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1

Case analysis of Yangzhou Energy Mechanism Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Mechanism Conservation (EMC) is a successful internationally-run energy efficiency financing mode. This mode promotes a new energy efficient financial management method instead of selling products or techniques. In this mode, the Energy Service Company (ESCO) signs contracts with customers (enterprises or organizations) who shall pay for the cost of energy efficiency program in accordance with energy conservation during the

Ge Ping; Chen Dehua; Shen Li

2010-01-01

2

Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation,

J. M. Fang; J. J. Tawil

1980-01-01

3

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

4

Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

1980-12-01

5

Energy Conservation in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings of the 5th Asian School present various aspects of energy conservation problems: analysis of the energy consumption trends since 1973 and the energy politics evolution, description of several energy conservation systems for residential a...

Anon

1987-01-01

6

Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

Abelson, Philip H.

1972-01-01

7

Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

1996-07-01

8

Conserving energy in new buildings: Analysis of nonregulatory policies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Surveys data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design were reviewed. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys were reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. The provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions were examined. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking.

Scheer, R. M.; Nieves, L. A.; Mazzucchi, R. P.

1981-05-01

9

Strategic analysis of conservation and solar energy policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of specific policy measures concerned with increasing the technical efficiencies of energy use and promoting the use and competitiveness of various solar, renewable resource, and conservation technologies are examined. The focus is on the socioeconomic impacts of two policy packages - the Basic and the Enhanced. The packages are examined for their economic, distributional, energy, and environmental

R. J. IV Goettle; P. J. Groncki; E. A. Hudson

1980-01-01

10

Analysis of energy conserving low-order models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-order models of order n, denoted by LOM( n), naturally arise in the application of Galerkin type projection techniques to a system of partial differential equations of interest in geophysical domain. In order for the LOM(n) to represent physically meaningful solution, it is necessary that LOM(n) conserves energy. The Galerkin projection technique does not incorporate any explicit criteria for the choice of the order and the modes to guarantee energy conservation. With this study, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions on the structural parameter of LOM(n) for conserving energy. It is well known in Mathematical Physics that the Volterra gyrostat and many of its special cases including the Euler gyroscope represent a prototype of energy conserving dynamical systems. It is formally proved in this dissertation that the systems of coupled Volterra gyrostats are special cases of LOMs that satisfies the new sufficient conditions. We also introduce the definition of the generalized Volterra gyrostats that contains nonlinear feedback. Exploiting the inherent relation between the energy conserving LOMs satisfying the sufficient conditions and the systems of coupled generalized Volterra gyrostats, it turns out that these two sets of systems are equivalent. Using the class of generalized Volterra gyrostats as basic building block, any energy conserving low-order model that routinely arise in fluid dynamics, turbulence and atmospheric sciences can be converted into a system of coupled generalized gyrostats. An algorithm for doing such a transformation is provided. Motivated by the importance and the central role played by the Volterra gyrostat in studying LOMs, this study also analyze the stability properties of the classical Volterra gyrostat and all of its special cases.

Wang, Yunheng

11

Energy: the conservation revolution  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of the energy conservation ethic and related government policy examines the contrasting approaches of administration policy. The basic thrust of the book is that energy conservation is a fundamentally important approach that is presently being ignored in favor of a more production-oriented philosophy.

Gibbons, J.H.; Chandler, W.U.

1981-01-01

12

Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies  

SciTech Connect

The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

1981-05-01

13

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

14

Industrial energy conservation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined energy conservation in industrial plants. Topics considered at the conference included the economics of cogeneration, energy conservation techniques, heat recovery systems, energy retrofits, energy management systems in buildings, energy conservation in the textile industry, energy conservation in the telecommunications industry, alternative energy sources, efficient techniques for heating and cooling

1983-01-01

15

Energy conservation in hospitals. Analysis of data for Maine and Ohio, 1978-1981  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented on energy use in 78 hospitals in Ohio from 1979 to 1981 and in 36 hospitals in Maine during the period 1978-1981. It also attempts to discern the intervening effects of participation by hospitals in the energy conservation programs established by the Title III Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. In both states, this analysis was possible because records of hospital energy use and other pertinent records were maintained by professionals who were interested in energy conservation. This recordkeeping activity formed an essential element of this study. The methodology followed here was straightforward. Numerous calculations of energy use and energy costs were made for buildings categorized by their level of participation or nonparticipation in the program. The calculations were then examined to determine if indications of trends could be found. Finally, energy savings, adjusted for climate, were examined, with the hypothesis that program participation would save more energy than nonparticipants.

Not Available

1983-03-11

16

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

17

What is energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of energy conservation is analyzed by considering methods of measuring energy use and conservation; energy intensity or the ratio of energy consumed to the GNP; the thermodynamic efficiency of energy processes in which energy changes form; economic yardsticks for judging the overall efficiency of energy use; how to evaluate energy waste; role of energy costs in inducing conservation

L. Schipper; J. Darmstadter

1977-01-01

18

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

2009-05-01

19

School Energy Management: An Analysis of Energy Conservation Measures under the Schools and Hospitals Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes a 1981 survey of public school districts receiving energy conservation measure (ECM) grants under the National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Title III, Cycle 1. The report contains charts of data, analyses of projects, and sections presenting study design, data treatment, findings, and conclusions. The survey's purpose was…

Hansen (Shirley J.) Associates, Inc., Lake Jackson, TX.

20

Buildings Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buildings Energy Conservation announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Information on the following subjects is included within t...

1985-01-01

21

Measuring Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief examination of the meaning of energy conservation, this paper provides descriptions of five alternative methods for measuring energy conservation: (1) tracking gross indicators (e.g., per-capita consumption), (2) monitoring the installation ...

1978-01-01

22

Energy-Conservation Indicators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency ...

D. B. Belzer

1982-01-01

23

An analysis of the factors influencing industrial energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is extremely important to make a precise, quantitative assessment of the impact of the myriad of factors affecting the improvement in industrial energy efficiency. The best that can be done is to qualitatively show that changing product mix, variations in capacity utilization, and energy price increases had an impact on the efficiency with which energy was used in the

Uri

1980-01-01

24

Investigating the Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Video Analysis: Four Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object's position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to "examine", rather than simply "assume", energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article describes…

Bryan, J. A.

2010-01-01

25

Investigating the Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Video Analysis: Four Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object's position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to "examine", rather than simply "assume", energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article…

Bryan, J. A.

2010-01-01

26

Contextual analysis for industrial energy conservation R and D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential usefulness of an analytical technique developed for use by policy makers in a wide variety of R&D and innovation-related situations and sectors was assessed. Operational procedures for identifying critical factors important to program planning and project selection were developed. The technique is expected to be a useful supplement to conventional cost benefit analysis. Bibtex entry for this abstract

M. Radnor; D. Hofler

1978-01-01

27

Energy-conservation indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of

Belzer

1982-01-01

28

(Symposium on energy conservation)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the International Energy Conservation Symposium and presented a paper on the integrated resource planning project in Costa Rica being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and RCG/Hagler-Bailly, Inc., in conjunction with US AID. The Symposium was organized primarily to promote awareness of energy conservation opportunities in Pakistan. The Symposium was well attended by over 470 people the vast majority of whom were from Pakistan. The symposium included sessions on policy issues, national experiences in energy conservation, energy conservation in the industrial sector, energy conservation in buildings and agriculture, energy conservation in the power sector, and prospective technologies in energy systems. The symposium had a great deal of political support including a keynote address by the Minister of State for Production, a closing session with the Governor of Sindh, and the majority of sessions being chaired by senior industry or government representatives.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1990-05-25

29

Japan energy conservation handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book consists of six chapters. In (1) Recent energy situation, the recent situation of energy consumption and supply in Japan and the world is shown using graphs and tables. In (2) Global environment and energy conservation, the relationship between ...

1992-01-01

30

Communication and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on the results of a survey of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities which examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. Suggests that conservation campaigns take into account communication patterns and energy use of specific groups of consumers. (TW)|

McLeod, Jack M.; And Others

1987-01-01

31

Home Energy Conservation Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

DeLuca, V. William; And Others

32

Evaluating Energy Conservation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the problems involved in conducting program evaluation in the field of energy conservation. Highlights similarities between evaluation research and basic research. Examines stages of evaluation research within the context of energy conservation programs and argues that experimental evaluations are desirable and feasible. (Author/MK)|

Seligman, Clive; Hutton, R. Bruce

1981-01-01

33

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

34

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

35

California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that required daily effort and vigilance than one-time consumer actions. Furthermore, many households continued many conservation efforts in the year following the crisis, and there was not an immediate "snap-back" to pre-crisis behaviors. Not only did households employ a variety of conservation strategies that required changes to their lifestyle, the majority did not believe that their quality of life had been reduced or that their conservation efforts involved sacrifices.

Gossard, Marcia Hill

36

Energy Conservation in Literature. Report to the World Energy Conference, Energy Conservation Commission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of estimations made concerning the potential for energy conservation and the measures proposed for realizing this potential is given. An analysis of methods and results concerning different aspects of energy conservation is followed by some recom...

K. Andersson

1977-01-01

37

Cost-Effect Analysis of the Japanese Steel Industry's Energy Conservation Measures (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese steel industry accounts for 10% of Japan's energy consumption, and therefore the success or failure of that industry's energy conservation measures is of the greatest importance in any discussion of energy and environmental issues, including global climate change issues. This paper makes an objective, quantitative assessment, based on public statistics, of the state of progress of energy conservation

KAINOU Kazunari

2006-01-01

38

Energy conservation and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research emphasizes energy conservation in the residential sector. Experimental investigations attempt to determine optional insulation standards for mobile homes. The program started with a comparison of energy intensiveness for the various transportation modes. Subsequent research was devoted to detailed analysis of automobiles, airplanes, and bicycles. Policy options were reviewed to determine potential impact in reducing overall energy consumption, reducing

R. S. Carlsmith

1974-01-01

39

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

40

Energy conservation standards for new federal residential buildings: A decision analysis study using relative value discounting  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)

Harvey, C. (Houston Univ., TX (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. (Applied Decision Analysis, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-07-02

41

Army facility energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army installation is similar to a small city with a population of 30,000 to 40,000 people. The Army's approach to energy conservation, energy management and control, and the use of alternate energy sources is on an installation wide or city wide basis, i.e., energy master planning. The first step in energy master planning is to perform an energy audit

J. R. Hoffman; H. D. Musselman

1978-01-01

42

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

43

Energy Conservation in GTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics of gravitational field energy and energy-momentum conservation in General Relativity theory have been unjustly neglected by philosophers. If the gravitational field in space free of ordinary matter, as represented by the metric gab itself, can be said to carry genuine energy and momentum, this is a powerful argument for adopting the substantivalist view of spacetime.This paper explores the

Carl Hoefer

2000-01-01

44

Mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy.  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, a great deal of effort has been focused in research and development of versatile robotic ground vehicles without understanding their performance in a particular operating environment. As the usage of robotic ground vehicles for intelligence applications increases, understanding mobility of the vehicles becomes critical to increase the probability of their successful operations. This paper describes a framework based on conservation of energy to predict the maximum mobility of robotic ground vehicles over general terrain. The basis of the prediction is the difference between traction capability and energy loss at the vehicle-terrain interface. The mission success of a robotic ground vehicle is primarily a function of mobility. Mobility of a vehicle is defined as the overall capability of a vehicle to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission. A mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy is described in this document. The tool is a graphical user interface application. The mobility analysis tool has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The tool is at an initial stage of development. In the future, the tool will be expanded to include all vehicles and terrain types.

Spletzer, Barry Louis; Nho, Hyuchul C.; Salton, Jonathan Robert

2007-08-01

45

Energy conservation standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book is to present a framework for understanding energy flows in buildings. This book may be used to trace and measure energy flows in a building, to determine which conservation options are most suitable, and to choose materials, forms, systems, and design features. Other topics covered include the cross-influences of lighting, air conditioning and other internal

F. S. Dubin; C. G. Jr. Long

1982-01-01

46

Economic analysis of tax-credit incentives for business investment in energy conservation and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some provisions of the 1978 Energy Tax Act and the 1980 Windfall Profits Tax Act offer temporary tax credits to businesses making qualified investments in energy capital. These tax credits are intended to provide incentives for energy conservation, new energy source development, and the substitution of other fuels for oil and gas. Qualifying investments include: specially defined energy property (principally

S. P. A. Brown; G. Anandalingam; W. T. Bianco

1981-01-01

47

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan, authored and curated by David P. Stern, introduces the concept of energy through the ideas of conservation and the ability to run machines. A series of both qualitative and quantitative examples are used to explore different forms of energy and transformations between them. Starting with and focusing on mechanical energy, examples regarding chemical energy, electrical energy, and heat are included. This is part of the larger site "From Stargazers to Starships", and includes a link to the Energy chapter in this online text.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

2009-05-06

48

Supply curves of conserved energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

Meier, A. K.

1982-05-01

49

Energy conservation and sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic and ontogenetic associations between sleep and endothermy are consistent with the hypothesis that sleep evolved in conjuction with endothermy to offset the high energetic cost of endothermy. The electrophysiological and thermoregulatory continuum of slow wave sleep, circadian torpor and hibernation substantiates a primordial link between sleep and energy conservation. Sleep constitutes a circadian and circannual rhythm of hypometabolic adaptation

Ralph J. Berger; Nathan H. Phillips

1995-01-01

50

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

2008-09-24

51

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

52

Energy conservation with flywheels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a summary of flywheel capabilities, the paper reviews energy conservation in vehicular flywheel systems and in stationary flywheel systems. It is shown that the use of flywheels in various transportation applications could significantly reduce fuel consumption and lifetime costs. In addition, the widespread use of flywheels in stationary energy systems could reduce the consumption of fuel in power plants by cutting back on the use of petroleum-consuming equipment that would otherwise be required to accommodate the diurnal peak loads.

Rabenhorst, D. W.

1980-06-01

53

Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians Energy Conservation and Options Analysis - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians was awarded a grant through the Department of Energy First Steps program in June of 2006. The primary purpose of the grant was to enable the Tribe to develop energy conservation policies and a strategy for alternative energy resource development. All of the work contemplated by the grant agreement has been completed and the Tribe has begun implementing the resource development strategy through the construction of a 1.0 MW grid-connected photovoltaic system designed to offset a portion of the energy demand generated by current and projected land uses on the Tribe’s Reservation. Implementation of proposed energy conservation policies will proceed more deliberately as the Tribe acquires economic development experience sufficient to evaluate more systematically the interrelationships between conservation and its economic development goals.

Paul Turner

2008-07-11

54

Energy Conservation: Student Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains six student activities on the topic of energy conservation and the impact of energy use on society. These materials are developed for use in middle schools for energy-related studies in many different subject areas. The activities each contain objectives, lesson plans, teaching tips, supplementary resources, and references. The top document on this page contains the Introduction and Table of Contents. The Primary Documents link can be opened to access the individual student activities. This is one of several similar modules and activity books regarding science, technology, and societal issues.

2012-01-27

55

Data needs in transportation energy conservation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the subject of data needs in transportation energy conservation research is presented. The discussion focuses upon data which are needed for analysis of economic, social and technological factors which determine energy consumption and conservation aspects in the transportation sector. It is conceived that credible information related to energy supply and demand will help to facilitate a consensus

T. P. Oconnor; Andy Loebl

1977-01-01

56

Energy conserving engine  

SciTech Connect

An energy conserving engine particularly for heavy power requirements in freight movers and power plants, consists of an Otto cycle Diesel engine modified to receive superheated water injection for steam operation. The waste energy resulting from heat due to fossil fuel combustion is utilized in a series of counterflow heat exchangers that are temperature and pressure monitored, and valved for computer control of the heat transfer rates, providing superheated water at the proper temperature and pressure for steam operation of the engine. The computer defaults to fossil fuel operation of the engine when superheated water and steam operation conditions do not exist in the counterflow heat exchangers.

Ptasinski, S.

1992-01-01

57

Advanced energy conservation technology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective energy conservation is an essential element in national policy. This Conference was assembled to consider the processes by which advanced energy conservation engineering knowledge and methods are introduced into practical end-product manufacture and use, and to examine the possibilities for accelerating these processes. The specific Conference goals were (a) to identify those energy conservation technical disciplines which offer the

Grey

1976-01-01

58

Energy conservation: Reagan wastes a program  

SciTech Connect

President Reagan's proposal to cut the Department of Energy's energy conservation program is discussed. From an analysis by Oak Ridge National Laboratory it was concluded that: energy use in 1981 was about 25% lower than it would have been if pre-oil-embargo trends had continued; at least half this improvement was a result of increased energy efficiency; past governmental programs have been cost-effective and beneficial, contributing to increased energy efficiency; and the prospects for future conservation programs, if they are continued, bright. To cut the energy conservation budget by 97% would be a move which ignores both evidence and analysis. (JMT)

Hirst, E.

1982-09-01

59

Federal residential energy conservation programs: an analysis. [With engineering-economic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering-economic model, when used to determine the impacts of three Federal programs on residential fuel consumption, indicates that most conservation efforts can save both energy and money without requiring any significant change in lifestyle. The model analyzes eight end uses of four different fuels in three types of housing as a result of (1) appliance efficiency targets set by

E. Hirst; J. Carney

2009-01-01

60

Impact analysis of a residential energy conservation shared savings program: The General Public Utilities experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates the effectiveness of a residential shared savings program - The Residential Energy Conservation Action Program (RECAP). It focuses primarily upon the electricity savings attributable to RECAP, but also assesses customer satisfaction with the program, comfort benefits, electric peak load controls, and the use of alternative heating fuels. Since RECAP has been implemented by different contractors in various

M. A. Brown; D. L. White

1987-01-01

61

Personal Values and Commitment to Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human values represent an important but neglected level of analysis in the study of energy conservation behavior. This article examines the role values play in people's commitment to energy conservation, using data from an in-depth survey of 376 households in Southern California. The impact of values on commitment is considered in terms of a theoretical framework that includes attributes of

Keith Neuman

1986-01-01

62

Supply Curves of Conserved Energy  

SciTech Connect

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

Meier, Alan Kevin

1982-05-01

63

Energy, conservation, and the underground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation must be made the first priority of the United States according to this editorial. The 1976 Plan (ERDA-76-1) gives the top priority to energy conservation. A chart is included with the projected energy requirements for 2000. The Plan identifies building conservation as having the greatest potential for energy savings at between 2.0 and 2.8 million barrels of oil

Fairhurst

1976-01-01

64

Energy conservation with flywheels  

SciTech Connect

The flywheel can be made to store more energy per unit weight, volume and cost than conventional electric storage batteries. It accepts or delivers the energy at a much higher rate than the electric battery, and has a much longer operating life. These capabilities uniquely qualify the flywheel for many mobile energy conservation concepts which, if implemented, could significantly reduce world oil consumption. Flywheels made of isotropic materials, such as solid steel, are generally limited to about five or six watt-hours-per-pound. The performance of the improved wound flywheels is now in the range of ten to thirty-watt-hours-per-pound, and the principal objective of the current U.S. Department of Energy high performance program is a demonstration of flywheels having a capability of forty watt-hours-per-pound. Actual laboratory demonstrations have exceeded twice this value. Applications subject to current flywheel programs are for urban buses (flywheel only; flywheel/diesel hybrid), automobiles (flywheel/battery hybrid, flywheel/engine hybrid, miniature car with flywheel only), mine shuttle car, stationary electric generators from about 1 kWh to 100 kWh,and for tools.

Rabenhorst, D.W.

1981-01-01

65

Conducting an Energy Conservation Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson where students conduct an attitude survey on energy conservation in order to learn about survey research and scales in handling survey data. Explains that the understanding of survey research and energy conservation is relevant to ones civic life. Provides the energy attitude survey the students used for data collection. (CMK)

Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David E.

1999-01-01

66

Conducting an Energy Conservation Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a lesson where students conduct an attitude survey on energy conservation in order to learn about survey research and scales in handling survey data. Explains that the understanding of survey research and energy conservation is relevant to ones civic life. Provides the energy attitude survey the students used for data collection. (CMK)|

Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David E.

1999-01-01

67

Energy conservation program guide for commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: the definition of the commercial building category, the purpose of the conservation program guide, energy conservation in existing buildings, energy conservation in new buildings, goals of the state energy conservation programs, and reports. (MHR)

de Latour

1975-01-01

68

Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes  

SciTech Connect

Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O.

