Science.gov

Sample records for energy deposition calculations

  1. Calculation of energy deposition distributions for simple geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    When high-energy charged particles pass through a thin detector, the ionization energy loss in that detector is subject to fluctuations or straggling which must be considered in interpreting the data. Under many conditions, which depend upon the charge and energy of the incident particle and the detector geometry, the ionization energy lost by the particle is significantly different from the energy deposited in the detector. This problem divides naturally into a calculation of the energy loss that results in excitation and low-energy secondary electrons which do not travel far from their production points, and a calculation of energy loss that results in high-energy secondary electrons which can escape from the detector. The first calculation is performed using a modification of the Vavilov energy loss distribution. A cutoff energy is introduced above which all electrons are ignored and energy transferred to low energy particles is assumed to be equivalent to the energy deposited by them. For the second calculation, the trajectory of the primary particle is considered as a source of secondary high-energy electrons. The electrons from this source are transported using Monte Carlo techniques and multiple scattering theory, and the energy deposited by them in the detector is calculated. The results of the two calculations are then combined to predict the energy deposition distribution. The results of these calculations are used to predict the charge resolution of parallel-plate pulse ionization chambers that are being designed to measure the charge spectrum of heavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic-ray flux.

  2. Nuclear data processing for energy release and deposition calculations in the MC21 Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbull, T. H.

    2013-07-01

    With the recent emphasis in performing multiphysics calculations using Monte Carlo transport codes such as MC21, the need for accurate estimates of the energy deposition-and the subsequent heating - has increased. However, the availability and quality of data necessary to enable accurate neutron and photon energy deposition calculations can be an issue. A comprehensive method for handling the nuclear data required for energy deposition calculations in MC21 has been developed using the NDEX nuclear data processing system and leveraging the capabilities of NJOY. The method provides a collection of data to the MC21 Monte Carlo code supporting the computation of a wide variety of energy release and deposition tallies while also allowing calculations with different levels of fidelity to be performed. Detailed discussions on the usage of the various components of the energy release data are provided to demonstrate novel methods in borrowing photon production data, correcting for negative energy release quantities, and adjusting Q values when necessary to preserve energy balance. Since energy deposition within a reactor is a result of both neutron and photon interactions with materials, a discussion on the photon energy deposition data processing is also provided. (authors)

  3. Comparison between calculation and measurement of energy deposited by 800 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1980-04-03

    The High Energy Transport Code, HETC, was obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and altered as necessary to run on a CDC 7600 using the LTSS software in use at LLNL. HETC was then used to obtain calculated estimates of energy deposited, for comparison with a series of benchmark experiments done by LLNL. These experiments used proton beams of various energies incident on well-defined composite targets in good geometry. In this report, two aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam are discussed. Both aspects involve the fact that workers at SAI had previously used their version of HETC to calculate this experiment and reported their comparison with the measured data. The first aspect addressed is that their calculated data and LLNL calculations do not agree, suggesting an error in the conversion process from the RSIC code. The second aspect is not independent of the first, but is of sufficient importance to merit separate emphasis. It is that the SAI calculations agree well with experiments at the detector plate located some distance from the shower plate, whereas the LLNL calculations show a clearcut discrepancy there in comparison with the experiment. A contract was let in January 1980 by LLNL with SAI in order to obtain full details on the two cited aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam. The ensuing discussion is based on the final report of that contracted work.

  4. Calculation of the Frequency Distribution of the Energy Deposition in DNA Volumes by Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation quality effects are largely determined by energy deposition in small volumes of characteristic sizes less than 10 nm representative of short-segments of DNA, the DNA nucleosome, or molecules initiating oxidative stress in the nucleus, mitochondria, or extra-cellular matrix. On this scale, qualitatively distinct types of molecular damage are possible for high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as heavy ions compared to low LET radiation. Unique types of DNA lesions or oxidative damages are the likely outcome of the energy deposition. The frequency distribution for energy imparted to 1-20 nm targets per unit dose or particle fluence is a useful descriptor and can be evaluated as a function of impact parameter from an ions track. In this work, the simulation of 1-Gy irradiation of a cubic volume of 5 micron by: 1) 450 (1)H(+) ions, 300 MeV; 2) 10 (12)C(6+) ions, 290 MeV/amu and 3) (56)Fe(26+) ions, 1000 MeV/amu was done with the Monte-Carlo simulation code RITRACKS. Cylindrical targets are generated in the irradiated volume, with random orientation. The frequency distribution curves of the energy deposited in the targets is obtained. For small targets (i.e. <25 nm size), the probability of an ion to hit a target is very small; therefore a large number of tracks and targets as well as a large number of histories are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. This simulation is very time-consuming and is difficult to perform by using the original version of RITRACKS. Consequently, the code RITRACKS was adapted to use multiple CPU on a workstation or on a computer cluster. To validate the simulation results, similar calculations were performed using targets with fixed position and orientation, for which experimental data are available [5]. Since the probability of single- and double-strand breaks in DNA as function of energy deposited is well know, the results that were obtained can be used to estimate the yield of DSB, and can be extended

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Chen; Shuming, Peng; Dan, Meng; Yuehong, He; Heyi, Wang

    2014-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements has been theoretically studied using Monte Carlo code MCNP 5. The influence of many factors, including carrier gas, chamber size, wall materials and gas pressure, has been evaluated in the simulations. It is found that β rays emitted by tritium deposit much more energy into chambers flowing through with argon than with deuterium in them, as much as 2.7 times higher at pressure 100 Pa. As chamber size gets smaller, energy deposition decreases sharply. For an ionization chamber of 1 mL, β rays deposit less than 1% of their energy at pressure 100 Pa and only 84% even if gas pressure is as high as 100 kPa. It also indicates that gold plated ionization chamber results in the highest deposition ratio while aluminum one leads to the lowest. In addition, simulations were validated by comparison with experimental data. Results show that simulations agree well with experimental data.

