Note: This page contains sample records for the topic energy conservation analysis from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Saving Money with Energy Conservation: Economic Analysis of Conservation Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic tools for performing simple economic analyses of energy-conservation measures are reviewed. Energy accounting establishes energy-utilization patterns and performance goals. Directions for analyzing the utility bill are presented. Part 2 introduc...

J. E. Bailey D. A. Roller W. C. Moor

1980-01-01

2

Analysis of Federal residential energy conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent residential energy conservation programs under development and evaluation by the Federal government include the following: FEA's appliance efficiency targets (two sets); the Department of Housing and Urban Development program to develop thermal standards for new construction (two sets); a nationwide program to retrofit single-family units (state conservation plans, HUD, and FEA financial assistance and demonstration programs); and a stronger

E. Hirst; J. Carney

1977-01-01

3

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

4

Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

1980-12-01

5

Energy Conservation in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings of the 5th Asian School present various aspects of energy conservation problems: analysis of the energy consumption trends since 1973 and the energy politics evolution, description of several energy conservation systems for residential a...

Anon

1987-01-01

6

Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possibilities of energy conservation in domestic buildings and households are reviewed, i.e. in technical systems, heating and air conditioning systems and other energy-consuming appliances. The present situation is reviewed, and suggestions for improveme...

J. Branch A. Gsponer B. Giovanni

1981-01-01

7

Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

Land, Amy A.

8

Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

1996-07-01

9

Analysis of Energy Conservation Alternatives for Standard Army Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes energy conservation alternatives for five standard Army building designs. By surveying maps of major Army installations and using the Integrated Facilities System, the most popular designs were determined to be a two-company, rolling...

D. C. Hittle R. E. O'Brien G. S. Percivall

1983-01-01

10

Conserving energy in new buildings: Analysis of nonregulatory policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Surveys data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design were reviewed. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys were reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. The provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions were examined. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking.

Scheer, R. M.; Nieves, L. A.; Mazzucchi, R. P.

1981-05-01

11

Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

1980-09-01

12

Energy Conservation via Solar Energy Application to Multi-Family and Commercial Structures. Volume VI. Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary emphasis of the economic analysis is to establish a method of comparing life cycle costs for various energy conservation measures with particular emphasis upon conditions present in New York State. The program is adaptable to studying variatio...

B. Murphy

1977-01-01

13

Investigating the conservation of mechanical energy using video analysis: four cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object's position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to examine, rather than simply assume, energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article describes the use of video analysis software in studying energy conservation for (1)

J. A. Bryan

2010-01-01

14

Investigating the conservation of mechanical energy using video analysis: four cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object’s position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to examine, rather than simply assume, energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article describes the use of video analysis software in studying energy conservation for (1)

J A Bryan

2010-01-01

15

Promoting energy conservation: An analysis of behavioral research  

SciTech Connect

This book reviews and analyzes the past ten years of research on changing the energy-related behavior of individuals. It reviews the results of about 200 studies and presents them in a form usable by program designers, researchers, and auditors in the field. The book discusses the effectiveness of ways to change people's behavior to save more energy, e.g., to get them to recycle, carpool, or turn down the thermostat. The book analyzes three ways to motivate people to change their behavior: antecedent communications, consequences, and social influences. Antecedent communications are sent to people before they make energy conservation decisions, and include information, prompts, and persuasion. Techniques that change the consequences of acting in a certain way include feedback, incentives, and disincentives. Social influence techniques include group contingencies (rewards predicated on the behavior of a group of people, rather than one individual), demonstrations of ways to conserve energy, and solicitations of individual commitments to conserve. Katzev and Johnson derive lessons from the research on each type of technique.

Katzev, R.D.; Johnson, T.R.

1987-01-01

16

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

17

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

18

School Energy Management: An Analysis of Energy Conservation Measures under the Schools and Hospitals Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes a 1981 survey of public school districts receiving energy conservation measure (ECM) grants under the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Title III, Cycle 1. The report contains charts of data, analyses of projects, and sections presenting study design, data treatment, findings, and conclusions. The survey's purpose was…

Hansen (Shirley J.) Associates, Inc., Lake Jackson, TX.

19

Energy Conservation Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Conservation Update (ECU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all energy conservation information. All information announced in ECU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the US Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter

1980-01-01

20

(Symposium on energy conservation)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the International Energy Conservation Symposium and presented a paper on the integrated resource planning project in Costa Rica being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and RCG/Hagler-Bailly, Inc., in conjunction with US AID. The Symposium was organized primarily to promote awareness of energy conservation opportunities in Pakistan. The Symposium was well attended by over 470 people the vast majority of whom were from Pakistan. The symposium included sessions on policy issues, national experiences in energy conservation, energy conservation in the industrial sector, energy conservation in buildings and agriculture, energy conservation in the power sector, and prospective technologies in energy systems. The symposium had a great deal of political support including a keynote address by the Minister of State for Production, a closing session with the Governor of Sindh, and the majority of sessions being chaired by senior industry or government representatives.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1990-05-25

21

Home Energy Conservation Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

DeLuca, V. William; And Others

22

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

23

Models for residential and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the

H. E. Cole; R. E. Fullen

1980-01-01

24

Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

Somasundaram, Sriram

2010-09-30

25

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

26

Parametric analysis of alternative energy conservation measures in an office building in hot and humid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of demand for electrical energy in the rapidly expanding towns, cities and industries exceeds the growth of the power being made available. Therefore, energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in Saudi buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alternative energy conservation measures on energy requirements in office buildings in hot–humid climates.

Imran Iqbal; Mohammad S. Al-Homoud

2007-01-01

27

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

28

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a description of energy and thermodynamics equations as applied to propulsion systems and the understanding of high speed flows. Conservation of energy concepts are discussed along with equations. A set of energy activities and problems are linked following the description. This page is a part of a much larger hyper-linked Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics site.

Project, Nasa G.

2005-12-25

29

Analysis of energy conservation alternatives for standard Army building. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes energy conservation alternatives for five standard Army building designs. By surveying maps of major Army installations and using the Integrated Facilities System, the most popular designs were determined to be a two-company, rolling-pin-shaped barracks for enlisted personnel; a Type 64 barracks; a motor repair shop; a battalion headquarters and classroom building; and an enlisted personnel mess hall. The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy-analysis computer program was used to develop baseline energy consumption for each design based on the building descriptions and calibrated by comparison with the measured energy usage of similar buildings. Once the baseline was established, the BLAST program was used to study energy conservation alternatives (ECAs) which could be retrofit to the existing buildings. The ECAs included closing off air-handling units, adding storm windows, adding 2 in. (0.051 m) of exterior insulation to the walls, partially blocking the windows, adding roof insulation, putting up south overhangs, installing programmable thermostats, recovering heat from exhaust fans, installing temperature economizers, replacing lights, and installing partitions between areas of differing temperature.

Hittle, D.C.; O'Brien, R.E.; Percivall, G.S.

1983-03-01

30

Energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings: A decision analysis study using relative value discounting  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)

Harvey, C. (Houston Univ., TX (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. (Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-07-02

31

Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

Not Available

1980-09-01

32

The NASA Energy Conservation Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

Gaffney, G. P.

1977-01-01

33

SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAMME AND IMPLICATIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation which once was considered as an option to increase the profitability has become a necessity now to offer equal level playing field with the global competitors and stay on the race. This paper projects the need of a systematic approach to make energy conservation implementation programme a successful one and make it a culture rather than a practice

Sundar Narayan; Sathya Narayana

34

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan, authored and curated by David P. Stern, introduces the concept of energy through the ideas of conservation and the ability to run machines. A series of both qualitative and quantitative examples are used to explore different forms of energy and transformations between them. Starting with and focusing on mechanical energy, examples regarding chemical energy, electrical energy, and heat are included. This is part of the larger site "From Stargazers to Starships", and includes a link to the Energy chapter in this online text.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

2009-05-06

35

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

2008-09-24

36

Energy-conservation indicators  

SciTech Connect

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

Belzer, D.B.

1982-06-01

37

Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues

H. E. Cole; R. E. Fuller

1980-01-01

38

Residential conservation options for Wisconsin: an analysis of residential space heating energy use, 1970 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines three weatherization policy options and their impacts on residential-space-heating energy consumption in Wisconsin. The weatherization policies were analyzed with the Wisconsin Residential Energy Model to determine potential energy savings for the state. By comparing the weatherization policy options to a projection of present and future conservation efforts, a quantitative determination of possible energy savings was established. Along

E. L. Hershberg; G. C. Krohm; J. C. Yingling

1979-01-01

39

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

40

Selling energy conservation.  

PubMed

This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

Hinrichsen, D

1995-01-01

41

Learning momentum and energy conservation principles with motion detectors and video analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are involved in a project to explore undergraduate students' learning of physics using microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) and digital video analysis (DVA). As part of this project, we have developed a setup that allows students to investigate momentum and energy conservation principles, using either motion detectors or video to track two air track gliders as they collide with each other or with a spring mounted on the end of the track. Graphs of position, velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy vs. time can be produced by students using either of the two tools. The setup allows students to examine the time history of momentum and energy during the entire collision process, rather than simply before and after the collision. We will report on the development of the apparatus and on the results of interviews with several students who participated in trial runs with the setup. The interviews focused on students' underlying concepts about momentum, energy, and collisions, and on their attitudes toward the use of MBL and DVA tools in the laboratory.

Conway, Theresa; George, E. A.; Jiang Broadstock, Maan; Novak, Leslie; Vázquez Abad, Jesús

1999-10-01

42

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

43

Comprehensive Evaluation of Energy Conservation Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the relative social, economic, and environmental impacts and energy savings associated with thirty proposed energy conservation measures is presented. The study covers residential, commercial, industrial, power generation and transportation...

D. R. Limaye J. R. Sharko J. P. Price J. A. Orlando

1975-01-01

44

Energy conservation and analysis and evaluation. [specifically at Slidell Computer Complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The survey assembled and made recommendations directed at conserving utilities and reducing the use of energy at the Slidell Computer Complex. Specific items included were: (1) scheduling and controlling the use of gas and electricity, (2) building modifications to reduce energy, (3) replacement of old, inefficient equipment, (4) modifications to control systems, (5) evaluations of economizer cycles in HVAC systems, and (6) corrective settings for thermostats, ductstats, and other temperature and pressure control devices.

1976-01-01

45

Residential energy use and conservation actions: Analysis of disaggregate household data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Energy Information Administration recently published data collected from the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS). NIECS includes detailed information on 4081 individual households; demographic characteristics, energy related features of the structure, heating equipment and appliances, conservation actions taken by the household, and fuel consumption and cost for the April 1978 to March 1979 one year period. The NIECS data on household energy consumption - total energy use, electricity use, and use of the primary space heating fuel, are summarized and analyzed. The regression equations constructed explain roughly half the variation in energy use among households. These equations contain ten or fewer independent variables, the most important of which are fuel price, year house was built, floor area, and heating degree days. Regression equations were developed that estimate the energy saving achieved by each household based on their recent retrofit actions.

Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.; Carney, J.

1981-03-01

46

Conducting an Energy Conservation Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson where students conduct an attitude survey on energy conservation in order to learn about survey research and scales in handling survey data. Explains that the understanding of survey research and energy conservation is relevant to ones civic life. Provides the energy attitude survey the students used for data collection. (CMK)

Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David E.

1999-01-01

47

Energy conservation and air transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

1973-01-01

48

Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes  

SciTech Connect

Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O.

1992-12-01

49

Energy saving manipulator by regenerating conservative energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the minimization of the dissipated energy in PTP motions of a vertically articulated manipulator. In order to save the dissipated energy, it is first necessary to regenerate the conservative energy, such as kinetic and potential energy, with high efficiency. An electrostatic condenser is used to store the conservative energy so that a rapid charge and discharge can be realized

Teruyuki Izumi

2000-01-01

50

Impact analysis of a residential energy conservation shared savings program: The General Public Utilities experience  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the effectiveness of a residential shared savings program - The Residential Energy Conservation Action Program (RECAP). It focuses primarily upon the electricity savings attributable to RECAP, but also assesses customer satisfaction with the program, comfort benefits, electric peak load controls, and the use of alternative heating fuels. Since RECAP has been implemented by different contractors in various New Jersey and Pennsylvania communities, some attention is given to contractor- and community-specific program impacts in an attempt to identify those program design features which have worked best.

Brown, M.A.; White, D.L.

1987-02-01

51

Energy conservation in urban planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project 'Energy Conservation in Urban Planning' belongs to the scientific-technical cooperation programme between Finland and Soviet Union. The project is one of the many cooperation subjects within the building construction sector. Ongoing r...

P. Lahti

1990-01-01

52

Residential Energy Conservation Forum  

SciTech Connect

A public forum for homeowners on how to reduce energy usage in the home. Representatives from Long Island Power Authority, Renewable Energy Long Island, and BNL explored alternative energy solutions for the home, analyzing energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental-friendliness. Some of the technologies discussed include solar panels, Energy Star-certified products, and modern wood-burning stoves.

2008-06-26

53

IECL Energy Conservation Material Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on how schools and school districts can save energy. The energy conservation materials contained in this package are organized into two sections. The section titles are: (1) Towards a State Education Energy Policy; and (2) Materials for Distribution to School Districts. Topics presented in the first section…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

54

Energy Conservation Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines various strategies for reducing national energy demand. Suppose government chooses to reduce national energy use, and to do so in a cost-effective way. Then it is necessary to find out, for each potential energy saving, how much energy...

M. R. Seidel S. E. Plotkin R. O. Reck

1973-01-01

55

Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

56

Retrospective analysis of energy use and conservation trends: 1972-1982. Appendix  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the detailed documentation corresponding to the end-use sectoral analyses presented in the main report. The data and methods used to calculate alternative scenarios for estimating energy savings in four economic sectors are provided in this volume. Appendix A contains the detailed documentation for the residential sector analysis. The methodology used to prepare estimates of building energy savings in the commercial sector is provided in Appendix B. Finally, Appendices C and D discuss the data and explain the analytical techniques used to derive estimates of energy savings in the industrial and transportation sectors, respectively. 9 refs., 14 figs., 86 tabs.

Adams, R.C.; Belzer, D.B.; Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lax, D.H.; Moe, R.J.; Roop, J.M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

1985-06-01

57

Energy conservation hits home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imperial Oil's Sarnia Refinery and Chemical Plant have instituted a communications program entitled ''Let's Help. It's worth the energy'' which illustrates that relatively small energy wastes on a refinery scale translate to enormous constructive energy usage in ordinary life. Savings are not normally expressed in terms of oil volume or dollars, but rather in terms of the use to which

G. H. Kops; B. J. Artuso; R. M. Willson

1976-01-01

58

Household Energy Conservation and Efficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students complete three different activities to evaluate the energy consumption in a household and explore potential ways to reduce that consumption. The focus is on conservation and energy efficient electrical devices and appliances.The lesson reinforces the relationship between power and energy and associated measurements and calculations required to evaluate energy consumption. The lesson provides students with more concrete information for completing their culminating unit assignment.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

59

Facilities Recycling for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation of energy is within the control and very much within the responsibility of educators. Schools are among the greatest "wasters" of energy in the nation today. Principals must become more knowledgeable about their buildings than they have been in the past. Indepth inspections of the school facilities will identify the most flagrant…

Fredrickson, John H.

60

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

Estes, R. C.

61

Energy Conservation Guidelines - 1: District Level Plan for Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are suggestions written to help local school districts develop an energy conservation program in order to minimize budget problems brought about by rising energy costs. Program areas covered include formation of the district energy conservation team, assignment of duties, operation of energy audit systems, and evaluation procedures. To…

Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Colavita, Leon J., Ed.

62

Energy conservation: technology push or policy pull  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental problem facing government energy conservation policy makers is the proper mix of two polar strategies designed to encourage energy conservation in the private sector. These include ''Policy Pull'' strategies, in which accelerated depreciation for energy conserving devices, Btu taxes, and other broad based policy instruments are used to increase the demand for energy conserving devices, or modes of

W. Marcuse; D. Pilati; F. T. Sparrow

1978-01-01

63

Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study  

SciTech Connect

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

Krstulovich, S.F.

1986-11-12

64

36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation. 910.36 Section...the Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development shall be designed to be economical in energy consumption. The Energy...

2013-07-01

65

Reliable Aerial Thermography for Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive energy conservation programs are being implemented throughout the country because prime energy sources are dwindling and as a result energy costs are skyrocketing. One method currently being used on a large scale to promote energy conservation i...

J. R. Jack R. L. Bowman

1981-01-01

66

Evaluation and Analysis of GreenHDFS: A Self-Adaptive, Energy-Conserving Variant of the Hadoop Distributed File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed evaluation and sensitivity analysis of an energy-conserving, highly scalable variant of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) called Green-HDFS. Green HDFS logically divides the servers in a Hadoop cluster into Hot and Cold Zones and relies on insightful data-classification driven energy-conserving data placement to realize guaranteed, substantially long periods(several days) of idleness in a significant subset

Rini T. Kaushik; Milind A. Bhandarkar; Klara Nahrstedt

2010-01-01

67

76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations the energy and water conservation standards required by the Energy...published amended energy and water conservation standards for commercial clothes...Sec. 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective...

2011-11-08

68

ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH SOURCE REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with energy conservation through reduction in generation of post-consumer solid waste. The objective, scope, methodology and summary of the report are presented in Section 1. Section 2 contains the conclusions. Section 3 presents a review of output and input app...

69

Waste-to-Energy ECIP (Energy Conservation Investment Program) Project. Volume 1: An Analysis of Hydrogen Infrastructure Fuel Cell Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume I of this work represents a preliminary analysis of the economics from an anaerobic sludge digester Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) at a military installation integrated with a fuel cell with hydrogen production capabilities. The waste-to-energy,...

F. H. Holcomb, R. A. Ducey, B. J. Kim, G. Perez, R. Neathammer

2006-01-01

70

Energy Conservation and Gravity Waves in Sound-proof Treatments of Stellar Interiors. II. Lagrangian Constrained Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of sound greatly exceeds typical flow velocities in many stellar and planetary interiors. To follow the slow evolution of subsonic motions, various sound-proof models attempt to remove fast acoustic waves while retaining stratified convection and buoyancy dynamics. In astrophysics, anelastic models typically receive the most attention in the class of sound-filtered stratified models. Generally, anelastic models remain valid in nearly adiabatically stratified regions like stellar convection zones, but may break down in strongly sub-adiabatic, stably stratified layers common in stellar radiative zones. However, studying stellar rotation, circulation, and dynamos requires understanding the complex coupling between convection and radiative zones, and this requires robust equations valid in both regimes. Here we extend the analysis of equation sets begun in Brown et al., which studied anelastic models, to two types of pseudo-incompressible models. This class of models has received attention in atmospheric applications, and more recently in studies of white-dwarf supernova progenitors. We demonstrate that one model conserves energy but the other does not. We use Lagrangian variational methods to extend the energy conserving model to a general equation of state, and dub the resulting equation set the generalized pseudo-incompressible (GPI) model. We show that the GPI equations suitably capture low-frequency phenomena in both convection and radiative zones in stars and other stratified systems, and we provide recommendations for converting low-Mach number codes to this equation set.

Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Brown, Benjamin P.; Wood, Toby S.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

2013-08-01

71

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND GRAVITY WAVES IN SOUND-PROOF TREATMENTS OF STELLAR INTERIORS. II. LAGRANGIAN CONSTRAINED ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The speed of sound greatly exceeds typical flow velocities in many stellar and planetary interiors. To follow the slow evolution of subsonic motions, various sound-proof models attempt to remove fast acoustic waves while retaining stratified convection and buoyancy dynamics. In astrophysics, anelastic models typically receive the most attention in the class of sound-filtered stratified models. Generally, anelastic models remain valid in nearly adiabatically stratified regions like stellar convection zones, but may break down in strongly sub-adiabatic, stably stratified layers common in stellar radiative zones. However, studying stellar rotation, circulation, and dynamos requires understanding the complex coupling between convection and radiative zones, and this requires robust equations valid in both regimes. Here we extend the analysis of equation sets begun in Brown et al., which studied anelastic models, to two types of pseudo-incompressible models. This class of models has received attention in atmospheric applications, and more recently in studies of white-dwarf supernova progenitors. We demonstrate that one model conserves energy but the other does not. We use Lagrangian variational methods to extend the energy conserving model to a general equation of state, and dub the resulting equation set the generalized pseudo-incompressible (GPI) model. We show that the GPI equations suitably capture low-frequency phenomena in both convection and radiative zones in stars and other stratified systems, and we provide recommendations for converting low-Mach number codes to this equation set.

Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Lecoanet, Daniel [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Wood, Toby S., E-mail: vasil@cita.utoronto.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

2013-08-20

72

Energy conservation is a waste  

SciTech Connect

Energy conservation is virtually always a bust. Governments around the world continually trot out new schemes to reduce energy use and promote efficiency. The prime American example of this futility is government regulation of automobile gas mileage. Prompted by the Arab oil embargo of 1973, Congress mandated a doubling of gas mileage. What happened? Gasoline consumption rose from 1973 to the 1990s, as the roads were flooded with energy-efficient cars. Huge sport-utility vehicles crowd parking lots, also thanks to more efficient engines. Conservation fails because it takes no account of economics of human nature. The combination of greater engine efficiency and rising disposable income has produced a true golden age of motoring. In the same way, what is saved by installing special light bulbs is often wasted on new hot tubs, exterior lighting and a host of other energy uses, as homeowners assume that their electric bills will drop off substantially. In spite of these and dozens of other clear failures, the claims for conservation to solve virtually all the national energy dilemmas continue. Few if any are valid. While each of us can reduce energy use in one or two areas, one finds that the nation gradually uses more.

Inhaber, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies

1998-07-01

73

34 CFR 75.616 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Energy conservation. 75.616 Section 75...Grantee? Construction § 75.616 Energy conservation. (a) To the extent...facilities to maximize the efficient use of energy. (b) The following...

2013-07-01

74

24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section 242...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall...

2013-04-01

75

24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section 200... Property Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall...

2013-04-01

76

Transportation Energy Conservation and Demand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Impact of the energy shortage on travel patterns and attitudes; Evaluation of interaction between rural regional transportation and energy availability; Energy savings for work trips-analysis of alternative commuting patterns for New Jersey; Gas...

J. F. Sacco

1976-01-01

77

75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of...energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on March...energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error,...

2010-04-05

78

Energy conservation using face detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

2011-10-01

79

Financing Energy Conservation in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses traditional and innovative approaches to financing energy conservation, and government roles and policy measures to encourage private sector financing of energy conservation investments. By providing practical information on the vario...

1987-01-01

80

Energy Conservation: Technology Push or Policy Pull.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fundamental problem facing government energy conservation policy makers is the proper mix of two polar strategies designed to encourage energy conservation in the private sector. These include ''Policy Pull'' strategies, in which accelerated depreciatio...

W. Marcuse D. Pilati F. T. Sparrow

1978-01-01

81

A compendium of energy conservation success stories  

SciTech Connect

Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

Not Available

1988-09-01

82

Energy conservation in ice skating rinks  

SciTech Connect

An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

1980-01-01

83

Identification of cost effective energy conservation measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to a successful program of readily implemented conservation actions for reducing building energy consumption at Kennedy Space Center, recent detailed analyses have identified further substantial savings for buildings representative of technical facilities designed when energy costs were low. The techniques employed for determination of these energy savings consisted of facility configuration analysis, power and lighting measurements, detailed computer simulations and simulation verifications. Use of these methods resulted in identification of projected energy savings as large as $330,000 a year (approximately two year break-even period) in a single building. Application of these techniques to other commercial buildings is discussed

Bierenbaum, H. S.; Boggs, W. H.

1978-01-01

84

Energy Conservation and Mentally Retarded Citizens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…

Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others

85

ECASTAR: Energy Conservation; an Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for a systems approach display and assessment of the potential for energy conservation actions and the impacts of those actions was presented. The U.S. economy is divided into four sectors: energy industry, industry, residential/commercial and transportation. Each sector is assessed with respect to energy conservation actions and impacts. The four sectors are combined and three strategies for energy conservation actions for the combined sectors are assessed. The three strategies (national energy conservation, electrification and diversification) represent energy conservation actions for the near term (now to 1985), the mid term (1985 to 2000) and the far term (2000 and beyond). The assessment procedure includes input/output analysis to bridge the flows between the sectors, and net economics and net energetics as performance criteria for the conservation actions. Targets of opportunity for large net energy net energy savings and the application of technology to achieve these savings are discussed.

1975-01-01

86

Energy Experts Call for Conservation Steps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes energy conservation measures suggested by a leading energy supplier, a leading energy consumer, and a top government official, involving more coal use as an energy resource and an adequate balance between energy supply and environmental restrictions. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

87

Energy conservation through interior shading of windows: an analysis, test, and evaluation of reflective venetian blinds  

SciTech Connect

Windows admit radiant and conducted heat energy as well as light and, for this reason, effective means for control is mandatory. Venetian blinds, providing continuous solar control, are ideal for energy efficient windows. They may be closed in the summer to block out undesirable solar radiation and opened in the winter to admit the valuable energy of the sun while providing year-round glare free illumination. Architects, engineers, and manufacturers have been reluctant to promote the use of venetian blinds as energy saving products because of remaining uncertainties in the technology. This cooperative program involving industry, government, and a university research team has developed predictive equations and has confirmed their ability to accurately predict shading coefficients through experiments in an environmental simulator with an artificial sun. Ten venetian blinds with a wide range of surface finishes, including gloss and Satin finish paints, polished aluminum, chrome deposition, and units with different colors on the upper and lower surfaces of the slats were included in the experimental work. The effect of solar incidence and slat angle on blind reflectance and shading coefficient was determined. The impact of varying incidence and slat angle on building energy load is discussed.

Van Dyck, R.L.; Konen, T.P.

1982-03-01

88

Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

Not Available

1990-12-01

89

Energy conservation in large hospitals & medical centers.  

PubMed

Energy conservation programs can save money for medical centers. The necessary engineering capability to evaluate these methods can be provided by Clinical Engineering staffs since the analytical ability of the Clinical Engineer is directly transferable to energy conservation programs. Several conservation methods are applicable to hospitals and deserve consideration. Cogeneration can provide significant energy conservation without any sacrifice in comfort. Solar energy is well suited to hospitals and can provide good publicity as well as energy savings. Finally, better electronic and pneumatic controls for heating, air conditioning and ventilation can provide large energy savings at moderate cost. PMID:10252004

Ostroy, L

1981-01-01

90

Institutional Manager's Guide to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information provided in this guidebook is based on a field evaluation of grantees in the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The ICP, authorized by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 and administered by the Department of Energy, provides energy audits and 50 percent matching grants for detailed energy analyses and for…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of State and Local Programs.

91

78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...conservation standards for residential furnace fans, with a comment period that was scheduled...conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78...

2013-12-24

92

Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Extensive energy conservation programs are being implemented throughout the country because prime energy sources are dwindling and as a result energy costs are skyrocketing. One method currently being used on a large scale to promote energy conservation is the aerial thermography survey. Its concept and its use for locating sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices are quite straightforward and very effective when the thermography are obtained under proper conditions and have good discrimination, that is, structures and energy losses are easily and simply discerned in the imagery. However, over the past several years, thermography has been acquired with possible ambiguities that have caused confusion in the interpretation of the imagery. In an attempt to eliminate ambiguities, an operational map is presented for clear-sky conditions. This map outlines the key environmental conditions conducive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria that are then quantized based on flat-roof heat transfer calculations. Data from previous NASA and independent contractor thermography are discussed with reference to the operational map. Appendixes discuss uncertainties involved in selecting values for the parameters used in the analysis. A suggested specifications for obtaining an aerial thermography survey is also presented.

Jack, J.R.; Bowman, R.L.

1981-08-01

93

Energy conservation for housing: A workbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifamily housing project managers can reduce their energy costs from 30 to 60 percent by capitalizing on a variety of energy conservation opportunities (ECO's) identified in HUD research on the physical condition of public housing stock. This workbook prepares managers for this planning and for making individualized energy audits. It provides all the materials they need to proceed, including analysis sheets for calculating costs - benefit and payback periods for each of the 50 ECO's described. The ECO's listed all into four general categories: architectural improvements to the energy design of the building envelope; heating system ECO's to increase energy efficiency; secondary ECO's related to the domestic water supply, air conditioning systems, and central laundry equipment; and electric system ECO's reducing utility surcharges and increasing light bulb efficiency.

1982-05-01

94

Labor and Energy Impacts of Energy-Conservation Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Ef...

1980-01-01

95

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-11-01

96

Design of an energy conservation building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

Jensen, R. N.

1981-01-01

97

An energy-conserving spectral solution  

PubMed

An energy-conserving spectral solution is derived and tested. A range-dependent medium is approximated by a sequence of range-independent regions. In each region, the acoustic field is represented in terms of the horizontal wave-number spectrum. A condition corresponding to energy conservation is derived for the vertical interfaces between regions. The accuracy of the approach is demonstrated for problems involving sloping ocean bottoms. The energy-conserving spectral solution is less efficient than the energy-conserving parabolic equation solution, but might be suitable for generalization to problems involving elastic bottoms. PMID:10790022

Collins; Schmidt; Siegmann

2000-04-01

98

79 FR 7745 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Final Rule Federal...Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of...commercial and industrial equipment, including metal halide lamp fixtures (MHLFs). EPCA...

2014-02-10

99

76 FR 70865 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AB79 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers Correction In rule document 2011-22329 appearing on pages 57516 through 57612 in the issue of Thursday,...

2011-11-16

100

75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday,...

2010-04-27

101

Relevance of the second law of thermodynamics to energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the potential relevance of the use of analytical tools based on the Second Law of thermodynamics to existing federal programs for energy conservation in the industrial, transportation, buildings, and utility sectors in the US. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

102

Making an Energy Conservation Program Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first step of an energy conservation program is to monitor energy consumption. A system is explained that, in order to determine which buildings are energy efficient (considering all types of energy that a building might use), monitors total energy consumption. All such consumptions can be reduced to a common denominator: Barrels of Energy

Rump, Erwin E.; Hunter, James L.

103

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

104

Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

105

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

106

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity packet for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

Bakke, Ruth

107

A Graduate Course in Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the University of Michigan's (Ann Arbor) success with a six-year energy conservation program (The Energy Star Program) offered by the Environmental Protection Agency. Describes the program's components and areas of savings the university has achieved. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

108

Guide to Energy Conservation for Food Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guide, developed by FEA and food industry representatives, offers energy-saving suggestions for all types of food service operations: schools and hospitals, fast food operators, coffee shops, restaurants, cafeterias, hotels, and motels. Energy conserv...

1975-01-01

109

Conservation as an alternative energy source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

Allen, D. E.

1978-01-01

110

Energy conservation in typical Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

Yang, M. [International Inst. for Energy Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand); Rumsey, P. [Supersymmetry USA, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

111

Ohio State Energy Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ohio state conservation program expenditures are presented for the following areas: local government; lighting efficiency; thermal and lighting standards; residential; public education; and administrative. (ERA citation 09:043545)

1983-01-01

112

Energy Conservation and Historic Properties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains some of the finer details in the requirements and the responsibilities grantees of Institutional Conservation Program's (ICP) funding have to building preservation of historic or potentially historic buildings under the National Historic Preservation Act. (MD)

Williamson, Donna

1986-01-01

113

Managing state energy conservation programs - The Minnesota experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and operation of energy conservation programs in the Minnesota Energy Agency (MEA) are discussed. The MEA has responsibility for voluntary conservation efforts, regulating energy efficient devices, and grant programs to audit and retrofit public buildings. The MEA has developed the plan under which the Minnesota utilities will provide conservation services to residential customers, including an on-site home energy audit. The relation between the Department of Energy (DOE) and state energy offices in implementing programs is considered. The DOE has provided technical assistance to the states through the development of a model audit. Steps are discussed to reduce the burdens imposed on the states by program planning, funding, and management responsibilities, including the consolidation of several existing state conservation programs. Improved policy analysis is suggested to correct inefficiencies in government programs.

Hirst, E.; Armstrong, J. R.

1980-11-01

114

Energy-conservation choices for the city of Portland. Volume 1. Preliminary energy data and analysis. Final report 1975-77  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description if given of one of three local-government energy-management projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Between May 1975 and May 1977, the City of Portland, Oregon, a consortium of California cities, and a number of Massachusetts communities were involved in demonstrations of various energy-management processes. Some cities have conserved energy as a result of

D. F. Mazziotti; M. Hemphill

1977-01-01

115

Electric load management and energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

Kheir, N. A.

1976-01-01

116

The potential effect of end-users on energy conservation in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential of end-user effect on energy conservation in office buildings. The study quantifies the energy conservation potential and estimates the current level of energy management in four banking organisations in the Nordic countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The multiple case study employs quantitative scenario analysis for estimating the energy conservation potential

Seppo Junnila

2007-01-01

117

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Follow-up Report.  

SciTech Connect

United Industries Corporation (UIC) conducted an energy analysis at five food processing plants (SIC 20) in the winter of 1984-1985. Tour of plants (Alpac, Carnation, Terminal flour mill, Tree Top) were revisited eighteen months later to determine what energy conservation measures (ECM's) had been or would be implemented. Additionally, the follow-up investigation evaluated the actual energy savings that accrued for the implemented ECM's and recorded the plants' views on the usefulness of the energy analysis.

United Industries Corporation.

1986-06-01

118

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2011-07-01

119

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2012-07-01

120

24 CFR 968.115 - Modernization and energy conservation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Modernization and energy conservation standards. 968.115...General § 968.115 Modernization and energy conservation standards. All improvements... (b) Incorporate cost-effective energy conservation measures, identified...

2013-04-01

121

Energy Conservation--Hero or Villian?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation efforts have often hermetically sealed buildings without concern for air quality. The Waterloo County Board of Education, Ontario, has installed indicators to test air quality and has installed a "clean room" for children with allergies. (MLF)

Keith, William J. B.

1985-01-01

122

Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers  

SciTech Connect

This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

1985-06-01

123

Net zero building energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

Kadam, Rohit

124

Living Lightly: Energy Conservation in Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a series of papers which promote the concepts of energy conservation and offer safe and convenient ways of handling all aspects of our lives affected by energy without having to depend in any way on fossil fuels or nuclear power. These changes, which can be brought about in homes and in energy flows affected by the…

Bender, Tom

125

Energy Conservation on Campus. Volume I. Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high cost of energy and the curtailment of primary preferred fuel has upset many long-standing maintenance and operation policies, forcing institutions to look quickly for ways to reduce energy usage. This booklet is designed to assist institutions of higher education in establishing or upgrading energy conservation programs. The development…

Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

126

Transportation energy conservation data book, edition 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

All major modes of transportation are represented: highway, air, rail, marine, and pipeline. Various aspects of the transportation sector discussed: (1) modal characteristics, (2) current energy use, efficiency and conservation, (3) projections of modal energy use, (4) impact of government activities, (5) supply and cost of energy, and (6) general demographic and economic characteristics. More than 400 tables and figures

D. B. Shonka

1979-01-01

127

Industrial energy conservation: technology transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical and projected demand and supply of energy in the US is reviewed by sector and by fuel type. Energy demands by other nations are also briefly considered. Various systems are described to preserve the quality of energy, as well as other systems which allow energy to be rejected in the plant rather than escape to the environment. A

D. Maples; G. D. Whitehouse

1980-01-01

128

State industrial energy-conservation workshops  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Office of Industrial Programs, in cooperation with the Office of State and Local Programs, sponsored a series of four workshops on state industrial energy-conservation programs in September and October, 1980. The workshops provided it a forum in which Federal and state officials could discuss: Federal programs supporting the development and implementation of industrial energy-conservation technology; Federal assistance available for state and local energy-conservation programs; states' programs and policy efforts to encourage industrial energy conservation, and identification of states' needs and recommendations for actions to meet the states' needs more effectively. The basic focus of the workshops was on industrial programs developed by the states through funding by the State Energy-Conservation Program. The objectives, background, and format of the workshops are described in Section 2. A summary of state industrial programs in Section 3 includes a program measure matrix and a discussion of elements in program design. Section 4 describes factors affecting the development, implementation, and evaluation of state industrial conservation programs. In Section 5 state needs, as perceived by the state representatives, are presented and discussed. Section 6 summarizes the states' suggestions as developed in the third session of each workshop.

Murphy, P.T.; Tatar, J.J.; Evans, A.R.; Anderson, R.W.

1981-01-01

129

Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

Schwartz, Seymour I.

130

Farm Energy Supply and Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an attempt to give an 'overview' of energy in New Zealand agriculture and horticulture. It endeavours to highlight areas where savings of traditional forms of energy currently used on farms might be achieved. Direct energy inputs were given...

1983-01-01

131

Energy conservation through sealing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in fluid film sealing resulting from a proposed research program could lead to an annual energy saving, on a national basis, equivalent to about 37 million bbl of oil or 0.3% of the total U.S. energy consumption. Further, the application of known sealing technology can result in an annual saving of an additional 10 million bbl of oil. The energy saving would be accomplished by reduction in process heat energy loss, reduction of frictional energy generated, and minimization of energy required to operate ancillary equipment associated with the seal system. In addition to energy saving, cost effectiveness is further enhanced by reduction in maintenance and in minimization of equipment for collecting leakage and for meeting environmental pollution standards.

Stair, W. K.; Ludwig, L. P.

1978-01-01

132

Social psychological aspects of energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

1985-11-01

133

Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

1975-01-01

134

Toshi no energy jukyu bunseki to shoene toshi no shoene fuka heijunka koka no hyoka (kankyo kyosei sho energy wo mezashita 60 mannin shintoshi ni tsuite no kento). (Analysis of energy demand-supply of city and evaluation of energy conservation and peak suppression of environmental symbiosis city).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper developed an analysis method of the energy supply/demand structure of city and compared the conventional city and a city considering energy conservation. An energy supply/demand flow chart was newly proposed. From this flow chart, 'energy sustai...

T. Iwatsubo K. Hashimoto

1997-01-01

135

Energy Efficiency: The Impact of Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The codified experience with conservation indicates that projection of energy needs may be much too high and that the United States has far more freedom to choose energy sources than has been perceived. There has been speculation that as the United States...

1981-01-01

136

Process of Promoting Consumer Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines how it can be possible to promote consumer energy conservation, particularly to reduce consumption in the field of non-renewable energies. It is necessary to involve the consumers in the process from the start. They must also be able ...

M. E. Olsen B. Joerges

1981-01-01

137

Transportation energy conservation data book: Edition 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth edition of the Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book, a statistical compendium compiled and published by ORNL for DOE. Secondary data on transportation characteristics by mode, on transportation energy use, and on other related variables are presented in tabular and\\/or graphic form. All major modes of transportation are represented: highway, air, rail, marine, and pipeline. The six

G. Kulp; D. B. Shonka; M. J. Collins; B. J. Murphy; K. J. Reed

1980-01-01

138

Energy-conserving development regulations: monitoring project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project communities' results mirror those of communities with earlier experience in this area. These results can serve as a guide to identifying energy conserving options and associated regulations that are least likely to be controversial. Small scale solar related options - fostering the use of active and passive solar energy systems, protection of solar access, promoting proper solar orientation

D. Erley; J. Vranicar; J. Getzels

1983-01-01

139

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 11: Economics of Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the eleventh in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 9, and 10). The objective of this module is…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

140

Dissipative or conservative cosmology with dark energy?  

SciTech Connect

All evolutional paths for all admissible initial conditions of FRW cosmological models with dissipative dust fluid (described by dark matter, baryonic matter and dark energy) are analyzed using dynamical system approach. With that approach, one is able to see how generic the class of solutions leading to the desired property-acceleration-is. The theory of dynamical systems also offers a possibility of investigating all possible solutions and their stability with tools of Newtonian mechanics of a particle moving in a one-dimensional potential which is parameterized by the cosmological scale factor. We demonstrate that flat cosmology with bulk viscosity can be treated as a conservative system with a potential function of the Chaplygin gas type. We characterize the class of dark energy models that admit late time de Sitter attractor solution in terms of the potential function of corresponding conservative system. We argue that inclusion of dissipation effects makes the model more realistic because of its structural stability. We also confront viscous models with SNIa observations. The best fitted models are obtained by minimizing the {chi}{sup 2} function which is illustrated by residuals and {chi}{sup 2} levels in the space of model independent parameters. The general conclusion is that SNIa data supports the viscous model without the cosmological constant. The obtained values of {chi}{sup 2} statistic are comparable for both the viscous model and {lambda}CDM model. The Bayesian information criteria are used to compare the models with different power-law parameterization of viscous effects. Our result of this analysis shows that SNIa data supports viscous cosmology more than the {lambda}CDM model if the coefficient in viscosity parameterization is fixed. The Bayes factor is also used to obtain the posterior probability of the model.

Szydlowski, Marek [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Marc Kac Complex Systems Research Center, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Hrycyna, Orest [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Raclawickie 14, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)], E-mail: hrycyna@kul.lublin.pl

2007-12-15

141

Diffusion of energy-conserving innovations  

SciTech Connect

We suggest that people's decisions to adopt energy-conserving processes and products is a specific instance of the decision to adopt an innovation. Drawing on previous research, we postulate a set of eight dimensions by means of which energy-conserving innovations are evaluated. We further argue that people's perceptions of an innovation's characteristics, on these dimensions, determine their decisions to adopt that innovation. Again in keeping with past research, we suggest that information that determines people's perceptions of innovations is more likely to be transmitted via social networks rather than mass media or other channels of communication. Taken together, these propositions form a theory of the adoption and diffusion of energy-conserving innovations. A research program is sketched that would provide support for the theory.

Darley, J.M.; Beniger, J.R.

1981-01-01

142

Energy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

Bazjanac, Vladimir

1981-01-01

143

Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition  

SciTech Connect

The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

1988-04-01

144

24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and practices. 965.306...PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy...