1992-12-01

69

Economic incentives for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses theoretical and practical issues involved in the use of economic incentives for energy conservation. The principal focus is on electricity use in North American residential and commercial sectors. An additional discussion is provided on fuels, conservation measures, industrial energy use, and related European experience. Topics covered include: electricity pricing, introduction and the nature of utility costs; cost

P. N. Nemetz; M. Hankey

1984-01-01

70

Transportation energy conservation data book  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: characteristics of transportation modes; energy characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; conservation alternatives; government impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; energy supply, including

A. S. Loebl; D. J. Bjornstad; D. F. Burch; E. B. Howard; J. F. Hull; D. G. Madewell; N. S. Malthouse; M. C. Ogle

1976-01-01

71

Consumer behavior and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effectiveness of a number of behaviour modification instruments aimed at teaching consumers how to use energy in a more efficient way. The following instruments were tested: energy conservation information, bi-weekly and monthly energy consumption feedback and self-monitoring by consumers of their household energy consumption. This study tries to combine psychological paradigms, experimental approaches and policy relevance.

Ester, P.

1985-01-01

72

Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.…

Green, Alan C.

1981-01-01

73

24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section 200...Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical...shall provide cost effective energy conservation in accordance with...

2013-04-01

74

24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section 242...Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical...shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in accordance with...

2013-04-01

75

Technical Guidelines for Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides detailed technical material on various energy conservation actions for existing Air Force facilities and utility systems. It is specifically tailored to serve as a working document for Base engineers and technical personnel. The repor...

1977-01-01

76

Energy conservation programs growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of consumer conservation programs funded by local publicly owned electric utilities shows a dramatic increase in expenditures. The 54 systems covered by the survey reported that their spending has increased from $17 million in 1975 to an expected $35 million in 1978. The annual time invested by company personnel in these programs is expected to reach two million

1978-01-01

77

Residential Energy Conservation Forum  

ScienceCinema

A public forum for homeowners on how to reduce energy usage in the home. Representatives from Long Island Power Authority, Renewable Energy Long Island, and BNL explored alternative energy solutions for the home, analyzing energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental-friendliness. Some of the technologies discussed include solar panels, Energy Star-certified products, and modern wood-burning stoves.

78

Mode filters and energy conservation.  

PubMed

The discrete form of the mode filtering problem is considered. The relevant equations constitute a linear inverse problem. Solutions to problems of this type are subject to a well-known trade-off between resolution and precision. But unlike the typical linear inverse problem, the correctly formulated mode filtering problem is subject to an energy conservation constraint. This letter focuses on the importance of satisfying, approximately at least, the energy conservation constraint when mode filtering is performed. PMID:21117712

Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Rypina, Irina I; Brown, Michael G

2010-05-01

79

Heat transfer in energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen papers by various authors are presented. The topics discussed are the many areas of heat transfer in energy conservation systems such as new techniques for measurement of quantities related to heat loss and energy use; monitoring and control instrumentation; potential energy savings in commercial\\/residential communities; total system design for building envelopes; and heat storage systems. Individual papers are abstracted

R. J. Goldstein; D. Didion; R. Gopal; K. Kreider; R. Schoenhals

1977-01-01

80

Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

81

Energy Conservation. CORD Energy Technology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course in energy conservation is one of 16 courses in the Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training programs. Comprised of seven modules,…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

82

Energy Conservation. CORD Energy Technology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course in energy conservation is one of 16 courses in the Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training programs. Comprised of seven…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

83

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

Not Available

1990-01-01

84

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry because students have not yet been exposed to the idea of gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy. Students should be able to measure this by performing this activity. They will compare the velocity that

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

85

Energy-Conserving Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic and efficient use of energy plus utilization of alternative technologies is one of the big tasks of the future especially when considering the limited fuel supply and the environmental hazards resulting from them. Energy awareness in construction...

1983-01-01

86

Energy conservation, ecological stability and environmental quality  

SciTech Connect

Energy is the lifeblood of the ecosystem and, therefore, of the human-social enterprise as well. The ecological stability in all levels of biosphere functions is a problem of environmental quality and ultimately of public health, economy and life styles: the impact of energy availability, its use and abuse. In the age of energy and natural resource scarcity with all sorts of disruptions in the industrial-economic fabric, the perilous energy crisis and the threat of ecological breakdown, a hard new look and evaluation of energy use and conservation potential is urgently needed. The following scheme of pertinent questions is in order: a. Energy and Mass Flow in the Ecosystems: Energy and the determinants of ecosystem structure and dynamics. Food chain and food webs. How much is needed. How much is wasted. What is an optimum ecological efficiency within conservation planning systems analysis. b. Energy and Mass Flow in the Human Environment: Human ecosystem adaptability. Environmental stresses and ecological instability. Biological control: energy conservation and the re-establishment of a tolerable stable state. c. Energy Conservation Planning: How much energy do we use and waste. How can energy use and waste be reduced in developed and developing countries within the context of enhancing ecological balance and economic-social growth.

Bourodimos, E.L.

1980-12-01

87

Landscape planning for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers how man can best use the natural processes and elements in housing and in site design. It gives an overview of the site planning process as it is modified to accommodate the need for energy conservation and greater utilization of alternative energy sources. To the extent that the natural elements have been considered in modern landscaping architecture,

Robinette

1977-01-01

88

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

Estes, R. C.

89

Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

Probasco, Jack; And Others

1981-01-01

90

36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Energy conservation. 910.36 Section...the Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development shall be designed to be economical in energy consumption. The Energy...

2012-07-01

91

36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energy conservation. 910.36 Section...the Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development shall be designed to be economical in energy consumption. The Energy...

2011-07-01

92

75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...purposes of establishing energy conservation standards...air conditioners and heat pumps; the...

2010-05-14

93

Energy Conservation for Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We base our opinion on several observed trends in the technology and the marketplace. Technology trends for server-class processors predict ever increasing performance at the expense of a rising energy budget (4). Recent advances also have allowed manufacturers to pack and integrate unprecedented numbers of transistors on a chip, with a corresponding increase in power consumption and cooling requirements. These

P. Bohrer; D. Cohn; E. Elnozahy; T. Keller; M. Kistler; C. Lefurgy; R. Rajamony; F. Rawson; E. Van Hensbergen

94

Residential Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are reported of an ongoing study being conducted in Baltimore, Md., to examine indepth the most significant ways in which energy is consumed in residential structures and to evaluate various techniques that can be employed to reduce that energ...

1974-01-01

95

Energy conservation in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses combustion and heat recovery, engines and batteries, and applications and technologies. Some of the topics covered include: energy-saving technologies; heat exchangers, fluidized bed exchangers, industrial heat pumps; fluidized bed combustion; waste heat recovery; orc machines and cascading; engines and flywheels; new types of engines; advanced batteries; fuel cell; chemical industry and catalysis; metallurgy; textile industry; food industry;

A. S. Strub; H. Ehringer

1984-01-01

96

Energy conserving nonholonomic integrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of constructing numerical integrators for nonholonomic Lagrangian systems that enjoy appropriate discrete versions of the geometric properties of the continuous flow, including the preservation of energy. Building on previous work on time-dependent discrete mechanics, our approach is based on a discrete version of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle for nonautonomous systems.

Jorge Cortes

2002-01-01

97

Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.  

PubMed

In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty. PMID:22219676

Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

2010-06-03

98

Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network  

PubMed Central

In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

2010-01-01

99

Energy Conservation and Gravity Waves in Sound-proof Treatments of Stellar Interiors. II. Lagrangian Constrained Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of sound greatly exceeds typical flow velocities in many stellar and planetary interiors. To follow the slow evolution of subsonic motions, various sound-proof models attempt to remove fast acoustic waves while retaining stratified convection and buoyancy dynamics. In astrophysics, anelastic models typically receive the most attention in the class of sound-filtered stratified models. Generally, anelastic models remain valid in nearly adiabatically stratified regions like stellar convection zones, but may break down in strongly sub-adiabatic, stably stratified layers common in stellar radiative zones. However, studying stellar rotation, circulation, and dynamos requires understanding the complex coupling between convection and radiative zones, and this requires robust equations valid in both regimes. Here we extend the analysis of equation sets begun in Brown et al., which studied anelastic models, to two types of pseudo-incompressible models. This class of models has received attention in atmospheric applications, and more recently in studies of white-dwarf supernova progenitors. We demonstrate that one model conserves energy but the other does not. We use Lagrangian variational methods to extend the energy conserving model to a general equation of state, and dub the resulting equation set the generalized pseudo-incompressible (GPI) model. We show that the GPI equations suitably capture low-frequency phenomena in both convection and radiative zones in stars and other stratified systems, and we provide recommendations for converting low-Mach number codes to this equation set.

Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Brown, Benjamin P.; Wood, Toby S.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

2013-08-01

100

Solar energy and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's collection, storage, and utilization of solar energy is at the stage that, in the short term of the next 10 to 20 years, solar energy can be applied in the heating and cooling of buildings as well as in heating water. If a rational program can be adopted, reasonable projections indicate that by the year 2000, energy savings in

Rush

1976-01-01

101

Energy conservation in swine buildings  

SciTech Connect

Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

1980-05-01

102

On energy-momentum conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note I show how to use the replicas formalism to study the macroscopic consequences of a random violation of energy-momentum conservation at the microscopic level (i.e. at distances much smaller than 10-13 cm).

Parisi, Giorgio

1984-03-01

103

ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH SOURCE REDUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with energy conservation through reduction in generation of post-consumer solid waste. The objective, scope, methodology and summary of the report are presented in Section 1. Section 2 contains the conclusions. Section 3 presents a review of output and input app...

104

Rotary actuator with energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy conserving air motor with rotary actuation includes a pair of cooperating different diameter pistons coaxially arranged and connected rigidly to one another by a central connecting member provided with spur gear section adaptable of receiving a meshing pinion assembled inside an elongated housing provided with a diffential diameter bore passing therethrough and adaptable of receiving inside a larger

Pauliukonis

1984-01-01

105

24 CFR 200.78 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Energy conservation. 200.78 Section 200... Property Requirements § 200.78 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall...

2009-04-01

106

24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section 242...Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall...

2009-04-01

107

Industrial Energy Conservation: A Current Awareness Bulletin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial Energy Conservation (IEC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on all aspects of energy conservation in industry, including alternate energy sources; improved materials, equipment, and processes; waste heat recovery; a...

L. E. Williams

1988-01-01

108

Water conservation study (water and energy) Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) FY94s Fort Knox, Kentucky. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Fort Knox utilizes inefficient outdated flush valves and faucets in its buildings. The existing flush valves and faucets consume significantly more water and generate greater quantities of sanitary waste per flush than necessary. The existing inefficient systems place greater demand on the water table, water treatment plant and waste treatment plant. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Louisville District, contracted an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) Water Conservation Study of the Post. The study identified energy and water conservation opportunities. Life cycle cost analysis was performed on each opportunity to determine its discounted savings-to Investment ratio (SIR) and estimated payback period. This project has a SIR of 3.68 and a simple payback period of 4.12 years. The project exceeds the minimum requirements of an SIR greater than 1.25 and a simple payback of less than 10 years. This water conservation project is recommended for funding. A life cycle cost analysis was performed on each portion of this project and on the overall project. The overall project will realize water savings of over 3.6 times the initial investment cost and will pay for itself in less than 4.2 years.

NONE

1994-12-30

109

Economic analysis in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 6  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to present an analysis of the impacts of the proposed voluntary energy conservation standard fr the construction of new residential buildings. This analysis examines the impacts of having the proposed residential standard apply immediately and, alternatively, having the proposed standard phased in over a five-year period.

NONE

1989-09-01

110

78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EERE-2012-BT-STD-0045] RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans AGENCY: Office...its current rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation standards for ceiling fans....

2013-10-22

111

The politics of energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

After a decade of debate about U.S. energy policy, the two political parties reached consensus that conservation is needed to achieve energy efficiency and to ensure adequate future supplies. But what is the most effective spur to energy conservation. In this book, Pietro S. Nivola argues that basic pricing reform in all energy sectors, though politically controversial, should be the heart of a national energy plan. Petroleum prices were fully deregulated in 1981, but wasteful pricing formulas still plague other important energy sectors like natural gas and electricity. In tracing congressional action on various energy bills in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the author shows that federal policymakers often bypassed or delayed important decisions on pricing reform. He analyzes how special interest groups, public opinion, and geographically based influences have affected congressional voting patterns and led to compromises that resulted in ineffective, or even harmful, legislation. He also addresses the role of governmental leaders and institutions in shaping the legislation. Beyond these various pressures, Nivola asserts, the conflict in Congress over energy pricing stems from intense political convictions about the role of government. One side in the congressional debate persistently attempted to use federal energy pricing policy to solve general problems of social inequity.

Nivola, P.

1986-01-01

112

The economics of energy conservation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation proponents have recently attempted to provide a more rigorous economics justification for both energy appliance standards and utility energy conservation programmes. A tenable case cannot however, be made: market failures do not produce a consistent bias towards energy use; conservation programmes do not reduce the cause of the market failure, and more typically exacerbate market or regulatory failures;

Ronald J Sutherland

1996-01-01

113

Ship energy conservation assist team (SECAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ship Energy Conservation Assist Team (SECAT) Program was initiated in Fiscal Year (FY) 82 by the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) to demonstrate and introduce individual Ship Commands to known energy conserving techniques without adding equipment complexity or additional maintenance burden. The principal objective is to provide each ship with an energy consumption, coupled with recommended energy conservation strategies.

RICHARD DANGEL; A. EDWARD BRICE

1984-01-01

114

Retrospective analysis of energy use and conservation trends: 1972-1982  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the research reported here is to analyze energy use trends for the entire economy and by end-use sector (residential, commercial, and industrial, and transportation). In particular, an examination of energy trends was undertaken for the period 1972 through 1982 to determine the magnitude of ''energy savings'' attributable to: (1) changes in economic activity; (2) efficiency improvements relative to the 1972 stock (including structures and capital equipment); and (3) efficiency improvements relative to 1960 to 1972 trends. In addition to identifying the measures of energy savings described above, the causes of efficiency improvement relative to 1972 are explored. For example, energy savings due to efficiency improvements in the residential sector are explained by such activities as changes in household size, migration, improved shell and appliance efficiencies, and increased wood use. For this research, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed a consistent methodology for analyzing energy use trends by end-use sector. Alternative measures of energy use trends (i.e., alternative base cases) were developed for the purpose of measuring energy savings. The energy use trends were calculated as the product of economic activity levels (number of households in the residential sector, square feet of floor space in the commercial sector, output in the industrial sector, and person-miles/ton-miles traveled in the transportation sector) and energy use intensities (energy use per household, energy use per square foot of commercial floor space, energy use per unit of industrial output, and energy use per mile traveled). Energy savings were then defined as differences between alternative estimates of energy use. Data and methods used to derive the alternative estimates are contained in a separate volume of this report (PNL-5026-App.).

Adams, R.C.; Belzer, D.B.; Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lax, D.H.; Moe, R.J.; Roop, J.M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

1985-06-01

115

78 FR 14717 - Energy Conservation Standards for Set-Top Boxes: Availability of Initial Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Manufacturer Impact Analysis C. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analyses D...impact analysis (MIA), the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period...manufacturer impacts; (3) life-cycle cost and payback period; and...

2013-03-07

116

Energy conservation in Bacillus megaterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The respiratory chain energy conservation systems of Bacillus megaterium strains D440 and M have been investigated following growth in batch and continuous culture. Respiratory membranes from these strains contained cytochromes b, aa3, o and b, c, a, o, respectively; both readily oxidised NADH but neither showed any pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity.2.Whole cells of both strains exhibited endogenous ?H-\\/O ratios of

Andrew J. Downs; Colin W. Jones

1975-01-01

117

Energy Conservation Town Block at Kiruna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this project has been to achieve the energy conservation targets recommended by the Riksdag by means of conversion, renovation and maintenance measures in existing buildings. Energy conservation measures and their profitability have been stu...

K. Svarvare S. Hansson R. Roeckner

1987-01-01

118

Energy-Conservation Indicators. 1982 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency ...

D. B. Belzer

1982-01-01

119

Energy Conservation for Public Office Buildings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy conservation policy for public office buildings includes experimental designs of new federal office buildings in Manchester, New Hampshire and Saginaw, Michigan, as well as immediate energy conservation efforts. (Author/MF)

Roush, Larry F.

1973-01-01

120

A compendium of energy conservation success stories  

SciTech Connect

Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

Not Available

1988-09-01

121

Energy and cost savings analysis of Wood Burning Boiler Plant, Fort Stewart, Georgia: Final report, Validation of ECIP Project No. 193: DOD, Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP)  

SciTech Connect

An Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) project to install a 94,900 lb steam per hour wood burning boiler in the Fort Stewart Central Energy Plant was selected by the US Army for validation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This ECIP project was justified on the basis of fuel cost savings and the use of a renewable energy source: wood waste, which is abundantly available at Fort Stewart, Georgia. This report documents the results of a 1-year postretrofit study designed to validate the energy and cost savings attributed to the installation of the new wood burning boiler. During the postretrofit validation study period (FY 1986), the new wood burning boiler produced approximately 90% of the steam required by the Central Energy Plant to meet the seasonal heating and cooling demands of Fort Stewart. In doing so, over 2,880,000 gal of No. 5 fuel oil (a nonrenewable energy source) was conserved. With full consideration given to the increase in electrical energy required to operate the new Wood Burning Boiler Plant addition, an annual nonrenewable energy savings of over 400,000 MBtu is projected. Based on the results of a life cycle cost analysis performed on this ECIP project, a first-year savings of over $1,200,000 is estimated. The resultant discounted savings ratio is 3.36, and the estimated simple payback period is 6.7 years. It was concluded that installation and operation of a wood burning boiler at a military installation such as Fort Stewart can result in significant cost and nonrenewable energy savings.

Broders, M.A.; Miller, D.R.

1987-08-01

122

24 CFR 968.115 - Modernization and energy conservation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Modernization and energy conservation standards. 968.115 ...115 Modernization and energy conservation standards. All improvements...Incorporate cost-effective energy conservation measures, identified in...

2013-04-01

123

Energy Use and Conservation in the Residential Sector: A Regional Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report estimates consumption of energy in the residential sector, broken down by the major end uses, for each of the nine census regions of the United States for the base year 1970. A forecasting methodology based in part on econometrics makes project...

S. H. Dole

1975-01-01

124

76 FR 39245 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards...Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...air conditioners and heat pumps), U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy...

2011-07-06

125

Analysis of Efficiency Testing under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act: A Case Study with Application to Distribution Transformers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The protocols for efficiency testing promulgated by 10 CFR part 430 and established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended (EPCA) are discussed. The case of distribution transformers, which are covered under the proposed new 10 CF...

K. L. Stricklett M. Vangel O. Petersons

1999-01-01

126

Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March

Krstulovich

1986-01-01

127

Analysis of two allegations about the Tennessee Valley Authority's energy-conservation programs and their efficiency and effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Two allegations were investigated regarding the Tennessee Valley Authority's energy conservation programs. Regarding the first allegation, it was found that TVA was slow to respons to a request for a home inspection that was necessary for the complainants to qualify for a low interest heat pump loan. TVA officials cited poor communications, abnormally large backlog, and loss of two energy advisors as circumstances contributing to the oversight. The second allegation was made by a former TVA energy advisor that he was fired for disclosing improprieties in the home insulation program. Two lawsuits resulted; the first seeking a copy of TVA's investigations of the complainant's charges, and the second asserting that the former employee had been defamed in a statement released to a local newspaper. Types of energy conservation programs sponsored by TVA are identified., as well as how the programs are organized and administered, and the scope of activity under each program. 9(LEW)

Not Available

1982-08-11

128

Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

Not Available

1990-12-01

129

Environmental Assessment of Industrial Process Energy Conservation Measures. Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bechtel Group Inc., under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, performed an environmental assessment of thirteen industrial process energy conservation measures (IPECMs). As specified, one or more measures defined in a previous BPA study by Syngeric Resources Corporation were applied to six industries. Bechtel's analysis is intended for BPA use in developing industrial energy conservation programs and supporting the environmental documentation

1984-01-01

130

National Energy Conservation Policy Act: an evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A qualitative analysis is made of the landmark National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA) of 1978 to examine its basic principles and objectives, how it proposes to meet those objectives, and the extent to which they are likely to be met. The authors feel that, while the Act makes some progress in defining the principles of conservation, not enough significance is granted to the economics of energy supply and demand and the value of market signals; NECPA should be evaluated on the basis of the amount, the speed, and the cost of energy that can be saved. They also feel that vagueness in the text reflects the lack of consensus in defining specific conservation measures and te skepticism many feel toward government participation. Some of the constraints on utility participation in the Title II residential program, for example, are viewed as shortsighted. The major controvery over NECPA involves Title IV, which substitutes government-imposed energy-efficiency standards for pricing efficiency, although economicaly rational energy use will probably result from either approach. Two problems - lifecycle cost and procurement practices, both of which could discourage solar technologies - are noted for Title V. (DCK)

Schipper, l. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Hollander, J.M.; Levine, M.; Craig, P.P.