  6. Comparison of energy deposition calculations by the LAHET Code System with experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Lisowski, P.W.; Russell, G.J.; Waters, L.S.

    1993-08-01

    A comparison was performed between the energy deposition predicted by the LAHET Code System (LCS) with experimental values determined by Belyakov-Bodin et al. for 800, 1000, and 1200 MeV protons on targets composed of lead, bismuth, beryllium, carbon, and aluminum. The lead and bismuth showed agreement within approximately 10% at locations throughout the targets, and the agreement of the total energy deposited over the axial length of the targets ranged from 1% to 25%. For the lead and bismuth cases, the LCS predictions were always greater than the experimental results. For the lighter materials, the agreement at locations throughout the target only agreed within approximately 20%. No definable trend could be determined for the lighter materials since some LCS predictions were greater than the experimental results, some were less than the experimental results, and some showed very good agreement. The total energy deposited over the axial length of the targets was not compared for the lighter materials since it was not explicitly given with the experimental data.

  7. Energy-Deposition and Damage Calculations in Core-Vessel Inserts at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.

    2002-06-25

    Heat-deposition and damage calculations are described for core-vessel inserts in the target area of the Spallation Neutron Source. Two separate designs for these inserts (or neutron beam tubes) were studied; a single-unit insert and a multi-unit insert. The single unit contains a neutron guide; the multi unit does not. Both units are constructed of stainless steel. For the single unit, separate studies were carried out with the guide composed of stainless steel, glass, and aluminum. Results are also reported for an aluminum window on the front of the insert, a layer of nickel on the guide, a cadmium shield surrounding the guide, and a stainless steel plug in the beam-tube opening. The locations of both inserts were the most forward positions to be occupied by each design respectively thus ensuring that the calculations are conservative.

  8. Calculation of electron trajectory and energy deposition in no screening region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Houshyar

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of energy for inelastic collision is obtained by solving the integro-differential form of the quantity equation with the Bhabha differential cross section for particles with spin 1/2. Hence, the total PDF in no screening region is determined by folding theory with the following two assumptions: (1) the electron loses energy by collision and radiation and (2) the electron velocity does not change with a thin absorber. Therefore, a set of coupled stochastic differential equations based on the deviation and energy loss PDFs for electron is presented to obtain the electron trajectory inside the target. The energy PDFs for an electron beam with incident energy of 15.7 MeV inside aluminum and copper are calculated. Besides, the dose distributions for an electron beam with incident energies of 20, 10.2, 6, and 0.5 MeV in water are obtained. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  9. The model of calculation the adhesion force and energy for coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, E. A.; Postnikov, D. V.; Blesman, A. I.; Polonyankin, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper justifies the usefulness of preliminary ion implantation before forming the protective coating by magnetron sputtering in order to improve its adhesion and hence the coating durability. The important characteristics of coatings include the adhesion force and energy. To select the optimal modes of coatings formation, materials and equipment it is proposed the theoretical method of the adhesion force calculation in binary metallic systems. The adhesion force and energy depend on the elemental distribution in the depth of the coating and on the single bond force as in the substrate and in the coating. In addition the adhesion force is also determined by the coefficient taking into account the reduction of the possible bond number and depending on the surface purity and the structural defects presence. The developed model includes all of the above factors. The elements distribution over the depth of the coating was estimated using a kinetic model of mass transfer by vacancy mechanism. The paper presents the results of the adhesion force calculation for the chromium coating on the surface of A21382 steel.

  10. Intercomparison measurements with energy deposition spectrometer Liulin and TEPC Hawk at HIMAC, and related calculations with PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, H.; Kodaira, S.; Dachev, Tsvetan; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Mrazova, Zlata; Kubancak, Jan

    Liulin type detectors are recently used in a wide range of cosmic radiation measurements, e.g. at alpine observatories, onboard aircrafts and spacecrafts. They provide energy deposition spectra up to 21 MeV, higher energy deposition events are stored in the last (overflow) channel. Their main advantages are portability (about the same size as a pack of cigarettes) and ability to record spectra as a function of time, so they can be used as personal dosimeters. Their well-known limitations are: (i) the fact that they are not tissue equivalent, (ii) they can be used as LET spectrometer only under specific conditions (e.g. broad parallel beam), and (iii) that the energy deposition event from particles of LETH20¿35 keV/µm is stored in the overflow bin only so the spectral information is missing. Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) Hawk has no of these limitations but on the other hand, it cannot be used as personal dosimeter because of its big size (cylinder of 16 cm diameter and 34 cm long). An important fraction of dose equivalent onboard spacecrafts is caused by heavy ions. This contribution presents results from intercomparison measurements with Liulin and Hawk at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and cyclotron beams, and related calculations with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-ion Transport code System). Following particles/ions and energies were used: protons 70 MeV, He 150 MeV, Ne 400 MeV, C 135 MeV, C 290 MeV, and Fe 500 MeV. Calculations of LET spectra by PHITS were performed for both, Liulin and Hawk. In case of Liulin, the dose equivalent was calculated using simulations in which several tissue equivalent materials were used as active volume instead of the silicon diode. Dose equivalents calculated in such way was compared with that measured with Hawk. LET spectra measured with Liulin and Hawk were compared for each ion at several points behind binary filters along the Brag curve. Good agreement was observed for some configurations; for