2013-04-01

145

Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

1981-01-01

146

Fouling Control and Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of heat between two flowing fluids is often accompanied by fouling of the surface that separates them. These deposits represent an insulating layer that restricts the flow of heat between the fluids and therefore results in a loss of heat energy recovery. Furthermore the accumulation of these unwanted deposits can restrict the flow of fluid and hence increase

T. Reg. Bott

2007-01-01

147

Energy Crisis: Resource Guide for Energy Conservation Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a resource guide to energy education and conservation materials and organizations. The stated purpose of this guide is to make teachers and other interested citizens of Oregon aware of some of the resources and sources of information on energy conservation education that are available in Oregon and in the United States and…

Davey, Don; McDuffie, Claudia

148

Conservation in the energy industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic energy supply and utilization problems faced by the United States were described. Actions which might alleviate the domestic shortfall of petroleum and natural gas are described, analyzed and overall impacts are assessed. Specific actions included are coal gasification, in situ shale oil production, improved oil and gas recovery, importation of liquid natural gas and deregulation of natural gas prices. These actions are weighed against each other as alternate techniques of alleviating or overcoming existing shortfalls.

1975-01-01

149

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01

150

Energy conservation impacts on environmental laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental laboratories have the most energy intensive environmental systems of any facility requiring heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. These laboratories serve a wide variety of situations, including petrochemical and food processing industries, biological research facilities, and quality assurance (QA) testing. This article describes a QA laboratory that serves a number of wastewater treatment plants in the Tidewater region of Virginia. The primary reason and source of the energy requirements is the large quantity of outside air required for exhaust hood makeup air. The makeup air for the hood exhaust needs to be conditioned and filtered to provide clean and environmentally stable operating conditions for performing chemical analyses, which are, in many instances, temperature and/or moisture sensitive. These parameters provide the maximum challenge for an environmental system design that is to be energy conserving and energy efficient with respect to laboratory facility environmental control. How this is accomplished and what issues must be addressed to achieve energy conservation will be covered.

Lumpkin, R.M. [Hankins and Anderson, Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

1997-05-01

151

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

152

Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures  

SciTech Connect

Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

Not Available

1980-01-01

153

Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures: Management Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a summary of the first of five phases of a demonstration project of energy conservation school building modifications. The ten schools studied in this phase were selected as typical of the variations of building design, construction, and location for schools in this country. Given in this report are: (1) descriptions of the schools…

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

154

Conceptual Physics Conservation of Energy Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This topic is broken into units to help in formulating cohesive, effective lessons. Clicking on each unit title will display appropriate activities, lesson plans, or labs. Units are intended to help students understand the interconnectedness of the concepts of conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum underpinning the basis for much of physics. Units are not listed in a prescribed order.

Front, The P.

2011-09-20

155

Energy Conservation: Implementing an Effective Campus Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the physical plant environment and temperature control equipment at Eastfield College (Texas), this paper explains how redirected efforts toward energy conservation can result in important cost/usage savings. Electricity billing rates are explained to provide a stronger usage strategy for cost effectiveness. Two methods of reducing…

Marsee, Jeff

156

The Urgent Need for Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the serious nature of the Energy Crisis'' and the dependence of the United States economy on imported hydrocarbons. Urges immediate action to alleviate the situation by increasing domestic production of oil, substituting coal for oil, and by conservation, especially in the use of automobile fuel. (JR)

Abelson, Philip H.

1973-01-01

157

Get employe commitment to energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of energy is an essential objective for all organizations in the hydrocarbon processing industry. But the objective cannot be reached without the motivation and commitment of all employes. This motivation must be planned and generated by those responsible for managing each plant. Building the motivational program involves five phases: set objectives, train employes, provide the right tools, reward for

Bolger

1976-01-01

158

Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

1981-01-01

159

Low-Tech Energy Conservation for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institute of Architects National Committee on Architecture for Education presents this guide which addresses methods of energy conservation in school buildings with simple design, construction, and equipment-control technology so that trained and creative people can take over functions normally done by machinery and automated…

Stein, Benjamin

160

Adjusting Your Water Heater to Conserve Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

- In this lab-based activity the students will use their knowledge about the law of conservation of energy to explain the loss of heat by warm water to cold water. Then, the students will use these concepts to design and carry an experiment to determine the unknown temperature of a hot water sample.

Nour Sinada, Woodbury Junior High, Woodbury, MN, based on the an original activity from the curriculum of 9th grade physical science in South Washington County Schools and from the USAFA Department of Chemistry

161

Energy conservation, using remote thermal scanning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne thermal infrared scans and thermal maps utilized in NASA's energy conservation program have proven to be efficient cost-effective method for identifying heat losses from building roofs and heating system distribution lines. Method employs commercially available equipment in highly developed way.

Bowman, R. L.; Jack, J. R.

1978-01-01

162

Indio, California energy conservation project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The City of Indio, Calif., developed a local energy conservation program to demonstrate the type of planning and implementation practical for cities with populations under 20,000. The project staff began by collecting data, reviewing building codes, analyzing the climate, and analyzing the environmental impact of both current and proposed planning and building practices. This review revealed that current building codes

M. Hunt; D. Bainbridge; B. Maeda; J. Hammond; B. Kopper

1977-01-01

163

How energy conservation limits our measurements.  

PubMed

Observations in quantum mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this Letter, we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with a nonconstant energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and, in case the target is a two-level quantum system, we quantify them exactly. Our Letter, thus, identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake. PMID:24765932

Navascués, Miguel; Popescu, Sandu

2014-04-11

164

How Energy Conservation Limits Our Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations in quantum mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this Letter, we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with a nonconstant energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and, in case the target is a two-level quantum system, we quantify them exactly. Our Letter, thus, identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

Navascués, Miguel; Popescu, Sandu

2014-04-01

165

Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.  

SciTech Connect

This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-11-01

166

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for industry  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents current efforts by the US DOE Office of Industrial Technologies to increase national end-use efficiency and promote renewable energy use in industrial applications. This also entails reducing industrial and municipal waste and the associated environmental impacts and hazards. The transfer of research results to commercial practice in such industries as petroleum refining, chemicals, primary metals, pulp and paper, food, and textiles is a vital step in energy conservation. (GHH)

Not Available

1991-10-01

167

Energy-momentum conservation in gravity theories  

SciTech Connect

We discuss general properties of the conservation law associated with a local symmetry. Using Noether's theorem and a generalized Belinfante symmetrization procedure in 3+1 dimensions, a symmetric energy-momentum (pseudo) tensor for the gravitational Einstein-Hilbert action is derived and discussed in detail. In 2+1 dimensions, expressions are obtained for energy and angular momentum arising in the ISO(2,1) gauge-theoretical formulation of Einstein gravity. In addition, an expression for energy in a gauge-theoretical formulation of the string-inspired (1+1)-dimensional gravity is derived and compared with the ADM definition of energy.

Bak, D.; Cangemi, D.; Jackiw, R. (Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1994-05-15

168

Hood River Conservation Project load analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes

Stovall

1987-01-01

169

78 FR 12969 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...industrial equipment, including residential water heaters. EPCA also requires the U.S...standards for several classes of residential water heaters in an April 2010 final rule....

2013-02-26

170

Sawdust Concrete in Energy Conservation: Mobile Home Energy Conservation Plus Wheelchair Gardens. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience with sawdust soaked in whitewash, dried, and used as insulation, concrete aggregate, and in poured plaster insulation board is described. These materials were used in retrofitting an older building for energy conservation and for insulating mob...

1984-01-01

171

Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document  

SciTech Connect

Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

Lucas, Robert G.

2009-09-26

172

Energy-environmental impacts of five energy conservation measures in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of some energy and environmental impacts for five different energy-conservation measures (district heating, industrial cogeneration, retrofit, rate reform, and vehicle redesign) were prepared for two different regions (Middle Atlantic and Pacific) and two different time periods (1985 and 2000) based upon data presented in regional reference energy systems developed at BNL. Results of the analysis indicate that regional energy

P. D. Moskowitz; E. Edelson; T. Q. Le; W. A. Sevian; J. E. Smith; A. Struth

1979-01-01

173

78 FR 62988 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...were included in the Energy and Infrastructure Security...ballasts from the current energy conservation standards...by adding the word ``negative'' to this exclusion...ambient temperatures of negative 20 degrees F or less...were included in the Energy Policy and...

2013-10-23

174

Energy Conservation Opportunities at a Pineapple Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process followed to quantify no-cost and low-cost energy conservation opportunities found during a five-day energy audit at a pineapple processing facility in Kenya. The project started with an energy audit conducted to identify energy conservation opportunities. Various energy conservation opportunities were identified during the walkthrough audit and from metered data. The conservation opportunities included repairing faulty

A. Z. Dalgleish; L. J. Grobler

2008-01-01

175

Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing  

SciTech Connect

Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

Levine, A.; Raab, J.

1981-03-01

176

Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice  

SciTech Connect

Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

Not Available

1980-05-01

177

Integrated energy and water conservation modeling  

SciTech Connect

Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is required to provide federal facility managers with a clear determination of the impact of water conservation practices on energy consumption. This paper introduces the WATERGY model, which is a spreadsheet model to analyze total energy savings associated with water conservation efforts. The contribution of this effort is the development of a synergistic model based on engineering algorithms as opposed to lumped parameter estimates. The model explicitly details the relationships between direct and indirect water and energy savings. Irrigation, plumbing fixture, appliance, and boiler blowdown savings comprise the direct water component of the model. Reduction in leakage and unaccounted-for water in the distribution system are calculated as indirect water savings. Direct energy savings are calculated for hot water production. Indirect energy savings associated with distribution and collection, electric line losses, and unaccounted-for gas are determined by the model. Data sources, algorithms, and engineering assumptions used in the development of the model are detailed. The model capabilities are demonstrated for a hypothetical federal facility.

Monsabert, S. de; Liner, B.L. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1998-04-01

178

Energy conservation - A test for scattering approximations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The roles of the extinction theorem and energy conservation in obtaining the scattering and absorption cross sections for several light scattering approximations are explored. It is shown that the Rayleigh, Rayleigh-Gans, anomalous diffraction, geometrical optics, and Shifrin approximations all lead to reasonable values of the cross sections, while the modified Mie approximation does not. Further examination of the modified Mie approximation for the ensembles of nonspherical particles reveals additional problems with that method.

Acquista, C.; Holland, A. C.

1980-01-01

179

75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced...

2010-05-28

180

Energy Conservation Manual for Water and Wastewater Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual is presented to provide water and waste-water managers with an overview of energy conservation activities in Wisconsin along with specific recommendations for improving their current programs. Chapters are: Energy Conservation Management; Water...

1980-01-01

181

Snowboarding And The Conservation Of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, students will design a new snowboarding event through the use of the free physics simulation program âSkateboard Park.â Students will investigate the energy dynamics their course and explore the conservation of energy principle.

2010-01-01

182

Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities: executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use is presented. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major energy end-use sectors. The analysis employs a systematic process for both identifying and screening candidate energy conservation research areas. The study team was comprehensive in its review of aggregate energy consumption and employed explicit criteria to evaluate the technology research areas.

Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

1981-11-01

183

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section 73.26...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid...

2013-07-01

184

41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation policy. 101-25.112...1-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency...established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act....

2013-07-01

185

Handbook for energy conservation in food canning plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines are presented so that personnel in food canneries can conserve energy. Information dealing with conservation applicable to food canneries is brought together in this handbook. Energy consumed in the production, harvesting, and the processing of foods are discussed in Sections I and II. The main components of an energy conservation program are discussed in Section IV. A list of

M. A. Rao; D. L. Downing

1979-01-01

186

Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation

Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

2008-01-01

187

Energy conservation and the transportation sector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of the energy implications of the transportation systems in the United States was illustrated, with primary emphasis on the technologies and methods for achieving a substantial reduction in the associated energy price (approximately 25% of the nation's energy is consumed directly in the operation of these systems). These technologies may be classified as follows: (1) improvement of system efficiency (system operations or technological), (2) substitution for scarce energy resources (electrification, alternate fuels, use of man power, recycling), (3) curtailment of end use (managed population growth rate, education of citizenry, alternatives to personal transportation, improved urban planning, reduced travel incentives). Examples and illustrations were given. Thirty-four actions were chosen on the basis of a preliminary filtering process with the objective of: (1) demonstrating a methodological approach to arrive at logical and consistent conservation action packages, (2) recommending a viable and supportable specific set of actions.

1975-01-01

188

Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 1, Conditional demand analysis applied to the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the first, presents the theoretical background of the procedure and applies it to a national data set. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

1988-02-01

189

Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document is designed as a reference manual on energy and provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans. The manual offers energy conservation

Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria

190

Portland Energy Conservation Project. City energy plan: choices for saving energy in the commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portland Energy Conservation Project consists of four major tasks: (1) collect data base; (2) develop an energy conservation plan; (3) revise codes; and (4) revise capital budgeting procedures. The work program for Task 2 includes the following: develop methodology for Portland Energy Plan; develop framework for measuring the impacts of energy cost increases and supply reductions; develop conservation choices

D. F. Mazziotti; G. M. Crandall

1976-01-01

191

Architects and engineers guide to energy conservation in existing buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field-tested approach to identifying, analyzing, and recommending action on the wide range of opportunities and options available to reduce energy use in most existing buildings is offered. Besides a review of the principles of energy use and conservation, the manual provides a step-by-step methodology for assessing and improving the year-round energy performance of buildings, as well as a series of forms, charts, and nomographs designed to enhance and simplify the work of those architects and engineers whose practice includes the analysis and modification of existing buildings to reduce both fuel consumption and operating costs.

1980-02-01

192

Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

193

HVAC systems and energy conservation in hotels  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the effect that the design of the basic HVAC has on the relative success of energy conservation efforts in hotels. The unusual nature of a hotel is explained along with the impact that it has on the HVAC system. The paper stresses the practical considerations which must be made by the HVAC system designer when he designs the guest rooms, public areas, back-of-the-house areas, temperature control system, and energy management system. The advantages of providing separate air-handling systems are presented. The benefits of line voltage electric controls for guest room fan coil units are explained. General recommendations for arrangement of ventilation systems and possible opportunities for heat recovery are included.

Wagner, J.R.

1986-01-01

194

Energy conservation for point particles undergoing radiation reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For smooth solutions to Maxwell's equations sourced by a smooth charge-current distribution ja in stationary, asymptotically flat spacetimes, one can prove an energy conservation theorem which asserts the vanishing of the sum of (i) the difference between the final and initial electromagnetic self-energy of the charge distribution, (ii) the net electromagnetic energy radiated to infinity (and/or into a black hole or white hole), and (iii) the total work done by the electromagnetic field on the charge distribution via the Lorentz force. A similar conservation theorem can be proven for linearized gravitational fields off of a stationary, asymptotically flat background, with the second order Einstein tensor playing the role of an effective stress-energy tensor of the linearized field. In this paper, we prove the above theorems for smooth sources and then investigate the extent to which they continue to hold for point particle sources. The ``self-energy'' of point particles is ill defined, but in the electromagnetic case, we can consider situations where, initially and finally, the point charges are stationary and in the same spatial position, so that the self-energy terms should cancel. Under certain assumptions concerning the decay behavior of source-free solutions to Maxwell's equations, we prove the vanishing of the sum of the net energy radiated to infinity and the net work done on the particle by the DeWitt-Brehme radiation reaction force. As a byproduct of this analysis, we provide a definition of the ``renormalized self-energy'' of a stationary point charge in a stationary spacetime. We also obtain a similar conservation theorem for angular momentum in an axisymmetric spacetime. In the gravitational case, we argue that similar conservation results should hold for freely falling point masses whose orbits begin and end at infinity. This provides justification for the use of energy and angular momentum conservation to compute the decay of orbits due to radiation reaction. For completeness, the corresponding conservation theorems for the case of a scalar field are given in an appendix.

Quinn, Theodore C.; Wald, Robert M.

1999-09-01

195

Dealing with Energy Conservation Alternatives. CEFP Special Report No. 9. Energy Conservation: A New Challenge for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how rising energy costs will affect school planning in general and urban school planning in particular. It discusses the energy crisis, the energy consumption by schools, and the potential for energy conservation in education. Also describes a project to be undertaken in New York City to determine ways of conserving energy in that city's…

Stein, Richard G.

1973-01-01

196

Systematic energy conservation management guide. Volume 9. Analyzing capital projects in energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume 9 is designed to provide the basic tools, concepts, and techniques of financial management needed to analyze capital energy conservation projects. Capital budgeting is discussed in Section 1 followed by a complete discussion in Section 2 on capital budgeting principles, ranging from the concept of the time value of money to capital rationing. Each concept is discussed in detail

Tibrewala

1978-01-01

197

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 7: Appliance Energy Conservation Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the seventh in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on understanding utilities (see modules 3, 5, and 6). The objective of this module is to train students in the recognition,…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

198

Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

1984-11-01

199

Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Dry Ice Slider-Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy concepts are fundamentally important for describing and analyzing systems ranging from subatomic particles to spiral galaxies. In general, students first encounter such concepts in introductory courses that typically focus on forms of energy, energy transfer, and conservation laws. Within these courses, conservation of mechanical energy is…

Gales, Jenna; Baker, Blane

2008-01-01

200

Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

201

Why managers find energy conservation tough to justify  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy managers find it difficult to demonstrate the economic value of energy conservation. The savings from New York City's energy conservation projects are calculated on the basis of payback, which is only an estimation of energy and demand levels for a specific time, while upper management requires documentation of actual savings. The task of predicting tenant behavior and equipment performance

Schoor

1982-01-01

202

Energy conservation: Industry. Citations from the NITS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 335 citations, 37 of which are new entries, discuss potential methods of conserving energy. Many abstracts deal with reports that also cover processes used, amount of energy consumed, and environmental considerations of energy conserving options. Industries covered include food, paper, chemical, cement, metals, petroleum refining, contract construction, synthetic rubber, plastics, drug manufacturing, and stone, clay, and glass. Energy conservation through the use of waste heat is covered in a related Published Search entitled Waste Heat Utilization.

Hundemann, A. S.

1980-07-01

203

ECP (Environmental Conservation Project) Report, No. 5, March 1976. Planning for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The culmination of the Environmental Law Institute's Energy Conservation Project will be a series of handbooks addressed to state and local officials, legislators, and interested citizens setting out suggested strategies for conserving energy. This issue of the ECP Report publishes the first of a series of draft chapters from these handbooks - a…

Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC.

204

Energy Conservation Choices for the City of Portland. Volume 3A: Residential Conservation Choices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents detailed support for the residential sector conservation choices and explains how energy is currently used in the residential sector. It offers various ways for saving energy and discusses cost and payback periods for investments, way...

G. M. Crandall F. Diemoz J. Schaeffer D. Wolaver D. F. Mazziotti

1977-01-01

205

Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market-type mechanisms, to be effective in the public sector context, the required cultural changes and appropriate implementing mechanisms must be provided for in the policy design.

Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

206

Electrorheology for Efficient Energy Production and Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, most of our energy comes from liquid fuels. The viscosity plays a very important role in liquid fuel production and conservation. For example, reducing the viscosity of crude oil is the key for oil extraction and its transportation from off-shore via deep water pipelines. Currently, the dominant method to reduce viscosity is to raise oil's temperature, which does not only require much energy, but also impacts the environment. Recently, based on the basic physics of viscosity, we proposed a new theory and developed a new technology, utilizing electrorheology to reduce the viscosity of liquid fuels. The method is energy-efficient, and the results are significant. When this technology is applied to crude oil, the suspended nanoscale paraffin particle, asphalt particles, and other particles are aggregated into micrometer-size streamline aggregates, leading to significant viscosity reduction. When the temperature is below 0^oC and the water content inside the oil becomes ice, the viscosity reduction can be as high as 75%. Our recent neutron scattering experiment has verified the physical mechanism of viscosity reduction. In comparison with heating, to reach the same level of viscosity reduction, this technology requires less than 1% of the energy needed for heating. Moreover, this technology only takes several seconds to complete the viscosity reduction, while heating takes at least several minutes to complete.

Tao, R.; Du, Enpeng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

2011-03-01

207

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS  

SciTech Connect

We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

1980-01-01

208

Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

1980-01-01

209

Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and…

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

210

Project Energize: Outcomes of a Community Confernece on Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help program planners and evaluators in providing insight as to what can be accomplished in an educational program dealing with energy conservation, this report is an evaluation of the outcomes of a community conference on energy conservation. There is a brief description of the day-long energy conference attended by 178 people (38 of…

Driscoll, Patricia; Deshler, David

211

Energy Conservation Management for School Administrators: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information concerning energy conservation management is presented to aid school administrators in improving the energy efficiency of their buildings and programs. Three general topics are discussed: (1) the general nature and unique characteristics of school energy management; (2) initial steps in developing a conservation program, including…

Lukco, Bernard J.