1979-10-01

131

Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of

Belzer

1982-01-01

132

Potential for energy conservation in Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the status of national, regional, and state energy policies is made. The possibility of energy conservation in all sectors is cited and in the state of Montana, the state government has powers to promote energy conservation that include utilities regulation, land use control, tax incentives or disincentives, police power (such as rationing), and education. An energy

1973-01-01

133

Energy conservation of buildings in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the research projects on building energy conservation studies conducted by the authors recently. These projects were all sponsored by the Energy Commission of Taiwan in an effort to promote research activities on building energy conservation and to obtain database specifically for the Taiwan area, so that appropriate energy-related policies can be made on a sound basis. The

Kuan-hsiung Yang; R. L. Hwang

1995-01-01

134

Equity implications of utility energy conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses the Residential Energy Consumption Survey undertaken by the Energy Information Administration in 1990 to estimate the statistical association between household income and participation in electric utility energy conservation programs and the association between participation and the electricity consumption. The results indicate that utility rebates, energy audits, load management programs and other conservation measures tend to be undertaken at greater frequency by high income households than by low income households. Participants in conservation programs tend to occupy relatively new and energy efficient residences and undertake conservation measures other than utility programs, which suggests that utility sponsored programs are substitutes for other conservation investments. Electricity consumption during 1990 is not significantly less for households participating in utility programs than for nonparticipants, which also implies that utility conservation programs are displacing other conservation investments. Apparently, utility programs are not avoiding costs of new construction and instead are transferring wealth, particularly to high income participating households.

Sutherland, R.J.

1994-03-15

135

Preliminary Analysis of Fuel Cell Derived Technologies Applied to Energy Conservation in the Chlor-alkali Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigated the application of four fuel cell derived technologies for energy conservation in the chlor-alkali industry. They include: (1) H2-Cl2 fuel cell (HCLFC), (2) electrochemical concentrator (ECC), (3) alkaline H2-O2 fuel cell (AFC), and (4) air depolarized chlor-alkali cell (ADCAC). We have developed performance models for the various fuel cell derived systems and combined them with

E. Anderson; E. J. Taylor; N. R. K. Vilambi; A. Gelb

1990-01-01

136

10 CFR 436.104 - Energy conservation measures and standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation measures and standards...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT...Operations Plans § 436.104 Energy conservation measures and...

2013-01-01

137

Energy Conservation Site Visit Report: Toward More Effective Energy Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of visits to 287 Federal installations to investigate the effectiveness of energy conservation efforts. Although energy use has been reduced significantly, further energy conservation is possible in buildings; motor vehicl...

1976-01-01

138

Energy and cost savings analysis of Wood Burning Boiler Plant, Fort Stewart, Georgia: Final report, Validation of ECIP Project No. 193: DOD, Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) project to install a 94,900 lb steam per hour wood burning boiler in the Fort Stewart Central Energy Plant was selected by the US Army for validation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This ECIP project was justified on the basis of fuel cost savings and the use of a renewable energy source: wood

M. A. Broders; D. R. Miller

1987-01-01

139

Energy Conservation More Effective With Rebound Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sketches the problem of indirect energy use effects, also known as rebound, of energy conservation. There is\\u000a widespread support for energy conservation, especially when it is voluntary, as this seems a cheap way to realize environmental\\u000a and energy-climate goals. However, this overlooks the phenomenon of rebound. The topic of energy rebound has mainly attracted\\u000a attention from energy analysts,

Jeroen C. J. M. van den Bergh

2011-01-01

140

Driver Education Curriculum Guide. Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to provide high school students with information concerning energy-efficient driving, this curriculum guide covers techniques of conserving energy, efficient use of motor vehicles, safe driving techniques, and development of energy-efficient driving habits. The guide consists of six lessons: (1) Fuel Conservation: Why It Is Essential;…

Governor's Highway Safety Program Office, Columbus, OH.

141

Energy Conservation/Efficiency Programs Chart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this chart of energy conservation and efficiency programs. The document includes a visual overview of current and potential program curricula in energy conservation and efficiency. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-04-28

142

Diffusion in Energy Conserving Coupled Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a dynamical system consisting of subsystems indexed by a lattice. Each subsystem has one conserved degree of freedom ("energy") the rest being uniformly hyperbolic. The subsystems are weakly coupled together so that the sum of the subsystem energies remains conserved. We prove that the subsystem energies satisfy the diffusion equation in a suitable scaling limit.

Bricmont, Jean; Kupiainen, Antti

2013-07-01

143

Energy conservation in health-care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As energy expenditures continue their dramatic rise in the health-care industry, they absorb a larger portion of hospital budgets and prompt managers to seek ways to conserve energy and reduce consumption. Hospital managers, however, may be forced by capital constraints to choose between medical and energy conservation investments. The author examines some of the issues (including fairness, legal and financial

Hunt

1983-01-01

144

Conference report: Energy Conservation in Transportation and Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: highway transportation's response to energy conservation; alternate transport modes and energy consumption; alternate freight modes; public transportation and energy conservation; rail transportation - its place in the Nation's energy conservation program; vehicle performance; optimizing the use of materials and energy in construction; options for conserving energy in transportation; transportation system design; and energy conservation related

H. W. Busching; D. O. Covault; R. L. Dean; R. Lochow

1976-01-01

145

77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air...Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning...DOE is also updating the current Federal test procedures or, for certain...

2012-05-16

146

77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air...Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning...proposing updates to the current Federal test procedures to incorporate by...

2012-01-17

147

76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) and for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment (Commercial...

2011-11-08

148

Relevance of the second law of thermodynamics to energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the potential relevance of the use of analytical tools based on the Second Law of thermodynamics to existing federal programs for energy conservation in the industrial, transportation, buildings, and utility sectors in the US. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

149

Opportunities for Energy Conservation in Finished Concrete Products. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on an industrial audit and process analysis, two energy conservation opportunities were identified as applicable to the finished concrete products industry. One of these involved substituting a naturally cementitious material, pozzolan, for a portio...

J. V. Zaccor J. Jewett

1978-01-01

150

Energy conservation opportunities in small commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

As part of a joint project between Duke Power Co. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a study was performed to determine the energy savings potential of small commercial buildings, located in the Duke Power service territory. This relatively untouched portion of the commercial sector has the potential for reducing energy consumption by 13% - 25%, which corresponds to a reduction in average annual operating costs of $500 - $1000 per building. A database of over sixty customers was used to target five buildings with unusually high levels of energy consumption and/or peak demand. Conservation measures in these buildings were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness and relative non-intrusiveness on the occupants. Together, ORNL and Duke Power representatives worked on data analysis, site-audits, and measure recommendations. Duke Power supplied hourly and monthly utility data, customer survey information and participated in site-audits. ORNL analyzed the data, developed targeting indices, performed site-audits and corresponding first-order energy simulations on candidate buildings, and recommended individualized conservation retrofits. For the five buildings examined, retrofits including lighting, controls, and HVAC systems accounted for a total reduction in consumption of 32%, and in peak demand of 22%. In addition, the study emphasizes the importance of continuous attention to the operating conditions of HVAC equipment and controls, in order to ensure long-term sustainability of these energy savings.

Abraham, M.M.; MacDonald, J.M.

1995-08-01

151

Making an Energy Conservation Program Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first step of an energy conservation program is to monitor energy consumption. A system is explained that, in order to determine which buildings are energy efficient (considering all types of energy that a building might use), monitors total energy consumption. All such consumptions can be reduced to a common denominator: Barrels of Energy

Rump, Erwin E.; Hunter, James L.

152

Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of Wood Burning Boiler Plant, Fort Stewart, Georgia: Final Report, Validation of ECIP Project No. 193: DOD, Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) project to install a 94,900 lb steam per hour wood burning boiler in the Fort Stewart Central Energy Plant was selected by the US Army for validation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This ECIP project ...

M. A. Broders D. R. Miller

1987-01-01

153

Energy-conservation for tactical robot networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in mechanical and sensor technologies promise a wealth of new and exciting robotic devices. However, in order for these systems to perform advanced collaborative problem solving, sophisticated communications capabilities must be available. The importance of energy-conservation for general mobile communications has been well established through practical and research experience. The need to conserve energy is particularly acute in robotic

Jason Redi; Bob Welsh

1999-01-01

154

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

155

Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

156

Energy Conservation--The Global Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents energy as a pivotal prerequisite of highly developed economic and social structure. Discusses: (1) fossil-fuel resources and demand in various countries; (2) energy conservation; (3) measures for conservation; (4) technology transfer; and (5) considerations to be regarded internationally. (HM)|

Murthy, K. K.

1978-01-01

157

Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

158

Conservation of energy and Gauss Bonnet gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how can be made the classification of all tensors constructed from the Riemann tensor that verify the conservation of gravitational energy momentum. More precisely we explain that there exists a unique tensor of degree n in the Riemann tensor and its contractions that verifies the conservation of energy. We show that this tensor, only because it obeys

Christophe Real

2006-01-01

159

Developments in design for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Processors Association, Design Technical Subcommittee A, has just completed an energy conservation checklist for gas plants. During the preparation of this checklist, several new systems designed for improved energy conservation were observed in the areas of compression drivers, fractionation, heat exchange, and flaring. This paper presents a brief description of these systems. 5 refs.

Guffey, C.G.

1981-01-01

160

Energy-Conserving Parabolic Wave Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy-conserving versions of the parabolic wave equation model used for underwater sound propagation are derived for stratified media and variable coefficients (depth-dependent and range-dependent). The energy-conserving PWE models are first given for ti...

A. Sundstroem

1992-01-01

161

Bibliography on institutional barriers to energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bibliography was created as part of a study on institutional barriers to energy conservation, funded by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). The bibliography was compiled to aid in the location and identification of literature on the subjects of institutional barriers and energy conservation. The bibliography includes reports on barriers related to public attitudes, lack of incentives, lack

C. M. York; C. Blumstein; B. Krieg; L. Schipper

1978-01-01

162

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

163

A Graduate Course in Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the University of Michigan's (Ann Arbor) success with a six-year energy conservation program (The Energy Star Program) offered by the Environmental Protection Agency. Describes the program's components and areas of savings the university has achieved. (GR)

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

164

A Graduate Course in Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the University of Michigan's (Ann Arbor) success with a six-year energy conservation program (The Energy Star Program) offered by the Environmental Protection Agency. Describes the program's components and areas of savings the university has achieved. (GR)|

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

165

Household energy conservation: Strategies for behavioral research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in the behavioral and social sciences on household energy conservation is reviewed. The research and the savings in energy achieved are described. Areas for future research that will extend or enhance the findings are suggested.

Berry, S. H.; Winkler, J. D.

1982-10-01

166

Industrial energy conservation technologies and research opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book assesses and evaluates energy technologies currently available for application to industrial energy conservation. Also considered are research needs for developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. Part I assesses and evaluates information on the newer energy technologies offered commercially. The primary objective of this evaluation was to identify technologies that had potential for saving energy in applications in

De Renzo

1983-01-01

167

Power Conservation in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

?We examine energy harvesting sensor networks, more specifically, a sensor network using the Geographic Routing with Environmental Energy Supply (GREES) algorithm. We start with a discussion of other sources of energy conservation both in energy harvesting and non-energy harvesting sensor networks. Ideas presented in these works are combined where possible with the GREES algorithm. A sensor network was actually built

Roberts Timothy A M. A. Sc

2011-01-01

168

Gaming for energy conservation in households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study about a ‘serious game’, “Energy Battle”, as a means to influence energy-related behavior in households. The Energy Battle is designed to engage home occupants in a fun way in energy conservation via a competition with other households. The challenge enabled home occupants to gain insight in their energy consumption and actively involved them in reducing

D. V. Geelen; J. C. Brezet; D. V. Keyson; S. U. Boess

2010-01-01

169

24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and practices. 965.306...PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In...

2013-04-01

170

Recent Trend of Energy Conservation Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to cope with the global warming, importance of energy conservation technologies becomes large and large. This paper shows outline of the recent technology trends and future R&D strategies of national projects in Japan. The basic concept and some important R&D topics of the technology strategies, which will be determined by this September are summarized. They are Super combustion system technologies, Energy utilization technologies beyond time and distance restrictions, Future life environment technologies on energy conservation, Advanced traffic technologies, and New generation device technologies for energy conservation. Some relative R&D themes in industrial sector, civil sector, and transportation sector are also shown.

Kudo, Hiroyuki

171

Anticipation, Orbital Stability, and Energy Conservation in Discrete Harmonic Oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We make a systematic analysis of the dual incursive model of the discrete harmonic oscillator. We derive its closed form solution, and identify its natural frequency of oscillation. We study its orbital stability, and the conservation of its total energy. We finally propose a superposed model that conserves energy with absolute precision, and exhibits a high degree of orbital stability. Within the conjecture that spacetime is discrete, the above results lead to the conclusion that discretization must be accompanied by anticipation, in order to guarantee orbital stability and energy conservation.

Antippa, Adel F. [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, G9A 5H7 (Canada); Dubois, Daniel M. [Centre for Hyperincursion and Anticipation in Ordered Systems, CHAOS asbl, Institute of Mathematics, B37, University of Liege, Grande Traverse 12, B-4000 LIEGE 1 (Belgium)

2004-08-19

172

Summary review of building energy-use compilation and analysis (BECA). Part C. Conservation progress in retrofitted commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Data on actual energy use were compiled for 223 retrofitted commercial buildings and analyzed for energy performance and cost-effectiveness. 70% of the buildings were located in the northeastern region of the US. Dominant building types were schools and offices; over 75% of the buildings had floor areas larger than 50,000 ft/sup 2/. Nearly all (95%) of the buildings included operations and maintenance changes as part of the retrofit. The median value of source energy savings for the entire sample was 19% of the pre-retrofit consumption. Nine percent of the retrofits failed to save. The median value of retrofit cost was $0.56/ft/sup 2/. Complete cost data were available for less than 30% of the sample; for them the median value of simple payback time was in the 1 to 2 year range and the median value of cost of conserved site energy was $3.30/MBtu (with first-costs amortized over 5 years at 10% real interest). Also included are a study of the durability of retrofits and a comparison of predicted vs. actual savings.

Wall, L.W.; Flaherty, J.

1982-08-01

173

The potential effect of end-users on energy conservation in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the study is to estimate the potential of end-user effect on energy conservation in office buildings. The study quantifies the energy conservation potential and estimates the current level of energy management in four banking organisations in the Nordic countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The multiple case study employs quantitative scenario analysis for estimating the energy conservation potential

Seppo Junnila

2007-01-01

174

Energy Conservation. Educational Facilities Digest 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because today's schools consume large amounts of energy and, consequently, pay high energy bills, the term "energy cirsis" is no exaggeration to describe the situation facing educators and school administrators. Schools everywhere are under pressure to use less electricity, natural gas, heating oil, and gasoline. While energy conservation

Council of Educational Facility Planners, Columbus, OH.

175

Transportation Energy Use and Conservation Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes transportation energy consumption and energy intensiveness for inter-city freight and passenger traffic and urban passenger traffic with the definition of energy intensiveness as Btu per ton-mile or per passenger-mile. Indicates that public education is one of three ways to achieve the goals of energy conservation. (CC)

Hirst, Eric

1973-01-01

176

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Follow-up Report.  

SciTech Connect

United Industries Corporation (UIC) conducted an energy analysis at five food processing plants (SIC 20) in the winter of 1984-1985. Tour of plants (Alpac, Carnation, Terminal flour mill, Tree Top) were revisited eighteen months later to determine what energy conservation measures (ECM's) had been or would be implemented. Additionally, the follow-up investigation evaluated the actual energy savings that accrued for the implemented ECM's and recorded the plants' views on the usefulness of the energy analysis.

United Industries Corporation.

1986-06-01

177

Energy conservation: guidelines for municipal programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of guidelines is proposed to help local governments implement energy-conservation programs. The guidelines emphasize the areas of a city's power to act and its legal limitations in order to keep the conservation strategies practical and workable. Cities are in a position to adopt already-adopted state and Federal efficiency standards and regulations. Police and taxes, the city's principal sources

2009-01-01

178

41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Energy conservation policy. 101-25.112...Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a...established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b) With...

2010-07-01

179

41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Energy conservation policy. 101-25.112...Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a...established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b) With...

2009-01-01

180

40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy reserve. 73.26 Section...73.26 Conservation and renewable energy reserve. The Administrator...allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of...

2013-07-01

181

Energy demand and conservation in Kenya: initial appraisal  

SciTech Connect

Ongoing research into the use and conservation of energy in Kenya is reported briefly. A partial accounting of energy use in Kenya is presented, and evidence that some energy conservation has been taking place is discussed. A fuller accounting for all commercial energy flows is both possible and desirable. The work presented should serve as a basis for further data collection and analysis in Kenya, and can be used as a model for similar efforts in other countries. The author intends to continue much of this energy accounting in Kenya in the latter half of 1980.

Schipper, L.

1980-03-01

182

W9 - Conservation of Energy and Momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students often struggle with the concepts associated with the conservation of energy and momentum. This session focuses on the use of computer simulations and a capstone project to help students learn concepts and calculations associated with these concepts.

Hawkins, Chad; Lamp, David

2012-10-01

183

Midway Community Energy-Conservation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to study the effects of certain energy conservation modifications to houses at Midway, Washington. The installation costs of the modifications were considered in order to determine whether the modifications were cost effect...

J. S. Englund A. J. Flechsig F. W. Cook B. Kirkpatrick J. Zieman

1981-01-01

184

Energy Conservation in the Electric Power System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities for energy conservation in the Norwegian electric power supply system are analysed. This power system is based exclusively on hydroelectric power and consists of water storage reservoirs, pipes and tunnels for water transport, power plan...

A. Killingtveit K. Tvinnereim

1983-01-01

185

Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternate energy utilization in buildings. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixed strategy analysis was a tradeoff analysis between energy conservation methods and solar energy systems considering technical and economic benefits. The objective of the analysis was to develop guidelines for: reducing energy requirements; reducing conventional fuel use; and identifying economic alternatives for building owners. The analysis was done with a solar system in place. This makes the study unique

1977-01-01

186

Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers  

SciTech Connect

This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

1985-06-01

187

Santa Claus and the conservation of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation in general.

Hassani, Sadri

2005-11-01

188

Energy Efficiency and Conservation Course Development Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course development model on energy efficiency and conservation methods. The curriculum focuses on energy use reduction, both in commercial and domestic settings. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-05-09

189

Energy conservation in Kenya: progress, potentials, problems  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out of the flows of commercial energy in the economy of Kenya. Indications were sought of the extent to which energy conservation, (i.e., increase in efficiency of energy use) has reduced the ratio of energy inputs to economic outputs, in the post-1973 years. An assessment was made of the potential for energy conservation to reduce the growth of Kenyan energy use in the future and of significant barriers to increasing energy efficiency. Consideration was given to the role of government policy and of international assistance in fostering energy conservation in Kenya and other developing countries. The study was performed by analyzing available energy data and statistics from the largest oil companies, the Kenyan electric utility, and the government. These sources were supplemented by conducting personal interviews with personnel of nearly 50 commercial firms in Kenya. Direct consumption of fuel accounts for 94% of the commercial energy use in Kenya, while electricity accounts for 6%. The sectoral division of fuel use is: transportation 53%, industry 21%, energy production 11%, agriculture 9%, buildings and residences 5%, and construction 1%. For electricity the division is: buildings and residences 48%, industry 45%, energy production 4%, agriculture 2%, and construction 1%. Recent progress in conservation is reported.

Schipper, L.; Hollander, J.M.; Milukas, M.; Alcamo, J.; Meyers, S.; Noll, S.