  11. Heat Deposit Calculation in Spallation Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmanov, F. I.; Travleev, A. A.; Latysheva, L. N.; Vecchi, M.

    2001-11-01

    The present study concerns the calculation of the heat deposition in one of the EAP-80 basic units - the spallation module including the beam window, lead-bismuth spallation target and primary liquid metal cooling system. It is assumed that the model of sub-critical reactor under investigation is based on ANSALDO-INFN-ENEA-CRS4 reference configuration1. The calculation have been done by means of a couple computer codes: INCC 2 and GEANT3.21 3. These codes have been preliminary tested on the experimental data obtained in 4 for the case of interaction of proton beam and lead-bismuth targets at the energy Ep= 800MeV which is close to energy range relevant for ADS configuration.

  12. Calculation of the energy deposition in nanovolumes by protons and HZE particles: geometric patterns of initial distributions of DNA repair foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-09-01

    The biological effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are different from those caused by low-LET radiation due to the difference in the patterns of energy deposition in cells. In this work, we studied the role of the track structure in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the first part, the irradiation of a cubic volume of 12 µm of side by 300 MeV protons (LET ˜0.3 keV µm-1) and by 1 GeV/amu iron ion particles (LET˜150 keV µm-1) was simulated with the Monte Carlo code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) and the dose was calculated in voxels of different sizes. In the second part, dose calculations were combined with chromosomes simulated by a random walk (RW) model to assess the formation of DSBs. The number of DSBs was calculated as a function of the dose and particle fluence for 1 GeV protons, 293 MeV/u carbon, and 1 GeV/u iron particles. Finally, the DSB yield was obtained as a function of the LET for protons, helium, and carbon. In general, the number and distribution of calculated DSBs were similar to experimental DNA repair foci data. From this study, we concluded that a stochastic model combining nanoscopic dose calculations and chromosomes simulated by RWs is a useful approach to study radiation-induced DSBs.

  13. Calculation of the energy deposition in nanovolumes by protons and HZE particles: geometric patterns of initial distributions of DNA repair foci.

    PubMed

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-09-21

    The biological effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are different from those caused by low-LET radiation due to the difference in the patterns of energy deposition in cells. In this work, we studied the role of the track structure in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the first part, the irradiation of a cubic volume of 12 µm of side by 300 MeV protons (LET ∼0.3 keV µm(-1)) and by 1 GeV/amu iron ion particles (LET∼150 keV µm(-1)) was simulated with the Monte Carlo code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) and the dose was calculated in voxels of different sizes. In the second part, dose calculations were combined with chromosomes simulated by a random walk (RW) model to assess the formation of DSBs. The number of DSBs was calculated as a function of the dose and particle fluence for 1 GeV protons, 293 MeV/u carbon, and 1 GeV/u iron particles. Finally, the DSB yield was obtained as a function of the LET for protons, helium, and carbon. In general, the number and distribution of calculated DSBs were similar to experimental DNA repair foci data. From this study, we concluded that a stochastic model combining nanoscopic dose calculations and chromosomes simulated by RWs is a useful approach to study radiation-induced DSBs. PMID:23999659

  14. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.

  15. Model calculates was deposition for North Sea oils

    SciTech Connect

    Majeed, A.; Bringedal, B.; Overa, S. )

    1990-06-18

    A model for calculation of wax formation and deposition in pipelines and process equipment has been developed along with a new method for wax-equilibrium calculations using input from TBP distillation cuts. Selected results from the wax formation and deposition model have been compared with laboratory data from wax equilibrium and deposition experiments, and there have been some field applications of the model.

  16. Calculation of wet deposition from radioactive plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    A reevaluation of the current wet deposition models for radioactive plumes of the Gaussian type is presented. The application of the methodology to routine and accidental activity releases from nuclear facilities is discussed. A set of washout parameters for a simplified model has been included.

  17. Biogas - the calculable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  18. Energy deposition and dynamic response of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Frank C.

    1993-07-01

    We are exploring new applications of the technology of energy deposition and dynamic response. Early studies involved analytical solutions of the coupled thermal and elastic response of materials to pulsed energy deposition. Experiments designed to test the theory led to determinations of thermal pressure coefficients for a variety of materials and an understanding of the effects of the time dependence of the energy source on dynamic response. Subsequent experiments at higher deposited energies required analysis by an energy deposition-wave propagation code to explain the observed elastic-plastic behavior. Instrumentation included laser interferometry and holographic interferometry for multi- dimensional response. A possible application of this technology to Biomedical Science is a technique to measure ion transport in biological material. It requires a combination of holographic interferometry and spectroscopy, namely, Resonant Holographic Interferometry Spectroscopy (RHIS). The technique involves the absorption and refraction of light near absorption lines. Stress waves arising from the absorbed light can be assessed with the energy deposition-wave propagation code. Such calculations will require the inclusion of appropriate biomaterial properties.