212

Data analysis, analytical support, and technology transfer support for the Federal Energy Management Program Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy Department of Energy. Final technical report, August 8, 1987--August 7, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Activities included the collecting, reporting, and analysis of Federal energy usage and cost data; development of program guidance and policy analysis of Federal energy usage and cost data; development of program guidance and policy analysis; inter-agency liaison; promotion of energy efficiency initiatives; and extensive technology transfer and outreach activities.

Tremper, C.

1992-12-31

213

Energy Conservation: An Examination of Energy Conservation Mechanisms As They Relate to School Districts in Region XI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to supply information on energy conservation mechanisms that can be employed in schools to the public schools of Minnesota. The report begins by presenting guidelines for developing an energy conservation plan. The two models include the concept of Total Educational Energy Management as developed by the Colorado Department of…

Kerns, Marilyn

214

Residential site design and energy conservation. Part 1: General report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy costs that can be saved by a subdivision design format related to energy conservation that is reasonably acceptable in marketing and aesthetic terms were determined. Six subdivision layouts were designed to densities ranging from 6.5 to 13.6 units per gross acre (1058 to 2232 units) or 16.25 to 34 units per gross hectare. Hourly radiation temperature, and wind characteristics for a year constitute the local climate data base. Six house types (from detached to apartment units) and seventeen basic house designs (mostly picked at random) were used. The method for calculating the set heat load and an analysis of the results are presented. The study shows that by way of the selection of the more energy efficient traditional house designs, orientation of buildings to maximize solar transmission, and landscaping to reduce the effect of wind, there is a possible residential space heating energy saving of up to 20% for a low density housing development.

1981-01-01

215

Energy Stable Flux Formulas For The Discontinuous Galerkin Discretization Of First Order Nonlinear Conservation Laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.

Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

216

Urban Transportation Energy Conservation. SRGP Operating Instructions and Program Documentation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRGP is a computer program for Short Range Generalized transportation Policy analysis for use in analyzing the energy conservation potential of a broad spectrum of transit, carpooling, vanpooling, parking, pricing, and other transportation system manageme...

J. F. MacMann R. E. Nestle

1979-01-01

217

10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...Modules and Pedestrian Modules Energy Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and...Red Arrow 12 9 12â³ Green Ball 15 15 8â³...

2009-01-01

218

10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...Modules and Pedestrian Modules Energy Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and...Red Arrow 12 9 12â³ Green Ball 15 15 8â³...

2010-01-01

219

The conservative cascade of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a coarse-graining approach to analyze inter-scale transfer of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence. We present the first direct evidence that mean kinetic energy cascades conservatively beyond a transitional ``conversion'' scale-range despite not being an invariant of the compressible flow dynamics. We use high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence on 512^3 and 1024^3 grids. We probe regimes of forced steady-state isothermal flows and of unforced decaying ideal gas flows. The key quantity we measure is pressure dilatation cospectrum, E^PD(k), where we provide the first numerical evidence that it decays at a rate faster than k-1 as a function of wavenumber. This is sufficient to imply that mean pressure dilatation acts primarily at large-scales and that kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional scale-range. Our analysis establishes the existence of an ensuing inertial range over which mean SGS kinetic energy flux becomes constant, independent of scale. Over this inertial range, mean kinetic energy cascades locally and in a conservative fashion despite not being an invariant.

Aluie, Hussein; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui

2011-11-01

220

A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

Paesler, Michael

2012-01-01

221

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 6. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity notebook for grade 6 is one of a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade six. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

222

Individual discounting, energy conservation, and household demand for lighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes household appliance purchase and energy consumption and conservation related to demand for lighting. The behavioral model is estimated using data on consumers' choices between various types of electric light bulbs with large differences in purchase costs, operating costs and lifetimes. The model allows the utility attached to energy conservation per se to vary across consumers and explicitly

Peter Kooreman

1996-01-01

223

Conflict between energy conservation and water pollution control standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential conflict in national needs for both energy conservation and water pollution control is indicated. Meeting broader obligations in reconciling these apparent differences has failed. Major contributions to energy conservation efforts needed today could be made without giving up any important pollution control goals. Hopefully, state and Federal regulatory agencies soon will recognize their obligations in this respect and

Lamb

1980-01-01

224

Thermal efficiency and taxes: the residential energy conservation tax credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

National concern over the growing American dependence on foreign oil has sparked interest in efforts to increase residential energy conservation through government incentives. Many officials, including, most recently, President Carter in his energy address, have considered utilizing tax credits because they are viewed as a popular and effective means of stimulating private conservation decisions. It is argued that a residential

Hyatt

1977-01-01

225

Look beyond the Obvious Energy Savers to Conserve School Dollars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, school system's energy conservation project that insulated utility tunnels and pipes in two schools. Energy savings will pay back the insulation cost in less than two years. (MD)

Wisniewski, Adrian T.

1985-01-01

226

Energy Diffusion in Harmonic System with Conservative Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove diffusive behaviour of the energy fluctuations in a system of harmonic oscillators with a stochastic perturbation of the dynamics that conserves energy and momentum. The results concern pinned systems in any dimension, or unpinned systems in dimension.

Basile, Giada; Olla, Stefano

2014-06-01

227

Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction modification to improve energy efficiency.

Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

2009-12-31

228

Energy Conservation Technical Information Guide: Volume 1, Resource directory  

SciTech Connect

This directory is one of a set of energy-conservation technical information guides (TIGs) designed to help you find information about conservation technologies. It is written for several audiences, including scientists and engineers, university researchers, manufacturers, and utility policy-makers and planners. The directory lists the primary research and other organizations involved with the federal conservation research program and similar efforts. Textual and computerized information sources are also provided. This technical information guide (TIG) is a multivolume overview of energy-conservation techniques and technologies in the buildings and utility sectors.

Not Available

1987-09-01

229

Infrared thermography in a residential energy conservation program  

SciTech Connect

Implementing a thermographic inspection service in a residential energy conservation program offers numerous benefits to consumers, the conservation program, and the provider of this service. A description of the need for thermographic inspections, the problems encountered in setting up this service, the interface of the technical and non-technical sectors will be discussed in addition to the benefits to be gained through thermographic inspections. The credibility of a residential energy conservation service can be enhanced tremendously through the implementation of a thermographic inspection service. The need for thermography and its resultant benefits can provide a barometer for the future implementation of thermography within residential conservation programs.

Ward, R.J.

1980-01-01

230

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is to…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

231

75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and...Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and...conservation standards for residential water heaters (other than tabletop and...

2010-04-16

232

Molecular dynamics algorithm enforcing energy conservation for microcanonical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reversible algorithm [enforced energy conservation (EEC)] that enforces total energy conservation for microcanonical simulations is presented. The key point is the introduction of the discrete-gradient method to define the forces from the conservative potentials, instead of the direct use of the force field at the actual position of the particle. We have studied the performance and accuracy of the EEC in two cases, namely Lennard-Jones fluid and a simple electrolyte model. Truncated potentials that usually induce inaccuracies in energy conservation are used. In particular, the reaction field approach is used in the latter. The EEC is able to preserve energy conservation for a long time, and, in addition, it performs better than the Verlet algorithm for these kinds of simulations.

Salueña, Clara; Avalos, Josep Bonet

2014-05-01

233

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2012-07-01

234

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2012-07-01

235

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2011-07-01

236

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation...program for conservation and renewable energy. (a) General....

2011-07-01

237

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2009-07-01

238

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a)...

2010-07-01

239

10 CFR 431.196 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Distribution Transformers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.196 Energy conservation standards...Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution...Appendix A. (d) Underground Mining Distribution...

2011-01-01

240

Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry  

SciTech Connect

Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

241

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

1981-11-01

242

Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.  

PubMed

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

2013-01-01

243

Conservation of Energy: Home and School. Grades 7-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four energy conservation concept areas are developed in this unit: (1) energy resources are many and varied and have evolved over a long period of history; (2) as much as 30 to 50 percent of the energy in the United States is wasted; (3) homes, offices, and schools account for 24 percent of total energy consumption and savings can be made through…

Floyd, Alice Ann; And Others

244

User manual for the Hanford Energy Conservation Project data base  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Energy Conservation (HEC) Project Data Base developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office, provides a centralized storehouse of information on planned and ongoing projects which are part of the HEC project. The data base will enable quick analysis of the project portfolio. The data base uses dBase III Plus on an IBM PC. Over 40 data items are stored for each project. A menu-driven applications program was developed as an alternative to using standard dBase III Plus commands. The menu-driven program prompts the user to add data, edit data, perform on-screen searches of the data base, sort the data base by any variable or combination of variables, or generate hard-copy reports of the stored data.

Humphreys, K.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Weakley, S.A.

1987-09-01

245

A preliminary analysis of US CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction potential from energy conservation and the substitution of natural gas for coal in the period to 2010  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) is a product of burning fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of global CO/sub 2/ emissions amounting to 5.2 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC) in 1985. The control of CO/sub 2/ emissions would require control of energy production and use. US emissions were 1.25 PgC in 1985. National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) projections show total US emissions rising 38% by 2010 to 1.7 PgC. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) has sponsored research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to do a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and consequences of reducing US CO/sub 2/ emissions from 1985 levels by 10, 25 or 50 percent by either the year 1995 and 2010. In addition, DOE/CDRD sponsored a day-long roundtable attended by nine experts in the field to discuss this issue. Two methods of CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction were considered: energy intensity reductions (conservation), and substitution of natural gas for coal. The study did not address the contribution of other energy supply options or the feasibility of pre- or post-combustion CO/sub 2/ removal. Furthermore, the study made no attempt to explore specific policies that might be employed to achieve technically feasible CO/sub 2/ emissions reductions. This is not a policy document.

Edmonds, J.A.; Ashton, W.B.; Cheng, H.C.; Steinberg, M.

1989-02-01

246

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for utilities  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents current efforts by the US DOE Office of Utility Technologies to promote and develop cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficient technologies in the Utility sector. Major projects in the areas of solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, ocean power, and biomass are presented. The importance of efficient energy management in the transmission and distribution of electricity and through energy storage is discussed. (GHH)

Not Available

1992-04-01

247

Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

Kraetsch, Gayla A.

1981-01-01

248

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards amendments...

2014-01-01

249

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection...CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation...

2013-07-01

250

41 CFR 102-74.160 - What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? 102-74.160 Section...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.160 What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? Federal agencies...

2013-07-01

251

24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction. 990...Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction. (a...consumption reduction. If a PHA undertakes energy conservation measures that are...

2013-04-01

252

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their effective...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2013-01-01

253

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their effective...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2011-01-01

254

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their effective...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2012-01-01

255

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their compliance dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their compliance...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2014-01-01

256

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their effective...CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2009-01-01

257

77 FR 48108 - Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Clothes Washers: Public Meeting and Availability of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...whether to amend the energy and water conservation standards for commercial clothes...considering amended energy and water conservation standards for commercial clothes...need for national energy and water conservation; and (7) Other factors...

2012-08-13

258

Feasibility of Congestion Pricing as an Energy Conservation Measure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a feasibility study on the potential of congestion pricing as an energy conservation measure. Although congestion pricing entails many different strategies or schemes, this report primarily focuses on road pricing for highway type facilitie...

K. Kacir J. L. Memmott R. Ruffley

1994-01-01

259

The Coupled Pendulum--A Demonstration of Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a classroom demonstration that illustrates the Law of Conservation of Energy. The demonstration utilizes a coupled pendulum device that can easily be constructed from ordinary monofilament fishing line and two metal pendulum bobs. (HM)

Record, Daniel J.

1978-01-01

260

ON ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE SIMPLIFIED TAKAHASHI-IMADA METHOD.  

PubMed

In long-time numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems, and especially in molecular dynamics simulation, it is important that the energy is well conserved. For symplectic integrators applied with sufficiently small step size, this is guaranteed by the existence of a modified Hamiltonian that is exactly conserved up to exponentially small terms. This article is concerned with the simplified Takahashi-Imada method, which is a modification of the Störmer-Verlet method that is as easy to implement but has improved accuracy. This integrator is symmetric and volume-preserving, but no longer symplectic. We study its long-time energy conservation and give theoretical arguments, supported by numerical experiments, which show the possibility of a drift in the energy (linear or like a random walk). With respect to energy conservation, this article provides empirical and theoretical data concerning the importance of using a symplectic integrator. PMID:20539750

Hairer, Ernst; McLachlan, Robert I; Skeel, Robert D

2009-07-01

261

Role of Small Business Development in Energy Conservation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In anticipation of a projected phase-down in the funding of the Weatherization Program, DOE has been looking for innovative ways to stimulate the local agencies conducting Weatherization programs to continue their weatherization and energy conservation ac...

1986-01-01

262

ECASTAR: Energy conservation. An assessment of systems, technologies and requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical conditions. The following unresolved issues were identified: consumptive lifestyles vs. conservation ethic, environmental standards vs. energy conservation, capital availability, decentralization and vertical integration vs. centralization, fuel rich regions vs. fuel poor regions, supply vs. end use conservation, life cycle costing vs. initial cost, mandatory savings vs. voluntary savings, labor intensive vs. capital intensive, price control vs. free market. The following recommendations were made: provide action/impact assessment, establish regional energy centers, improve technology articulation with government, design total energy systems, utilize existing systems approach expertise.

1975-01-01

263

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be allocated to units under subpart F of this...

2010-07-01

264

Ecastar: Energy Conservation. An Assessment of Systems, Technologies and Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology was presented for a systems approach to energy conservation actions and their potentials and impacts in the United States. Constraints affecting the approach were ranked, and the most important ones are the present economic and technical con...

1975-01-01

265

Energy Management and Conservation Program. FY 2011 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Highlights; GHG Emissions Inventory and Reduction Efforts: Energy Efficiency Performance; Water Conservation; Sustainable Building Design and High Performance Buildings; Storm water Management; Recycling and Polluti...

2012-01-01

266

Energy Conservation by Hyperfiltration: Food Industry Background Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry usin...

1980-01-01

267

Simplot Potato Processing Plant Energy Conservation Study: Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This group of appendices, B--G, of the ''Simplot Potato Processing Plant Energy Conservation Study'', covers processing equipment, refrigeration equipment, water systems, air conditioning systems and lighting systems. Data on these systems related to cost...

1988-01-01

268

77 FR 4698 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure and Energy Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Standard for Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...conservation standards for set-top boxes and network equipment. The comment period is extended...information relating to set-top boxes and network equipment [[Page 4699

2012-01-31

269

Energy and momentum conserving algorithms for rigid body contact  

SciTech Connect

Energy-momentum conserving methods are developed for rigid body dynamics with contact. Because these methods are unconditionally stable, they are not time step dependent and, hence, are well suited for incorporation into structural mechanics finite element codes. Both penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods are developed herein and are the extension of the energy-momentum conserving integration schemes for rigid bodies given by Simo and Wong [1].

Puso, M.A.; Zywicz, E.

1998-04-09

270

Route Optimization for Energy Conservation in Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency is crucial in energy-constrained infrastructureless multihop ad hoc networks, in which route optimization plays an important role. The existing route optimization schemes for energy conservation by using a reactive routing protocol are classified into three categories: selecting the routes with the least number of hops to relay the packets; calculating the needed power for each hop so that

Dali Wei; H. A. Chan

2006-01-01

271

Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants  

SciTech Connect

Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

1983-06-01

272

Development and Testing of a Home Economics Energy Conservation Curriculum Guide: Energy Conservation in the Home. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research study provided for the development and testing of a high school home economics curriculum guide for energy conservation. A systems aproach served as the development model, and the evaluation of the guide included both internal evaluation by ...

L. Clinard

1977-01-01

273

Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

1982-10-01

274

Running hot water: A systems approach to energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ways to conserve energy in domestic hot water systems are discussed. Examination of the Swedish situation shows that centralized systems, where water heating is a subsidiary of space heating, waste energy because water cools in the pipes after use, and the entire system must operate in summer. Also, water temperature is often much higher than required. Solar panels, individual water heaters, heat pumps, and heat exchangers could contribute to energy conservation, but changes in consumer behavior can also be extremely effective. For example, dish washing energy requirements were reduced by 80% in one neighborhood by giving each apartment a plastic bowl for washing up.

Wulff, P.

1982-03-01

275

Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

NONE

1998-01-01

276

Risk assessment and decision analysis in conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental problems conservation biologists face when they provide advice to managers is how to characterise and account for the uncertainties which result from measurement and estimation error, model mis-specification and simple lack of knowledge. Computer-intensive techniques, initially developed in the 1970s, can now be used to incorporate all these sources of uncertainty into a rigorous statistical framework.

John Harwood

2000-01-01

277

An Approach to Enhance the Conservation-Compatibility of Solar Energy Development  

PubMed Central

The rapid pace of climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity. Utility-scale renewable energy development (>1 MW capacity) is a key strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but development of those facilities also can have adverse effects on biodiversity. Here, we examine the synergy between renewable energy generation goals and those for biodiversity conservation in the 13 M ha Mojave Desert of the southwestern USA. We integrated spatial data on biodiversity conservation value, solar energy potential, and land surface slope angle (a key determinant of development feasibility) and found there to be sufficient area to meet renewable energy goals without developing on lands of relatively high conservation value. Indeed, we found nearly 200,000 ha of lower conservation value land below the most restrictive slope angle (<1%); that area could meet the state of California’s current 33% renewable energy goal 1.8 times over. We found over 740,000 ha below the highest slope angle (<5%) – an area that can meet California’s renewable energy goal seven times over. Our analysis also suggests that the supply of high quality habitat on private land may be insufficient to mitigate impacts from future solar projects, so enhancing public land management may need to be considered among the options to offset such impacts. Using the approach presented here, planners could reduce development impacts on areas of higher conservation value, and so reduce trade-offs between converting to a green energy economy and conserving biodiversity.

Cameron, D. Richard; Cohen, Brian S.; Morrison, Scott A.

2012-01-01

278

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

279

A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

Not Available

1990-12-01

280

Financing residential energy conservation investment in the Northwest, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed how households in the Pacific Northwest financed their investments in energy conservation measures during the 1983-85 period, how they would finance their likely future investments, and related topics regarding conservation investments and financing. The information was collected through a stratified random telephone survey of householders conducted in October/November 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This information will be used by BPA to facilitate the planning, design, and implementation of relevant conservation programs such as the Residential Weatherization Program, and potential programs of bank and utility loans.

Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi,, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

1987-05-01

281

77 FR 7547 - Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AC51 Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration...conservation standards for residential wine chillers and other residential refrigeration...document for Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous...

2012-02-13

282

Hospital Ventilation Standards and Energy Conservation: Chemical Contamination of Hospital Air. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures cou...

D. Rainer G. S. Michaelsen

1980-01-01

283

Residential space heating systems: energy conservation and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual energy use for residential space heating was 8.6 Quads in 1975. This accounted for over 50% of the energy used in the residential sector and 12% of energy used in the U.S. that year. Because residential space heating accounts for such a large share of energy use, improvements in new space heating systems could have significant long-term conservation effects.

ONeal

1979-01-01

284

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Alpac Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Alpac Corporation in Seattle, Washington. Alpac is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into operation and maintenance (O and M) measures and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1984-12-01

285

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-03-01

286

Energy conserving process furnace system and components thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy conserving process furnace has a recuperator to utilize heat derived from exhaust gases in order to reduce fossil fuel consumption of the furnace. Elongated, enhanced surface ceramic heat exchanger tubes are used in the recuperator to recover heat energy from the exhaust gas. A preferred sealing arrangement is used between the metal and ceramic tubes to contain the

P. G. LaHaye; J. W. Bjerklie; G. G. Jr. Gallant

1977-01-01

287

Computations About the Sources and Conservation of Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy-related concepts are the subject of mathematics problems in this supplementary workbook for secondary school students. Exercises involving light, heat, motion, and energy conservation assist students in understanding whole numbers, decimals, fractions, ratios, proportions, percents, and the creation and interpretation of graphs. The…

Arena, John E.; And Others

288

An exploratory framework for energy conservation in existing warehouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a considerable amount of research in recent years regarding energy conservation in supply chains. However, warehouses, which are important nodes in most supply chains, have been largely overlooked, particularly with regard to the large existing stock of current warehouses. This paper adopts the energy audit approach that is used in other building types and develops this for

Jose Dhooma; Peter Baker

2012-01-01

289

Geography-informed energy conservation for Ad Hoc routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a geographical adaptive fidelity (GAF) algorithm that reduces energy consumption in ad hoc wireless networks. GAF conserves energy by identifying nodes that are equivalent from a routing perspective and then turning off unnecessary nodes, keeping a constant level of routing fidelity. GAF moderates this policy using application- and system-level information; nodes that source or sink data remain on

Ya Xu; John S. Heidemann; Deborah Estrin

2001-01-01

290

Low-cost energy conserving zip-up curtains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We originally estimated that sealed fabric curtains would be capable of saving 5% of the heat lost by windows. At the conclusion of our tests it was apparent that they were significantly more effective; and in fact, performed at a level more akin to double glazing by reducing window energy consumption by 20%. Zip-up curtains conserve energy by increasing the

Wehrli

1985-01-01

291

On the Diagnosis and Conservation of Energy During Condensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis and conservation of energy during condensation is examined. It is shown that the latent enthalpy, when defined in conjunction with the individual enthalpies of water vapor and liquid water, cannot be a function of the latent heat of condensation L but a modified value (L) which is 30% larger than L. The additional energy represented in L can

Paul M. Tag

1980-01-01

292

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Tree Top, Cashmere Plant.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Tree Top, Incorporated in Cashmere, Washington. Tree Top is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-02-01

293

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry, Tree Top, Cashmere Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Tree Top, Incorporated in Cashmere, Washington. Tree Top is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into t...

