest and open-habitat species, respectively. Synthesis and applications. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions. Our meta-analysis provides support for wider use of retention forestry since it moderates negative harvesting impacts on biodiversity. Hence, it is a promising approach for integrating biodiversity conservation and production forestry, although identifying optimal solutions between these two goals may need further attention. Nevertheless, retention forestry will not substitute for conservation actions targeting certain highly specialized species associated with forest-interior or open-habitat conditions.

Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

2014-01-01

448

Assessment of energy and natural resources conservation in office buildings using TOBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for optimum energy use and conservation of natural resources in representative southern and northern European office buildings is evaluated using the new European TOBUS methodology and software for office building refurbishment. Various scenarios are being accessed for energy and water conservation in office buildings. The proposed retrofit actions focus in the areas of space heating and cooling, artificial

C. A Balaras; K Droutsa; A. A Argiriou; K Wittchen

2002-01-01

449

An Energy Conservation Retrofit Process for Existing Public and Institutional Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed to provide assistance to public officials first considering energy conservation in existing public buildings. The manual focuses on management decisions which must be made in implementing energy conservation programs for existing buildings. It provides assistance in developing a plan of attack, establishing schedules,

Tiedeman, Thomas V.

450

Energy Conservation in Buildings--A Human Factors/Systems Viewpoint. NBS Building Science Series 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current emphasis on energy conservation in buildings must be balanced by a careful consideration of how proposed approaches affect building occupants. A headlong rush toward building designs that conserve energy at the expense of the quality of buildings as judged by occupants would be a very shortsighted approach. There must be a continual

Rubin, Arthur I.

451

The Economy of Energy Conservation in Educational Facilities. A Report. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an update of the 1973 edition of a guide for energy conservation in schools. This Educational Facilities Laboratories publication is an information source for teachers, school administrators, school maintenance personnel, school designers, or anyone interested in conserving energy in schools. Topics discussed include: (1) life-cycle

Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

452

Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989  

SciTech Connect

Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

Kirsch, F.W.

1991-05-01

453

79 FR 70797 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Gas Compressors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Industrial Equipment: Gas Compressors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...standards for commercial and industrial compressors. To date, DOE has considered energy conservation standards only for compressors intended to compress air,...

2014-11-28

454

76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...notice of proposed rulemaking for direct heating equipment is extended to October 14...notice of proposed rulemaking for direct heating equipment received no later than 5...

2011-09-12

455

78 FR 20503 - Energy Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support Document for High...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Support Document for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...document (TSD) for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps energy conservation standards...287-1604. Email: high_intensity_discharge_lamps@ee.doe.gov. In the...

2013-04-05

456

National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Policies and Programs in Developed Countries and Middle East  

E-print Network

are highly dependent on energy, should be the preferred solution to develop and achieve a sustainable and secure economy. This paper describes policies for energy conservation adopted by developed industrialized countries such as Japan, Germany, France...

Tyrer, C. F.

2010-01-01

457

75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1904-AC10 Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management...of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and Certification...Certification Management System (CCMS)--via the Web portal:...

2010-05-14

458

Energy conservation policy in developing countries : the case for market solutions  

E-print Network

Interest in energy conservation, although to some degree cyclical, has been stimulated during the last twenty years by the rising cost of energy in a wide range of developing and developed countries, especially following ...

Bates, Robin W.

1991-01-01

459

77 FR 76825 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification of Commercial and Industrial HVAC, Refrigeration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...must meet the applicable energy conservation standard and...its regulations regarding alternative efficiency determination...mathematical models, and other alternative methods to determine the amount of energy used or efficiency by...

2012-12-31

460

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

NONE

1996-01-01

461

Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II Final Report  

E-print Network

REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report ENERGY SYSTEMSLABORATORY Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University College Station Texas... 77843 ESL-TR-84/08-01 REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report Submitted to: Energy Efficiency Division Texas Public Utility Commission 7800 Shoal Creek Blvd., Suite 400N Austin, TX 78757...

Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

1984-01-01

462

Fluctuations of Conserved Quantities in High Energy Nuclear Collisions at RHIC  

E-print Network

Fluctuations of conserved quantities in heavy-ion collisions are used to probe the phase transition and the QCD critical point for the strongly interacting hot and dense nuclear matter. The STAR experiment has carried out moment analysis of net-proton (proxy for net-baryon (B)), net-kaon (proxy for net-strangeness (S)), and net-charge (Q). These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram. We present the analysis techniques used in the moment analysis by the STAR experiment and discuss the moments of net-proton and net-charge distributions from the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

Luo, Xiaofeng

2015-01-01

463

Energy Implementation Centers: A Method of Speeding the Use of Solar Energy and Other Energy Conserving Technologies. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the role of implementation centers as a vehicle for speeding the use of solar energy and energy conservation. It covers a study of previous building industry innovations; a brief review of the diffusion of innovation literature, including several case studies; identification of the solar thermal application process and

Hirshberg, A. S.; And Others

464

Ruins and Urban Context: Analysis Towards Conservation and Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of a study of classics theatres and amphitheatres in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. The analysis started from the mapping of the Greek and Roman cities and has been focused in particular to the study of the transformations of these cities from the Middle Age to today, carried out through cartographic surveys, archival investigations and direct analysis. This process has led to understanding the different kinds of reuse that the theaters and amphitheatres have undergone throughout the centuries. Then, by comparing the historical city maps to the current ones (e.g. the maps of urban land registers), the archaeological traces of theatres and amphitheatres still incorporated in the current urban buildings have been located. Finally, a survey of the current situation has allowed identifying the material consistency and morphological characterization of these ancient artifacts. The process led to the proposal of strategies for the conservation and enhancement of ancient entertainment buildings, that respect both the archeological elements and the successive stratification that characterize today our historical cities.

Romeo, E.; Rudiero, R.

2013-07-01

465

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

466

Characterization and structural analysis of HIV-1 integrase conservation.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 integrase, responsible for the chromosomal integration of the newly synthesized double-stranded viral DNA into the host genomic DNA, represents a new and important target of potential clinical relevance. For instance, two integrase inhibitors, raltegravir and elvitegravir, have been shown to be promising in clinical trials, and the first has been recently made available for clinical practice. As is the case for other antiviral drugs, drug resistance to integrase inhibitors occurs both in vitro and/or in vivo through the selection of mutations within the HIV genome. Indeed, many integrase mutations have already been associated with resistance to all the different integrase inhibitors tested in in vitro and/or in vivo studies. Among them, about 40 substitutions have been specifically associated with the development of resistance to raltegravir and/or elvitegravir; some of them were also found in vivo in patients failing such integrase inhibitors. The relevance of integrase mutations in clinical practice has yet to be defined, in light of the lack of long-term follow-up of treated patients and the limited data about the prevalence of integrase inhibitor-associated mutations in integrase inhibitor-naive patients (either untreated, or treated with antiretrovirals not containing integrase inhibitors). Therefore, by structural analysis elaboration and literature discussion, the aim of this review is to characterize the conserved residues and regions of HIV-1 integrase and the prevalence of mutations associated with integrase inhibitor resistance, by matching data originated from a well-defined cohort of HIV-1 B subtype-infected individuals (untreated and antiretroviral-treated) and data originated from the public Los Alamos Database available in the literature (all patients integrase inhibitor-naive by definition). In integrase inhibitor-naive patients, 180 out of 288 HIV-1 integrase residues (62.5%) are conserved (< 1% variability). Residues involved in protein stability, multimerization, DNA binding, catalytic activity, and in the binding with the human cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 are fully conserved. Some of these residues clustered into large defined regions of consecutive invariant amino acids, suggesting that consecutive residues in specific structural domains are required for the correct performance of HIV-1 integrase functions. All primary signature mutations emerging in patients failing raltegravir (Y143R, Q148H/K/R, N155H) or elvitegravir (T66I, E92Q, S147G, Q148H/K/R, N155H), as well as secondary mutations (H51Y, T66A/K, E138K, G140S/A/C, Y143C/H, K160N, R166S, E170A, S230R, D232N, R263K) were completely absent or highly infrequent (< 0.5%) in integrase inhibitor-naive patients, either infected with HIV-1 B subtype (drug-naive or antiretroviral-treated), or non-B subtypes/group N and O. Differently, other mutations (L74M, T97A, S119G/R, V151I, K156N, E157Q, G163K/R, V165I, I203M, T206S, S230N) occurred as natural polymorphisms with a different prevalence according to different HIV-1 subtype/circulating recombinant form/group. In conclusion, the HIV-1 integrase in vivo is an enzyme requiring the full preservation of almost two-thirds of its amino acids in the absence of specific integrase inhibitor pressure. Primary mutations associated with resistance to integrase inhibitors clinically relevant today are absent or highly infrequent in integrase inhibitor-naive patients. The characterization of the highly conserved residues (involved in protein stability, multimerization, DNA binding, catalytic activity, LEDGF binding, and some with still poorly understood function) could help in the rational design of new HIV-1 inhibitors with alternative mechanisms of action and more favorable resistance profiles. PMID:19290031

Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Malet, Isabelle; D'Arrigo, Roberta; Antinori, Andrea; Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Perno, Carlo-Federico

2009-01-01

467

The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

2013-12-01

468

Energy conservation through optimum utilization of site energy sources for all season thermal comfort in new residential construction for single family attached (rowhouse/townhouse) designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposed design analysis is presented of a passive solar energy efficient system for a typical three level, three bedroom, two story, garage under townhouse. The design incorporates the best, most performance proven and cost effective products, materials, processes, technologies, and subsystems which are available today. Seven distinct categories recognized for analysis are identified as: the exterior environment; the interior environment; conservation of energy; natural energy utilization; auxiliary energy utilization; control and distribution systems; and occupant adaptation. Preliminary design features, fenestration systems, the plenum supply system, the thermal storage party fire walls, direct gain storage, the radiant comfort system, and direct passive cooling systems are briefly described.

Gerber, S.; Holsman, J. P.

1981-02-01

469

Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings  

SciTech Connect

This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

Not Available

1980-06-01

470

APPLYING SPATIAL ANALYSIS FOR PRECISION CONSERVATION ACROSS THE LANDSCAPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although new technologies such as precision farming will contribute to increasing yields per unit area, similarly soil and water conservation will be instrumental in maintaining these increases in productivity. Initially Precision Conservation was defined as the integration of spatial technologies s...

471

Linking Terrestrial and Marine Conservation Planning and Threats Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system

HEATHER TALLIS; ZACH FERDAA; ELIZABETH GRAY

2008-01-01

472

Energy conservation system for hot water heaters and storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a furnace for heating a building and a water heater, an energy conservation system is described comprising a first coil of water pipe disposed within a chamber or duct of said furnace for absorbing heat from said furnace to heat water in said first coil, said pipe being connected between a pressurized source of cold water for said building and a cold water inlet of said heater, said system further comprising a spurge tank for storing a quantity of water therein selectively connectable across said first coil, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the presure of the water flowing between said first coil and heater increases to a first pre-selected maximum pressure value, means for diverting water flowing between said first coil and heater inlet to said spurge tank when the temperature of the water flowing betwen said first coil and heater inlet increases to a first pre-selected maximu temperature value, first check valve means for restraining the back-filling of said spurge tank with water flowing from said source and from the upstream end of said forst coil, second check valve means for restraining the back flow of water to said source from said spurge tank and said first coil, means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank to a sewer line when the pressure of water in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected pressure valve, and means for venting water and steam from said spurge tank when the water temperature in said spurge tank reaches a second pre-selected temperature value.

Farris, W.

1980-07-08

473

Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials  

SciTech Connect

The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

474

Energy conservation: Industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains a minimum of 236 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

475

Energy conservation: Industry measures. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01

476

Energy conservation: Industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains a minimum of 175 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

477

Energy conservation: Industry measures. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

478

Energy conservation: Industry. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment, and program overviews regarding industrial energy conservation measures. Topics include case histories and energy audits in a variety of industries, financial and investment aspects, and descriptions of specific energy conservation projects undertaken in the United States and abroad. The food, metals, pulp and paper, wood, and textile industries are among the industries discussed. (Contains a minimum of 248 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

479

Design and Build- Cost-Effective Energy Conservation: An Opportunity for the Competitive Market  

E-print Network

. It is a proven method, understood by all participants, and it has inherent flexibility, needed to provide the building owner witJ1 the optimum solution for the building. Concentrating on the design of comprehensive Energy Conservation Measures (ECM.... Electrical and mechanical contractors will be hired to install the energy conservation measures. Consultants will apply the optimum energy teclmologies to the building. Various other trades will provide specialist support. So where does design and build...

McGeown, D. I.

480

Effects of informational prompts on energy conservation in college classrooms.  

PubMed

A multiple-baseline design was used with two target classroom groups (n = 28 and 27) in a study to reduce electrical energy waste in college classrooms. A dittoed letter, signed by a faculty member, was sent to each professor in the prompt condition. In the letter the professor was informed that he or she taught prior to an unscheduled period and was asked to turn off lights following the class. The results showed that after the prompt, the percentage of rooms with lights turned off increased by 13% and 6% in each target group. A further analysis of the 10 classrooms that had the lowest baseline rates of turning lights off indicated a 30% increase after the prompt. This study indicates that a minimum prompt procedure was effective in reducing electrical energy waste. The further significance of these results are also discussed. PMID:16795636

Luyben, P D

1980-01-01

481

Energy conserving norms for the solution of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hyperbolic system of partial differential equations with a real constant square coefficient matrix A is considered. The problem of finding an energy conserving norm for the solution of the system is reduced to the problem of characterizing those matrices appearing in the boundary conditions which satisfy two specific matrix equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficient matrix A and the matrices appearing in boundary conditions are derived for an energy conserving norm. The conditions serve as criteria on a given system which determine whether or not the solution will have its energy conserved in some norm. Examples of specific systems and boundary conditions are also provided.