  19. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  20. Monte Carlo Techniques for Calculations of Charge Deposition and Displacement Damage from Protons in Visible and Infrared Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Paul; Reed, Robert; Fodness, Bryan; Jordan, Tom; Pickel, Jim; Xapsos, Michael; Burke, Ed

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation examines motivation for Monte Carlo methods, charge deposition in sensor arrays, displacement damage calculations, and future work. The discussion of charge deposition sensor arrays includes Si active pixel sensor APS arrays and LWIR HgCdTe FPAs. The discussion of displacement damage calculations includes nonionizing energy loss (NIEL), HgCdTe NIEL calculation results including variance, and implications for damage in HgCdTe detector arrays.

  1. MCNPX benchmark of in-beam proton energy deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, K.; Ferguson, P.; Morgan, G.; Quintana, D.; Waters, L.; Cooper, R.; Liljestrand, R.; Whiteson, A.

    2000-07-01

    The MCNPX code is being used to calculate energy deposition in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target/blanket system components. To ensure that these components are properly designed, the code must be validated. An energy deposition experiment was designed to aid in the code validation using thermocouple sensors in-beam and thermistor-type sensors in decoupler- and blanketlike regions. This paper focuses on the in-beam thermocouple sensors.

  2. Modeling Atmospheric Energy Deposition (by energetic ions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, C. D.; Brain, D. A.; Lillis, R. J.; Liemohn, M. W.; Bougher, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth, Mars and Jupiter using a guiding center precipitation model with extensive collisional physics. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation that can perform calculations for cases where there is only a weak or nonexistent magnetic field that includes detailed physical interaction with the atmosphere (i.e. collisional physics). We show initial efforts to apply a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan. A systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy

  3. Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region

    SciTech Connect

    Zingman, J.A.

    1987-08-03

    Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied through the application of a model incorporating hydrodynamic baryon flow coupled to a self-consistent field calculated in the flux tube model. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are modeled in which the nuclei have passed through each other and as a result are charged and heated.

  4. Localized flow control with energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelgren, Russell Gene

    A series of experiments with energy deposition via laser-induced optical breakdown of air, i.e., a laser spark, have been performed. These experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using a laser spark for supersonic flow control. In the first of these experiments, Rayleigh scattering flow visualization was taken for energy deposition into quiescent air. A time sequence of images showed the post breakdown fluid motion created by the laser spark for different laser energy levels. Blast wave radius and wave speed measurements were made and correlated to five different laser energy deposition levels. Laser energy was deposited upstream of a sphere in Mach 3.45 flow. The energy was deposited one sphere diameter and 0.6 diameters upstream of the front of the sphere. The frontal surface pressure on the sphere was recorded as the laser spark perturbed region interacted with the flow about the sphere. Tests for three different energy levels and two different incident laser beam diameters were completed. It has been demonstrated that the peak surface pressure associated with the Edney IV interaction can be momentarily reduced by 30% by the interaction with the thermal spot created by the laser spark. The effects of laser energy deposition on another shock interaction phenomena were studied. Laser energy deposition was used to modify the shock structure formed by symmetric wedges at Mach 3.45 within the dual solution domain. It was demonstrated experimentally that the Mach reflection could be reduced by 80% momentarily. The numerical simulations show a transition from the stable Mach reflection to a stable regular reflection. Two energy deposition methods (electric arcing and laser energy deposition) were used to force and control compressible mixing layers of axisymmetric jets. The energy deposition forcing methods have been experimentally investigated with the schlieren technique, particle image velocimetry, Mie scattering, and static pressure probe diagnostic

  5. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  6. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-15

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  7. Global Auroral Energy Deposition Compared with Magnetic Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brittnacher, M. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; Elsen, R.; Parks, G. K.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the global rate of energy deposition in the ionosphere via auroral particle precipitation is one of the primary goals of the Polar UVI program and is an important component of the ISTP program. The instantaneous rate of energy deposition for the entire month of January 1997 has been calculated by applying models to the UVI images and is presented by Fillingim et al. in this session. Magnetic indices, such as Kp, AE, and Dst, which are sensitive to variations in magnetospheric current systems have been constructed from ground magnetometer measurements and employed as measures of activity. The systematic study of global energy deposition raises the possibility of constructing a global magnetospheric activity index explicitly based on particle precipitation to supplement magnetic indices derived from ground magnetometer measurements. The relationship between global magnetic activity as measured by these indices and the rate of total global energy loss due to precipitation is not known at present. We study the correlation of the traditional magnetic index of Kp for the month of January 1997 with the energy deposition derived from the UVI images. We address the question of whether the energy deposition through particle precipitation generally matches the Kp and AE indices, or the more exciting, but distinct, possibility that this particle-derived index may provide an somewhat independent measure of global magnetospheric activity that could supplement traditional magnetically-based activity indices.