1981-09-01

190

Living Lightly: Energy Conservation in Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains a series of papers which promote the concepts of energy conservation and offer safe and convenient ways of handling all aspects of our lives affected by energy without having to depend in any way on fossil fuels or nuclear power. These changes, which can be brought about in homes and in energy flows affected by the…

Bender, Tom

191

(Energy conservation in buildings and community systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Energy Agency, Energy Conservation in Building and Community Systems, with cooperation from the Solar Research and Development and the Commission of the European Communities has been developing plans for new areas of investigation that affect various energy, environmental, economic, and technical trends on buildings of the next 40 years. Creating a sustainable society must be accomplished in the

1990-01-01

192

US industrial sector energy conservation savings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1970s, US industry, and the manufacturing sector in particular, has emerged as a leading practitioner of ways to conserve energy. Objective of this paper is to first sort out the compositional shifts from energy efficiency improvements using a simple regression model. After the efficiency improvements of the recent reductions in industrial energy use are identified, the various

G. L. Wilfert; J. M. Roop

1986-01-01

193

Energy conservation measures in building: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of possible measures for the conservation of energy in buildings are reviewed. The survey is made in the context of the American situation and covers energy use in space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting, and domestic and other appliances. Topics discussed include 'total energy' systems, insulation, heat losses through ventilation, solar heat gain, heat of lights,

P Steadman

1974-01-01

194

Living Lightly: Energy Conservation in Housing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a series of papers which promote the concepts of energy conservation and offer safe and convenient ways of handling all aspects of our lives affected by energy without having to depend in any way on fossil fuels or nuclear power. These changes, which can be brought about in homes and in energy flows affected by the…

Bender, Tom

195

Comparison of Teaching Methods for Energy Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three sections, taught by different instructors, of Conceptual Physics were taught energy conservation using three different techniques: traditional â no visualization, energy bar charts, and energy bars. Performance of the groups of students on final exam questions is compared and contrasted.

Horner, M. L.; Jeng, Monwhea; Lindell, Rebecca S.

2007-11-25

196

Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation

Hassani, Sadri

2005-01-01

197

Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation

Hassani, Sadri

2005-01-01

198

75 FR 1121 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...oil, and natural gas; energy losses in thermal combustion in power- generation plants; and energy losses in transmission and...emissions reduction from power plants in States subject to CAIR because an energy conservation standard...

2010-01-08

199

Volunteers for Energy Conservation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the program was to utilize volunteers to supply energy conservation information to residents of the City of Los Angeles, primarily low-moderate income, handicapped and senior citizens. The objective was to reach 1000 homes and have nine (9) group workshops, as well as provide support to other energy conservation programs. All goals were reached. Volunteers were trained by staff and energy consultants to provide a home energy survey. This is a survey in which the volunteer goes into a residence and examines their energy usage and suggests ways to conserve. The volunteers also had information on tax credits, low-interest loans, weatherization programs and other available programs. (See attached FN No. 21). Materials were left with the residents that provided the following information: how to read your meter; ways to save energy, both gas and electric; use of a water bag which was provided; and other information dependent on the clients' needs.

Not Available

1981-04-16

200

A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular ``Newton's Cradle'' toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.

Paesler, Michael

2012-02-01

201

Industrial energy conservation: technology transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical and projected demand and supply of energy in the US is reviewed by sector and by fuel type. Energy demands by other nations are also briefly considered. Various systems are described to preserve the quality of energy, as well as other systems which allow energy to be rejected in the plant rather than escape to the environment. A

D. Maples; G. D. Whitehouse

1980-01-01

202

Energy conservation in large buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As energy prices rise, newly energy aware designers use better tools and technology to create energy efficient buildings. Thus the U.S. office stock (average age 20 years) uses 250 kBTU\\/ft2 of resource energy, but the guzzler of 1972 uses 500 (up×2), and the 1986 ASHRAE standards call for 100-125 (less than 25% of their 1972 ancestors). Surprisingly, the first real

A. H. Rosenfeld; D. Hafemeister

1985-01-01

203

How to conserve unit energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The guidelines described here are based upon the proven results of a broad-based attack. The unit energy program is to be a new generation of effort that demands the evolution of the unit energy coordinators' actions from those designed, specified and implemented by an engineer to those planned, organized and controlled by an energy manager. The quickly escalating cost of

Korich

1982-01-01

204

Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities. Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use are presented. A wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented are described. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major energy end-use sectors. The analysis employs a systematic process for both identifying and screening candidate energy conservation research areas. Aggregate energy consumption was reviewed and explicity criteria were employed to evaluate the technology research areas.

Hopp, W. J.; Hauser, S. G.; Hane, G. J.; Gurwell, W. E.; Bird, S. P.; Cliff, W. C.; Williford, R. E.; Williams, T. A.; Ashton, W. B.

1981-11-01

205

Social psychological aspects of energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

1985-11-01

206

Potential for energy conservation in apartment buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for energy conservation in apartment buildings is investigated following the epiqr methodology and software. Several scenarios are evaluated for various apartment buildings located in three climatic zones of Hellas. The proposed retrofit actions concentrate on space heating and cooling, domestic hot water production and lighting. Energy savings for the corresponding actions in each building are accounted for in

C. A Balaras; K Droutsa; A. A Argiriou; D. N Asimakopoulos

2000-01-01

207

Textiles and Clothing In Thermal Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising energy costs have led people to lower indoor temperatures during cold weather. Thus, effective use of clothing could be important in maintaining thermal body comfort. A study was developed to determine the roles of clothing and nonclothing practices, textile knowledge, clothing priorities, and selected demographic variables relative to energy conservation indoors during cold weather. On the basis of the

Mary Lapitsky; Lois E. Dickey

1986-01-01

208

US Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Savings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the early 1970s, US industry, and the manufacturing sector in particular, has emerged as a leading practitioner of ways to conserve energy. Objective of this paper is to first sort out the compositional shifts from energy efficiency improvements usi...

G. L. Wilfert J. M. Roop

1986-01-01

209

Process of Promoting Consumer Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines how it can be possible to promote consumer energy conservation, particularly to reduce consumption in the field of non-renewable energies. It is necessary to involve the consumers in the process from the start. They must also be able ...

M. E. Olsen B. Joerges

1981-01-01

210

New residential building standards. Energy conservation manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual was developed in accordance with Public Resources Code Section 25402.1. The manual explains how to comply with and enforce the energy conservation standards for new residential buildings which became effective on July 13, 1982. It describes all the approved compliance methods and contains calculation procedures, design tables, sample problems, recommended compliance forms, and the energy-related parts of the

J. H. Miwa; V. T. Hall

2008-01-01

211

Energy Efficiency: The Impact of Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The codified experience with conservation indicates that projection of energy needs may be much too high and that the United States has far more freedom to choose energy sources than has been perceived. There has been speculation that as the United States...

1981-01-01

212

Energy Conservation Techniques in Existing Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 50 energy conservation measures are discussed. These primarily come into consideration in the existing housing stock, but many can also be applied in other types of buildings. Apart from a discussion of the energy savings achieved by the measure...

T. Hansson A. Nilsson C. G. Stadler

1984-01-01

213

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Carnation.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Carnation in Seattle, Washington. Carnation is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are diveded into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-03-01

214

Energy conservation in alcohol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explains how substantial energy savings can be achieved by integrating the distillation system into the slop concentrating evaporator of a fermentation plant. Presents diagram of a fully integrated system. Advantages of a combined system include considerable improvement in the energy balance of a fuel alcohol plant; concentration of alcohol in the feed becomes much less important; improvement in the recovery

F. C. Standiford; L. D. Weimer

1983-01-01

215

Habits, hardware, and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replies to R. A. Winnett and E. S. Geller's (1981) comment that P. C. Stern and G. T. Gardner underemphasized the importance of behavioral changes and overstressed the role of consumer investments in energy efficiency in homes. Stern and Gardner's description of the decentralized solar energy future included nontechnical changes (e.g., decreased mobility, community management of resources, increased recycling).

Paul C. Stern; Gerald T. Gardner

1981-01-01

216

Transportation energy conservation data book  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including

A. S. Loebl; D. J. Bjornstad; D. F. Burch; E. B. Howard; J. F. Hull; D. G. Madewell; N. S. Malthouse; M. C. Ogle

2011-01-01

217

Radiant heat for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that human comfort could be provided in otherwise chilly surroundings by filling the occupied space with electromagnetic energy of centimeter wavelength. Very considerable reductions in the consumption of energy required for the heating of buildings should result from the lowering of interior temperatures thereby permitted

R. V. Pound

1980-01-01

218

Systematic energy conservation management guide. Volume 8. Conserving energy through recycling, recuperation, and cogeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of energy through recycling, recuperation, and cogeneration is presented with emphasis on industrial applications. Following the introductory chapter, Section 2 explains terminology and nomenclature. Cogeneration is discussed in Section 3. The material includes historical perspective, technical descriptions, and discussion of key issues relevant to industrial applications. Recycling, a more general topic of energy conservation than either cogeneration or heat

Ricupero

1978-01-01

219

78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This proposed rule would correct the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners, published in the Federal Register on April 21, 2011, and the subsequent notices of effective date and compliance dates for the direct final rule and amendment of......

2013-04-08

220

Dissipative or conservative cosmology with dark energy?  

SciTech Connect

All evolutional paths for all admissible initial conditions of FRW cosmological models with dissipative dust fluid (described by dark matter, baryonic matter and dark energy) are analyzed using dynamical system approach. With that approach, one is able to see how generic the class of solutions leading to the desired property-acceleration-is. The theory of dynamical systems also offers a possibility of investigating all possible solutions and their stability with tools of Newtonian mechanics of a particle moving in a one-dimensional potential which is parameterized by the cosmological scale factor. We demonstrate that flat cosmology with bulk viscosity can be treated as a conservative system with a potential function of the Chaplygin gas type. We characterize the class of dark energy models that admit late time de Sitter attractor solution in terms of the potential function of corresponding conservative system. We argue that inclusion of dissipation effects makes the model more realistic because of its structural stability. We also confront viscous models with SNIa observations. The best fitted models are obtained by minimizing the {chi}{sup 2} function which is illustrated by residuals and {chi}{sup 2} levels in the space of model independent parameters. The general conclusion is that SNIa data supports the viscous model without the cosmological constant. The obtained values of {chi}{sup 2} statistic are comparable for both the viscous model and {lambda}CDM model. The Bayesian information criteria are used to compare the models with different power-law parameterization of viscous effects. Our result of this analysis shows that SNIa data supports viscous cosmology more than the {lambda}CDM model if the coefficient in viscosity parameterization is fixed. The Bayes factor is also used to obtain the posterior probability of the model.

Szydlowski, Marek [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Marc Kac Complex Systems Research Center, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Hrycyna, Orest [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Philosophy, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Raclawickie 14, 20-950 Lublin (Poland)], E-mail: hrycyna@kul.lublin.pl

2007-12-15

221

Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition  

SciTech Connect

The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

1988-04-01

222

Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

Hoffman, W.L.

1982-12-01

223

The role of renewable energy in energy management and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a crucial issue for sustainable developments. Conventional energy sources will remain the main supply of energy for the world. The importance of renewable energy sources and their current advances are discussed with a special emphasis on energy conservation policy. The paper will focus briefly on various techniques of integrated renewable with existing energy systems. It is concluded that

U. A. Elani; S. H. Alawaji; S. M. Hasnain

1996-01-01

224

(Short Articles on Energy Conservation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following short articles are reprinted after being published in the Tri-County Times, Slater, Iowa, by Laurent Hodges of the Iowa State University Energy Extension Service: water power; small hydroelectric plants; condensation problems (three parts); ...

L. Hodges

1985-01-01

225

Energy conservation in museums and historic buildings  

SciTech Connect

The special environmental needs of museums and historic buildings can be met through methods that conserve energy as well. The research reported in this article is a result of a project undertaken to assess the energy conservation possibilities in such buildings. The irreplaceable nature of museum collections and the historic structures which often house them mandates that proper care be taken not to cause any irreversible damage in the process of saving energy. This article outlines specific heating, cooling and humidity control guidelines to follow, and recommends that all such buildings have an energy audit performed on their facilities. It also describes an energy use data base which has been compiled to show the actual energy consumption of museums.

Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

1983-08-01

226

Energy Conservation for Dynamical Black Holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in\\u000amass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the\\u000ainfalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this\\u000afirst law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar &\\u000aKrishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the

Sean A. Hayward

2004-01-01

227

Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

1981-12-01

228

Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.  

PubMed

The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies. PMID:23359745

Hannon, Bruce

2013-01-28

229

Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans  

SciTech Connect

The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

Not Available

1978-01-16

230

Solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB): requirements definition and impact analysis-II. Volume 1. Energy-conserving design for residential structures  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented of an analysis of the impact of stringent energy conserving building standards on electric utility service areas and their customers. The reference standard generated for this analysis deals essentially with improvements in insulation, reduction of infiltration losses and control of solar heat gain. The demands on the seven broadly representative electric utilities are determined from detailed simulations of loads and HVAC systems for a set of representative buildings. These demands are then aggregated to represent the total new construction electric heating demands in the years 1990 and 2000 to be compared to the aggregate obtained similarly for a nominal, less stringent standard, viz., ASHRAE 90-75. Results presented include the percentage of energy savings achieved in both heating and cooling seasons and typical demand profile changes. A utility economic impact analysis is performed for the cases investigated to determine changes in operating costs and potential capacity sales. A third cost component considered is the incremental cost of superinsulation (over ASHRAE 90-75) to the customer. The aggregate net cost to the utility/customer entity is utilized as a measure of averall economic benefit. Also analyzed are the effects of superinsulation on the design and performance of solar heating systems considered as an energy saving alternative of adjunct.

Cretcher, C.K.

1980-11-01

231

Energy conservation in alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

Explains how substantial energy savings can be achieved by integrating the distillation system into the slop concentrating evaporator of a fermentation plant. Presents diagram of a fully integrated system. Advantages of a combined system include considerable improvement in the energy balance of a fuel alcohol plant; concentration of alcohol in the feed becomes much less important; improvement in the recovery of alcohol in the feed; and it enables simpler stripping of alcohol from the fermented liquor. Such systems will reduce the net extra heat required for distillation from one-half to one-third that normally needed. The energy required for slop evaporation is slightly less than normally needed by a highly efficient vapor compression evaporator operating alone.

Standiford, F.C.; Weimer, L.D.

1983-01-01

232

Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

1982-11-01

233

Potential problems and limitations of energy conservation and energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss that whilst energy conservation and energy efficiency both ultimately have the same goal they attempt to achieve this via very different approaches. We then discuss how both options face significant barriers to ultimately successfully reduce electricity consumption.

Matt Croucher

2011-01-01

234

Energy Conservation: Boiler Flue Baffling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the principles of heat transfer as the affect the use of energy in boilers and furnaces whose primary use is space heating in residential and commercial types of buildings. The report summarizes some of the data available which measure ...

E. L. Millard

1986-01-01

235

Energy conservation: electricity and fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bibliography of approximately 550 citations on timely metallurgical topics is presented. Subjects covered include: trends in the efficient utilization of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, coke, coal and other types of primary energy; case histories; conversion from radiant to direct fired furnaces; regenerative and recuperative heat recovery, control of current efficiency in electrolysis, substitution of fuel; innovative charge mixtures,

Kaminski

1981-01-01

236

Energy conservation in small enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other non-residential buildings that have been widely researched, industrial buildings have higher thermal loads, higher air-change rates, longer operating hours and greater pollution control requirements. This paper presents the results of preliminary audits carried out on a sample of 12 representative small business enterprises in Greece including food, marble, wood, paper, plastic, metallurgical and service companies. Energy intensity

T. Markis; J. A. Paravantis

2007-01-01

237

Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures  

SciTech Connect

Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

Not Available

1980-01-01

238

Module Five: Energy Conservation by Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The value of recycling, reusing, and reclaiming natural and man-made materials is shown as a source of energy as well as resource conservation. Bio-fuels, including agricultural and wood products, glass, steel, aluminum, and other metals and materials are...

1980-01-01

239

Recent Trend of Energy Conservation Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to cope with the global warming, importance of energy conservation technologies becomes large and large. This paper shows outline of the recent technology trends and future R&D strategies of national projects in Japan. The basic concept and some important R&D topics of the technology strategies, which will be determined by this September are summarized. They are Super combustion

Hiroyuki Kudo

2006-01-01

240

Earth sheltering runs deeper than energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation and reduced visual impact are the most commonly extalled virtues of underground buildings. But the decision of whether to build above or below the ground also includes such considerations as cost impact, end use, climatic environment, foundation conditions, and the nature of the surrounding area. The advantages and disadvantages of below-ground construction are discussed.

Melnick

1984-01-01

241

Home Energy Conservation Training Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a project designed to present four training sessions for community specialists representing outreach interests such as cooperative extension, senior citizens organizations, and welfare agencies. Training consists of instruction in contemporary knowledge, skills, and methods of home energy conservation, and in how to teach others to…

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Coll. of Human Resources and Education.

242

Low-Tech Energy Conservation for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Institute of Architects National Committee on Architecture for Education presents this guide which addresses methods of energy conservation in school buildings with simple design, construction, and equipment-control technology so that trained and creative people can take over functions normally done by machinery and automated…

Stein, Benjamin

243

Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures: Management Summaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a summary of the first of five phases of a demonstration project of energy conservation school building modifications. The ten schools studied in this phase were selected as typical of the variations of building design, construction, and location for schools in this country. Given in this report are: (1) descriptions of the schools…

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

244

The Urgent Need for Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the serious nature of the Energy Crisis'' and the dependence of the United States economy on imported hydrocarbons. Urges immediate action to alleviate the situation by increasing domestic production of oil, substituting coal for oil, and by conservation, especially in the use of automobile fuel. (JR)

Abelson, Philip H.

1973-01-01

245

Energy Conservation: Implementing an Effective Campus Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the physical plant environment and temperature control equipment at Eastfield College (Texas), this paper explains how redirected efforts toward energy conservation can result in important cost/usage savings. Electricity billing rates are explained to provide a stronger usage strategy for cost effectiveness. Two methods of reducing…

Marsee, Jeff

246

Electrorheology for Efficient Energy Production and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, most of our energy comes from liquid fuels. The viscosity plays a very important role in liquid fuel production and conservation. For example, reducing the viscosity of crude oil is the key for oil extraction and its transportation from off-shore via deep water pipelines. Currently, the dominant method to reduce viscosity is to raise oil's temperature, which does

R. Tao; Enpeng Du; Hong Tao; Xiaojun Xu; Yun Liu

2011-01-01

247

Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report  

SciTech Connect

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

Belzer, D.B.

1982-09-01

248

Residential energy conservation outreach activities: A new federal approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation of the Department of Energy's residential energy conservation outreach activities is presented. The contribution that outreach can make in achieving energy conservation is examined. The effectiveness of alternative techniques and DOE's current program and management are also examined.

1981-02-01

249

Improving government regulations: a guidebook for conservation and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated view of the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) policy making encompassing both administrative procedures and policy analysis is presented. Chapter One very briefly sketches each step in the development of a significant regulation, noting important requirements and participants. Chapter Two expands upon the Overview, providing the details of the process, the rationale and source of requirements,

R. J. Neese; R. M. Scheer; A. L. Marasco

1981-01-01

250

Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this…

Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarin, Francisco

2009-01-01

251

Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that…

Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarin, Francisco

2009-01-01

252

Two theorems on energy-momentum conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical meaning of the law of conservation of energy-momentum is examined. A distinction is made between the intrinsic properties of the metric tensor (i.e., those properties that are independent of the coordinate system), and the nonintrinsic properties of this tensor (i.e., those properties that depend upon the coordinate system). The covariance of the energy-momentum law is used to demonstrate

C. Martin Pereira

1976-01-01

253

Energy conservation in new-plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New plant designs will now include new energy-conservation design ; features, more-stringent safety features, and environmental-protection devices. ; U. S. process plants have been designed for low capital cost, but with higher ; operating costs. Nine methods described that engineers are now using to cope ; with the higher energy costs of the 1975-1980 period are furnace efficiency; ; power-recovery

J. B. Fleming; J. R. Lambrix; M. R. Smith

1974-01-01

254

Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this teaching sequence, together with the methodology used in the classroom, may result in students having a better grasp of the principle of energy conservation.

Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarín, Francisco

2009-06-01

255

Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document  

SciTech Connect

Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

Lucas, Robert G.

2009-09-26

256

Energy conservation for dynamical black holes.  

PubMed

An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. This first law of black-hole dynamics describes how a black hole grows and is regular in the limit where it ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role of a stationary Killing vector. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy supply and work terms. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation. PMID:15697889

Hayward, Sean A

2004-12-13

257

Analysis of United States' Utility Conservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the United States' experience with utility sponsored energy conservation programs. Such programs are central to the recent discussions about electric utility regulation in the United States and elsewhere. First it is shown that these programs are exposed to three problems on the consumers' side – rebound, adverse selection and moral hazard – which lower the effectiveness of

Franz Wirl; Wolfgang Orasch

1998-01-01

258

77 FR 16769 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning...January 2012 NOPR to update the current Federal test procedures, or for certain equipment types adopt new test procedures, to incorporate by...