1985-01-01

294

ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH POINT SOURCE RECYCLE WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE HYPERFILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of energy conservation effects of point source recycle with high-temperature hyperfiltration (HF) in the textile industry. (HF and ultrafiltration (UF) are pressure-driven membrane processes which have potential for recycle of water, energy, an...

295

Energy Conservation in the Home. Performance Based Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These ten performance-based lesson plans concentrate on tasks related to energy conservation in the home. They are (1) caulk cracks, holes, and joints; (2) apply weatherstripping to doors and windows; (3) add plastic/solar screen window covering; (4) arrange furniture for saving energy; (5) set heating/cooling thermostat; (6) replace faucet…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

296

Energy conservation in TEPCO R&D Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

TEPCO R&D Centers are engaged in various efforts that aim to achieve a creative research environment with lower energy consumption and to contribute to create a pleasant environment in surrounding areas. Work being undertaken includes a fusion of architectural planning and system planning, the development of a cold air distribution system using ice storage, and the promotion of energy conservation

Y. Tsubota; K. Yamakawa

1999-01-01

297

Portland Energy Conservation Demonstration Project. Volume IV. Model code revisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume 4 of the Portland Energy Conservation Demonstration Project (PECDP) is designed to acquaint public policy decision-makers with the types of municipal code provisions that will result in energy savings within their communities. Legal issues that should be considered in code design and implementation are also discussed. In order to accomplish this task, the volume has been divided into four

D. F. Mazziotti; M. Hemphill

1977-01-01

298

Industrial waste stream utilization to conserve energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several R and D projects funded by both private industry and DOE will result in significant energy savings for the country while providing profit for the industrial users. This paper discusses the waste streams, technologies, energy savings, markets, economics and analyses of two successful projects funded by the Office of Industrial Programs, Waste Products Utilization Branch. The first project is

Cranford

1982-01-01

299

Energy Conservation: Better Living Through Thermodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shortcomings of the usual definition of energy efficiency are identified. Suggestions are general for better use of fossil fuels. Studies done by the American Physics Society (APS) are discussed and recommendations made for an improved definition of energy efficiency are described. (Author/EB)

Metz, William D.

1975-01-01

300

Nuclear power, coal, and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programming model is used to explore options by which the U.S. may realistically move from its dependence on oil and gas to a more diversified energy economy based on nuclear power and\\/or coal. Supply options considered are: direct combustion of coal; conversion of coal to synthetic fuels; petroleum, natural gas, and oil shale resources; nuclear energy from light water

P. L. Auer; A. S. Manne; O. S. Yu

1976-01-01

301

Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

302

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Office of building Technologies (OBT) pursues advanced energy efficiency and renewable technologies and accelerates the rate of adoption of these technologies in the residential and commercial sectors through research, development, and demonstration.

Not Available

1991-05-01

303

Commercial building design and energy conservation: a preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titlted windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given. (MCW)

Nieves, A.; Rosoff, D.

1982-02-01

304

Energy Conservation: Policy Issues and End-Use Scenarios of Savings Potential. Part 6. End-Use Energy Conservation Data Base and Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

End-use energy conservation scenarios discussed show the combined effect on energy consumption of implementing a number of conservation measures. The scenarios serve two overall purposes. First, they provide a contrast of a series of nonconservation cases...

1978-01-01

305

Energy-conservation opportunities in lighting  

SciTech Connect

Technologies and techniques which can be employed by your existing personnel - without the need for consultants - to reduce your lighting costs by as much as 70% are discussed. Four basic steps to reduce energy costs and improve the effectiveness of the lighting system discussed are: get acquainted with some of the basic terminology and energy efficient lamps and fixtures which are on the market; conduct a survey of the building to determine where and how much energy and money can be saved in the process; implement the simple, low-cost or no-cost measures immediately; and calculate the payback period for capital investment modifications, and implement those which make economic sense. Case studies are used to illustrate the recommendations. (MCW)

None

1981-04-01

306

10 CFR 431.306 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

... Energy Conservation Standards § 431.306 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates...component has provided to the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy all data and technical information necessary...

2014-01-01

307

Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems.  

PubMed

Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete "Verlet" algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence of a "shadow Hamiltonian" H [S. Toxvaerd, Phys. Rev. E 50, 2271 (1994)], i.e., a Hamiltonian close to the original H with the property that the discrete positions of the Verlet algorithm for H lie on the analytic trajectories of H. The shadow Hamiltonian can be obtained from H by an asymptotic expansion in the time step length. Here we use the first non-trivial term in this expansion to obtain an improved estimate of the discrete values of the energy. The investigation is performed for a representative system with Lennard-Jones pair interactions. The simulations show that inclusion of this term reduces the standard deviation of the energy fluctuations by a factor of 100 for typical values of the time step length. Simulations further show that the energy is conserved for at least one hundred million time steps provided the potential and its first four derivatives are continuous at the cutoff. Finally, we show analytically as well as numerically that energy conservation is not sensitive to round-off errors. PMID:22713035

Toxvaerd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole J; Dyre, Jeppe C

2012-06-14

308

Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete ``Verlet'' algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence of a ``shadow Hamiltonian'' H~ [S. Toxvaerd, Phys. Rev. E 50, 2271 (1994)], i.e., a Hamiltonian close to the original H with the property that the discrete positions of the Verlet algorithm for H lie on the analytic trajectories of H~. The shadow Hamiltonian can be obtained from H by an asymptotic expansion in the time step length. Here we use the first non-trivial term in this expansion to obtain an improved estimate of the discrete values of the energy. The investigation is performed for a representative system with Lennard-Jones pair interactions. The simulations show that inclusion of this term reduces the standard deviation of the energy fluctuations by a factor of 100 for typical values of the time step length. Simulations further show that the energy is conserved for at least one hundred million time steps provided the potential and its first four derivatives are continuous at the cutoff. Finally, we show analytically as well as numerically that energy conservation is not sensitive to round-off errors.

Toxvaerd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

2012-06-01

309

Energy Conservation: Three Projects That Worked.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compact design and insulation cut energy use at a junior high school in Rexon (New Brunswick). Loma Linda University in California has reduced consumption of natural gas by installing cogeneration equipment. Morningside College in Sioux City (Iowa) has replaced deteriorating windows. (Author/MLF)

American School and University, 1981

1981-01-01

310

Can service voltage reduction conserve energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current situation regarding service voltage range reductions and related energy savings is summarized and some background information is provided. The effects of a reduced voltage range on total feeders with residential and commercial loads are discussed for refrigerators and freezers; resistance-type heating; clothes washers and dryers; dishwashers; ranges and microwave ovens; color TV and stereo equipment; incandescent and fluorescent

Ladden

1979-01-01

311

Energy conservation in new housing design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential implications of energy cost and availability for new housing design over the rest of the century are examined. The discussion is based on the premise that the rise in the price of fuels relative to that of labor and materials is focusing the attention of home builders and home buyers on total life-cycle costs. This shift in emphasis

J. E. Snell; P. R. Achenbach; S. R. Petersen

1976-01-01

312

Alternatives for energy conservation in a baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of alternate cases and how to achieve optimum energy consumption and economic benefits from baghouses or fabric filters for particulate control on coal fired boilers. Various components of baghouses are reviewed with an evaluation of fan efficiencies, duct routing, duct turning vanes, insulation, lagging, types of dampers and damper installations. Also discussed are cleaning cycle

P. J. Bakken; F. A. Horney

1982-01-01

313

Energy alternatives and conservation for greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouses are good solar collectors when sunshine is available, but thermal losses during the night may require supplemental heating by scarce fossil fuels, but indications are that 80% of heating requirements for a greenhouse can be supplied by solar energy. Studies on many designs of solar collectors for greenhouses are reviewed and schematics are shown. The construction of a solar

1977-01-01

314

US conventional energy production, consumption, and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982, US per capita energy consumption decreased sharply for the third consecutive year. Marketed natural-gas production dropped with a severe loss in the industrial market, but domestic crude petroleum production increased slightly. Petroleum liquids consumption was down and crude oil imports fell. Products imports declined, even including additions to the strategic petroleum reserve. Coal production also declined. Trends and\\/or

1983-01-01

315

Effects of momentum conservation on the analysis of anisotropic flow  

SciTech Connect

We present a general method for taking into account correlations due to momentum conservation in the analysis of anisotropic flow. Momentum conservation mostly affects the first harmonic in azimuthal distributions, i.e., directed flow. It also modifies higher harmonics, for instance elliptic flow, when they are measured with respect to a first harmonic event plane such as one determined with the standard transverse momentum method. Our method is illustrated by application to NA49 data on pion directed flow.

Borghini, N.; Dinh, P.M.; Ollitrault, J.-Y.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Voloshin, S.A.

2002-02-05

316

Active Control by Conservation of Energy Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three unrelated experiments are discussed; each was extremely sensitive to initial conditions. The initial conditions are the beginnings of the origins of the information that nonlinearity displays. Initial conditions make the phenomenon unstable and unpredictable. With the knowledge of the initial conditions, active control requires far less power than that present in the system response. The first experiment is on the control of shocks from an axisymmetric supersonic jet; the second, control of a nonlinear panel response forced by turbulent boundary layer and sound; the third, control of subharmonic and harmonics of a panel forced by sound. In all three experiments, control is achieved by redistribution of periodic energy response such that the energy is nearly preserved from a previous uncontrolled state. This type of active control improves the performance of the system being controlled.

Maestrello, Lucio

2000-01-01

317

Indio, California energy conservation project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project demonstrates how energy-saving methods can be developed and implemented at the small-city (population 20,000 or less) level of government. The report focuses on some of the specific issues that a city of this size and under similar constraints can implement, and to keep the books open to accommodate changes in laws and technology that are an inevitable part

M. Hunt; D. Bainbridge; B. Maeda; J. Hammond; B. Kopper

1977-01-01

318

Energy-saving impacts of DOE's conservation and solar programs. (An ORNL\\/MITRE study performed in 1980). Volume 2: Historical trends, details of sectoral analysis, and appendixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and oil impacts were estimated under a common set of assumptions concerning rising energy prices and economic growth. Historical trends in U.S. energy consumption, buildings and community systems, industry, transportation, solar, energy storage systems, and Energy Management Partnership Act are titles of sections presented. Information presented in the appendices includes: existing energy legislation; research, development, and demonstration projects included

R. W. Barnes; J. L. Blue; D. M. Boyd; K. R. Corum; R. Gerstein; D. L. Greene; D. M. Hamvlin; E. Hirst; H. Hoffman; G. Kamp

1981-01-01

319

Opportunities for energy conservation in the developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Energy problems faced by developing countries are explored and opportunities for saving energy and for using fuels other than petroleum in the modern sector are assessed. Specific resources assessed include oil and gas, coal, hydropower, and traditional fuels. Trends in commercial energy consumption by the developing countries are assessed and the domestic fuel resources of these countries are examined. Patterns of commercial energy use in several LDCs including Sri Lanka, Haiti, India, Kenya, Egypt, the Phillippines, the Republic of Korea, and Brazil are examined. Sri Lanka and Haiti are the subjects for case studies reported in the appendixes. Opportunities for conservation in the modern sector, which include most industrial activities, transportation, and electric power generation as well as some agricultural activities and large residential and commercial buildings, are discussed. The concluding section explores policies which might be initiated by LDC governments to encourage energy conservation. (MCW)

Koshel, P.; Allen, E.L.; Cecelski, E.; Dougher, R.; Ring, L.

1981-03-01

320

ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in food processing  

SciTech Connect

ALINET, a network model of the US food processing and distribution sector, has been designed as a tool for analyzing energy use and for evaluating specific energy conserving technologies. The model is operational and has been used in the analysis of wheat processing. The results of a pilot study in which an alternative technology - microwave drying - is introduced in the pasta making process are described, and the impact on energy and on specific fuel use is analyzed.

Levis, A.H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge); Ducot, E.R.; Webster, T.F.; Levis, I.S.

1981-01-01

321

Conservation of Fluid Mass and Energy by RELAP5-3D during a SBLOCA  

SciTech Connect

Mass and energy balances were performed to check the accuracy of RELAP5-3D’s solution during a loss-of-coolant accident initiated by a small break in a typical pressurized water reactor. Mass and energy balances were performed for the combined liquid and gas phases and the gas phase by itself. The analysis showed that RELAP5-3D adequately conserved mass and energy for the combined fluid and the gas phase.

Cliff B. Davis

2009-08-01

322

ASTM insulation standards and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Traces the history of thermal insulation technology and standards since the commercialization of the steam engine in the late 18th century. Reveals that the development of magnesium carbonate as an insulation, and use of asbestos fiber as a heat resistant reinforcing material marked the transition of the insulation industry from small entrepreneurs to large corporate organizations. Points out that many of the world's current insulation manufacturers marked their genesis in the 1890-1910 period. Emphasizes that when the energy crisis occurred, C-16 standards for residential, commercial, and industrial insulation materials, application methods, and performance evaluation were either already available or, in the case of cellulosic and foam-in-place insulations, quickly prepared. Reports that a subcommittee has been formed to translate government specifications for commercial grade insulations to ASTM format, as in accordance with OMB Circular A119 which promotes the use of voluntary consensus standards by government agencies.

McAllister, J.D.

1982-12-01

323

The Fourth R. Resourcefulness in School Energy Conservation. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An energy audit is a building inspection that, when complete, provides a profile of the building's energy usage. The energy audit determines how energy is used; simple maintenance and operating procedures to conserve energy; and the need, if any, for purchase of new energy saving equipment or modifications to the building. Schoolhouse Energy

Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

324

Consumer Energy Conservation Policies and Programs in Greece.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a 1982 study conducted in Greece on consumer energy conservation policies and programs. It is part of an eight-nation project which examines and compares cross-nationally the leading agencies, policy goals and instrument...

K. Zografos S. Warkov B. Joerges G. Megaleconomos

1983-01-01

325

Energy Conservation Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information, lists of materials needed, and procedures are provided for 11 energy conservation experiments. They include: (1) five experiments on heating and cooling (investigating how insulation works, investigating how weatherstripping works, investigating how storm windows work, building a draftometer, and letting sun heat a house);…

Thomas Alva Edison Foundation, Southfield, MI.

326

Regulations establishing energy-conservation standards for new residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The text of the California Administrative Code, Title 24, Part 6, Article 1 is presented. The energy conservation standards described apply to all new hotels, motels, apartment houses, lodging houses, dwellings, and other residential buildings which are heated or mechanically cooled. Standards for the building envelope, climate control systems and equipment, and water heating are included. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-02-01

327

Environmental Quality and Energy Conservation Curriculum Model. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide postsecondary vocational educators with a comprehensive understanding of environmental quality and energy conservation and their relevance to all occupational fields, a project designed a generic curriculum model for postsecondary adult and vocational education and developed documents describing the model. In developing the model, a…

Havemen, Jacqueline E.; O'Connell, Kathryn

328

Hypothermia and Energy Conservation: A Tradeoff for Elderly Persons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between concern for health and adoption of elderly persons of a lowered winter nighttime thermostat setting. Findings from two surveys of elderly respondents (N=232) who maintained separate owner-occupied residences showed that health and thermal comfort were major reasons for nonadoption of this energy conservation measure.…

Macey, Susan M.

1989-01-01

329

Water and energy conservation system for food serving establishments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water and energy conserving apparatus is described for supplying pre-heated water to a hot water heater and for cooling at least one refrigeration unit using a compressible medium in a food serving establishment comprising, a pre-heater tank adapted to receive water from a cold water source and having a cold water inlet line connected to the cold water source

Papadakos

1981-01-01

330

Energy Conservation Program Cuts School Gas Use by 45%.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures at Longmont High School (Colorado), including reducing air entry, heating water only during school hours, and lowering lighting levels, are expected to save 45 percent in natural gas usage and 20 percent in electric usage. (Author/MLF)

Sampson, Walt

1981-01-01

331

Techniques for energy conservation in ac motor-driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for energy conservation of reducing losses in ac motor driven systems were compared. The impact on electric utility system as a harmonics, power factor of operation, and Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) is considered. The techniques evaluated are: (1) the NASA Power Factor Controller, a simple device for reducing power losses in lightly loaded ac motors; (2) wanlass motor modification,

N. Mohan

1981-01-01

332

Technology Assessment for Energy Conversion and Conservation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major thrust of this effort was to assemble a panel of seven technical experts with varied backgrounds who could take a fresh approach to recommending research topics in the area of energy conservation and conversion. The Panel had two meetings, with ...

J. A. Belding, M. D. Shapiro

1983-01-01

333

City of Corvallis Rental Housing Energy Conservation: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of the results of the Corvallis Rental Housing Energy Conservation Project. In addition to the report summary of the BPA project marketing and educational activities, Appendices A, B and C contain background material regarding the Corvallis weatherization financing program. For individuals reviewing the project results, these appendices are recommended reading for understanding Corvallis innovative approach

1986-01-01

334

The projected impact of lower oil prices on US energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

In view of conservation savings during a period of rising world oil prices (1972 to 1982), the dramatic drop in world oil prices in 1986 elicits the question: Do low world oil prices threaten the conservation savings that occurred during the previous decade. In order to test the potential loss in conservation from the drop in world oil prices in the target year 1995, two oil price scenarios were constructed: a case testing what would have occurred if oil prices remained at their 1984 level ($30/barrel in 1985 dollars), and one in which prices drop to and are maintained at $14/barrel (in 1985 dollars). This approach represents a boundary analysis, illustrating what could happen to conservation rather than predicting what will happen. By comparing projections of energy consumption under the two scenarios, the potential conservation loss from the drop in oil prices can be estimated: (1) potential conservation losses from lower world oil prices might be in the range of 9% in 1995; (2) only about one quarter of this conservation loss represents potential losses in energy efficiency; and (3) the remaining three quarters of the conservation losses result from behavioral changes and increased economic growth under lower prices. The answer to the question posed above is therefore yes; low oil prices do pose a threat to the conservation savings amassed during the past decade. But the threat is not as great as it could be 1-10% loss versus a 25% previous gain). This is because only a small part of the efficiency gains (about 2.5% out of 17%) would be lost. Most of the projected losses in conservation from low oil prices would be behavioral losses (almost all of the 8% past behavioral gain could be lost). 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

335

Sturgeon Conservation: Insights From Elasticity Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use elasticity analyses for three sturgeon species, the shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus, and white sturgeon A. transmontanus, to calculate the potential to increase population growth rate, l, by improving survival and fecundity. Elasticity analysis is a means of assessing changes to l resulting from conserva- tion initiatives. The elasticity of l to survival has a

MART R. GROSS; JOE REPKA; CORY T. ROBERTSON; DAVID H. SECOR; WEBB VAN WINKLE

336

Energy conservation for the eighties: the Willow Creek building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outstanding features of the overall architectural design and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system found in EG and G Idaho Inc.'s new Willow Creek Building are described. Energy-conservation efforts allow the Idaho Falls building to operate on less than 25% of the energy normally needed for a similar building. Life-cycle costing was used throughout the project to figure projected payback

M. Flatow; F. Bridgers

2009-01-01

337

CONSERVING ENERGY IN BLAST FREEZERS USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stationary blast freezer processing 22-lb cartons of sardines in 19,000 pound lots was modified to improve efficiency and to conserve energy. Baffles were first added to produce uniform air flow. Maximum measured freeze times of 12.6 hours fell to 10.5 hours; total electrical energy savings was estimated to be 12%. A Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) was then installed to

Edward Kolbe; Qingyue Ling; Greg Wheeler

338

The Family Life Cycle and Preferred Policies for Gasoline Conservation: A Conjoint Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used family life cycle as the basis for assessing public reaction to alternative energy-conservation measures in a sample of 367 adults. Results showed most respondents preferred some sort of energy conservation policy. Young marrieds were most concerned with conservation; middle-aged adults were least willing to adopt energy conservation

Tashchian, Armen; And Others

1983-01-01

339

Portland Energy Conservation Project. City energy plan: choices for saving energy in the residential sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed data are provided for energy consumed by space heating, water heating, appliances, lighting, and total home energy use. Ways to save in these areas are also indicated. Educational, incentive, and mandatory programs to implement these savings are outlined. Eighteen conservation programs for the city of Portland and the metropolitan region are described. Each program is created by combining specific

D. F. Mazziotti; G. M. Crandall

1976-01-01

340

40 CFR 73.80 - Operation of allowance reserve program for conservation and renewable energy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reserve program for conservation and renewable energy. 73.80 Section 73.80 Protection of...CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.80 Operation of...