  8. Calculation of Dose Deposition in 3D Voxels by Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The biological response to high-LET radiation is very different from low-LET radiation, and can be partly attributed to the energy deposition by the radiation. Several experiments, notably detection of gamma-H2AX foci by immunofluorescence, has revealed important differences in the nature and in the spatial distribution of double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by low- and high-LET radiations. Many calculations, most of which are based on amorphous track models with radial dose, have been combined with chromosome models to calculate the number and distribution of DSB within nuclei and chromosome aberrations. In this work, the Monte-Carlo track structure simulation code RITRACKS have been used to calculate directly the energy deposition in voxels (3D pixels). A cubic volume of 5 micrometers of side was irradiated by 1) 450 (1)H+ ions of 300 MeV (LET is approximately 0.3 keV/micrometer) and 2) by 1 (56)Fe26+ ion of 1 GeV/amu (LET is approximately 150 keV/micrometer). In both cases, the dose deposited in the volume is approximately 1 Gy. All energy deposition events are recorded and dose is calculated in voxels of 20 micrometers of side. The voxels are then visualized in 3D by using a color scale to represent the intensity of the dose in a voxel. This simple approach has revealed several important points which may help understand experimental observations. In both simulations, voxels which receive low dose are the most numerous, and those corresponding to electron track ends received a dose which is in the higher range. The dose voxels are distributed randomly and scattered uniformly within the volume irradiated by low-LET radiation. The distribution of the voxels shows major differences for the (56)Fe26+ ion. The track structure can still be seen, and voxels with much higher dose are found in the region corresponding to the track "core". These high-dose voxels are not found in the low-LET irradiation simulation and may be responsible for DSB that are more difficult to

  9. Calculation of Dose Deposition in Nanovolumes and Simulation of gamma-H2AX Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik

    2010-01-01

    Monte-Carlo track structure simulations can accurately simulate experimental data: a) Frequency of target hits. b) Dose per event. c) Dose per ion. d) Radial dose. The dose is uniform in micrometers sized voxels; at the nanometer scale, the difference in energy deposition between high and low-LET radiations appears. The calculated 3D distribution of dose voxels, combined with chromosomes simulated by random walk is very similar to the distribution of DSB observed with gamma-H2AX experiments. This is further evidenced by applying a visualization threshold on dose.

  10. Reactivity of adducts relevant to the deposition of hexagonal BN from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, R. R. Q.; Gueorguiev, G. K.; de Brito Mota, F.; de Castilho, C. M. C.; Stafström, S.; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A.

    2013-09-01

    First-principles calculations, which also implement the nudged elastic band (NEB) code, are performed to investigate (i) the stability of the (C2H5)3B:NH3 adduct formed by the initial precursor molecules triethylborane (C2H5)3B and ammonia NH3 in the metal-chemical-vapor-deposition (MOCVD) of hexagonal BN, and (ii) the energy barrier to the first ethane elimination through consistent unimolecular, ammonia-assisted, and adduct-assisted reaction pathways. Comparison is done with the reference case of the (CH3)3Al:NH3 adduct, notoriously known for its high degree of stability and reactivity, which determines an overall severe parasitic gas-phase chemical reaction mechanism in the deposition of AlN.

  11. Calculation of neutral beam deposition accounting for excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Gianakon, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Large-scale neutral-beam auxillary heating of plasmas has led to new plasma operational regimes which are often dominated by fast ions injected via the absorption of an energetic beam of hydrogen neutrals. An accurate simulation of the slowing down and transport of these fast ions requires an intimate knowledge of the hydrogenic neutral deposition on each flux surface of the plasma. As a refinement to the present generation of transport codes, which base their beam deposition on ground-state reaction rates, a new set of routines, based on the excited states of hydrogen, is presented as mechanism for computing the attenuation and deposition of a beam of energetic neutrals. Additionally, the numerical formulations for the underlying atomic physics for hydrogen impacting on the constiuent plasma species is developed and compiled as a numerical database. Sample results based on this excited state model are compared with the ground-state model for simple plasma configurations.

  12. Good Practices in Free-energy Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Jarzynski, Christopher; Chipot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    As access to computational resources continues to increase, free-energy calculations have emerged as a powerful tool that can play a predictive role in drug design. Yet, in a number of instances, the reliability of these calculations can be improved significantly if a number of precepts, or good practices are followed. For the most part, the theory upon which these good practices rely has been known for many years, but often overlooked, or simply ignored. In other cases, the theoretical developments are too recent for their potential to be fully grasped and merged into popular platforms for the computation of free-energy differences. The current best practices for carrying out free-energy calculations will be reviewed demonstrating that, at little to no additional cost, free-energy estimates could be markedly improved and bounded by meaningful error estimates. In energy perturbation and nonequilibrium work methods, monitoring the probability distributions that underlie the transformation between the states of interest, performing the calculation bidirectionally, stratifying the reaction pathway and choosing the most appropriate paradigms and algorithms for transforming between states offer significant gains in both accuracy and precision. In thermodynamic integration and probability distribution (histogramming) methods, properly designed adaptive techniques yield nearly uniform sampling of the relevant degrees of freedom and, by doing so, could markedly improve efficiency and accuracy of free energy calculations without incurring any additional computational expense.

  13. BEAM INDUCED ENERGY DEPOSITION IN MUON STORAGE RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    MOKHOV,N.V.; JOHNSTONE,C.J.; PARKER,B.L.