2012-03-22

259

Emergency petroleum conservation: a review and analysis of selected measures  

SciTech Connect

ORNL was asked by the Economic Regulatory Administration to (1) collect, screen, and recommend a limited number of emergency measures that might conserve petroleum in residential and commercial buildings and in commercial transportation and (2) provide a detailed analysis of the energy savings and the economic and environmental impacts associated with restricting the hours of operation of commercial buildings. A total of 41 emergency measures were identified that might conserve petroleum, and these were reduced to a list of five that seemed most promising. Analysis of the measure to restrict hours of operation for commercial buildings shows that it might save 4 to 6% of annual commercial building energy use. The type of fuel conserved would vary widely from region to region, and appreciable negative economic impacts would result from implementing the measure.

Boercker, F.D.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Hull, E.; Savadelis, J.; Valentini, J.J.

1980-01-01

260

Voluntary response to energy conservation appeals  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies that examined response to the oil embargo in terms of home energy use support the hypothesis that household reduction in energy use exceeded that which can be explained by changes in market price or real income. Additional supporting evidence from a study in College Station, Texas found this difference to be four per cent. The author finds that the factors responsible for this voluntary response vary by geographic areas. He concludes that these factors make it difficult to compare energy conservation response across studies. 14 references, 1 table.

Walker, J.M.

1980-06-01

261

Managing state energy conservation programs - The Minnesota experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and operation of energy conservation programs in the Minnesota Energy Agency (MEA) are discussed. The MEA has responsibility for voluntary conservation efforts, regulating energy efficient devices, and grant programs to audit and retrofit public buildings. The MEA has developed the plan under which the Minnesota utilities will provide conservation services to residential customers, including an on-site home energy

E. Hirst; J. R. Armstrong

1980-01-01

262

Energy Conservation Opportunities at a Pineapple Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process followed to quantify no-cost and low-cost energy conservation opportunities found during a five-day energy audit at a pineapple processing facility in Kenya. The project started with an energy audit conducted to identify energy conservation opportunities. Various energy conservation opportunities were identified during the walkthrough audit and from metered data. The conservation opportunities included repairing faulty

A. Z. Dalgleish; L. J. Grobler

2008-01-01

263

Systematic energy conservation management guide. Volume 4. Conserving energy in HVAC and lighting systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume 4 is designed primarily to show the user how to save energy that is used for comfort. Section 2 describes the concept of a total energy management system. Procedures for setting energy conservation objectives, conducting building surveys, and analyzing opportunities are described. Section 3 deals with HVAC and distribution systems. It describes common systems and identifies areas in which

F. A. Hills; R. K. Tibrewala

1978-01-01

264

Energy-conservation study for the US Air Force Academy  

SciTech Connect

The United States Air Force Academy (AFA) has asked the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist them in conducting detailed energy and solar analyses of selected AFA buildings using the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. The results of the energy conservation study conducted by Los Alamos in FY 1981 and 1982 for Building 2360 (Vandenberg Hall), Building 2169 (Field House), and Building 2410 (Aeronautics Laboratory) are presented. Energy Conservation and Solar Opportunities (ECOs) are identified for each building and predicted heating, cooling and electric energy savings are presented for each ECO. Economic results are summarized as annual dollars saved, discounted benefit-to-cost ratio, maximum investment targets, and the life-cycle cost of implementing each ECO.

Peterson, J.L.; Davis, L.B.

1983-01-01

265

Integrated energy and water conservation modeling  

SciTech Connect

Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is required to provide federal facility managers with a clear determination of the impact of water conservation practices on energy consumption. This paper introduces the WATERGY model, which is a spreadsheet model to analyze total energy savings associated with water conservation efforts. The contribution of this effort is the development of a synergistic model based on engineering algorithms as opposed to lumped parameter estimates. The model explicitly details the relationships between direct and indirect water and energy savings. Irrigation, plumbing fixture, appliance, and boiler blowdown savings comprise the direct water component of the model. Reduction in leakage and unaccounted-for water in the distribution system are calculated as indirect water savings. Direct energy savings are calculated for hot water production. Indirect energy savings associated with distribution and collection, electric line losses, and unaccounted-for gas are determined by the model. Data sources, algorithms, and engineering assumptions used in the development of the model are detailed. The model capabilities are demonstrated for a hypothetical federal facility.

Monsabert, S. de; Liner, B.L. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1998-04-01

266

ENERGY CONSERVATION POTENTIAL OF URBAN TREE PLANTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from monitoring and computer simu- lation studies indicate that trees can be a cost-effective energy conservation measure for some electric utilities. Our simula- tions suggest that a single 25-ft tall tree can reduce annual heating and cooling costs of a typical residence by 8 to 12 percent ($10-25). Assuming annual savings of $10 per household, a nationwide residential tree

E. Gregory McPherson; Rowan A. Rowntree

1993-01-01

267

Prompting Electrical Energy Conservation in Commercial Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of prompting and an ancillary self-monitoring procedure for increasing energy conservation behavior. Specifically, posters were installed in men's restrooms on a college campus with the aim of prompting users to turn off lights upon leaving the room. Three observations per day were I made in ten rooms over a 44-day period. A multiple-baseline design showed

Dennis J. Delprato

1977-01-01

268

An Energy Conserving Parallel Hybrid Plasma Solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the performance of a hybrid plasma solver on the test problem of an ion beam. The parallel solver is based on cell centered finite differences in space, and a predictor-corrector leapfrog scheme in time. The implementation is done in the FLASH software framework. It is shown that the solver conserves energy well over time, and that the parallelization is efficient (it exhibits weak scaling).

Holmström, M.

2011-10-01

269

Energy conservation strategies among American college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compares both attitudes and recycling behaviors in a sample of college males and females (N?=?302), a demographic group whose behaviors and willingness to adopt environmentally sound policies will become the dominant\\u000a force for environmental reform in the USA in approaching decades. Consistent with prior research, women were significantly\\u000a more likely to support strategies for energy conservation and were

Lauren Dundes; Anna Kulow; Debra Lemke

2009-01-01

270

Handbook for Energy Conservation in Food Canning Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guidelines are presented so that personnel in food canneries can conserve energy. Information dealing with conservation applicable to food canneries is brought together in this handbook. Energy consumed in the production, harvesting, and the processing of...

M. A. Rao D. L. Downing

1979-01-01

271

Conservation and Solar Energy Program: Congressional Budget Request, FY 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; ...

1981-01-01

272

Promoting Energy Conservation Through Occupational Licensure: A Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve energy conservation measures in buildings' power and lighting systems, landscaped spaces, parks, freeways, building sites, etc., the responsible engineers and tradespeople will have to be educated in ways to conserve energy. This report analyze...

W. W. Wilms

1977-01-01

273

Energy Conservation Manual for Water and Wastewater Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual is presented to provide water and waste-water managers with an overview of energy conservation activities in Wisconsin along with specific recommendations for improving their current programs. Chapters are: Energy Conservation Management; Water...

1980-01-01

274

Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 1, Conditional demand analysis applied to the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS): Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the first, presents the theoretical background of the procedure and applies it to a national data set. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

1988-02-01

275

Work and Energy Problem: Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A pendulum of unknown mass is suspended from a platform and swings as shown in the animation (assume negligible loss of energy due to air resistance; position is shown in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-21

276

Snowboarding And The Conservation Of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, students will design a new snowboarding event through the use of the free physics simulation program âSkateboard Park.â Students will investigate the energy dynamics their course and explore the conservation of energy principle.

2010-01-01

277

Helicity conservation and energy confinement in CTX spheromaks  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported for the CTX spheromak with a 0.67 m radius mesh flux conserver. Measured currents in the mesh allow a nonperturbing determination of the equilibrium profile. Analysis of sustained discharges shows that injected magnetic helicity is conserved. Increase of the spheromak radius from 0.40 m to 0.67 m has not led to an increase in energy confinement. Our attempts to resolve this issue, including the use of a conducting core and applied bias fields, is discussed.

Wright, B.L.; Barnes, C.W.; Fernandez, J.C.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Marklin, G.J.; Mayo, R.M.; Platts, D.A.

1986-01-01

278

41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Energy conservation policy. 101-25.112...1-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency...established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act....

2012-07-01

279

41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Energy conservation policy. 101-25.112...1-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency...established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act....

2011-07-01

280

Handbook for energy conservation in food canning plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines are presented so that personnel in food canneries can conserve energy. Information dealing with conservation applicable to food canneries is brought together in this handbook. Energy consumed in the production, harvesting, and the processing of foods are discussed in Sections I and II. The main components of an energy conservation program are discussed in Section IV. A list of

M. A. Rao; D. L. Downing

1979-01-01

281

Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation

Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

2008-01-01

282

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.

Banks, Robert S.; Rainer, David

1980-03-01

283

Energy Conservation: Guidelines for Action. Suggested Guidelines for Local School District Development of Energy Conservation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Curriculum guidelines for the local development of energy conservation programs in public schools reflect an interdisciplinary educational approach--the result of a coordinated effort by industry, commerce, education, and government agencies concerned with the energy crisis. The scope and nature of the problem, with its implications for education…

Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

284

Systematic energy conservation management guide. Volume 6. Conserving energy in electric motors, pumps, and compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

American industry wastes 20 to 30% of the electric power it consumes. Efforts made by industry to conserve energy can have great potential rewards, not only for industry itself, but also for the entire economic community. The introductory section of Volume 6 describes the impact on energy usage of electric motors, compressors, and pumps. It also describes the basic reasons

R. H. Ropp; R. K. Tibrewala

1978-01-01

285

77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EESEP0216] State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office...State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

2012-03-12

286

Portland Energy Conservation Project. City energy plan: choices for saving energy in the commercial sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portland Energy Conservation Project consists of four major tasks: (1) collect data base; (2) develop an energy conservation plan; (3) revise codes; and (4) revise capital budgeting procedures. The work program for Task 2 includes the following: develop methodology for Portland Energy Plan; develop framework for measuring the impacts of energy cost increases and supply reductions; develop conservation choices

D. F. Mazziotti; G. M. Crandall

1976-01-01

287

Electrical Energy Conservation Analysis of the Wood Products (SIC24) Industry in the BPA Service District : Follow-up Survey Report. [Five Mills  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary follow-up survey to an Electrical Energy Conservation Analyses of five Wood Products Industry (SIC 24) mills in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Service District. This contract included a requirement for resurvey of the five mills to determine the extent, if any, of implementation of the electrical conservation measures identified. The five mills surveyed and analyzed were: Pope and Talbot, Port Gamble, Washington; Pope and Talbot, Oakridge, Oregon; Champion International, Rosenburg, Oregon; Champion International, Bonner, Montana; and Northwest Hardwoods, Centralia, Washington.

TransEnergy Systems, Inc.

1986-07-30

288

Ames Energy: A Consumer's Guide to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an annotated bibliography of energy-related materials for the consumer. Materials (which include books, videotape recordings, magazines, pamphlets, and other media) are arranged by subject area. These area include: (1) earth sheltered buildings; (2) fuels; (3) general (including general energy conservation and insulation); (4) heat…

Women's Support Network, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA.

289

Modeling Physics.org: Quantitative Energy Calculations & Energy Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a model assessment for introductory physics students on conservation of energy. It assesses both quantitative/mathematical skills in solving problems, as well as qualitative skills in creating energy bar graphs and flow diagrams. It is part of a larger set of curriculum materials, all of which are aligned with the Modeling Instruction pedagogical method of teaching.

2007-12-04

290

Ames Energy: A Consumer's Guide to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is an annotated bibliography of energy-related materials for the consumer. Materials (which include books, videotape recordings, magazines, pamphlets, and other media) are arranged by subject area. These area include: (1) earth sheltered buildings; (2) fuels; (3) general (including general energy conservation and insulation); (4) heat…

Women's Support Network, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA.

291

Integrating physical and virtual environments to conserve energy in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental understandings of how energy is consumed, monitored, and controlled are key prerequisites for an energy conservation process. Users who know exactly when energy consumption occurs and where it takes place are able to make more informed decisions about how to lower their energy consumption. Energy conservation projects in the U.S. have reported a 2–11% savings when users are presented

Mahmoud Alahmad; Wisam Nader; Yong Cho; Jonathan Shi; Jill Neal

2011-01-01

292

Small industries: 1981 Louisiana energy-conservation seminars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials are presented that supplement presentations made by speakers at the 1981 Louisiana Industrial Energy Conservation Seminars. Ideas currently in use, case studies of actual applications, and reference materials are included, as well as several articles from professional energy management periodicals. Topics covered include: energy accounting systems; employee awareness; load management in industry; energy billing; financial incentives for energy conservation

W. Brown; F. Milstead; J. W. Golden; J. Matthews; L. Doll; W. Godwin; J. McLemore

1981-01-01

293

Alternative Energy Sources 6: Vol. 4: conservation\\/management\\/policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume provides information on conservation, and environment and safety. Energy planning and policies, rural energy programs, and energy management are other topics of discussion in this volume. Energy education is also highlighted in this collection of conservation, management and policy papers on alternative energy sources.

Verziroglu

1985-01-01

294

Communication and the adoption of energy conservation measures by the elderly  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses a four-wave panel study conducted in a Midwest community to determine the relationship of communication to adoption of energy conservation behavior among homeowners. Special attention was paid to the communication and energy use constraints faced by the elderly. Analysis indicates that younger respondents adopted actions to save energy in the home at a faster rate than did older respondents. This study found that energy-related content in the mass media bears stronger relationships with the perceived importance of the energy problem than with adoption of energy conservation behavior. It is suggested that the role of communicators and educators in encouraging and reinforcing energy conservation remains very important.

Griffin, R.J. (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA))

1989-01-01

295

Teaching Energy Conservation as a Unifying Principle in Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation\\u000a at post-compulsory secondary school level (16–18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning\\u000a difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this teaching sequence, together with the\\u000a methodology used

Jordi Solbes; Jenaro Guisasola; Francisco Tarín

2009-01-01

296

Temperature in Nonequilibrium Systems with Conserved Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a class of nonequilibrium lattice models which describe local redistributions of a globally conserved energy. A particular subclass can be solved analytically, allowing us to define a temperature Tth along the same lines as in the equilibrium microcanonical ensemble. The fluctuation-dissipation relation is explicitly found to be linear, but its slope differs from the inverse temperature T-1th. A numerical renormalization group procedure suggests that, at a coarse-grained level, all models behave similarly, leading to a two-parameter description of their macroscopic properties.

Bertin, Eric; Dauchot, Olivier; Droz, Michel

2004-12-01

297

Market-analysis system for conservation technologies. Draft final report  

SciTech Connect

A prototype market analysis methodology to provide DOE decision makers guidance in evaluating and selecting strategies that promote energy conservation technologies is discussed. The methodology, named MASCOT (Market Analysis System for COnservation Technologies), was designed for the residential water heating market. However, the basic logic can be extended to other market segments, such as space heating and conditioning, and the commercial sector. MASCOT forecasts the market performance of any arbitrary set of technologies that the user chooses. The methodology captures the time-varying effects of technological and economic changes in the market, determines the critical features for new water heating technologies, calculates the likely energy impacts from the use of the actual technologies, and provides information concerning the sensitivity of the results to assumptions about market conditions, technology characteristics, and the factors underlying market penetration. (PSB)

Morris, P.A.; Thapa, M.N.; Bauman, D.S.; Froker, D.B.

1981-12-14

298

Dealing with Energy Conservation Alternatives. CEFP Special Report No. 9. Energy Conservation: A New Challenge for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how rising energy costs will affect school planning in general and urban school planning in particular. It discusses the energy crisis, the energy consumption by schools, and the potential for energy conservation in education. Also describes a project to be undertaken in New York City to determine ways of conserving energy in that city's…

Stein, Richard G.

1973-01-01

299

A Study on Energy Management Contracting Pattern in Existing Building Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief object of the present study is to demonstrate and the characters and functions of Energy Management Contracting (EMC) in existing building energy conservation. According to the top topics of energy conservation and sustainable development, the patterns of EMC in building energy conservation were analyzed. The main technical measures for building facilities energy conservation were introduced, and a case

Wei Cai; Xiaodong Wen; Wei Gu

2010-01-01

300

Model of expected implementation of commercial and industrial energy conservation opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of the Commercial and Industrial (C and I) Energy Management Survey (Audit) Program in increasing the installation of energy conservation measures by C and I consumers and to identify those factors predictive of consumers' conservation activities. This report presents the results of an analysis which used the study data

1984-01-01

301

Skating on Thin Ice: Evolution of Conservation in Energy Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are we physicists so often drawn into the nexus of energy policy and governance? There are several explanations. First, we are quite accustomed to this phenomenon of ``cause and effect,'' so we instinctively examine those two ends as well as the connections between them (i.e., what happens between a lump of coal and a light bulb). That way of thinking makes energy production and consumption intiminately connected and ``conservation'' naturally becomes a technological strategy rather than an appendage. Strangely, however, ``conservation'' in our society (called ``The Cowboy Economy'' by economist Kenneth Boulding) has been widely interpreted as competitive with supply and ridiculed as only a minor option, entailing denial of an amenity. After nearly a half-century of dialogue, innovation, and frustration, the rationality of what I call the ``physics'' perspective seems to have come of age. The evolution of relevant science and technology and public policy has advanced markedly, reflected and sustained at the national level by a succession of organizations. The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the Federal Office of Energy Conservation, the Federal Energy Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Not surprisingly, physicists continue to play key roles in the inculcation of science and analysis into the policy and governance. This requires, as implied by C.P. Snow, a bridging and strengthening of the thin ice between science and society. We still have a long road to travel.

Gibbons, Jack

2009-05-01

302

HVAC systems and energy conservation in hotels  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the effect that the design of the basic HVAC has on the relative success of energy conservation efforts in hotels. The unusual nature of a hotel is explained along with the impact that it has on the HVAC system. The paper stresses the practical considerations which must be made by the HVAC system designer when he designs the guest rooms, public areas, back-of-the-house areas, temperature control system, and energy management system. The advantages of providing separate air-handling systems are presented. The benefits of line voltage electric controls for guest room fan coil units are explained. General recommendations for arrangement of ventilation systems and possible opportunities for heat recovery are included.

Wagner, J.R.

1986-01-01

303

Energy Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discipline called Energy Analysis (EA) formalizes the calculation of the energy requirements of any product or process. These requirements include not only the fuel and electricity consumed directly by the particular process in question, but also the fu...

R. G. Pearson

1977-01-01

304

Energy Conservation in Small Schools. Small Schools Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information concerning methods and available materials for conserving energy is needed by small, rural schools to offset continued increasing energy costs and lack of financial support and technical assistance. The first step in developing an energy conservation policy is to obtain school board commitment and to establish an energy saving policy.…

Gardener, Clark

305

Energy conservation in buildings and industrial plants. [includes glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination is made of the opportunities and alternatives for energy conservation where great savings are possible - the design, construction, and operation of buildings and industrial facilities. Contrasts are made between the actual energy requirements of various building types (office buildings, schools, hospitals, shopping centers) and results are described of recent energy conservation measures applied to existing buildings. Energy-saving

Meckler

1981-01-01

306

Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

307

Market needs help: the disappointing record of home energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation is widely considered to be the most-promising solution to the nation's energy problems. The dominant public policy in this field has been to encourage conservation by decontrolling energy prices and relying on consumers to respond to price increases in ways that best meet their individual needs. This policy so far has led to only small reductions in energy

B. J. Frieden; K. Baker

2009-01-01

308

Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Dry Ice Slider-Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy concepts are fundamentally important for describing and analyzing systems ranging from subatomic particles to spiral galaxies. In general, students first encounter such concepts in introductory courses that typically focus on forms of energy, energy transfer, and conservation laws. Within these courses, conservation of mechanical energy is…

Gales, Jenna; Baker, Blane

2008-01-01

309

How to Conserve Energy in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Materials Package 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Energy conservation in school transportation is a major area of concern to the educational community. School buses travel in excess of four billion miles annually consuming 900 million gallons of fuel, transporting 55 percent of the school enrollment (grades K-12). Since the fuel allocation emergency, school transportation managers have begun…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

310

Energy conservation: Industry. Citations from the NITS data base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 335 citations, 37 of which are new entries, discuss potential methods of conserving energy. Many abstracts deal with reports that also cover processes used, amount of energy consumed, and environmental considerations of energy conserving options. Industries covered include food, paper, chemical, cement, metals, petroleum refining, contract construction, synthetic rubber, plastics, drug manufacturing, and stone, clay, and glass. Energy conservation through the use of waste heat is covered in a related Published Search entitled Waste Heat Utilization.

Hundemann, A. S.

1980-07-01

311

Strategy Plan Strengthens Energy Conservation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Department of Energy's Schools and Hospitals Program has been popular among schools. The necessity of locating nonfederal resources to achieve energy management warrants (1) developing a strategy of evaluation among schools and (2) market research and analysis. (CJH)

Minning, William R.