2013-07-01

341

10 CFR 431.136 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.136 Energy conservation standards and their...Equipment type Type of cooling Harvest rate(lbs ice/24 hours) Maximum energy use(kWh/100 lbs ice)...

2009-01-01

342

10 CFR 431.136 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.136 Energy conservation standards and their...Equipment type Type of cooling Harvest rate(lbs ice/24 hours) Maximum energy use(kWh/100 lbs ice)...

2010-01-01

343

Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs: Illinois Experience and Alternative Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Conservation Program Staff, Energy Programs Division, has been assessing some generic issues arising from the evaluation of the experimental energy conservation programs implemented under the Illinois Commerce Commission's Dockets 83-0034 throu...

S. L. Tuma J. M. Fang

1991-01-01

344

Designing a Likert-Type Scale to Assess Attitude Toward Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are results of a study attempting to design a reliable and valid instrument measuring the attitudes of teachers toward energy conservation. A 22-item scale is presented as a result of several administrations to preservice elementary teachers. Items were submitted to Likert Item Analysis and further validated by principle components…

Koballa, Thomas, Jr.

345

Technical assessment of a direct contact heat exchanger as an energy conservation retrofit option  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to present the results of an engineering analysis of the energy conservation potential of a direct contact heat recovery process applied to residential sized warm air furnaces. A laboratory study was conducted using both a gas-fired furnace and an oil-fired furnace. A series of measurements were performed to measure various parameters associated with the

R. J. McDonald; J. D. Nally

1985-01-01

346

Residential heating and energy conservation study, Northport, New York. Phase 2: Citizen's handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation, energy laws of New York State and the United States Government, energy audits in the home, and tax credits are discussed. The behavior of heat and heat exchangers; energy conservation upgrading of the home; methods of taking advantage of heating effects of the Sun; and improving air circulation are discussed. Supplementary energy conservation topics, including a discussion of

C. N. Freeman

1978-01-01

347

Hood River Conservation Project: Load Analysis: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (Project), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use on a 15-minute basis. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in ...

T. K. Stovall

1988-01-01

348

Load Analysis : Final Report. [Hood River Conservation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (Project), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use on a 15-minute basis. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full

Stovall; Therese K

1987-01-01

349

Energy conservation multi-year plan, FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 2.0, on the Planning Context and Methodology, places energy conservation in the larger context of national energy policy and strategic objectives, discusses global trends in energy supply and economic developments relevant to program planning decisions, establishes certain policy guidance for portfolio planning, and outlines the methodology and assumptions used in the technical assessment of R and D needs and program priorities. While each Office performs its own independent assessments, common terms of reference are provided as to appropriate project evaluation considerations, quantitative energy-related measures, and the desire to incorporate private sector inputs explicitly in the planning process. Chapters 3.0 through 6.0 present the technical assessments themselves for each sector: the residential and commercial buildings program, transportation program, industrial program, and energy systems research programs (energy conversion and utilization technology, electric energy systems, and energy storage).

Not Available

1985-07-01

350

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 4: How to Search for Energy Conservation Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the fourth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself, or as a prerequisite to all or any of the modules in this series. The objective of this module is to train secondary and postsecondary students in the recognition of…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

351

FACT SHEET ON ENERGY CONSERVATION AT WASTE CLEANUP SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The fact sheet describes considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for remediation projects involving groundwater pump and treat systems. The document presents the findings of conducting an energy analysis at several sites and indicates lessons learned an...

352

Aircraft energy conservation during airport ground operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies and assesses potential fuel conservation options which are available for use during ground operations at Dulles International (IAD) and Washington National (DCA) airports. The study also identifies and analyzes ground operations fuel savings options which have been considered and/or implemented by the various airlines operating at IAD and/or DCA since 1971. In addition, an evaluation of computer models which could be used for analyzing these fuel conservation options at other airports is included. The impact of socio/economic factors such as safety, environment, limitation on expansion and restrictions on accommodating forecast activity at DCA and IAD were considered during the analysis of each option.

Bauchspies, J.S.; Costello, F.A.; Felder, J.; Hilliard, H.; Thompson, J.K.

1982-03-01

353

Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima  

SciTech Connect

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

1980-03-01

354

Energy and maximum norm estimates for nonlinear conservation laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have devised a technique that makes it possible to obtain energy estimates for initial-boundary value problems for nonlinear conservation laws. The two major tools to achieve the energy estimates are a certain splitting of the flux vector derivative f(u)(sub x), and a structural hypothesis, referred to as a cone condition, on the flux vector f(u). These hypotheses are fulfilled for many equations that occur in practice, such as the Euler equations of gas dynamics. It should be noted that the energy estimates are obtained without any assumptions on the gradient of the solution u. The results extend to weak solutions that are obtained as point wise limits of vanishing viscosity solutions. As a byproduct we obtain explicit expressions for the entropy function and the entropy flux of symmetrizable systems of conservation laws. Under certain circumstances the proposed technique can be applied repeatedly so as to yield estimates in the maximum norm.

Olsson, Pelle; Oliger, Joseph

1994-01-01

355

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENERGY GENERATING EXERCISE EQUIPMENT FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION EDUCATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The lack of effective energy conservation education and interest regarding alternative energy sources on Albion College’s campus illustrates a common problem among American university campuses. The purpose of this study is to integrate both education and renewable ...

356

75 FR 1121 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu), or quads, of cumulative energy over 30 years (2013-2043...trillion energy trillion energy trillion savings, quads gallons savings, quads gallons savings, quads...

2010-01-08

357

76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Energy Savings (quads).................. 0...efficiency levels. TSL 6 would save 3.14 quads of energy, an amount DOE considers significant...considered TSL 5. TSL 5 would save 1.45 quads of energy, an amount DOE considers...

2011-04-21

358

77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cumulative National Energy Savings in Quads Table V-50 Battery Chargers: Cumulative National Energy Savings in Quads Table V-51 Cumulative Net Present Value...2013-2042)--an estimated 0.99 quads of cumulative energy for EPSs....

2012-03-27

359

A Study on Energy Conservation in Textile Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In textile mill, electricity consumption is in increasing trend, due to modernised machines and continuous usage of the equipments in inefficient operating parameters. The energy cost is around 15 % to 20 % over the production cost and it stands next to raw material cost. Hence now a day's area of focus is towards energy consumption at load end and by optimizing the efficiency of the motor. In this paper, influence of motors and process of optimisation in textile mill on energy conservation is discussed with practical data.

Dhayaneswaran, Y.; Ashokkumar, L.

2013-03-01

360

Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)  

SciTech Connect

Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

2011-10-10

361

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt...Applicable for the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Program or Reduced Utilization...purposes of the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Program or reduced...

2011-07-01

362

Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42 percent from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of fuel ethanol plants is also studied.

1981-03-01

363

Global energy conservation in nonlinear spherical characteristic evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associated to the unique 4-parametric subgroup of translations, normal to the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group, there exists a generator of the temporal translation asymptotic symmetry. Such a descriptor of the motion along the conformal orbit near null infinity is propagated to finite regions. This allows us to observe the global energy conservation even in extreme situations near the critical behavior of the massless scalar field collapse in spherical symmetry.

Barreto, W.

2014-04-01

364

78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards (2015-2044) would amount to 7.0 quads (full-fuel-cycle energy).\\4\\ The annualized energy savings (0.23 quads) are equivalent to one percent of total...4\\ One quad (quadrillion Btu) is the equivalent...

2013-12-06

365

76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the ENERGY STAR program regarding smart grid enabled appliances. These stakeholders...ENERGY STAR performance level for smart grid enabled appliances that can provide...product specifications to address smart grid functionality. EPA recently...

2011-08-05

366

SYMPOSIUM ON ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY CONSERVATION, HELD AT DENVER, COLORADO, ON NOVEMBER 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

The principal objective of this symposium was to identify the environmental benefits and threats of alternative energy conservation systems and to compare the environmental impacts of energy conservation strategies....

367

77 FR 31964 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Dishwashers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Energy Savings (quads)..... 0.02...efficiency levels. TSL 4 would save 1.59 quads of energy and 1.71 trillion gallons of...considered TSL 3. TSL 3 would save 0.94 quads of energy and 0.56 trillion gallons...

2012-05-30

368

77 FR 32381 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Energy Savings (quads) 1.56...efficiency levels. TSL 5 would save 3.32 quads of energy and 6.89 trillion gallons of...considered TSL 4. TSL 4 would save 2.87 quads of energy and 5.33 trillion gallons...

2012-05-31

369

77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amount of energy-an estimated 0.41 quads over 30 years (2014 through 2043). According...energy consumption is projected to be 21.3 quads in 2015. The amount of energy saved per...combination Total * combination microwave ovens (quads) ovens (quads)...

2012-02-14

370

76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...energy--an estimated 3.36 to 4.38 quads of cumulative energy in 2013-2045 for...comprised of savings of 3.20 to 4.22 quads for the standards in this rule on energy efficiency and 0.16 quads for the standards in this rule on...

2011-06-27

371

76 FR 37549 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Energy Savings (quads).. 0.18...efficiency levels. TSL 7 would save 19.18 quads of energy, an amount DOE considers significant...considered TSL 6. TSL 6 would save 5.91 quads of energy, an amount DOE considers...

2011-06-27

372

Energy- and momentum-conserving AGN feedback outflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is usually assumed that outflows from luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) are either in the energy-conserving (non-radiative) or in the momentum-conserving (radiative) regime. We show that in a non-spherical geometry the effects of both regimes may manifest at the same time, and that it is the momentum of the outflow that sets the MBH-? relation. Considering an initially elliptical distribution of gas in the host galaxy, we show that a non-radiative outflow opens up a wide `escape route' over the paths of least resistance. Most of the outflow energy escapes in that direction. At the same time, in the directions of higher resistance, the ambient gas is affected mainly by the incident momentum from the outflow. Quenching SMBH growth requires quenching gas delivery along the paths of highest resistance, and therefore, it is the momentum of the outflow that limits the black hole growth. We present an analytical argument showing that such energy-conserving feedback bubbles driving leaky ambient shells will terminate SMBH growth once its mass reaches roughly the M? mass derived earlier by King for momentum-conserving AGN outflows. Our simulations also have potentially important implications for observations of AGN jet feedback and starburst galaxy feedback. The collimation of the wide angle AGN outflow away from the symmetry plane, as found in our simulations, indicates that credit for work done by such outflows may sometimes be mistakenly given to AGN jets or star formation feedback since wide angle v ˜ 0.1c outflows are harder to observe and the phase when they are present may be short.

Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei

2014-05-01

373

Criteria for the installation of energy conservation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard installation practices were developed to assist in assuring the effectiveness and safety of energy conservation measures. The criteria are being used by DOE to develop training manuals for installers, inspectors, and energy auditors. Issues that were considered in the development of the standards: moisture and building retrofit, attic ventilation, electrical wiring, recessed and surface-mounted fixtures, the use of diagnostic tools (infrared thermography, air change rate, and window air leakage measurements), and product certification are discussed. The products covered are loose-fill, batts and blankets, rigid foam boards, UF foam and reflective insulations, window devices, caulks and sealants, water heater insulation, oil burner replacements, and vent dampers.

Trechsel, H. R.; Launey, S. J.

1981-07-01

374

74 FR 61410 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shares of each financial instrument in household financial holdings...preliminary analysis, DOE did...rates. 12. Standard Effective...year of the analysis (2010...flows using standard accounting principles...represents the financial impact...

2009-11-24

375

Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these guidelines as…

Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

376

Energy policy, information costs, and secondary demand effects. [Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the OPEC nations' oil embargo of 1973, the U.S. Congress enacted Public Law 93-239 on January 2, 1974. The Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act has as its stated purpose the conservation of fuel ''during periods of current and imminent fuel shortages through the establishment of a national maximum highway speed limit.'' The act specifies that the Secretary

2009-01-01

377

A Digital Game-Based Learning System for Energy Education: An Energy COnservation PET  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy education has been conducted to equip learners with relevant energy conservation knowledge for many years. However, learners seldom put the knowledge into practice and even have few ideas about how to reduce energy consumption. To this end, there is a need to address this issue to improve the efficiency of energy education. One of the…

Yang, Jie Chi; Chien, Kun Huang; Liu, Tzu Chien

2012-01-01

378

Energy conservation in high-pT nuclear reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cronin effect, which is nuclear enhancement of high-pT hadron production in pA collisions was successfully predicted prior the measurements at RHIC and LHC. The restrictions imposed by energy conservation lead to spectacular effects. Energy deficit becomes an issue for hadron production in pA collisions at large xL and/or large xT toward the kinematic bounds xL, T = 1. It leads to a suppression, which has been indeed observed for hadrons produced at forward rapidities and large pT. Intensive energy dissipation via gluon radiation by a highly virtual parton produced with large pT, makes this process impossible to continue long. Color neutralization and creation of a colorless dipole must occur promptly. When this happens inside a hot medium created in AA collisions, attenuation of dipoles, rather than induced energy loss, becomes a dominant mechanism for suppression of high-pT hadrons.

Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Nemchik, J.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván

2014-04-01

379

Laboratory fume hood systems, their use and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

The operation of laboratory fume hoods accounts for most of the energy used in research facilities. The energy is consumed by the fan systems and conditioning of the makeup air. While these energy consumers are not different from other air-handling systems, the constraints associated with a fume system present difficult problems. The significant constraints are worker safety, precipitation, dispersion, corrosion, and reliability. The evolution of fume hood systems has seen constant-volume systems give way to variable-volume systems having heat recovery systems and refined control strategies. Described here is an energy-conserving system that has been placed in operation and a discussion of how it has met the design constraints and how it contrasts with other popular designs.

Maust, J.D.; Rundquist, R.P.

1987-06-01

380

76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sets would result in an additional 0.12 quads of additional energy savings over the 30-year...the vented hearth heaters to be 0.19 quads. 75 FR 20112, 20185 (April 16, 2010...the April 2010 standards would be 0.06 quads, which does not include any energy...

2011-07-22

381

National Energy Plan: Energy Conservation in Appliances. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy savings to the U.S. that could result from compliance with minimum efficiency standards for household appliances, as set forth in the National Energy Plan, selected current appliance technologies, and federal programs related to appliance energ...

1977-01-01

382

ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

1992-06-01

383

41 CFR 102-74.155 - What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.155 What energy conservation policy must Federal...

2013-07-01

384

40 CFR 63.7533 - Can I use efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...efficiency credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this...credits earned from implementation of energy conservation measures to comply with this...you want to take credit for implementing energy conservation measures identified in...

2013-07-01

385

41 CFR 102-74.170 - May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be granted?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart be...74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.170 May exceptions to the energy conservation policies in this subpart...

2013-07-01

386

Multi-faceted energy-conservation program. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to design and build 19 solar thermosiphoning air panels, insulate walls, generally tighten up the library building, and install other energy conserving devices. Another purpose of the project was to serve as a model to other libraries in Kentucky, to commercial buildings in this area, and to homeowners in the area. After much discussion with architects and among ourselves, we chose a type of solar installation that would be visible to the public and easily replicated. We also carried out a number of procedures to make the library building more energy efficient: installed a 7-day programmable setback thermostat; insulated the walls; improved weatherstripping around the doors; added an economizer control to our air-handling system; and put an electric damper controlling supply air to a large but intermittently usedmeeting room. These changes resulted in approximately $700 in savings from December 1981, through February 1982. Thus far, we have carried out public education with a sign, brochures, press releases, and the purchase of appropriate books; librarians have received our brochure, and some have attended a workshop given here on energy conservation and solar energy.

Not Available

1981-01-01

387

78 FR 55889 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...001 quadrillion British thermal units (quads). The average annual energy savings over...purchased in 2017 through 2046 is 0.04 quads.\\6...used for refrigeration in 2010 was 1.21 quads. Source: U.S. Department of...

2013-09-11

388

78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...transparent to all interested parties, DOE used an MS Excel spreadsheet model to calculate the energy savings and the national customer costs...53\\ DOE understands that MS Excel is the most widely used spreadsheet...

2013-04-18

389

77 FR 22472 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain External Power Supplies...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Email: Victor.Petrolati@ee.doe.gov. Mr. Michael Kido, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel...20585- 0121. Telephone: (202) 586-8145. Email: michael.kido@hq.doe.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background...

2012-04-16

390

Intraventricular vorticity favors conservation of kinetic energy along the cardiac cycle: analysis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy by post-processing color-doppler images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: This study assesses if the left ventricle (LV) filling vortex developed during diastole may be a mechanism that improves systolic efficiency. 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 37 healthy volunteers were studied. Recently, we have developed and validated a method that derives two-dimensional maps of the LV flow from standard color-Doppler sequences. Two-dimensional maps of instantaneous LV flow were obtained, and circulation, energy and position of the main and secondary vortices were calculated along the cardiac cycle. At aortic valve opening (AVO) the vortex circulation is higher in DCM subjects than healthy volunteers. However, the position of the vortex is farthest form LV outflow tract (LVOT), and this results in lower flow velocity in LVOT at AVO. This phenomenon is altered in patients with DCM.

Alhama, Marta; Benito, Yolanda; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Perez-David, Esther; Barrio, Alicia; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez Mansilla, Ana; Fernandez Aviles, Francisco; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

2011-11-01

391

End-use energy characterization and conservation potentials at DoD Facilities: An analysis of electricity use at Fort Hood, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the application of the LBL`s End-use Disaggregation Algorithm (EDA) to a DoD installation and presents hourly reconciled end-use data for all major building types and end uses. The project initially focused on achieving these objectives and pilot-testing the methodology at Fort Hood, Texas. Fort Hood, with over 5000 buildings was determined to have representative samples of nearly all of the major building types in use on DoD installations. These building types at Fort Hood include: office, administration, vehicle maintenance, shop, hospital, grocery store, retail store, car wash, church, restaurant, single-family detached housing, two and four-plex housings, and apartment building. Up to 11 end uses were developed for each prototype, consisting of 9 electric and 2 gas; however, only electric end uses were reconciled against known data and weather conditions. The electric end uses are space cooling, ventilation, cooking, miscellaneous/plugs, refrigeration, exterior lighting, interior lighting, process loads, and street lighting. The gas end uses are space heating and hot water heating. Space heating energy-use intensities were simulated only. The EDA was applied to 10 separate feeders from the three substations at Fort Hood. The results from the analyses of these ten feeders were extrapolated to estimate energy use by end use for the entire installation. The results show that administration, residential, and the bar-rack buildings are the largest consumers of electricity for a total of 250GWh per year (74% of annual consumption). By end use, cooling, ventilation, miscellaneous, and indoor lighting consume almost 84% of total electricity use. The contribution to the peak power demand is highest by residential sector (35%, 24 MW), followed by administration buildings (30%), and barrack (14%). For the entire Fort Hood installation, cooling is 54% of the peak demand (38 MW), followed by interior lighting at 18%, and miscellaneous end uses by 12%.

Akbari, H.; Konopacki, S.

1995-05-01

392

Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance  

PubMed Central

In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the ‘ultra’ conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

Morgan, Timothy M.; Case, L. Douglas

2014-01-01

393

Technology Utilization House Study Report. [For Energy Conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of Project TECH are: (1) to construct a single family detached dwelling for demonstrating the application of advanced technology and minimizing the requirement for energy and utility services, and (2) to help influence future development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water management systems with building configuration and construction materials. Components and methods expected to be cost effective over a 20 year span were studied. Emphasis was placed on the utilization of natural heating and cooling characteristics. Orientation and location of windows, landscaping, natural ventilation, and characteristics of the local climate and microclimate were intended to be used to best advantage. Energy conserving homes are most efficient when design for specific sites, therefore project TECH should not be considered a prototype design suitable for all locations. However, it does provide ideas and analytical methods which can be applied to some degree in all housing.

1974-01-01

394

Retrofit energy conservation in residential buildings in southern California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The common energy conservation techniques (ECTs) that can be retrofit-installed into residential buildings are surveyed. The quantity of saved energy for heating and cooling attributable to each ECT is evaluated for three common modes of heating: natural gas heating at 60/therm; heating via heat pump at $1.20/therm; and electric resistance heating at $2.40/therm. In every case, a life cycle cost comparison is made between the long term revenue due to energy conservation and a safe and conventional alternative investment that might be available to the prudent homeowner. The comparison between investment in an ECT and the alternative investment is brought into perspective using the life cycle payback period and an economic Figure of Merit (FOM). The FOM allows for relative ranking between candidate ECTs. Because the entire spectrum of winter heating climates in California is surveyed, the decision maker can determine whether or not a considered ECT is recommended in a given climate, and under what conditions an ECT investment becomes attractive.

Turner, R. H.; Birur, G. C.; Daksla, C.