    2001-06-18

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  14. Beam-induced energy deposition in muon storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov; Carol J. Johnstone; Brett Parker

    2001-06-22

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  15. Monte-Carlo Simulation of Radiation Track Structure and Calculation of Dose Deposition in Nanovolumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, I.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The radiation track structure is of crucial importance to understand radiation damage to molecules and subsequent biological effects. Of a particular importance in radiobiology is the induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) by ionizing radiation, which are caused by clusters of lesions in DNA, and oxidative damage to cellular constituents leading to aberrant signaling cascades. DSB can be visualized within cell nuclei with gamma-H2AX experiments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In DSB induction models, the DSB probability is usually calculated by the local dose obtained from a radial dose profile of HZE tracks. In this work, the local dose imparted by HZE ions is calculated directly from the 3D Monte-Carlo simulation code RITRACKS. A cubic volume of 5 micron edge (Figure 1) is irradiated by a (Fe26+)-56 ion of 1 GeV/amu (LET approx.150 keV/micron) and by a fluence of 450 H+ ions, 300 MeV/amu (LET approx. 0.3 keV/micron). In both cases, the dose deposited in the volume is approx.1 Gy. The dose is then calculated into each 3D pixels (voxels) of 20 nm edge and visualized in 3D. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The dose is deposited uniformly in the volume by the H+ ions. The voxels which receive a high dose (orange) corresponds to electron track ends. The dose is deposited differently by the 56Fe26+ ion. Very high dose (red) is deposited in voxels with direct ion traversal. Voxels with electron track ends (orange) are also found distributed around the path of the track. In both cases, the appearance of the dose distribution looks very similar to DSBs seen in gammaH2AX experiments, particularly when the visualization threshold is applied. CONCLUSION: The refinement of the dose calculation to the nanometer scale has revealed important differences in the energy deposition between high- and low-LET ions. Voxels of very high dose are only found in the path of high-LET ions. Interestingly, experiments have shown that DSB induced by high-LET radiation are more difficult to

  16. Calculations of turbidite deposits and tsunamis from submarine landslides

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R; Weaver, Robert P; Gittings, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Great underwater landslides like Storegga off the Norwegian coast leave massive deposits on the seafloor and must produce enormous tsunamis. Such events have occurred on continental slopes worldwide, and continue to do so. Triggers for such slides include earthquakes, gas hydrate releases, and underwater volcanos. We have petformed a numerical study of such landslides using the multi-material compressible hydrocode Sage in order to understand the relationship between the rheology of the slide material, the configuration of the resulting deposits on the seafloor, and the tsunami that is produced. Instabilities in the fluid-fluid mixing between slide material and seawater produce vortices and swirls with sizes that depend on the rheology of the slide material. These dynamical features of the flow may be preserved as ridges when the sliding material finally stops. Thus studying the configuration of the ridges in prehistoric slides may give us measures of the circumstances under which the slide was initiated. As part of this study, we have also done a convergence test showing that the slide velocity is sensitive to the resolution adopted in the simulation, but that extrapolation to infinite resolution is possible, and can yield good velocities. We will present two-dimensional simulations of schematic underwater slides for our study of rheology, and a three-dimensional simulation in bathymetric conditions that resemble the pre-Storegga Norwegian margin.

  17. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  18. Niobium Thin Film Properties Affected by Deposition Energy during Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Ronald Sundelin; Anne-Marie Valente

    2003-05-01

    In order to understand and improve the super-conducting performance of niobium thin films at cryogenic temperatures, an energetic vacuum deposition system has been developed to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on various substrates. Ultra high vacuum avoids the gaseous inclusions in thin films commonly seen in sputtering deposition. A retarding field energy analyzer is used to measure the kinetic energy of niobium ions at the substrate location. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with crystal orientation measurements and atomic force microscope (AFM) inspection, and the results show that there exists a preferred deposition energy around 115eV (the average deposition energy 64 eV plus the 51 V bias voltage).

  19. Predicting proteinase specificities from free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Seble Merid; Olufsen, Magne; Smalås, Arne O; Brandsdal, Bjørn O

    2006-10-01

    The role of the primary binding residue (P1) in complexes between three different subtilases (subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K) and their canonical protein inhibitor eglin c have been studied by free energy calculations. Based on the crystal structures of eglin c in complex with subtilisin Carlsberg and thermitase, and a homology model of the eglin c-proteinase K complex, a total of 57 mutants have been constructed and docked into their host proteins. The binding free energy was then calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method for all complexes differing only in the nature of the amino acid at the P1 position. LIE calculations for 19 different complexes for each subtilase were thus carried out excluding proline. The effects of substitutions at the P1 position on the binding free energies are found to be very large, and positively charged residues (Arg, Lys and His) are particularly deleterious for all three enzymes. The charged variants of the acidic side chains are found to bind more favorably as compared to their protonated states in all three subtilases. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids are accommodated most favorably at the S1-site in all three enzymes. Comparison of the three series of binding free energies shows only minor differences in the 19 computed relative binding free energies among these subtilases. This is further reflected in the correlation coefficient between the 23 relative binding free energies obtained, including the possible protonation states of ionizable side chains, but excluding the P1 Pro, for subtilisin Carlsberg versus thermitase (0.95), subtilisin versus proteinase K (0.94) and thermitase versus proteinase K (0.96). PMID:16386933

  20. Measurement of energy deposition near high energy, heavy ion tracks. Progress report, December 1982-April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Metting, N.F.; Braby, L.A.; Rossi, H.H.; Kliauga, P.J.; Howard, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.