Gunzburger, M. D.; Plemmons, R. J.

1979-01-01

482

Electromagnetic-energy conservation for media with metallic constituents with special attention to damped waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the conservation of electromagnetic energy for systems involving metal-like constituents, not only for continuous waves with real frequencies but also for temporally attenuated waves with complex frequencies. For this purpose, we derive a generic conservation law in terms of attenuated time-harmonic waves, thereby identifying the dual role played by the material loss on the dissipation and conserved energy. As the simplest example, we analyze absorption spectra for single-interface plasmon resonances along with energy flows through the bounding surfaces. By these formulations, we could infer basic working principles of both metal wire photonic crystals and the optical vortices.

Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik

2013-03-01

483

ICT for green: how computers can help us to conserve energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information and communication technology (ICT) consumes energy, but is also an important means of conserving energy. Conventionally, it has done so by optimizing the performance of energy-using systems and processes in industry and commerce. In the near future, ICT will also play a critical role in supporting the necessary paradigm shifts within the energy sector towards more sustainable electricity generation.

Friedemann Mattern; Thorsten Staake; Markus Weiss

2010-01-01

484

Mapping and navigating mammalian conservation: from analysis to action  

PubMed Central

Although mammals are often seen as important objects of human interest and affection, many are threatened with extinction. A range of efforts have been proposed and much work has been done to try to conserve mammals, but there is little overall understanding of what has worked and why. As a result, there is no global-scale, coordinated approach to conserving all mammals. Rather, conservation efforts are usually focused at jurisdictional levels where relevant legislation and policies are in force. To help build the framework for a global-scale approach, in this paper we review the many ways that have been proposed for conserving mammals. First, we examine the overall pattern of threat faced by mammals at the global level. Secondly, we look at the major structuring issues in prioritizing and planning mammal conservation, examining in particular the roles of values and scale and a set of approaches to conservation, each of which varies along a continuum. Finally, we lay out the steps necessary to move from planning to implementing mammalian conservation. PMID:21844050

Redford, Kent H.; Ray, Justina C.; Boitani, Luigi

2011-01-01

485

Energy-momentum's local conservation laws and generalized isometric embeddings of  

E-print Network

Energy-momentum's local conservation laws and generalized isometric embeddings of vector bundles to the generalized isometric embedding problem of vector bun- dles, and show how conservation laws for a class of PDE of the existence of an isometric embedding of Riemannian manifolds into Euclidean spaces emerged naturally. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models  

E-print Network

A General Method for Conserving Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Shallow-Water Models RICK SALMON received 7 September 2005, in final form 15 March 2006) ABSTRACT The shallow-water equations may be posed, this paper derives explicit finite-difference approximations to the shallow- water equations that conserve

Salmon, Rick

487

Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

Liu, F.

1993-07-01

488

Energy Conservation: A Management Report for State and Local Governments and A Technical Guide for State and Local Governments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical guide is part of a packet of tools designed to assist state or local government practitioners in organizing and managing an energy conservation program. It gives information on adapting energy conservation methods to existing public buildings and on designing new public buildings with energy conservation in mind. It also discusses

Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

489

77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FXES11120300000F2-123-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...The Conservation Fund, and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). We...

2012-08-30

490

The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Appendix I for The Woodlands Metro Center Energy Study near Houston consists of a computer model (Program ENERCALC) for parcel level analysis (data sources and definitions, ENERCALC Program description, assumptions, and variables evaluated for Energy Plan); computer model results of Program ENERCALC (conventional plan and energy plan); life cycle cost analysis and energy savings by building type; summary of energy savings and costs; application of building envelope and site design modifications (strategies and parcel-by-parcel application and estimated savings); and energy supply system payback calculations.