1982-01-01

395

Functional and Structural Analysis of the Conserved EFhd2 Protein  

PubMed Central

EFhd2 is a novel protein conserved from C. elegans to H. sapiens. This novel protein was originally identified in cells of the immune and central nervous systems. However, it is most abundant in the central nervous system, where it has been found associated with pathological forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. The physiological or pathological roles of EFhd2 are poorly understood. In this study, a functional and structural analysis was carried to characterize the molecular requirements for EFhd2’s calcium binding activity. The results showed that mutations of a conserved aspartate on either EF-hand motif disrupted the calcium binding activity, indicating that these motifs work in pair as a functional calcium binding domain. Furthermore, characterization of an identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that introduced a missense mutation indicates the importance of a conserved phenylalanine on EFhd2 calcium binding activity. Structural analysis revealed that EFhd2 is predominantly composed of alpha helix and random coil structures and that this novel protein is thermostable. EFhd2’s thermo stability depends on its N-terminus. In the absence of the N-terminus, calcium binding restored EFhd2’s thermal stability. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding on EFhd2 functional and structural properties, and introduce it into the family of canonical EF-hand domain containing proteins.

Acosta, Yancy Ferrer; Rodriguez Cruz, Eva N.; Vaquer, Ana del C.; Vega, Irving E.

2013-01-01

396

Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

2010-06-01

397

Oxygen activation and the conservation of energy in cell respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the membrane-associated oxidases that catalyse respiratory reduction of 02 to water simultaneously couple this exergonic reaction to the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, or the cell membrane in prokaryotes, a process by which metabolic energy is conserved for subsequent synthesis of ATP. The molecular mechanism of 02 reduction and its linkage to H+ translocation are now emerging. The bimetallic haem iron-copper reaction centre in this family of enzymes is the critical structure for catalysis of both these processes.

Babcock, Gerald T.

1992-03-01

398

78 FR 36315 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards (2016-2045) amount to 0.48 quads. The average annual primary energy savings...products shipped in 2016-2045 were 0.01 quad. AHAM, Whirlpool, and GE questioned...for which the total savings were 0.01 quad or less. For the 2010 standards on...

2013-06-17

399

78 FR 64067 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...standards (2019- 2048) amount to 4.58 quads.\\2\\ For comparison, the estimated annual energy savings in 2030 (0.074 quads) is equal to 0.3 percent of total projected...2\\ A quad is equal to 10\\15\\ British thermal...

2013-10-25

400

78 FR 55781 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...39 quadrillion British thermal units (quads). The average annual energy savings over...purchased in 2017 through 2046 is 0.18 quads, which is equivalent to 14.8 percent...used for refrigeration in 2010 was 1.21 quads. Source: U.S. Department of...

2013-09-11

401

77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...parties, DOE used an MS Excel spreadsheet model to calculate the energy savings...understands that MS Excel is the most widely...DOE's use of MS Excel as the basis for the...NIA spreadsheet to calculate the NES and NPV,...

2012-02-10

402

78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document...rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is extended...

2013-05-02

403

The role of thermal energy storage in industrial energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems is shown to be extremely beneficial for several applications. Recent system studies resulting from contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) identified four especially significant industries where TES appears attractive - food processing, paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near term TES systems for these industries is over 9,000,000 bbl of oil. This savings is due to recuperation and storage in the food processing industry, direct fuel substitution in the paper and pulp industry and reduction in electric utility peak fuel use through inplant production of electricity from utilization of reject heat in the steel and cement industries.

Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

1979-01-01

404

Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.  

PubMed

Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. PMID:23869557

Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

2013-10-01

405

Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

Lucas, Robert G.

2006-12-01

406

Energy Management: A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to the Total Educational Energy Management (TEEM) approach for energy conservation at community colleges. This guide includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and…

Miller, Harry, Comp.; Rowe, Peter, Comp.

407

Energy conservation in rental housing: landlords' perceptions of problems and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Rental housing owners have had little incentive to invest in energy conservation measures for their buildings. As the cost of energy continues to rise, market incentives increase. This research explores the decision processes and criteria of a purposive sample of landlords in four cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, and San Francisco. The report outlines landlords' reasons for investing or not investing in energy conservation measures, the barriers they perceive to energy conservation, and their perceived solutions to energy problems in rental housing.

Levine, A.; Raab, J.; Astrein, B.; Bernstein, S.; Piernot, C.; Strahs, S.

1982-03-01

408

Comparative Lifecycle Energy Analysis: Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the position that more energy is conserved through recycling secondary materials than is generated from municipal solid waste incineration. Discusses one component of a lifecycle analysis--a comparison of energy requirements for manufacturing competing products. Includes methodological issues, energy cost estimates, and difficulties…

Morris, Jeffrey; Canzoneri, Diana

1992-01-01

409

Use of alternative energy and energy conservation in higher-education institutions  

SciTech Connect

The problem was to ascertain the applicability of alternative-energy technology and energy management and conservation principles and techniques to higher-education institutions and to suggest the probable effects of such technology, principles, and techniques on higher education institutions in general and on their organization and administration. Procedures involved study of related literature on the energy crisis with particular emphasis on fossil-fuel status, identification of alternative energy sources and the probability of their availability in years immediately ahead. There was also emphasis on the study of conservation techniques. Also utilized were questionnaires to higher-education institutions identified as being deeply involved in conservation or uses of alternative energy resources or both. While there has been considerable research about and development of alternative energy sources, energy-conservation techniques constitute the most-important process currently available. Those in use range from simple conservation techniques to the use of advanced computer systems. The most important deal with the improvement of the efficiency of existing systems. Educating the college community about the whole area of study was considered important. The physical plant director was found to be the key person in most situations. Continued concern on the part of administrators is necessary. The problem of the energy crisis will continue despite what appears to be a current easing of the situation.

Gette, G.R.

1983-01-01

410

How to start a utility residential energy conservation program. California Municipal Utility Residential Energy Conservation Project report of first-year activities. Consultant report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the activities of the first year of operation of the California Municipal Utility Residential Energy Conservation Project. The project, designed to foster residential energy conservation through the cooperative efforts of small utilities, is a five-year program of the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA), a group of eleven municipal utilities and one rural electric cooperative. The report consists

Aochi

1979-01-01

411

CONVEST: Energy Conservation Financing for Public and Not-for Profit Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1979, the DOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) has provided matching grants to public and not-for-profit institutions to undertake energy conservation measures. ICP's long-term goal, however, is to attract private sector financial resources ...

I. Keller

1985-01-01

412

77 FR 35299 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...conservation standards for residential electric water heaters on utility programs that use high-storage-volume (above 55 gallons) electric storage water heaters to reduce peak electricity...

2012-06-13

413

77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0053] Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2012-12-31

414

78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...Equipment and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-10-24

415

78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 431 [Docket No...EERE-2011-BT-TP-0024] RIN 1904-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency...and WH Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-12-31

416

Data acquisition system for energy conservation demonstration complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data acquisition system (DAS) was developed for unmanned operation at an energy conservation engineering test facility to monitor an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) house, a solar wet-plate system house, a standard air-source heat-pump house, and an air-heating-type solar collector in parallel with an air-to-air heat pump experiment. The DAS scans 160 channels each hour and records instantaneous temperature readings, integrated heat flows, weather data, and electric power consumed. The data system comprises standard, commercially available data system components where feasible. Special attention was given to selection of devices yielding high resolution and stability at the liquid flow rates and temperatures typical of such systems. System control by a proved computer-controller with an uninterruptible power source has resulted in greater than 99% availability of the DAS.

Miller, D. R.; Miller, G. N.

417

Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

Plankey, B.

1981-01-01

418

Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

Merriam, Daniel F.

2009-02-01

419

Energy conservation and cost benefits in the meat and poultry processing industry. Technology transfer; a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Auditing energy consumption and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities and investments can provide the most favorable economic return are covered. The wide-application energy-conservation techniques applicable in most industries, including the meat and poultry processing industries, are emphasized. Wide-application (often called generic) techniques include waste heat recovery, improvement of electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, and increases in boiler efficiencies. Specific examples of the application of these techniques in meat packing and poultry processing plants are cited. Specific processing changes that have already resulted in significant energy cost savings at some meat packing or poultry processing plants are examined. A summary checklist for energy conservation and brief case studies from industry are provided. Information is presented on energy price trends and discusses the analysis of capital investment alternatives.

Not Available

1982-01-01

420

Direct energy generation and energy conservation in radiation shielding facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the experimental and theoretical calculation of direct heat generation from the penetration of 6.20 MeV photons energy through double layer combinations of concrete (Al), steel (Fe) and lead (Pb) shields is described. The results are displayed in curves to show the distribution of heat generation in the shield thickness. The results show good agreement between the measured

G. C Bakos

2001-01-01

421

Installation-wide energy-conservation demonstration at Fort McClellan, Alabama. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the installation-wide energy conservation demonstration at Fort McClellan, AL, was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying available energy-conservation technologies and techniques to produce significant and predictable reductions in energy use and cost. Five major areas of energy conservation were identified and investigated: (1) pressure reduction in district-steam-heating systems; (2) reduction of outdoor air in heating, ventilation, and

L. M. Windingland; B. P. Lilly; J. A. Shonder; D. M. Underwood; L. J. Augustine

1988-01-01

422

Space and energy conservation housing prototype unit development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction plans are discussed for a house which will demonstrate the application of advanced technology to minimize energy requirements and to help direct further development in home construction by defining the interaction of integrated energy and water systems with building configuration and construction materials. Housing unit designs are provided and procedures for the analysis of a variety of housing strategies are developed.

Sunshine, D. R.

1975-01-01

423

Technical support document: Survey data used in revising the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards  

SciTech Connect

This report documents data used in the development of revised energy conservation standards for manufactured housing. The approach used in developing the proposed standard revision is a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy conservation measures (ECM) are balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The analysis used to develop the recommendations for revision of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) energy conservation standards for manufactured housing requires information on specific ECMs. This technical support document contains the data from two of the three surveys that were used primarily to characterize the available ECMs and their associated costs. The analyses of these data are provided in separate reports. 5 refs.

Lee, A.D.; Conner, C.C.

1992-02-01

424

Effect of energy and momentum conservation on fluid resonances for resonant magnetic perturbations in a tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the impact of momentum and energy conservation of the collision operator in the kinetic description for Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in a tokamak is studied. The particle conserving differential collision operator of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type is supplemented with integral parts such that energy and momentum are conserved. The application to RMP penetration in a tokamak shows that energy conservation in the electron collision operator is important for the quantitative description of plasma shielding effects at the resonant surface. On the other hand, momentum conservation in the ion collision operator does not significantly change the results.

Leitner, Peter; Heyn, Martin F.; Ivanov, Ivan B.; Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried

2014-06-01

425

Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed. PMID:23750633

Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

2013-10-01

426

A Multilevel Analysis of the Determinants of Forest Conservation Behavior Among Farmers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a behavioral analysis of farmers' decisions to participate in forest conservation programs. Using the theory of planned behavior as a conceptual framework, we examine the determinants of forest conservation at the farmer level and investigate whether the organizational, structural, and ecological characteristics of Forêt des Pins Reserve villages affect forest conservation behavior. Analysis of data collected from 243

Frito Dolisca; Joshua M. McDaniel; Dennis A. Shannon; Curtis M. Jolly

2009-01-01

427

The Energy Education Bibliography. An Annotated Bibliography of Key Resources for Energy and Conservation Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography lists approximately 180 energy and conservation education resources. The bibliography is intended to aid K-12 classroom teachers and curriculum developers identify key resources as they develop and implement energy education programs. Sample topics in the works listed deal with the story of natural gas, living with…

Scherner, Sharon; And Others

428

Handbook on solar energy and energy conservation for Arizona local governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Guidebooks comprise the Handbook. Guidebook 1 provides information for local leaders on how to initiate and develop a local energy program. Guidebook 2, Planning and Zoning for Solar Access, provides assistance to people involved in the development and operation of planning and zoning methods to provide local solar access protection. Guidebook 3, Incorporating Solar Energy Conservation into Local Codes,

D. E. Osborn; S. Pfister; D. Harper; T. English; W. Biddle; D. Smith

2008-01-01

429

Energy conservation in the food industry. (Latest citations from Food Science Technology abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning energy conservation in the food industry. Energy requirements, basic approaches to energy audits, plant design, and the equipment and fuel for food processing are discussed. Alternative energy sources, energy recovery and other energy saving devices are considered as measures for conservation. Energy saving techniques and measures in dairies, meat packing plants, breweries, and various other processing plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 158 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

430

Molecular mechanism of energy conservation in polysulfide respiration  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial polysulfide reductase (PsrABC) is an integral membrane protein complex responsible for quinone-coupled reduction of polysulfide, a process important in extreme environments such as deep-sea vents and hot springs. We determined the structure of polysulfide reductase from Thermus thermophilus at 2.4-{angstrom} resolution, revealing how the PsrA subunit recognizes and reduces its unique polyanionic substrate. The integral membrane subunit PsrC was characterized using the natural substrate menaquinone-7 and inhibitors, providing a comprehensive representation of a quinone binding site and revealing the presence of a water-filled cavity connecting the quinone binding site on the periplasmic side to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that polysulfide reductase could be a key energy-conserving enzyme of the T. thermophilus respiratory chain, using polysulfide as the terminal electron acceptor and pumping protons across the membrane via a previously unknown mechanism.

Jormakka, Mika; Yokoyama, Ken; Yano, Takahiro; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Akimoto, Satoru; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Curmi, Paul; Iwata, So (JSTA); (Tokyo I); (SP8); (Tokyo U); (New South)

2008-09-03

431

Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

432

CONSERVATIVE CASCADE OF KINETIC ENERGY IN COMPRESSIBLE TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

The physical nature of compressible turbulence is of fundamental importance in a variety of astrophysical settings. We investigate the question: 'At what scales does the mechanism of pressure-dilatation operate?' and present the first direct evidence that mean kinetic energy cascades conservatively beyond a transitional 'conversion' scale range despite not being an invariant of the dynamics. We use high-resolution 1024{sup 3} subsonic and transonic simulations. The key quantity we measure is the pressure-dilatation cospectrum, E{sup PD}(k), where we show that it decays at a rate faster than k{sup -1} in wavenumber in at least the subsonic and transonic regimes. This is sufficient to imply that mean pressure-dilatation acts primarily at large scales and that kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional scale range. However, we observe that small-scale dynamics remains highly compressible locally in space and that the statistical decoupling in the energy budgets is unrelated to the existence of a subsonic scale range. Our results suggest that an extension of Kolmogorov's inertial-range theory to compressible turbulence is possible.

Aluie, Hussein; Li Shengtai; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2012-06-01

433

Vavilov's Paradox: On Paper, It's a Violation of the Energy Conservation Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the energy flux-density of two beams of light of equal energy that are intersected at a given angle. Examines an apparent contradiction to the physics law of conservation of energy known as Vavilov's paradox. (MDH)

Fabrikant, V. A.

1992-01-01

434

78 FR 62488 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AD06 Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date for the Dehumidifier Test Procedure...Energy (DOE) proposes to revise the compliance date for the dehumidifier test procedures...in the DOE regulations to determine compliance with the existing energy...

2013-10-22

435

Study of Methods to Stimulate Private Investment in Hospital Energy Conservation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hospital energy conservation can address two societal concerns - persistent health care cost inflation and excessive energy use. While hospitals can achieve some energy savings by implementing no-cost or low-cost changes in building operations and mainten...

M. J. Morrow G. J. Schooler R. A. Maturi T. M. Raichel

1984-01-01

436

78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket No EERE-2013-BT-DET-0057] RIN 1904-AD14 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer...Consumer Product AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

2013-12-31

437

75 FR 22213 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, Incandescent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1904-AB72 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, Incandescent Reflector Lamps, and General Service Incandescent Lamps; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2010-04-28

438

76 FR 41510 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan for Commercial Wind Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Habitat Conservation Plan for Commercial Wind Energy Developments Within Nine States...maintenance associated with multiple commercial wind energy facilities. The planning partners...issuance of an ITP that would facilitate wind energy development within the...

2011-07-14

439

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources —(1) In...

2011-04-01

440

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources —(1) In...

2012-04-01

441

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources â(1) In...

2010-04-01

442

26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. 1.23-6 Section...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources. (a) Procedures...energy-conserving components or renewable energy sources â(1) In...

2009-04-01

443

Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

2012-01-01

444

Energy Conservation Error in the Material Point Method for Solid Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material point method (MPM) for solid mechanics conserves mass and momentum by construction, but energy conservation is not explicitly enforced. Material constitutive response and internal energy are carried on discrete points (material points), while the governing equations are solved on an overlying grid. The constitutive response (and internal energy) may be updated at the beginning or end of a

S. G. Bardenhagen

2002-01-01

445

Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)  

SciTech Connect

The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

Liu Zhiping [State Planning Commission, Beijing (China). Energy Research Inst.; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-09-01

446

Energy Conservation: An Expanding Program Needing More Direction. Report to the Secretary of Energy by the U.S. General Accounting Office.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has not succeeded in establishing overall energy conservation goals or in developing and implementing a comprehensive, coordinated national energy conservation plan. These failures continue to perpetuate confusion over how much energy conservation is needed, how well the country is conserving energy,…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

447

Generating heavy particles with energy and momentum conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel algorithm, called REGGAE, for the generation of momenta of a given sample of particle masses, evenly distributed in Lorentz-invariant phase space and obeying energy and momentum conservation. In comparison to other existing algorithms, REGGAE is designed for the use in multiparticle production in hadronic and nuclear collisions where many hadrons are produced and a large part of the available energy is stored in the form of their masses. The algorithm uses a loop simulating multiple collisions which lead to production of configurations with reasonably large weights. Program summaryProgram title: REGGAE (REscattering-after-Genbod GenerAtor of Events) Catalogue identifier: AEJR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9608 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed. Operating system: Originally designed on Linux PC with g++, but it has been compiled and ran successfully on OS X with g++ and MS Windows with Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, as well. RAM: This depends on the number of particles which are generated. For 10 particles like in the attached example it requires about 120 kB. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The task is to generate momenta of a sample of particles with given masses which obey energy and momentum conservation. Generated samples should be evenly distributed in the available Lorentz-invariant phase space. Solution method: In general, the algorithm works in two steps. First, all momenta are generated with the GENBOD algorithm. There, particle production is modeled as a sequence of two-body decays of heavy resonances. After all momenta are generated this way, they are reshuffled. Each particle undergoes a collision with some other partner such that in the pair center of mass system the new directions of momenta are distributed isotropically. After each particle collides only a few times, the momenta are distributed evenly across the whole available phase space. Starting with GENBOD is not essential for the procedure but it improves the performance. Running time: This depends on the number of particles and number of events one wants to generate. On a LINUX PC with 2 GHz processor, generation of 1000 events with 10 particles each takes about 3 s.

Mereš, Michal; Melo, Ivan; Tomášik, Boris; Balek, Vladimír; ?erný, Vladimír

2011-12-01

448

Another look at 90-75: will less glass save more energy. [90-75: a building design standard for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard 90-75, Energy Conservation in New Building Design, provides perspective guidelines for the thermal design of a building envelope; the design of mechanical, electrical, and illumination equipment; and systems that promote the efficient use of energy. The standard was prepared and approved by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). An analysis is given of the

Gujral

1976-01-01

449

Analysis of Ultra Low Genome Conservation in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Microarray-based comparative genome hybridisations (CGH) and genome sequencing of Clostridium difficile isolates have shown that the genomes of this species are highly variable. To further characterize their genome variation, we employed integration of data from CGH, genome sequencing and putative cellular pathways. Transcontinental strain comparison using CGH data confirmed the emergence of a human-specific hypervirulent cluster. However, there was no correlation between total toxin production and hypervirulent phenotype, indicating the possibility of involvement of additional factors towards hypervirulence. Calculation of C. difficile core and pan genome size using CGH and sequence data estimated that the core genome is composed of 947 to 1,033 genes and a pan genome comprised of 9,640 genes. The reconstruction, annotation and analysis of cellular pathways revealed highly conserved pathways despite large genome variation. However, few pathways such as tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis were found to be variable and could be contributing to adaptation towards virulence such as antibiotic resistance.

Scaria, Joy; Ponnala, Lalit; Janvilisri, Tavan; Yan, Weiwei; Mueller, Lukas A.; Chang, Yung-Fu

2010-01-01

450

Energy from municipal waste: assessment of energy conservation and recovery in municipal wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a qualitative report on the status of a program for energy conservation in wastewater treatment. Analyzing the nation's energy requirements for wastewater treatment by process has shown that the wastewater- and sludge-stabilization processes accounted for more than 56% of the energy used for wastewater treatment in 1978. Advanced processes are projected to have the largest increase in energy of all treatment processes between 1978 and the year 2000. To promote energy conservation in wastewater treatment, DOE has sponsored a number of projects (either wholly or in part), including the following: demonstration of the anaerobic upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor at Knoxville, Tenn.; assessment of digester-gas production and use in anaerobic-digestion facilities; study of the enhancement of anaerobic digestion by carbon addition; demonstration of water-hyacinth wastewater-treatment (WHWT) at Lake Buena Vista, Florida; and demonstration of unheated anaerobic contact stabilization (UACS) of sludge. These programs are described. 19 references, 22 figures, 29 tables.