    1986-08-01

    The microscopic spatial distribution of energy deposition in irradiated tissue plays a significant role in the final biological effect produced. Therefore, it is important to have accurate microdosimetric spectra of radiation fields used for radiobiology and radiotherapy. The experiments desribed here were designed to measure the distributions of energy deposition around high energy heavy ion tracks generated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac Biomedical Facility. A small proportional counter mounted in a large (0.6 by 2.5 m) vacuum chamber was used to measure energy deposition distributions as a function of the distance between detector and primary ion track. The microdosimetric distributions for a homogeneous radiation field were then calculated by integrating over radial distance. This thesis discusses the rationale of the experimental design and the analysis of measurements on 600 MeV/amu iron tracks. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Bond-Energy and Surface-Energy Calculations in Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, James G.; Horner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A simple technique appropriate for introductory materials science courses is outlined for the calculation of bond energies in metals from lattice energies. The approach is applied to body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal-closest-packed (hcp) metals. The strength of these bonds is tabulated for a variety metals and is…

  2. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  3. The DEPOSIT computer code: Calculations of electron-loss cross-sections for complex ions colliding with neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsarev, Mikhail S.

    2013-02-01

    A description of the DEPOSIT computer code is presented. The code is intended to calculate total and m-fold electron-loss cross-sections (m is the number of ionized electrons) and the energy T(b) deposited to the projectile (positive or negative ion) during a collision with a neutral atom at low and intermediate collision energies as a function of the impact parameter b. The deposited energy is calculated as a 3D integral over the projectile coordinate space in the classical energy-deposition model. Examples of the calculated deposited energies, ionization probabilities and electron-loss cross-sections are given as well as the description of the input and output data. Program summaryProgram title: DEPOSIT Catalogue identifier: AENP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8726 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126650 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer that can run C++ compiler. Operating system: Any operating system that can run C++. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: An MPI version is included in the distribution. Classification: 2.4, 2.6, 4.10, 4.11. Nature of problem: For a given impact parameter b to calculate the deposited energy T(b) as a 3D integral over a coordinate space, and ionization probabilities Pm(b). For a given energy to calculate the total and m-fold electron-loss cross-sections using T(b) values. Solution method: Direct calculation of the 3D integral T(b). The one-dimensional quadrature formula of the highest accuracy based upon the nodes of the Yacobi polynomials for the cosθ=x∈[-1,1] angular variable is applied. The Simpson rule for the φ∈[0,2π] angular variable is used. The Newton-Cotes pattern of the seventh order

  4. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  5. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  6. A simple model for calculating tsunami flow speed from tsunami deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbuam, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple model for tsunami sedimentation that can be applied to calculate tsunami flow speed from the thickness and grain size of a tsunami deposit (the inverse problem). For sandy tsunami deposits where grain size and thickness vary gradually in the direction of transport, tsunami sediment transport is modeled as a steady, spatially uniform process. The amount of sediment in suspension is assumed to be in equilibrium with the steady portion of the long period, slowing varying uprush portion of the tsunami. Spatial flow deceleration is assumed to be small and not to contribute significantly to the tsunami deposit. Tsunami deposits are formed from sediment settling from the water column when flow speeds on land go to zero everywhere at the time of maximum tsunami inundation. There is little erosion of the deposit by return flow because it is a slow flow and is concentrated in topographic lows. Variations in grain size of the deposit are found to have more effect on calculated tsunami flow speed than deposit thickness. The model is tested using field data collected at Arop, Papua New Guinea soon after the 1998 tsunami. Speed estimates of 14??m/s at 200??m inland from the shoreline compare favorably with those from a 1-D inundation model and from application of Bernoulli's principle to water levels on buildings left standing after the tsunami. As evidence that the model is applicable to some sandy tsunami deposits, the model reproduces the observed normal grading and vertical variation in sorting and skewness of a deposit formed by the 1998 tsunami.

  7. MCNPX benchmark of out-of-beam energy deposition in LiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, K.; Ferguson, P.; Morgan, G.; Quintana, D.; Waters, L.; Cooper, R.; Liljestrand, R.; Whiteson, A.

    2000-07-01

    The MCNPX code is currently being used to calculate energy deposition in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target/blanket system components. To ensure that these components are properly designed, the code must be validated. An energy deposition experiment was designed to aid in the code validation using thermocouple sensors in-beam and thermistor-type sensors in decoupler- and blanketlike regions. This paper focuses on the out-of-beam thermistor sensors constructed of LiAl.