Not Available

1980-03-01

491

Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

NONE

1995-10-06

492

Identification and analysis of conserved pockets on protein surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background The interaction between proteins and ligands occurs at pockets that are often lined by conserved amino acids. These pockets can represent the targets for low molecular weight drugs. In order to make the research for new medicines as productive as possible, it is necessary to exploit "in silico" techniques, high throughput and fragment-based screenings that require the identification of druggable pockets on the surface of proteins, which may or may not correspond to active sites. Results We developed a tool to evaluate the conservation of each pocket detected on the protein surface by CastP. This tool was named DrosteP because it recursively searches for optimal input sequences to be used to calculate conservation. DrosteP uses a descriptor of statistical significance, Poisson p-value, as a target to optimize the choice of input sequences. To benchmark DrosteP we used monomeric or homodimer human proteins with known 3D-structure whose active site had been annotated in UniProt. DrosteP is able to detect the active site with high accuracy because in 81% of the cases it coincides with the most conserved pocket. Comparing DrosteP with analogous programs is difficult because the outputs are different. Nonetheless we could assess the efficacy of the recursive algorithm in the identification of active site pockets by calculating conservation with the same input sequences used by other programs. We analyzed the amino-acid composition of conserved pockets identified by DrosteP and we found that it differs significantly from the amino-acid composition of non conserved pockets. Conclusions Several methods for predicting ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, that combine 3D-structure and evolutionary sequence conservation, have been proposed. Any method relying on conservation mainly depends on the choice of the input sequences. DrosteP chooses how deeply distant homologs must be collected to evaluate conservation and thus optimizes the identification of active site pockets. Moreover it recognizes conserved pockets other than those coinciding with the sites annotated in UniProt that might represent useful druggable sites. The distinctive amino-acid composition of conserved pockets provides useful hints on the fundamental principles underlying protein-ligand interaction. Availability http://www.icb.cnr.it/project/drosteppy/ PMID:23815589

2013-01-01

493

Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

Not Available

1992-01-01

494

Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

Not Available

1992-01-01

495

10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Procedures, Interpretations and Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products... Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

2011-01-01

496

10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions...agencies. 455.113 Section 455.113 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

2010-01-01

497

10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions...agencies. 455.113 Section 455.113 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

2011-01-01

498

Energy Potential of Biomass from Conservation Grasslands in Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha?1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg?1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg?1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic viability of harvesting conservation grasslands for bioenergy. PMID:23577208

Jungers, Jacob M.; Fargione, Joseph E.; Sheaffer, Craig C.; Wyse, Donald L.; Lehman, Clarence

2013-01-01

499

Deriving indicators for breast conserving surgery using finite element analysis.  

PubMed

Breast conserving therapy (BCT), comprising a complete surgical excision of the tumour (partial mastectomy) with post-operative radiotherapy to the remaining breast tissue, is feasible for most women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The goal of BCT is to achieve local control of the cancer, as well as to preserve a breast that satisfies a woman's cosmetic concerns. Although most women undergo partial mastectomy with satisfactory cosmetic results, in many patients the remaining breast is left with major cosmetic defects including concave deformities, distortion of the nipple-areolar complex, asymmetry and changes in tissue density characterised by excessive density associated with parenchymal scarring, as well as breast pain. There are currently no tools, other than surgical experience and judgement, which can predict the impact of partial mastectomy on the contour, the deformity of the treated breast and the mechanical stress that it induces. In this study, we use a finite element model to execute virtual surgery and carry out a sensitivity analysis on the resection location, the resection size, the breast tissue mechanical property and the different post-surgery recovery stage. We output the result in two different built-in indicators labelled as the cosmetic and the functional indicators. This study used the breast model for three women with breast cancer who have been elected to undergo BCT and are being treated at the Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX. The goal of this study was to propose a first glimpse of the key parameter leading to satisfactory post-BCT cosmetic results. PMID:23919823

Thanoon, D; Garbey, M; Bass, B L

2015-04-01

500

Evaluation of the State Energy Conservation Program from program initiation to September 1978. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Conservation Program was established in 1975 to promote energy conservation and to help states develop and implement their own conservation programs. Base (5) and supplemental (3) programs required states to implement programs including: mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings; mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; mandatory standards and policies affecting the procurement practices of the state and its political subdivisions; program measures to promote the availability and use of carpools, vanpools, and public transportation; a traffic law or regulation which permits a right turn-on-red; and procedures to carry out a continuing public education effort to increase awareness of energy conservation; procedures which promote effective coordination among local, state, and Federal energy conservation programs; and procedures for carrying out energy audits on buildings and industrial plants. All 50 states and Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia participated in the program. The total 1980 energy savings projected by the states is about 5.9 quadrillion Btu's or about 7% of the DOE projected 1980 baseline consumption of just under 83 quads. The detailed summary is presented on the following: information the SECP evaluation; DOE response to the SECP; DOE's role in the program management process; the effectiveness of the states in managing the SECP; the status of program measure implementation; innovative state energy conservation programs; and the evaluation methodology.

None

1980-03-01