1987-01-01

312

Electrorheology for energy production and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national security, we believe that our technology is important and will have a strong impact on energy production and conversation in the future.

Huang, Ke

313

Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market-type mechanisms, to be effective in the public sector context, the required cultural changes and appropriate implementing mechanisms must be provided for in the policy design.

Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

314

ECP (Environmental Conservation Project) Report, No. 5, March 1976. Planning for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The culmination of the Environmental Law Institute's Energy Conservation Project will be a series of handbooks addressed to state and local officials, legislators, and interested citizens setting out suggested strategies for conserving energy. This issue of the ECP Report publishes the first of a series of draft chapters from these handbooks - a…

Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC.

315

US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy’s environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of

Robert K. Dixon; Elizabeth McGowan; Ganna Onysko; Richard M. Scheer

2010-01-01

316

Energy Conservation via Solar Energy Application to Multi-Family and Commercial Structures. Volume III. An Energy, Engineering and Economic Analysis of Heating and Cooling Systems for Multi-Family Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An energy analysis was made for a multi-family apartment model involving the heating, cooling, lumination and miscellaneous equipments energy consumption. The analysis compares various heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with and with...

W. S. Fleming T. Bender T. Jagusztyn P. Parkman D. Sweetser

1977-01-01

317

Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

1992-01-01

318

Electrorheology for Efficient Energy Production and Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, most of our energy comes from liquid fuels. The viscosity plays a very important role in liquid fuel production and conservation. For example, reducing the viscosity of crude oil is the key for oil extraction and its transportation from off-shore via deep water pipelines. Currently, the dominant method to reduce viscosity is to raise oil's temperature, which does not only require much energy, but also impacts the environment. Recently, based on the basic physics of viscosity, we proposed a new theory and developed a new technology, utilizing electrorheology to reduce the viscosity of liquid fuels. The method is energy-efficient, and the results are significant. When this technology is applied to crude oil, the suspended nanoscale paraffin particle, asphalt particles, and other particles are aggregated into micrometer-size streamline aggregates, leading to significant viscosity reduction. When the temperature is below 0^oC and the water content inside the oil becomes ice, the viscosity reduction can be as high as 75%. Our recent neutron scattering experiment has verified the physical mechanism of viscosity reduction. In comparison with heating, to reach the same level of viscosity reduction, this technology requires less than 1% of the energy needed for heating. Moreover, this technology only takes several seconds to complete the viscosity reduction, while heating takes at least several minutes to complete.

Tao, R.; Du, Enpeng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

2011-03-01

319

Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects  

SciTech Connect

Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

1980-01-01

320

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS  

SciTech Connect

We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

1980-01-01

321

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT... (a) In all successful energy conservation programs, certain key...must be accountable for the energy conservation performance of their...

2009-01-01

322

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT... (a) In all successful energy conservation programs, certain key...must be accountable for the energy conservation performance of their...

2010-01-01

323

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...430.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and...Central air conditioners and heat pumps . The energy conservation standards defined in terms of the...

2010-01-01

324

10 CFR 431.87 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Efficiency Standards § 431.87 Energy conservation standards and their...

2010-01-01

325

10 CFR 431.25 - Energy conservation standards and effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and effective dates...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.25...

2010-01-01

326

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER...

2013-01-01

327

10 CFR 431.246 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...EQUIPMENT Unit Heaters Energy Conservation Standards § 431.246...

2013-01-01

328

10 CFR 431.326 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures Energy Conservation Standards § 431.326...

2013-01-01

329

10 CFR 431.136 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.136...

2013-01-01

330

10 CFR 431.266 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves Energy Conservation Standards § 431.266...

2013-01-01

331

10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards § 431.77...

2013-01-01

332

10 CFR 431.206 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Illuminated Exit Signs Energy Conservation Standards § 431.206...

2013-01-01

333

10 CFR 431.196 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Distribution Transformers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.196...

2013-01-01

334

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Hot Water Storage Tanks Energy Conservation Standards § 431.110...

2013-01-01

335

10 CFR 431.66 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Refrigerator-Freezers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.66...

2013-01-01

336

10 CFR 431.306 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM...Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.306...

2013-01-01

337

Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

1980-01-01

338

Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and…

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

339

Energy-momentum tensor and conservation laws for water waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the averaged variational principles and the energy-momentum tensor, conservation laws for wave action, mass, momentum and energy for slowly varying water waves are derived systematically. For Stokes waves this enables us to derive energy and momentum conservation laws developed by the concept of “radiation stress” from general energymomentum tensor, which is as yet not clearly understood. Moreover the change

Noriyuki Iwata

1974-01-01

340

Project Energize: Outcomes of a Community Confernece on Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to help program planners and evaluators in providing insight as to what can be accomplished in an educational program dealing with energy conservation, this report is an evaluation of the outcomes of a community conference on energy conservation. There is a brief description of the day-long energy conference attended by 178 people (38 of…

Driscoll, Patricia; Deshler, David

341

Energy conservation: Buildings, volume 1. A bibliography with abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography contains 162 abstracts. Energy conservation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings through use of efficient heating, air conditioning, and lighting systems is discussed. Topic areas cover the retrofitting of existing buildings, methods of detecting heat loss, efficient use of electric power, and the use of thermal energy storage and solar heat. Potential for conserving energy in buildings and

A. S. Hundemann

1978-01-01

342

Promoting energy conservation through occupational licensure: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was assumed that if candidates were tested on their knowledge of energy conservation, training institutions (colleges and universities) and publishers would institutionalize energy conservation in their curricula and publications to prepare candidates for the examinations, which would achieve a long-term structural change. Topics studied include: approximately five licensed occupations, which because of their size or function, can promote energy

W. W. Wilms

1977-01-01

343

Assessment of industrial energy conservation by unit processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investment required to produce a given amount of conservation, the amount of conservation to be accomplished before costs equal those of new supply, and how a given investment should be allocated to yield the largest energy savings are questions addressed from the perspective of energy use in industrial unit operations. It was found that: a real energy minimum exists

D. L. Phung; W. Vangool; D. A. Boyd; D. Casavant; W. D. Devine Jr.; H. Plasa; W. G. Pollard

1980-01-01

344

Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project EFFECT (Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training) was a three-year experimental program in curriculum development focusing on energy conservation, technology, and training. It had three objectives: (1) create a comprehensive training program for adults without previous technical training, applicable to community energy

Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

345

Conserved energy without work or heat.  

PubMed Central

By merely observing the common empirical temperature that two like subsystems in contact reach, as a recordable function of their initial empirical temperatures and specific volumes, we can deduce logically a conserved energy function that depends only on empirical temperature and specific volume. What makes possible this offbeat 18th-century inference, quite free of any 19th-century concepts of "heat" or measurable mechanical work, is the Invariance Law of nature, whereby any four like subsystems must settle down to the same common temperatures regardless of which two-by-two pairings are made-so to speak, an "independence of path" property. Mathematically, the Invariance Law imposes Abel-like functional equations on the admissible functions. Remarkably, recourse to such temperature-equalization data renders it impossible to identify one constant in the energy function. By observing how two quite different substances come into equilibrium, or by utilizing "adiabatic slopes" at two points for one substance, or by observing its expansion into a vacuum, we can determine all its unknowns. Much of conventional expositions of the First and Second Laws seems derivable from the equation of state and the First Law's energy function.

Samuelson, P A

1992-01-01

346

The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.  

PubMed

Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways. PMID:16581941

Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

2006-03-31

347

Energy conservation code assessment. Final report. Volume II. Qualitative analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a study to recommend cost-effective changes to the New Mexico State Energy Conservation Code for New Building Construction. The specific objectives of this report are to identify and to recommend likely changes to the Energy Code. This is done through a qualitative analysis of a variety of codes and standards in place throughout the United States (and elsewhere). This report has 2 main parts. The first part is a qualitative analysis of the thermal and lighting standards in various codes and standards. The impacts of climate, building types, and economics are considered. Aspects examined include: policy areas; compliance procedures; formats; and, conservation measures. The second part identifies likely changes to the New Mexico Energy Code. Both stringency and format changes are considered. A number of increases in stringency are identified that are expected to be cost effective. Possible changes in the energy code format are identified that will permit compliance to be simpler and more flexible. Such format changes are not radical departures from, but rather extensions to, the current code format. The need to tailor features to the specific requirements of New Mexico is examined, as well as other issues of using the provisions in New Mexico. 42 refs.

Scheuch, K.E.

1985-05-01

348

Energy Conservation: An Examination of Energy Conservation Mechanisms As They Relate to School Districts in Region XI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to supply information on energy conservation mechanisms that can be employed in schools to the public schools of Minnesota. The report begins by presenting guidelines for developing an energy conservation plan. The two models include the concept of Total Educational Energy Management as developed by the Colorado Department of…

Kerns, Marilyn

349

Urban Transportation Energy Conservation. SRGP Operating Instructions and Program Documentation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SRGP is a computer program for Short Range Generalized transportation Policy analysis for use in analyzing the energy conservation potential of a broad spectrum of transit, carpooling, vanpooling, parking, pricing, and other transportation system manageme...

J. F. MacMann R. E. Nestle

1979-01-01

350

10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...Modules and Pedestrian Modules Energy Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and...Red Arrow 12 9 12â³ Green Ball 15 15 8â³...

2010-01-01

351

10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...Modules and Pedestrian Modules Energy Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and...Red Arrow 12 9 12â³ Green Ball 15 15 8â³...

2013-01-01

352

10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...Modules and Pedestrian Modules Energy Conservation Standards § 431.226 Energy conservation standards and...Red Arrow 12 9 12â³ Green Ball 15 15 8â³...

2009-01-01

353

Energy: Consumption, cost and conservation in the steel industry  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US steel industry`s effort to be competitive worldwide, energy consumption and costs/ton of steel need to be equal to or below major foreign competitors. The US steel industry has made significant improvements in reducing energy consumption/ton of steel by more than 40% between 1975 and 1994. Historically, energy conservation was driven by cost reduction. Energy cost reduction has two aspects, which need to remain separate: reduction of energy unit cost; and reduction of energy consumption per ton of steel product. Current and future energy conservation efforts and targets are interwoven with environmental concerns. Costs remain an important factor. Effective energy conservation requires a high-priority action plan. This plan should include both specific goals with existing equipment and processes, and strategic planning for new equipment and processes that includes energy conservation as one of the priorities. Periodic audits should also be a key part of the plan.

Martocci, A.P. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Corporate Energy Affairs

1996-12-01

354

Financial Energy Conservation Projects at Independent Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors affecting financial decisions for energy conservation projects at independent colleges and universities and methods that may be used when making a financial investment decision are examined, along with sources of funding for the projects. Projects that result in the conservation of energy resources might, in a time of extreme shortages,…

Morrell, L. R.

1981-01-01

355

Conservation of energy of a rollercoaster using high speed video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high speed video clip of a roller coaster is used as an example of conservation of mechanical energy. Student use the video to determine whether mechanical energy is conserved while the roller coaster rolls up, and then back down a hil.

Bohacek, Peter

356

An Energy-Conserving Access Protocol for Wireless Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A myriad of applications such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and smart card networks are emerging in which nodes are designed for extremely low-cost, large scale applications such that the replacement of batteries is not feasible. Energy conservation therefore becomes a major constraint. Classical access protocols are either not energy conserving or lead to unacceptable delays. In this paper, we

Imrich Chlamtac; Chiara Petrioli; Jason Redi

1997-01-01

357

Efficient vehicles versus efficient transportation. Comparing transportation energy conservation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares four potential transportation energy conservation strategies using a comprehensive evaluation framework that takes into account how each strategy affects annual vehicle travel, and therefore, mileage-related impacts such as traffic congestion, road and parking facility costs and crash risk. Mileage-related impacts tend to be large in magnitude compared with energy conservation benefits, so even small changes in total

Todd Litman

2005-01-01

358

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 4. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity notebook for grade 4 is one in a series developed in response to the concern for energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade four. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and…

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

359

Energy Conservation Activity Packet, Grade 5. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity notebook for grade 5 is one of a series developed in response to energy conservation. It contains activities that stress an energy conservation ethic and includes many values clarification activities for grade five. The packet is divided into two parts and provides the teacher with background information, concepts and objectives, and…

Pohlman, Betty; And Others

360

City of Austin, Energy Conservation Commission first annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the city of Austin, an Energy Conservation Commission was established in January, 1974 to study various methods of conserving energy and to make recommendations to the City Council. A summary of the programs and related data includes: minimum insulation standards for new frame structures; increased insulation requirements for duct work and steam condensate pipe; Dr. Jerold Jones Study-- ''Residential

R. Whorrall; J. Gallery; M. Holder

1975-01-01

361

Financing conservation and renewable energy in the eighties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the reported research was to determine if any financial barriers are likely to inhibit economically sound conservation and renewable energy development, and, if so, what measures can be taken to eliminate them. The major focus is on the inefficiencies in the financial marketplace affecting energy conservation and development. Basic financing issues are outlined that will affect policy

D. Hansen; T. Bolle

1982-01-01

362

Energy-conservation responsibilities and tasks of principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences among the energy-conservation responsibilities and tasks of elementary and secondary principals in the public schools of urban, suburban, and rural school systems in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Specifically, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) are principals in the public schools of Virginia assuming energy conservation responsibilities and tasks

1981-01-01

363

A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

Paesler, Michael

2012-01-01

364

Energy Conservation in Industry; The Present Approach, The Future Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possible opportunities for industry to conserve energy through the introduction of new technology are considered. These new technology options may offer far greater savings of energy and of all other resources required in production than modifying the ope...

C. A. Berg

1979-01-01

365

Energy Consumption: Fuel Utilization and Conservation in Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a study of fuel utilization and energy conservation for the six biggest energy consuming industrial groups: chemicals, primary metals, petroleum, paper, stone/clay/glass/concrete, and food. Level of heat rejection and short ter...

J. T. Reding B. P. Shepherd

1975-01-01

366

Building energy conservation projects at Pacific Northwest Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of project descriptions of building energy conservation research being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, the Bonneville Power Administration, and other government and private clients.

Secrest, T.J.

1987-09-01

367

Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction modification to improve energy efficiency.

Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

2009-12-31

368

Conservation Division regulations establishing energy-conservation standards for new nonresidential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The text of the energy conservation standards for new nonresidential buildings (Article 2) of the California Administrative code, Title 24, Part 6, is given. After specifying the general provisions of the code, codes on energy budgets, nondepletable energy sources, the building envelope, HVAC systems, HVAC equipment, service water heating, electrical distribution systems, and lighting codes are detailed. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-02-01

369

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

370

10 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - General Operations Energy Conservation Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Government vehicles in energy conservation. (5...maintenance to optimize energy conservation. ...closure or conversion. Alternative work patterns, availability of transportation, energy source availability, and...

2009-01-01

371

10 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - General Operations Energy Conservation Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Government vehicles in energy conservation. (5...maintenance to optimize energy conservation. ...closure or conversion. Alternative work patterns, availability of transportation, energy source availability, and...

2010-01-01

372

Energy conservation in buildings: cogeneration and cogeneration coupled with thermal energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-conservation opportunity in an institutional building is studied through cogeneration with double-effect absorption chiller. Both, technical and economical feasibility is evaluated and presented. The typical electrical energy and cooling-load demand profiles of the buildings concerned are determined. Payback period, internal rate-of-return (IRR), net present value (NPV) and net profit of the Institute is determined through cash-flow analysis. Then, cogeneration coupling

K. H. Khan; M. G. Rasul; M. M. K. Khan

2004-01-01

373

Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

1981-11-01

374

A step-by-step approach to energy conservation: Setting practical, cost-effective targets  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for identifying and sustaining long-term energy cost savings are outlined. A guideline is provided for selecting appropriate targets for energy conservation based primarily on process considerations. The analysis techniques described are benchmarking, monitoring and targeting, process modeling, pinch analysis and advanced controls utilization. Two brief case studies are provided.

Doherty, R.J. [Ciba Geigy PLC, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Kumana, J.D.

1996-01-01

375

Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry  

SciTech Connect

Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-01-01

376

An Energy Conservation MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. Because of the limitation of battery power in\\u000a the sensor nodes, energy conservation is a crucial issue in wireless sensor networks. Consequently, there is much literature\\u000a presenting energy-efficient MAC protocols based on active\\/sleep duty cycle mechanisms to conserve energy. Convergecast is\\u000a a common communication pattern across many sensor network applications featuring

Yu-Chia Chang; Jang-Ping Sheu

2009-01-01

377

Direct and indirect conservation of fossil-fuel energy: the influence of financial and philosophical motivators and available human resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was conducted as a secondary analysis of data collected during the evaluation of a statewide household energy audit conducted at Michigan State University. Energy-consumption data from utility and oil companies served as the measure of direct conservation. Indirect conservation was investigated through the analysis of self-reported participation in a variety of behaviors collectively defined as voluntary simplicity. The

1982-01-01

378

A preliminary analysis of US CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction potential from energy conservation and the substitution of natural gas for coal in the period to 2010  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) is a product of burning fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of global CO/sub 2/ emissions amounting to 5.2 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC) in 1985. The control of CO/sub 2/ emissions would require control of energy production and use. US emissions were 1.25 PgC in 1985. National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) projections show total US emissions rising 38% by 2010 to 1.7 PgC. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) has sponsored research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to do a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and consequences of reducing US CO/sub 2/ emissions from 1985 levels by 10, 25 or 50 percent by either the year 1995 and 2010. In addition, DOE/CDRD sponsored a day-long roundtable attended by nine experts in the field to discuss this issue. Two methods of CO/sub 2/ emissions reduction were considered: energy intensity reductions (conservation), and substitution of natural gas for coal. The study did not address the contribution of other energy supply options or the feasibility of pre- or post-combustion CO/sub 2/ removal. Furthermore, the study made no attempt to explore specific policies that might be employed to achieve technically feasible CO/sub 2/ emissions reductions. This is not a policy document.

Edmonds, J.A.; Ashton, W.B.; Cheng, H.C.; Steinberg, M.

1989-02-01

379

Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry  

PubMed Central

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

2013-01-01

380

Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.  

PubMed

The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

2013-03-06

381

Conservation of Energy: Home and School. Grades 7-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four energy conservation concept areas are developed in this unit: (1) energy resources are many and varied and have evolved over a long period of history; (2) as much as 30 to 50 percent of the energy in the United States is wasted; (3) homes, offices, and schools account for 24 percent of total energy consumption and savings can be made through…

Floyd, Alice Ann; And Others

382

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

Detailed energy analyses were at five food industry (SIC 20) plants for a project sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The energy analyses consisted of reviewing plant equipment and operations, identifying energy conservation measures (ECM's) and evaluating the energy savings, implementation cost and levelized cost of the ECM's.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-04-01

383

Model industry initiated energy conservation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During 1980 and the first months of 1981, the Greater Washington Board of Trade operated a pilot program which successfully promoted energy conservation in five local industries: hotels, retail stores, schools, restaurants and apartments/office buildings. Through a variety of workshops, seminars, newsletters, call-in centers, detailed publications and other methods, the Board of Trade spread the work about energy conservation. This final report summarizes the program's efforts and proposes a model for use by business organizations in other parts of the country which may be interested in energy conservation.

Not Available

1981-03-01

384

Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation  

PubMed Central

A combination of social marketing, communications, social learning (particularly modeling), and behavior analysis may provide an effective framework for behavior change via films and television. We used this approach in developing special television programs about residential energy conservation. The programs were tailored and directed to preselected middle-class homeowners (N = 150), and delivered over a public access channel of a cable TV system. The results indicated that after one program exposure (about 20 minutes), viewers adopted simple strategies modeled in the programs which led to savings of approximately 10% on their home energy use for a substantial part of the cooling and heating season. Although the potential benefits to costs of large-scale media efforts seemed great, institutional barriers for such programs were identified. Less expensive, more local programs seem more viable.

Winett, Richard A.; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Chinn, Donna E.; Stahl, Brian; Love, Susie Q.

1985-01-01

385

Particle acceleration and energy conservation in particle in cell simulations  

SciTech Connect

Particle acceleration is a process of great importance in all areas of plasma physics. In most cases, kinetic effects are dominant and require a full kinetic treatment, such as the particle in cell (PIC) method. PIC methods are widely used in all aspects of plasma physics, proving to be a precious and irreplaceable tool. Yet all methods in use and published conserve energy to a good approximation, but not exactly. A well known property of PIC methods, documented extensively in all textbooks, is that energy is not conserved exactly. In fact, the particle noise is a unphysical source of energy that, when insufficient resolution is used, can make the simulations go unstable. In the present paper, we apply a new exactly energy conserving scheme and demonstrate that indeed exact energy conservation plays a key role in determining the correct spectrum of the accelerated particles.

Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Departement Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2011-07-15

386

Particle acceleration and energy conservation in particle in cell simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration is a process of great importance in all areas of plasma physics. In most cases, kinetic effects are dominant and require a full kinetic treatment, such as the particle in cell (PIC) method. PIC methods are widely used in all aspects of plasma physics, proving to be a precious and irreplaceable tool. Yet all methods in use and published conserve energy to a good approximation, but not exactly. A well known property of PIC methods, documented extensively in all textbooks, is that energy is not conserved exactly. In fact, the particle noise is a unphysical source of energy that, when insufficient resolution is used, can make the simulations go unstable. In the present paper, we apply a new exactly energy conserving scheme and demonstrate that indeed exact energy conservation plays a key role in determining the correct spectrum of the accelerated particles.

Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano

2011-07-01

387

Particle Acceleration and Energy Conservation in Particle In Cell Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle acceleration is a process of great importance in all areas of plasma physics. In most cases, kinetic effects are dominant and require a full kinetic treatment, such as the Particle in Cell (PIC) method. PIC methods are widely used in all aspects of plasma physics, proving to be a precious and irreplaceable tool. Yet all methods in use and published conserve energy to a good approximation, but not exactly. A well known property of PIC methods, documented extensively in all textbooks, is that energy is not conserved exactly. In fact the particle noise is a unphysical source of energy that, when insufficient resolution is used, can make the simulations go unstable. In the present paper we apply a new exactly energy conserving scheme and demonstrate that indeed exact energy conservation plays a key role in determining the correct spectrum of the accelerated particles.

Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano

2011-11-01

388

Energy conservation techniques for disk array-based servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study energy conservation techniques for disk array-based network servers. First, we introduce a new conservation technique, called Popular Data Concentration (PDC), that migrates frequently accessed data to a subset of the disks. The goal is to skew the load towards a few of the disks, so that others can be transitioned to low-power modes. Next, we

Eduardo Pinheiro; Ricardo Bianchini

2004-01-01

389

Financing residential energy conservation investment in the Northwest, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed how households in the Pacific Northwest financed their investments in energy conservation measures during the 1983-85 period, how they would finance their likely future investments, and related topics regarding conservation investments and financing. The information was collected through a stratified random telephone survey of householders conducted in October\\/November 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration

J. M. Fang; M. P. Hattrup; Nordi; D. L. Ivey

1987-01-01

390

Energy conservation manual for builders in the Mid-Columbia Basin area  

SciTech Connect

Results of a comprehensive cost-effectiveness evaluation of energy conservation measures currently available for use in typical residential buildings are presented. Section 2 discusses construction techniques for energy-efficient buildings and presents estimates of the cost of incorporating the conservation measures in the prototype building, the resultant annual energy savings, and the value of that annual energy savings based upon typical regional fuel prices. In Section 3 this information is summarized to prioritize conservation investments according to their economic effectiveness and offer general recommendations to home builders. Appendix A contains detailed information pertaining to the energy consumption calculations. Appendix B presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of a detail cash flow analysis of each of the conservation items for which sufficient performance and cost data are currently available. (MCW)

Mazzucchi, R.P.; Nieves, L.A.; Hopp, W.J.

1981-03-01

391

Energy conservation in Maryland public schools, 1978-1981  

SciTech Connect

The energy consumption of public schools in Maryland is reviewed. It is proved that energy consevation can produce very significant savings in schools. It is not possible to generalize these findings to the schools of the nation, but there is no known factor tht would indicate a systematic difference between energy conservation potential in Maryland and in other states. The Maryland data do not reflect any clear effect of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA) Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) on energy conservation in Maryland schools. For schools that participated in the energy audit (EA) and the technical assistance (TA) phases, the percentage of energy saved was no more than for those schools that participated in the preliminary energy audit (PEA) phase. Compared to data for 1980, schools that participated in the energy conservation measure (ECM) phase in 1981 experienced a 7 percent increase in energy use; whereas, the schools participated in the PEA phase (or not at all) showed an 11 percent decline. For the same period of comparison, energy costs increased for all groups by 20 percent.

Not Available

1982-09-10

392

Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)|

Kraetsch, Gayla A.

1981-01-01

393

78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EERE-BT-PET-0053] Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...direct final rule to amend energy conservation standards for dishwashers...direct final rule to amend energy conservation standards for...

2013-04-10

394

10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their effective...CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

2009-01-01

395

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Energy Conservation Standards § 431.110 Energy conservation standards... Each commercial storage water heater...unfired hot water storage tank and hot water...meet the applicable energy conservation...

2009-01-01

396

10 CFR 431.110 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Energy Conservation Standards § 431.110 Energy conservation standards... Each commercial storage water heater...unfired hot water storage tank and hot water...meet the applicable energy conservation...

2010-01-01

397

13 CFR 120.330 - Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan? 120.330 Section...BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.330 Who is eligible for an energy conservation loan? SBA may make...

2012-01-01

398

40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection...CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation...

2013-07-01

399

15 CFR 9.8 - Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications. 9.8...HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.8 Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications. The...

2012-01-01

400

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

2010-01-01

401

10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments...PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

2009-01-01

402

10 CFR 431.446 - Small electric motors energy conservation standards and their effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small electric motors energy conservation standards...COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Small Electric Motors Energy Conservation Standards § 431.446 Small electric motors energy conservation...

2013-01-01

403

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...installation of the proposed energy conservation measures for each building; (5) For each energy conservation measure proposed for funding...Applications with more than one energy conservation measure per building shall include projected...

2010-01-01

404

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...installation of the proposed energy conservation measures for each building; (5) For each energy conservation measure proposed for funding...Applications with more than one energy conservation measure per building shall include projected...

2009-01-01

405

15 CFR 9.8 - Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications. 9.8...APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.8 Amendment or revision of voluntary energy conservation specifications. The...

2013-01-01

406

41 CFR 102-74.160 - What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? 102-74.160 Section...MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.160 What...Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation? Federal agencies...

2013-01-01

407

15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 ...APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of...

2013-01-01

408

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy Program Conservation Elements D Appendix D to Part 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Pt. 436,...

2013-01-01

409

10 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - General Operations Energy Conservation Measures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General Operations Energy Conservation Measures C Appendix C to Part 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS...

2013-01-01

410

10 CFR 431.25 - Energy conservation standards and effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and effective dates. 431.25 Section 431.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

2013-01-01

411

10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Clothers Washers Energy Conservation Standards § 431.156 Energy and water...

2013-01-01

412

An energy conservation approach to adsorbate-induced surface stress and the extraction of binding energy using nanomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface stress induced by molecular adsorption in three different binding processes has been studied experimentally using a microcantilever sensor. A comprehensive free-energy analysis based on an energy conservation approach is proposed to explain the experimental observations. We show that when guest molecules bind to atoms\\/molecules on a microcantilever surface, the released binding energy is retained in the host surface, leading

Lal A. Pinnaduwage; Vassil I. Boiadjiev; John E. Hawk; Anthony C. Gehl; Gayanath W. Fernando; L. C. Rohana Wijewardhana

2008-01-01

413

Electric Heating of Industrial Premises and Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy conservation and electric heating of industrial buildings are discussed. It is concluded that using nuclearly generated electric power for space heating will significantly decrease demands for costly imported fuels; well planned, air-tight, insulat...

J. Dubois G. Verdet

1974-01-01

414

Energy-Conserving Semi-Discretizations and Spurious Numerical Reflections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We consider energy-conserving semi-discretizations of linear wave equations on nonuniform grids. Specifically we study explicit and implicit skew-adjoint finite difference methods, based on the assumption of an underlying smooth mapping from a uniform gri...

J. E. Frank S. Reich

2006-01-01

415

Energy Conservation for Thermo-Technical Processes in Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the analyses done on energy conservation potentials for the existing thermo-technical processes in the Norwegian industry. Interesting potentials are pointed out, and the analyses demonstrated that the processes seem to be efficient as...

P. A. Loeken

1988-01-01

416

The energy conserving particle-in-cell method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new particle-in-cell (PIC) method, that conserves energy exactly, is presented. The particle equations of motion and the Maxwell's equations are differenced implicitly in time by the midpoint rule and solved concurrently by a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) solver. Several tests show that the finite grid instability is eliminated in energy conserving PIC simulations, and the method correctly describes the two-stream and Weibel instabilities, conserving exactly the total energy. The computational time of the energy conserving PIC method increases linearly with the number of particles, and it is rather insensitive to the number of grid points and time step. The kinetic enslavement technique can be effectively used to reduce the problem matrix size and the number of JFNK solver iterations.

Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

2011-08-01

417

ON ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE SIMPLIFIED TAKAHASHI-IMADA METHOD.  

PubMed

In long-time numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems, and especially in molecular dynamics simulation, it is important that the energy is well conserved. For symplectic integrators applied with sufficiently small step size, this is guaranteed by the existence of a modified Hamiltonian that is exactly conserved up to exponentially small terms. This article is concerned with the simplified Takahashi-Imada method, which is a modification of the Störmer-Verlet method that is as easy to implement but has improved accuracy. This integrator is symmetric and volume-preserving, but no longer symplectic. We study its long-time energy conservation and give theoretical arguments, supported by numerical experiments, which show the possibility of a drift in the energy (linear or like a random walk). With respect to energy conservation, this article provides empirical and theoretical data concerning the importance of using a symplectic integrator. PMID:20539750

Hairer, Ernst; McLachlan, Robert I; Skeel, Robert D

2009-07-01

418

On the Effect of Energy Conservation on Black Hole Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the emission of Hawking radiation by black holes as a consequence of a tunneling process. By requiring energy conservation in the derivation of the emission rate we get a well-known deviation from an exact thermal spectrum. A model that takes into account the implications of energy conservation, as well as the back-scattered radiation, is then constructed in order to describe the evolution of black holes as they evaporate. The evaporation process in this model is compared with the results in the standard "thermal" approximation. This allows us to point out the relevance that energy conservation might have in the last stages of black hole evaporation. We also comment about the possible implications of energy conservation in the information loss paradox.

Torres, R.; Fayos, F.; Lorente-Espín, O.

2013-06-01

419

ON ENERGY CONSERVATION OF THE SIMPLIFIED TAKAHASHI-IMADA METHOD*, **  

PubMed Central

In long-time numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems, and especially in molecular dynamics simulation, it is important that the energy is well conserved. For symplectic integrators applied with sufficiently small step size, this is guaranteed by the existence of a modified Hamiltonian that is exactly conserved up to exponentially small terms. This article is concerned with the simplified Takahashi-Imada method, which is a modification of the Störmer-Verlet method that is as easy to implement but has improved accuracy. This integrator is symmetric and volume-preserving, but no longer symplectic. We study its long-time energy conservation and give theoretical arguments, supported by numerical experiments, which show the possibility of a drift in the energy (linear or like a random walk). With respect to energy conservation, this article provides empirical and theoretical data concerning the importance of using a symplectic integrator.

Hairer, Ernst; McLachlan, Robert I.; Skeel, Robert D.

2010-01-01

420

Energy Conservation by Hyperfiltration: Food Industry Background Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry usin...

1980-01-01

421

The Coupled Pendulum--A Demonstration of Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a classroom demonstration that illustrates the Law of Conservation of Energy. The demonstration utilizes a coupled pendulum device that can easily be constructed from ordinary monofilament fishing line and two metal pendulum bobs. (HM)|

Record, Daniel J.

1978-01-01

422

Conservation of energy in coherent backscattering of light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although conservation of energy is fundamental in physics, its principles seem to be violated in the field of wave propagation in turbid media by the energy enhancement of the coherent backscattering cone. In this letter we present experimental data which show that the energy enhancement of the cone is balanced by an energy cutback at all scattering angles. Moreover, we give a theoretical description which is in good agreement with these data. The additional terms needed to enforce energy conservation in this description result from an interference effect between incident and multiply scattered waves, which is reminiscent of the optical theorem in single scattering.

Fiebig, S.; Aegerter, C. M.; Bührer, W.; Störzer, M.; Akkermans, E.; Montambaux, G.; Maret, G.

2008-03-01

423

Coordinated Energy Conservation in Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new power conservation scheme for multi-hop ad hoc networks. A virtual backbone consisting of special nodes (coordinators) is used for the power saving algorithm and routing. We present a new distributed algo- rithm for constructing a connected dominating set (CDS) that is used to construct and maintain the virtual backbone of the network. Our scheme includes

Selma Ikiz; Vinit A. Ogale; Vijay K. Garg

2005-01-01

424

Energy and momentum conserving algorithms for rigid body contact  

SciTech Connect

Energy-momentum conserving methods are developed for rigid body dynamics with contact. Because these methods are unconditionally stable, they are not time step dependent and, hence, are well suited for incorporation into structural mechanics finite element codes. Both penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods are developed herein and are the extension of the energy-momentum conserving integration schemes for rigid bodies given by Simo and Wong [1].

Puso, M.A.; Zywicz, E.

1998-04-09

425

Is energy conservation fire-safe. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an overview of the existing and potential fire problems associated with (or likely to be associated with) energy-conservation efforts in structures. Among the topics discussed are some of the known fire problems related to such energy-conservation measures as: the manufacture and use of combustible insulation; the improper (from a fire-safety viewpoint) installation of insulation; the return to

Melott

1978-01-01

426

Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

1982-10-01

427

Design Guidelines for Energy Conserving Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report establishes design guidelines and design limitations for the selection, evaluation and design of solar energy systems, total energy and selective energy systems, continuous duty standby systems, engine driven chiller/heat pump systems, continu...

A. S. Qureshi G. L. Moeller E. Gore

1977-01-01

428

41 CFR 102-74.160 - What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to promote energy conservation? 102-74.160...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY...Management Energy Conservation §...

2009-07-01

429

41 CFR 102-74.160 - What actions must Federal agencies take to promote energy conservation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to promote energy conservation? 102-74.160...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY...Management Energy Conservation §...

2010-07-01

430

Conservation and renewable energy technology use: a technology transfer challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

NATAS is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program that provides tailored technical and commercialization assistance to users of energy-related appropriate technologies. NATAS helps individuals using conservation and renewable energy products and services and provides business assistance to entrepreneurs and innovators in these fields. NATAS is operated for DOE by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), which has provided

Sesso

2009-01-01

431

Managing State Energy Conservation Programs: The Minnesota Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are the energy conservation activities and responsibilities of one state energy office, the Minnesota Energy Agency, and the obstacles and constraints it faces in delivering its services. Suggestions are presented for resolving these difficulties and for improving the efficiency with which the agency manages its program. (Author/DS)

Hirst, Eric; Armstrong, John R.

1980-01-01

432

Evaluation of Residential Energy Conservation Programs in Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This evaluation focuses on the energy-saving effects of the Minnesota Northern States Power (NSP) Utility Residential Energy Conservation Programs, one and two years after participation. The study involved collection of a large data base of monthly natural gas consumption records for program participants and nonparticipants from October 1980 through May 1984. The NSP home energy audit yielded a small but

Eric Hirst; Richard Goeltz

1985-01-01

433

Energy Conservation for Houses and Its Calculation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of energy conservation of houses has been developed and began to be applied widely since the first oil crisis. Now we can say definitely that insulating a house is the most effective way of saving energy, and the renewable energy sources are u...

S. H. Lee

1981-01-01

434

Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants  

SciTech Connect

Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

1983-06-01

435

Energy consumption and conservation in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption patterns in the United States are examined, focusing on the largest consumers of energy and attempting to assess the effect of certain conservation options which can have some impact during the next 10 or 15 years. The energy consumers considered are the residential and commercial sectors, transportation, industry, and the electrical utilities. Three categories which account for nearly

J. E. Rothberg

1976-01-01

436

Energy-conservation opportunities in the small industrial plant  

SciTech Connect

Even small industrial plants present opportunities for more efficient energy use. A collection of suggestions and procedures for identifying and evaluating energy-conservation opportunities in such plants is given, and it includes a guide to the establishment of energy-saving programs. Figures and tables are included.

Eckerlin, H.; Boyers, A.

1982-01-01

437

Residential energy use and conservation: Economics and demographics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and

Dirk Brounen; Nils Kok; John M. Quigley

2012-01-01

438

Energy conservation in hibernating endotherms: Why “suboptimal” temperatures are optimal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many endotherms use facultative heterothermic responses of torpor or hibernation to conserve energy during periods of low energy availability. A common assumption when estimating winter energy budgets is that endotherms should hibernate at the ambient temperature (Ta) that minimizes torpid metabolic rate (TMR) and maximizes the duration of torpor bouts. However, previous studies of the energetic benefits of hibernation have

Justin G. Boyles; Andrew E. McKechnie

2010-01-01

439

Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he…

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

440

Plant engineers and managers guide to energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text covers both management and technical strategies which can be utilized to slash energy costs by up to 40%. Topics include life cycle costing, electrical and HVAC system optimization, mechanical and process system efficiency improvement, methods to reduce building energy losses, and guidelines for establishing an effective energy conservation-oriented maintenance program. A new chapter on cogeneration covers how to

Thumann

1987-01-01

441

Plant engineers and managers guide to energy conservation. Fourth edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers both management and technical strategies which can be utilized to slash energy costs by up to 40%. Topics include life cycle costing, electrical and HVAC system optimization, mechanical and process system efficiency improvement, cogeneration, methods to reduce building energy losses, and guidelines for establishing an effective energy conservation-oriented maintenance program. The latest technological advances for reducing the

Thumann

1989-01-01

442

Energy Conservation. The Best of ERIC, Number 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 13 articles in this annotated bibliography cover a wide range of concerns from the finances of energy conservation to solar energy applications, to building design, to building maintenance, and to the role of the science teacher as an energy analyst and activist. (IRT)|

ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

443

Energy conservation in new buildings: opportunities, experience, and options  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is in the public interest to see to the construction of energy-efficient buildings for three reasons: possible interruption in the oil supply; the true cost of fuels not reflected in their prices; and that private builders do not build energy-efficient buildings. As a result, Congress enacted the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. Three events that occurred in

C W Bullard

1981-01-01

444

Basic Energy Conservation and Management--Part 2: HVAC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal, and new technologies have brought greater energy efficiencies to the school environment. In Part 1 of this two-part series, the author discussed the steps required to establish an energy conservation and management program with an emphasis on lighting. In this article, he…

Krueger, Glenn

2012-01-01

445

Easi-guide to conserving energy and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

By learning to cope with and alleviate a shortage situation, we can avoid an energy crisis. A practical way to meet shortages is to conserve energy, reduce demand, and especially persuade others to do likewise. Suggestions in this book are designed to enrich life and help the reader decide how to invest his fair share of energy in ways that

F. H. Belt; M. McPherson; P. Constable

1974-01-01

446

Energy use and conservation trends, 1972--1986  

SciTech Connect

US trends in energy use and conservation since 1972 are analyzed in this report. That year represents the last year prior to significant energy price shocks. In 1986, an estimated 31.8 quads has been saved in the US compared with what consumption would have been if the energy use per dollar of GNP had continued on the same trend after 1972 as in the period 1960--1972. Actual US energy consumption in 1986 was 74.3 quads. It is clear that energy conservation is persistent and conservation investments continue to pay off even after initial energy price shocks have subsided. Separate analyses have been conducted for the major end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation). Savings have been estimated in each sector, and the factors contributing to sectoral savings identified. 19 refs., 23 figs., 26 tabs.

Klan, M.S.; Belzer, D.B.; Marsh, S.J.; Moore, N.L.; Roop, J.M.; Sands, R.D.

1989-02-01

447

Policy Options for Energy Conservation (82), a Checklist of Legislation to Conserve Energy Prepared for Consideration of Legislation Leaders of the Northeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This checklist of legislation contains policy options for the conservation of energy in the Northeast. The 82 recommendations were made for conservation in the following areas: (1) saving energy in all buildings; (2) saving energy in residential construct...

1977-01-01

448

Econometric analysis of forest conservation: the Finnish experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the dynamic effects of forest conservation measures. Both short-term and long-term impacts on timber markets are studied using a Finnish example. Forest conservation is interpreted as an exogenous negative shock in the standing timber growth owned by private forest owners, and its effects are retrieved through an impulse response analysis based on a dynamic demand supply and

Mikael Linden; Jussi Uusivuori

2002-01-01

449

Resource Conservation. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for resource conservation occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

450

FUEL ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DRYING COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

About 300 cu. ft. of natural gas are used per bale of cotton ginned at a cost that has increased from $1.26 per bale in 2001 to $1.96/bale in 2004 to $3.29/bale in 2005. Gins can take a number of positive actions to conserve fuel such as 1)Insulate the drying system, 2)avoid unnecessary drying, 3)u...