Pierson, F.W.; Pearson, C.V.

1984-10-01

451

Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management.

Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

2014-01-01

452

Thermostat with a local heat-bath coupling for exact energy conservation in dissipative particle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a Markov process which models particle hydrodynamics with conservation of the first three momenta. This is achieved by extending the [Peters, Europhys. Lett. 66, 311 (2004)] and [Lowe, Europhys. Lett. 47, 145 (1999)] method to incorporate energy conservation. The equivalence of the energy conserving Peters method and dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation (DPDE) in the limit of a vanishing time step is shown. Simple numerical experiments clearly demonstrate the applicability of the methods. This overcomes current limitations of DPDE in the study of complex fluids in the (N,V,E) ensemble.

Pastewka, Lars; Kauzlari?, David; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G.

2006-03-01

453

Reading the Energy Meter on Development. The Interaction of Land Use and Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, through a case study approach, has documented on a national basis the crucial role that urban design and land use planning have towards achieving meaningful energy conservation. With a set of study areas representative of present and future de...

1976-01-01

454

Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a new industrial facility  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the pros and cons of several energy, savings estimating methods considered as part of a recent impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at a lumber mill in the Pacific Northwest. The energy conservation measures (adjustable speed drives, programmable logic controllers, and high efficiency motors) were installed when the mill was initially constructed rather than being installed as a retrofit. Therefore, direct measurement of baseline energy consumption was impossible. As described in this paper, several reasonable methods can be formulated for estimating the energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist. The alternative methods will often result in radically different energy savings estimates, which may translate into significantly different conclusions regarding the efficacy of the energy conservation measures and/or the energy conservation program being evaluated. Therefore, it is critical to understand and carefully consider the options for estimating energy savings when a physical baseline does not exist.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-08-01

455

10 CFR 455.113 - Grantee records and reports for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...  

...for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants...technical assistance program or an energy conservation measure, including renewable resource measures, shall keep...either both to the State energy agency, or one to the...

2014-01-01

456

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation, and Measures...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false List of Qualified Energy Conservation Measures, Qualified Renewable Generation...CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve Pt. 73, Subpt. F, App. A...

2013-07-01

457

Kuluttajien kaeyttaeytymisen ja energiansaeaestoen tutkimusohjelma. Vuosiraportti 1994. (Research program on consumer habits and energy conservation. Progress report 1994).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research program is to find energy- conservation potentials in the various sectors of energy consumption which could be realized through the actions of households and individuals. The energy-conservation potentials could be realized. Re...

A. Arvola

1995-01-01

458

Homeowners energy conservation and consumption behavior: wood users and non/low wood users  

SciTech Connect

Relationships among energy expenditure, energy consumption, energy-budget share, energy managerial practices, housing, and household-membership factors for non/low wood-user and high wood-user households were examined to explain substitution of fuelwood for primary fuels. Data were from a nationwide representative sample of 1599 homeowners collected by the Department of Energy in 1982-1983 Residential Energy Conservation Survey. In three multivariate regression models, different dependent variables - energy expenditure, energy consumption, and energy budget share, were used. The same independent variables - housing factors, household energy managerial practices, and household membership factors, were used in the three models. Finally, in a fourth model, discriminant analysis with the dichotomous criterion variable of non/low or high wood users and significant variables from the multivariate regressions models were used to explain 34% of the variance. The amount of space heated, their appliance use, whether they had teenage children, and if they were single-earner households were significant explanatory variables in all four models.

Urich, J.R.

1986-01-01

459

Projected Impact of Lower Oil Prices on US Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In view of conservation savings during a period of rising world oil prices (1972 to 1982), the dramatic drop in world oil prices in 1986 elicits the question: Do low world oil prices threaten the conservation savings that occurred during the previous deca...

1988-01-01

460

Energy and Water Conservation Curriculum Development in Irrigation Technology for the Pacific Northwest. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project was conducted to develop curriculum materials for classes in energy and water conservation for the Irrigation Technology Program at Walla Walla Community College. To develop the curriculum, the principal investigator read and analyzed materials on the subjects of water and energy conservation, participated in a short course on drip…

Peterson, James R.

461

An Energy Conservation Retrofit Process for Existing Public and Institutional Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was developed to provide assistance to public officials first considering energy conservation in existing public buildings. The manual focuses on management decisions which must be made in implementing energy conservation programs for existing buildings. It provides assistance in developing a plan of attack, establishing schedules,…

Tiedeman, Thomas V.

462

Sixty-five: Communication and the Adoption of Energy Conservation Measures by the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the relationship of various forms of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners, and to compare the energy conserving behavior of those under 65 with those over 65, a three-year panel study was conducted in a Midwest suburban community. Heads of households who owned single family dwellings were…

Griffin, Robert J.

463

Assessment of energy and natural resources conservation in office buildings using TOBUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for optimum energy use and conservation of natural resources in representative southern and northern European office buildings is evaluated using the new European TOBUS methodology and software for office building refurbishment. Various scenarios are being accessed for energy and water conservation in office buildings. The proposed retrofit actions focus in the areas of space heating and cooling, artificial

C. A Balaras; K Droutsa; A. A Argiriou; K Wittchen

2002-01-01

464

Energy conservation policy evaluation. Study module 1A, volume 2: Technical appendix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed technical analyses of energy conservation measures are presented. For each measure there is a description of how the measure works to reduce consumption; an assessment of potential savings, costs, and returns to adopters; probable 'normal' adoption rates under present policies; and potential adoption rates if some additional conservation policy options are implemented. Environmental residuals from energy end uses, and

K. Bergstresser; R. E. Berney; L. F. Carter; L. B. Craine; R. C. Dunlap

1978-01-01

465

Energy Conservation in Buildings--A Human Factors/Systems Viewpoint. NBS Building Science Series 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current emphasis on energy conservation in buildings must be balanced by a careful consideration of how proposed approaches affect building occupants. A headlong rush toward building designs that conserve energy at the expense of the quality of buildings as judged by occupants would be a very shortsighted approach. There must be a continual…

Rubin, Arthur I.

466

Solutions to Cosmological Problems with Energy Conservation and Varying c, G and ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flatness and cosmological constant problems are solved with varying speed of light c, gravitational coupling strength G and cosmological parameter ?, by explicitly assuming energy conservation of observed matter. The present solution to the flatness problem is the same as a previous solution in which energy conservation was absent.

Gopakumar, P.; Vijayagovindan, G. V.

467

Ruins and Urban Context: Analysis Towards Conservation and Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of a study of classics theatres and amphitheatres in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. The analysis started from the mapping of the Greek and Roman cities and has been focused in particular to the study of the transformations of these cities from the Middle Age to today, carried out through cartographic surveys, archival investigations and direct analysis. This process has led to understanding the different kinds of reuse that the theaters and amphitheatres have undergone throughout the centuries. Then, by comparing the historical city maps to the current ones (e.g. the maps of urban land registers), the archaeological traces of theatres and amphitheatres still incorporated in the current urban buildings have been located. Finally, a survey of the current situation has allowed identifying the material consistency and morphological characterization of these ancient artifacts. The process led to the proposal of strategies for the conservation and enhancement of ancient entertainment buildings, that respect both the archeological elements and the successive stratification that characterize today our historical cities.

Romeo, E.; Rudiero, R.

2013-07-01

468

Residential energy consumption and conservation programs: A systematic approach to identify inefficient households, provide meaningful feedback, and prioritize homes for conservation intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three main objectives for residential energy conservation policies: to reduce the use of fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce the energy costs seen by the consumer (U.S. Department of Energy: Strategic Objectives, 2006). A prominent difficulty currently facing conservation policy makers and program managers is how to identify and communicate with households that would be good

Amelia Chadbourne Carus Macsleyne

2007-01-01

469

75 FR 17078 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification Information Collection...Management and Budget (OMB) the mandatory Compliance Certification information collection...or private labeler must certify its compliance with energy efficiency standards...

2010-04-05

470

75 FR 17079 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification Information Collection...OMB) a three-year extension of its compliance certification information collection...private labelers to report on and certify compliance with energy efficiency standards...

2010-04-05

471

77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 [Docket No...EERE-2012-BT-DET-0033] RIN 1904-AC83 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer...alternative ways of reducing negative effects. Also, as required...Counsel's Web site at...

2012-12-31

472

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications with more than one energy conservation measure per building shall include projected costs...or utilization change to the building which significantly modified energy use, for each building; (7) An update of the...

2009-01-01

473

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications with more than one energy conservation measure per building shall include projected costs...or utilization change to the building which significantly modified energy use, for each building; (7) An update of the...

2010-01-01

474

Swedish National and Local Government Programs for Conservation of Energy in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, consisting of ten essays by different authors, is an initial Swedish contribution to the research cooperation within Annex VII of the International Energy Agency. A broad scope of subjects within the area of promotion of energy conservation i...

T. Klingberg J. Broechner L. Engebeck C. Ericsson O. Hirn

1982-01-01

475

Energy engineering analysis program, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. Energy savings opportunity survey. Executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an Energy Savings Opportunity Survey performed under the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. This study included on-site investigation, engineering analysis and produced recommendations for project implementation. All of the Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) listed in the ECO checklist (Figure ES-1, page ES-4) were considered in accordance with the Scope of Work for this study. Other Energy Conservation Opportunities were added to the original ECO checklist as they were discovered.

NONE

1987-07-01

476

Energy use and conservation in the USSR: Patterns, prospects, and problems  

SciTech Connect

We present an extensive analysis of the structure and intensity of energy use in the USSR since 1960. After a brief review of the energy supply situation in the USSR we analyze sectoral and sub-sectoral activity in the industrial, transportation, residential, and services sectors. The Soviet Union produces more steel and cement, and ships far more freight, per unit of income, than Western Countries. But Soviet citizens have less space in their homes and in the service sector, fewer appliances, far fewer cars, and travel only one-third as much as their Western counterparts. A comparison of the energy intensities of key activities in the USSR with those of Western countries, shows that in most cases the Soviet Union uses more energy than Western countries per unit of activity. However, we reject aggregate measures as tools for analyzing the past evolution of Soviet energy use, or for predicting energy use in the future. This is because both the structure of the Soviet economy and the intensities of energy uses in the USSR differ so greatly from Western experience. The opportunities for energy conservation in the Soviet Union are truly enormous. Were the energy intensities of the major activities in the USSR to fall to the levels of Western Europe, energy use in the USSR would in 1985 would have been 1/3 lower than it actually was. But there are many barriers to the realization of these savings. The problems in obtaining increased efficiencies are more institutional than technical: the USSR has had little economic incentive to invest in more efficient energy use. Energy prices determined by a central pricing authority have not kept pace with world energy prices or domestic energy production. The dilemma for the Soviet Union is that energy inefficiency is really a product of all the other inefficiencies in the Soviet economy.

Schipper, L.; Cooper, R.C.

1991-04-01

477

An Economic Analysis of New Zealand's Conservation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

recent publication from the New Zealand Business Roundtable titled Con- servation Strategies for New Zealand, and written for the Tasman Institute by Peter Hartley, an Australian-born economist at Rice University, Texas, briefly produced ripples of unease through New Zealand conservation circles. It was publicly dismissed by most conservation groups and Department of Conserva- tion (DoC). Even Dr Nick Smith, the

John L. Craig

1998-01-01

478

Applying spatial analysis for precision conservation across the landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although new technologies such as precision farming will contribute to increasing yields per unit area, similarly soil and water conservation will be instrumental in maintaining these increases in productivity while reducing environmental degradation, off-site transport, and water pollution. Initially, 'precision conservation' was defined as the integration of spatial technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing, and geographic information

J. K. Berry; J. A. Delgado; F. J. Pierce; R. Khosla

479

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

480

Conservative relativity principle: Logical ground and analysis of relevant experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest a new relativity principle, which asserts the impossibility to distinguish the state of rest and the state of motion at the constant velocity of a system, if no work is done to the system in question during its motion. We suggest calling this new rule as "conservative relativity principle" (CRP). In the case of an empty space, CRP is reduced to the Einstein special relativity principle. We also show that CRP is compatible with the general relativity principle. One of important implications of CRP is the dependence of the proper time of a charged particle on the electric potential at its location. In the present paper we consider the relevant experimental facts gathered up to now, where the latter effect can be revealed. We show that in atomic physics the introduction of this effect furnishes a better convergence between theory and experiment than that provided by the standard approach. Finally, we reanalyze the Mössbauer experiments in rotating systems and show that the obtained recently puzzling deviation of the relative energy shift between emission and absorption lines from the relativistic prediction can be explained by the CRP.

Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga; Missevitch, Oleg

2014-05-01

481

Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aleutian\\/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in

Bruce Wright

2011-01-01

482

Measured results of energy-conservation retrofits in nonresidential buildings: Interpreting metered data  

SciTech Connect

Most estimates of energy savings and cost-effectiveness of building energy conservation measures are based on engineering calculations or computer simulations. A compilation of utility billing data in occupied buildings is an important compliment to these estimates and provides feedback on building owners and operators on how well conservation retrofits work in practice. We have compiled energy consumption data on over 300 nonresidential buildings that have been retrofitted with energy conservation measures. For the 94% of the buildings in our sample that saved site energy, median savings were 31 kBtu/ft/sup 2/-year (350 MJ/m/sup 2/-year). In this paper, the authors discuss the benefits and limitations of using whole-building metered data to evaluate energy savings attributable to conservation measures. Submetered energy consumption data are scarce; they present examples and discuss the additional benefits such data can provide to the building operator in assessing the impacts of specific retrofit measures.

Gardiner, B.L.; Piette, M.A.

1985-01-01

483

Demonstration of Energy-Conserving Techniques for Retrofitting Commercial Greenhouses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Curiously, although all commercial greenhouses receive abundant solar radiation daily, they are not solar reliant. No attempt is made to capture, store, or conserve the potential solar heat. Instead, most excess heat is simply vented to the outside and is...

1983-01-01

484

Proceedings of the 1978 National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation (Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 24-27, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the proceedings of the National Conference on Technology for Energy Conservation held in January 1978, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The 112 papers included are organized under the following topics: (1) Legal Considerations; (2) Energy from Biomass; (3) Energy Conservation in Agriculture; (4) Status of Energy Conservation;…

Information Transfer, Inc., Rockville, MD.

485

Mapping and navigating mammalian conservation: from analysis to action  

PubMed Central

Although mammals are often seen as important objects of human interest and affection, many are threatened with extinction. A range of efforts have been proposed and much work has been done to try to conserve mammals, but there is little overall understanding of what has worked and why. As a result, there is no global-scale, coordinated approach to conserving all mammals. Rather, conservation efforts are usually focused at jurisdictional levels where relevant legislation and policies are in force. To help build the framework for a global-scale approach, in this paper we review the many ways that have been proposed for conserving mammals. First, we examine the overall pattern of threat faced by mammals at the global level. Secondly, we look at the major structuring issues in prioritizing and planning mammal conservation, examining in particular the roles of values and scale and a set of approaches to conservation, each of which varies along a continuum. Finally, we lay out the steps necessary to move from planning to implementing mammalian conservation.

Redford, Kent H.; Ray, Justina C.; Boitani, Luigi

2011-01-01

486

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 1: Awareness of the Energy Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the first in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself, to be integrated with the other ten modules into a program on energy conservation, or to be integrated into conventional vocational courses as a unit of instruction. The…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

487

Impact evaluation of energy conservation measures installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Company under the Energy Savings Plan  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of adjustable speed drives (ASDs), programmble logic controllers (PLCs), and high efficiency motors (HEMs) that were recently installed at Mayr Brothers Logging Co., Inc. (Mayr Bros.) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The project consists of ASDs, PLCs, and HEMs that were installed at the Mayr Bros. new small log nill at their facility in Hoquiam, Washington. Energy savings directly accrue through improved motor efficiency and indirectly accrue via an increase in production rate. This latter effect reduces energy consumption per unit of production by spreading fixed energy requirements over a greater number of units. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electricity is being saved at Mayr Bros. as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Mayr Bros. proposal and completion report). The energy conservation measures were incorporated into the small log mill while the mill was constructed in 1992 and 1993. Financing the new mill had stretched Mayr Bros. cash and credit resources to the limit. Without the acquisition payment, Mayr Bros. would not have been able to afford the additional investment in the energy conservation measures. Therefore, all of the project`s impact can be attributed to the E$P. The key recommendation resulting from this impact evaluation is to avoid the direct comparison of energy consumption estimates derived via engineering calculations and metering. If ``before and after`` metering is not possible, engineering calculations should be calibrated against metered data to enhance comparability.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1995-05-01

488

Energy-conservation mechanisms and potentials of landscape design to ameliorate building microclimates  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the space-conditioning energy-conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates is made. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past studies concerning the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations for further research are presented. 92 references, 6 figures.

Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.

1983-01-01

489

Comparison of various balance systems for energy conservation in a vertically articulated manipulator with three joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to conserve dissipated energy from machines in order to reduce global warming. This paper discusses energy conservation in a vertically articulated three-joint manipulator with a rotation–pivot–pivot structure. The amount of dissipated energy can be decreased by canceling out the gravity on the second and the third links of the manipulator using a mass balancer or a spring

Teruyuki Izumi; Jun Amano; Yiting Zhu

2007-01-01

490

Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials  

SciTech Connect

The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

1982-04-01

491

Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 5: Analysis of Physical Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activity 5 of the Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP) evaluated physical conditions at 15 study reaches in the Tennessee River Valley. This was part of a multiphase project to study several environmental factors as they relate to freshwater ...

P. Ostrowski E. Speaks

1986-01-01

492

CDD: a conserved domain database for interactive domain family analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conserved domain database (CDD) is part of NCBI's Entrez database system and serves as a primary resource for the annotation of conserved domain footprints on protein sequences in Entrez. Entrez's global query interface can be accessed at http:\\/\\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\\/Entrez and will search CDD and many other databases. Domain annota- tion for proteins in Entrez has been pre-computed and is readily

Aron Marchler-bauer; John B. Anderson; Myra K. Derbyshire; Carol Deweese-scott; Noreen R. Gonzales; Marc Gwadz; Luning Hao; Siqian He; David I. Hurwitz; John D. Jackson; Zhaoxi Ke; Dmitri M. Krylov; Christopher J. Lanczycki; Cynthia A. Liebert; Chunlei Liu; Fu Lu; Shennan Lu; Gabriele H. Marchler; Mikhail Mullokandov; James S. Song; Narmada Thanki; Roxanne A. Yamashita; Jodie J. Yin; Dachuan Zhang; Stephen H. Bryant

2007-01-01

493

Energy Engineering Analysis Program for NAHA Port and Torii Station Okinawa, Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Energy Engineering Analysis (EEA) Program is to develop an energy system plan that will reduce basewide energy consumption. A number of potential energy conservation opportunities (ECO) have been reviewed for technical and economic fe...

1982-01-01

494

Energy conserving norms for the solution of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hyperbolic system of partial differential equations with a real constant square coefficient matrix A is considered. The problem of finding an energy conserving norm for the solution of the system is reduced to the problem of characterizing those matrices appearing in the boundary conditions which satisfy two specific matrix equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficient matrix A and the matrices appearing in boundary conditions are derived for an energy conserving norm. The conditions serve as criteria on a given system which determine whether or not the solution will have its energy conserved in some norm. Examples of specific systems and boundary conditions are also provided.

Gunzburger, M. D.; Plemmons, R. J.

1979-01-01

495

76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Use Plan Amendment, Southern California: Environmental Impact Statement...Management (BLM), together with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and...Oviscanadensisnelsoni), endangered California condor...

2011-07-29

496

An econometric model integrating conservation measures in the residential demand for energy  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: PART I: BACKGROUND. The Engineering Effect of Conservation. An Economic Analysis of the Effect of Conservation. A Glance at the State of the Art. Issues in the Quantification of Conservation Impact on the Residential Demand for Electricity. PART II: MODEL SPECIFICATION. The Incorporation of the Applicance Efficiency Variable. Incorporation of Thermal Integrity and Awareness Variables in the Model. Specification of Other Demand-Determining Variables. PART III: ESTIMATION. Problems of Estimation. Consistent Estimation. References.

Khazzoom, H.D.

1986-01-01

497

Conserving Electrical Energy in Commerce and Industry. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module contains readings which explain the need to conserve electricity and describe how major electric energy users (the industrial and commercial groups) use and conserve electricity. The module also contains 10 self-check questions (with answers) and a list of references. Students completing the module should be able to: (1) compare the…

Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

498

Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings  

SciTech Connect

This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

Not Available

1980-06-01

499

Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela

M. J. Figueroa; A. Ketoff; O. Masera

1992-01-01

500

ERIC Abstracts: ERIC Document Resumes on Energy Conservation and the Schools ERIC Abstract Series, Number 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents previously announced in Resources in Education (RIE) concerning energy conservation discuss the current energy crisis and its implications for the public schools, offer practical suggestions for reducing energy consumption, and examine the efficiency of various energy systems. The index terms used to select the documents are…

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.