451

Running hot water: A systems approach to energy conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ways to conserve energy in domestic hot water systems are discussed. Examination of the Swedish situation shows that centralized systems, where water heating is a subsidiary of space heating, waste energy because water cools in the pipes after use, and the entire system must operate in summer. Also, water temperature is often much higher than required. Solar panels, individual water heaters, heat pumps, and heat exchangers could contribute to energy conservation, but changes in consumer behavior can also be extremely effective. For example, dish washing energy requirements were reduced by 80% in one neighborhood by giving each apartment a plastic bowl for washing up.

Wulff, P.

1982-03-01

452

Energy conservation potential of the US Department of Energy interim commercial building standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a project conducted to demonstrate the whole-building energy conservation potential achievable from full implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interim Energy Conservation Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. DOE`s development and implementation of energy performance standards for commercial buildings were established by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act

D. L. Hadley; M. A. Halverson

1993-01-01

453

Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

NONE

1998-01-01

454

10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION...

2013-01-01

455

An Approach to Enhance the Conservation-Compatibility of Solar Energy Development  

PubMed Central

The rapid pace of climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity. Utility-scale renewable energy development (>1 MW capacity) is a key strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but development of those facilities also can have adverse effects on biodiversity. Here, we examine the synergy between renewable energy generation goals and those for biodiversity conservation in the 13 M ha Mojave Desert of the southwestern USA. We integrated spatial data on biodiversity conservation value, solar energy potential, and land surface slope angle (a key determinant of development feasibility) and found there to be sufficient area to meet renewable energy goals without developing on lands of relatively high conservation value. Indeed, we found nearly 200,000 ha of lower conservation value land below the most restrictive slope angle (<1%); that area could meet the state of California’s current 33% renewable energy goal 1.8 times over. We found over 740,000 ha below the highest slope angle (<5%) – an area that can meet California’s renewable energy goal seven times over. Our analysis also suggests that the supply of high quality habitat on private land may be insufficient to mitigate impacts from future solar projects, so enhancing public land management may need to be considered among the options to offset such impacts. Using the approach presented here, planners could reduce development impacts on areas of higher conservation value, and so reduce trade-offs between converting to a green energy economy and conserving biodiversity.

Cameron, D. Richard; Cohen, Brian S.; Morrison, Scott A.

2012-01-01

456

Energy attitudes, beliefs, and behavior: a specification of situational and personal determinants of residential conservation behavior  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing data from a mailed questionnaire of Knoxville and area residents (N = 286), this study examined a number of key issues in conceptualizing the relationship between situational and personal characteristics of residential energy consumers, conservation behavior, and energy use. The review of literature raises three issues in need of further analysis: (1) clarifying the link between knowledge of energy conservation and behavior, (2) clarifying the link between consumer attitudes, beliefs, and opinions and conservation behavior, and (3) examining relationships among determinants of conservation behavior at different causal levels. Chapter III addresses the first issue. The bivariate association between energy knowledge and behavior is not very strong (r = .01 to .20). Chapter IV approaches the second question by comparing the utility of two attitude-behavior models for predicting conservation behavior. Results indicate that they are relatively equivalent when the behavior is under consumer's control. Chapter 5 addresses the problem of causal order. Results indicate that home ownership functions both as a resource factor affecting behavioral options as well as influencing energy beliefs and attitudes. Homeowners tend to be more committed to personal conservation and to view the energy problem as more serious. A second finding is that general energy beliefs do play a role in guiding behavior.

Hand, C.M.

1986-01-01

457

Self-Selection Bias in the Evaluation of Voluntary Energy Conservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

While voluntary energy conservation programs have been extensively promoted by electric utilities and public utility commissions, their effectiveness has been insufficiently critiqued. This paper contributes to the growing evaluation of such programs by measuring the net energy savings directly attributable to an actual set of programs. The analysis explicitly \\

Raymond S. Hartman

1988-01-01

458

Energy conservation through building design. Citations from the engineering index data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography contains 72 abstracts. Energy conservation through design of both residential and nonresidential buildings is discussed. Topic areas cover solar radiation considerations in building planning and design, daylighting and window design, use of computer graphics for building energy analysis, design of ventilation and air flow systems in new buildings, and architectural design concepts. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred

A. S. Hundemann

1978-01-01

459

Energy conservation and cost savings related to highway routine maintenance. Executive Summary (revised). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study focused on a trend analysis of energy use in routine maintenance and development of an optimization approach that can be used to determine the optimal assignment of various equipment types to different activities. The use of the approach was illustrated through an example application. A set of energy-conservation guidelines was then outlined for possible implementation.

Saito, M.; Sharaf, E.A.; Sinha, K.C.

1986-07-10

460

Potential for Energy Conservation Technology Transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The segment of energy consumption related to space conditioning and water heating in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings is discussed specifically. Within this constraint building energy consumption is discussed, considering three choices...

E. C. Hise

1976-01-01

461

The Nonlinear Spring and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an air track experiment demonstrating the transfer of mechanical energy from elastic potential to kinetic. Discusses four methods for calculating energy stored in the spring. Included are pictures, typical data, and graphs. (YP)|

Sherfinski, John

1989-01-01

462

Energy conservation techniques for hospital buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art technologies for the energy efficiency in the hospitals' sector. Hospitals are responsible for a top-heavy amount of energy demand and joint emissions, due to their 24\\/7 operation and extra requirements they use larger energy amount than a commercial building. In addition, they need high quality and

Dionysia Kolokotsa; Theocharis Tsoutsos; Sotiris Papantoniou

2012-01-01

463

Evaluation of measures for conserving energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy forecasting models are useful in making effective policy decisions that will encourage changes in consumer behavior through advisory, incentive, or regulatory channels. A study of primary energy sources and end use consumption was applied to residential households and personal transportation, in which individual consumers are the major users. Space and water heating, which account for 82% of residential energy

1975-01-01

464

A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

Not Available

1990-12-01

465

Energy Conservation for the Simulation of Deformable Bodies.  

PubMed

We propose a novel technique that allows one to conserve energy using the time integration scheme of one’s choice. Traditionally, the time integration methods that deal with energy conservation, such as symplectic and variational integrators, have aimed to include damping in a manner independent of the time step size, stating that this gives more control over the look and feel of the simulation. Generally speaking, damping adds to the overall aesthetics of a numerical simulation, especially since it damps out the high frequency oscillations that occur on the level of the discretization mesh. We propose an alternative technique that allows one to use damping to obtain the desired look of a numerical simulation, while still exactly conserving the total energy - in stark contrast to previous methods where adding damping effects necessarily removes energy from the mesh. This allows, for example, a deformable bouncing ball with aesthetically pleasing damping to collide with the ground and return to its original height exactly conserving energy (see Figure 1). Furthermore, since our method works with any time integration scheme, the user can choose their favorite time integration method with regards to aesthetics and simply apply our method as a post-process to conserve all or as much of the energy as desired. PMID:22665723

Su, Jonathan; Sheth, Rahul; Fedkiw, Ronald

2012-05-30

466

Financing residential energy conservation investment in the Northwest, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed how households in the Pacific Northwest financed their investments in energy conservation measures during the 1983-85 period, how they would finance their likely future investments, and related topics regarding conservation investments and financing. The information was collected through a stratified random telephone survey of householders conducted in October/November 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This information will be used by BPA to facilitate the planning, design, and implementation of relevant conservation programs such as the Residential Weatherization Program, and potential programs of bank and utility loans.

Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi,, R.T.; Ivey, D.L.

1987-05-01

467

Energy conservation for state and local government. [Abstracts of 34 citations  

SciTech Connect

A resource document for local officials about to undertake energy conservation projects is presented. Comprised of 34 abstracts of reports contained in the HUD USER bibliographic data base, this document identifies the broad range of technical and policy information necessary for a local government to assess its energy conservation needs and to develop alternative strategies for meeting those needs. Research findings are applicable to a wide range of jurisdictions, from small municipalities and school districts to cities. Included in the reports are in-depth treatments of the techniques necessary for data collection, analysis, and energy conservation, including the application of energy assessment techniques to capital budgeting. Research topics include those functions of local government internal operations amenable to energy conservation as well as governmental functions which have a broader, community wide impact. Included in the former category are the operation of municipal buildings, street lighting, automotive fleets, and waste management facilities. Examples of the latter category include residential, transportation, and land use, and commercial and industrial conservation choices. Examples of strategies for developing new energy conservation plans and policies are presented.

Not Available

1980-06-01

468

Energy conservation: a forgotten property of the turbulent point spread function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy conservation is an essential feature of the optical waves propagating through refractive turbulence. It was well understood for almost 30 years, that energy conservation has a very important consequence for the fluctuations in the images of the incoherent objects observed through turbulence. Namely the image of the uniformly illuminated areas of the object does not scintillate. As a consequence the low-contrast parts of the scene exhibit weak fluctuation even for very strong turbulence, but scintillations near the sharp edges can be strong even for the weak turbulence. Energy conservation property of the turbulent Point Spread Function (PSF) is essential for modeling of the turbulent image distortions, both for the development of the image processing techniques and for simulations of the turbulent imaging. However it is completely neglected in the current literature on the turbulent imaging theory and modeling. We discuss the relations between the energy conservation and anisoplanatism for the most common turbulence imaging models. Our analysis reveals that the only isoplanatic authentic turbulent PSF that is compliant with energy conservation corresponds to the thin aperture plane phase screen model of turbulence. This implies that for the near-the-ground imaging, and even for the astronomical-type imaging under strong turbulence conditions the turbulent PSF has to be modeled as a random function of four arguments with certain constraints. We show some practical ways how the three functional constrains on the turbulent PSF: nonnegative values, finite bandwidth and energy conservation can be complied with in practical generation of turbulent PSF.

Charnotskii, Mikhail

2012-05-01

469

Energy conservation: a third constraint on the turbulent point spread function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy conservation is an essential feature of optical waves propagating through refractive turbulence. It has been known for almost a quarter of a century that energy conservation has an important implication for the fluctuations in the images of the incoherent objects observed through turbulence, namely the image of the uniformly radiating area of an object does not scintillate. As a consequence, the low-contrast parts of an image exhibit weak fluctuation even for very strong turbulence, but scintillations near the sharp edges can be strong even for weak turbulence. The energy conservation property of the turbulent point spread function is essential for modeling turbulent image distortions, both for the development of the image processing techniques and for simulations of turbulent imaging. However, it is regularly overlooked in discussions of turbulent imaging theory and modeling in the current literature. We discuss the relations between energy conservation and anisoplanatism for the most common turbulence imaging models. Our analysis reveals that the only isoplanatic turbulent point spread function (PSF) that is compliant with energy conservation is the thin aperture plane phase screen. This implies that for near-the-ground imaging, and even for astronomical-type imaging under strong turbulence conditions, the turbulent PSF has to be modeled as a random function of four arguments with three functional constraints: non-negative values, finite bandwidth, and energy conservation.

Charnotskii, Mikhail

2013-04-01

470

Investigation on energy conservation in thermoplastics production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of energy savings by means of minimizing fuel consumption in polyamide-6, i.e. nylon-6, production is investigated. Reducing energy consumption for processes with condensate and exhaust gases heat recovery in energy management studies presents a growth of process efficiency and contemporary decreasing of thermal pollution. The condensate heat recovery option results in fuel savings of 8.2%. At the same

Alka Miheli?-Bogdani?; Rajka Budin

2008-01-01

471

The impact of residential energy conservation standards on households  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of four Urban Institute reports evaluating the feasibility of a mandatory program which requires that residential dwellings meet an energy standard at the time the property is sold or transferred. Three illustrative energy-efficiency standards (low, medium, high) which represented different levels of conservation were developed.

Andreassi, M.; Yap, L.; Lee, O.

1980-06-01

472

Energy-conserving access protocols for identification networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A myriad of applications are emerging in which energy con servation is a critical system parameter for communications Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) networks, smart cards, and even mobile computing devices in general, all need to conserve energy In RFID systems nodes are small, battery - operated, inexpensive devices with radio receiv ing\\/transmitting and processing capabilities, integrated into the

Imrich Chlamtac; Chiara Petrioli; Jason Redi

1999-01-01

473

Dynamics of energy savings due to conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most analyses of utility and government conservation programs assume that program-induced energy savings are constant over time. This assumption, although convenient, is almost certainly incorrect. The dynamics of program energy savings have two aspects. The first involves changes in savings for households that participated in a particular year. Their total and net savings depend on changes in electricity prices, incomes,

E. Hirst; K. Keating

1987-01-01

474

Landscape Design and Nursery Operation for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Landforms, vegetation, water bodies, climate and solar radiation can be analyzed and used to design an energy-conserving landscape and horticulture operation. Accordingly, this course instructor's manual covers the use of the elements of the environment to make landscaping and nursery design and operation more energy-efficient. Five sections…

Bell, Richard C.; Glazener, Dennis

475

Running Hot Water: A Systems Approach to Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ways to conserve energy in domestic hot water systems are discussed. Examination of the Swedish situation shows that centralized systems, where water heating is a subsidiary of space heating, waste energy because water cools in the pipes after use, and th...

P. Wulff

1982-01-01

476

Geography-informed energy conservation for Ad Hoc routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a geographical adaptive fidelity (GAF) algorithm that reduces energy consumption in ad hoc wireless networks. GAF conserves energy by identifying nodes that are equivalent from a routing perspective and then turning off unnecessary nodes, keeping a constant level of routing fidelity. GAF moderates this policy using application- and system-level information; nodes that source or sink data remain on

Ya Xu; John S. Heidemann; Deborah Estrin

2001-01-01

477

Field-Proven Programs to Conserve Energy in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents field-proven school energy conservation programs, practices, procedures, and ideas that can assist educators with the resource allocation challenges caused by the international energy situation. The programs presented are representative of a broad spectrum of school and school-related organizations from 15 widely…

Association of School Business Officials, Chicago, IL.

478

Energy conservation and good plant operations go hand in hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy conservation program at the Swedish-American Hospital in Rockford, Illinois, which is described in this article, demonstrated that good plant engineering techniques can result in sizeable savings in energy consumed and fuel costs. A review of the health facilities and methods of operating the heating systems pinpointed several inefficiencies (e.g., steam traps had not been overhauled due to limited

G. L. Hoppenworth; T. R. Mead

1975-01-01

479

Industrial energy conservation: where do we go from here. [Booklet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry must be a key part of any national energy conservation program if for no other reason than that it consumes 40 percent of all fuel used in the United States. Industry energy consumption has actually declined overall in the last few years, while use by other sectors has increased slightly. However, there is reason to believe that this trend

Reese

1977-01-01

480

Proceedings of the Technical Opportunities for Energy Conservation in Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty papers on energy consumption in appliances in the U.S. and energy conservation opportunities for gas-fired and electric appliances were presented at the conference. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. (ERA citation 02:052150)

1976-01-01

481

ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH POINT SOURCE RECYCLE WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE HYPERFILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of energy conservation effects of point source recycle with high-temperature hyperfiltration (HF) in the textile industry. (HF and ultrafiltration (UF) are pressure-driven membrane processes which have potential for recycle of water, energy, an...

482

An Energy Education/Conservation Plan for Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an energy/education conservation plan for Tennessee. The first section is concerned with program justification. Discussed are the energy situation in Tennessee, need for a program, and sources of information. The second section presents a brief summary of the program planning process. Section three presents a comprehensive plan. This…

Gibbons, John H.; And Others

483

Conservation of Mechanical and Electric Energy: Simple Experimental Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two similar experiments on conservation of energy and transformation of mechanical into electrical energy are presented. Both can be used in classes, as they offer numerous possibilities for discussion with students and are simple to perform. Results are presented and are precise within 20% for the version of the experiment where measured values…

Ponikvar, D.; Planinsic, G.

2009-01-01

484

Daylight, energy conservation and comfort in an office building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald People's Utility District (EPUD), located near Eugene, Oregon, is a publicly owned electric utility with a strong commitment to both energy conservation and alternative, renewable sources of energy. EPUD's headquarters is a 2330 m[sup 2] (25,000 sf) office building designed to incorporate daylighting, passive solar heating and night flush cooling. Daylighting was identified as an important design objective early

V. Cartwright; J. S. Reynolds

2009-01-01

485

Use and Conservation of Energy in the Cement Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present paper contains a more detailed treatment of issues related to the use and conservation of energy in the cement industry which is one of the most important branches of the building materials industry. Energy issues for cement industry have a pa...

V. Arakelov H. Schaefer

1985-01-01

486

Potential for Energy Conservation in the Cement Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its prim...

B. A. Garrett-Price

1985-01-01

487

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry, Tree Top, Cashmere Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Tree Top, Incorporated in Cashmere, Washington. Tree Top is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into t...

1985-01-01

488

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Alpac Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Alpac Corporation in Seattle, Washington. Alpac is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into operation and maintenance (O and M) measures and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1984-12-01

489

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Tree Top, Cashmere Plant.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Tree Top, Incorporated in Cashmere, Washington. Tree Top is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-02-01

490

Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

United Industries Corporation.

1985-03-01

491

Energy-conservation responsibilities and tasks of principals  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences among the energy-conservation responsibilities and tasks of elementary and secondary principals in the public schools of urban, suburban, and rural school systems in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Specifically, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) are principals in the public schools of Virginia assuming energy conservation responsibilities and tasks recommended in literature; (2) are there significant differences between elementary school principals and secondary school principals in Virginia with respect to recommended energy conservation responsibilities and tasks; (3) are there significant differences among public school principals in urban, suburban, and rural school systems of Virginia with respect to recommended energy conservation responsibilities and tasks; and (4) are there significant interactive effects between elementary and secondary principals and urban, suburban, and rural school systems with respect to recommended energy conservation responsibilities and tasks. Following a review of the related literature, three general case null hypotheses were constructed. A survey questionnaire, based on a review of the related literature, was constructed for use as the research instrument. The population for this study consisted of 1335 principals. To collect the data for this study, 300 questionnaires were mailed to elementary and secondary principals in rural, urban, and suburban public school systems.

Carter, R.B.

1981-01-01

492

Context Rich Problems Online Archives: Conservation of Energy and Conservation of Momentum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a set of context-rich physics problems on conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. Each context-rich problem is based on a real-world situation, and includes both information that is relevant to solving the problem and extraneous information. Strategies for problem solving are not explicitly provided. Each problem is formulated so it is too difficult for one student to solve alone, yet not too difficult for a group to master. This resource is based on the research results of the Minnesota Physics Education Research group. See Related items on this page for a link to the full collection.

Group, University O.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia

2008-09-29

493

Energy Conservation: Better Living Through Thermodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shortcomings of the usual definition of energy efficiency are identified. Suggestions are general for better use of fossil fuels. Studies done by the American Physics Society (APS) are discussed and recommendations made for an improved definition of energy efficiency are described. (Author/EB)

Metz, William D.

1975-01-01

494

Energy Conservation in Towns: The Swedish Concept.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A considerable amount of the energy used in Sweden is related to buildings and the built environment. Around 40 percent of the energy consumed in the Country is used to heat buildings, and a further 20 percent, is used in the transport sector to move peop...

B. Boeoes

1986-01-01

495

Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

496

Energy Conservation for Residential Dwellings. Course Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

497

Energy Conservation Technology Education Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outreach programs were conducted in four communities over a period of nine months. Focus was on disseminating information to the public on how to use energy more efficiently in the home. The basic format for disseminating information involved the following activities: public meetings to provide general information on home energy consumption and…

League of Women Voters of the U.S., Washington, DC.

498

Module Ten: Citizen's Role in Conserving Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This module reviews the use of energy in all forms by the average citizen, and through the use of charts shows how the individual citizen relates to the overall consumption of energy. The module also presents the role that the citizen should play in the f...

1980-01-01

499

Water heaters and energy conservation - choices, choices!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews how to best find an energy efficient water heating system. Most people already know they should look for energy efficiency from the heater itself but additional savings can be found in water distribution, equipment sizing and selection and maintenance. Topic areas in the article include the following: is a new water heater needed; new heater choices; heater

L. Weingarten; S. Weingarten

1996-01-01

500

Nuclear power, coal, and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programming model is used to explore options by which the U.S. may realistically move from its dependence on oil and gas to a more diversified energy economy based on nuclear power and\\/or coal. Supply options considered are: direct combustion of coal; conversion of coal to synthetic fuels; petroleum, natural gas, and oil shale resources; nuclear energy from light water

P. L. Auer; A. S. Manne; O. S. Yu

1976-01-01