  8. Monte Carlo calculations of characteristic quantities of low-energy electron irradiation to spacecraft dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Dong, Lei; Tang, Fule

    2012-08-01

    The calculations of the characteristic quantities of low-energy electron (⩽20 keV) irradiation to the five typical spacecraft dielectrics, i.e. epoxy, kapton, mylar, polyethylene, and teflon, have been performed by means of Monte Carlo method. These characteristic quantities include the electron backscattering coefficient, the depth distributions of both energy deposition and deposited electrons, and the maximum penetration depth of deposited electrons in the dielectrics. A Monte Carlo model has been specifically constructed for simulating the transport of low-energy electrons in spacecraft dielectrics (organic materials). In this model, the description of the inelastic scattering of energetic electron is based on the dielectric approach developed previously and the Born-Ochkur's exchange correction is included. Especially, the optical energy loss functions of organic materials can be obtained using an empirical evaluation. In addition, the mean cross section based on the Mott model is proposed for calculating the elastic scattering of energetic electrons in organic materials for high simulation efficiency. The constructed Monte Carlo model has been examined by a series of calculations and comparisons with the reported experiments and other theoretical results. For the dielectrics under consideration and in the energy range of E0 ⩽ 20 keV, the calculated electron backscattering coefficients and the extrapolated range of deposited electrons are listed at selected energies in numerical form for convenient use, and an empirical expression of estimating the extrapolated range in the energy range of 1-20 keV is given. The distribution characteristics of both energy deposition and deposited electrons are presented, and it is found that kapton and mylar present the close characteristic quantities for each other, which is of significance for the choice of the dielectrics in design of spacecraft. The characteristic quantity calculations presented in this work are a

  9. Study of ore deposits by the dynamic systems investigation methods: 1. Calculation of the correlation dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkin, M. V.; Shatakhtsyan, A. R.

    2015-05-01

    The method for calculating the fractal correlation dimension is applied for analyzing the data on the locations of large and extralarge ore deposits. The approach implemented in this study differs by a few of important points from that commonly used, e.g., in the calculations of the correlation dimension for a set of the epicenters (hypocenters) of the earthquakes. Firstly, we demonstrate the possibility and advisability of obtaining different dimension estimates for different spatial scales. Such a separation turned out to be useful in distinguishing between the regularities in the location of ore deposits on the scale of an ore cluster, ore province, and entire continent. Secondly, we introduce a new notion, a mixed correlation dimension, and use it for different types of the objects (e.g., Au and Ag). The standard formula for calculating the correlation dimension is trivially generalized on this case. It is shown that the values of the correlation dimension can be lower and higher than the dimension of the hosting medium. The cases when the correlation dimension is higher than that of the hosting medium are interpreted as a "mutual repulsion" of the deposits of the two mentioned types. In contrast, the small correlation dimensions indicate that the deposits of the corresponding types tend to have spatially close locations. The calculations are conducted for the spherical Earth. The method is applied to the data on the large and extralarge world-class ore deposits from the Largest Mineral Deposits of the World (LMDs) geoinformation system (GIS). Different patterns of the studied behavior are illustrated by the model examples.

  10. GIS supported calculations of (137)Cs deposition in Sweden based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Almgren, Sara; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Erlandsson, Bengt; Isaksson, Mats

    2006-09-15

    It is of interest to know the spatial variation and the amount of (137)Cs e.g. in case of an accident with a radioactive discharge. In this study, the spatial distribution of the quarterly (137)Cs deposition over Sweden due to nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) during the period 1962-1966 was determined by relating the measured deposition density at a reference site to the amount of precipitation. Measured quarterly values of (137)Cs deposition density per unit precipitation at three reference sites and quarterly precipitation at 62 weather stations distributed over Sweden were used in the calculations. The reference sites were assumed to represent areas with different quarterly mean precipitation. The extent of these areas was determined from the distribution of the mean measured precipitation between 1961 and 1990 and varied according to seasonal variations in the mean precipitation pattern. Deposition maps were created by interpolation within a geographical information system (GIS). Both integrated (total) and cumulative (decay corrected) deposition densities were calculated. The lowest levels of NWF (137)Cs deposition density were noted in north-eastern and eastern parts of Sweden and the highest levels in the western parts of Sweden. Furthermore the deposition density of (137)Cs, resulting from the Chernobyl accident was determined for an area in western Sweden based on precipitation data. The highest levels of Chernobyl (137)Cs in western Sweden were found in the western parts of the area along the coast and the lowest in the east. The sum of the deposition densities from NWF and Chernobyl in western Sweden was then compared to the total activity measured in soil samples at 27 locations. Comparisons between the predicted values of this study show a good agreement with measured values and other studies. PMID:16647743

  11. Free-Energy Calculations. A Mathematical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    conductance, defined as the ratio of ionic current through the channel to applied voltage, can be calculated in MD simulations by way of applying an external electric field to the system and counting the number of ions that traverse the channel per unit time. If the current is small, a voltage significantly higher than the experimental one needs to be applied to collect sufficient statistics of ion crossing events. Then, the calculated conductance has to be extrapolated to the experimental voltage using procedures of unknown accuracy. Instead, we propose an alternative approach that applies if ion transport through channels can be described with sufficient accuracy by the one-dimensional diffusion equation in the potential given by the free energy profile and applied voltage. Then, it is possible to test the assumptions of the equation, recover the full voltage/current dependence, determine the reliability of the calculated conductance and reconstruct the underlying (equilibrium) free energy profile, all from MD simulations at a single voltage. We will present the underlying theory, model calculations that test this theory and simulations on ion conductance through a channel that has been extensively studied experimentally. To our knowledge this is the first case in which the complete, experimentally measured dependence of the current on applied voltage has been reconstructed from MD simulations.

  12. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  13. Estimating the energy deposition based on anisotropic fluxes measured by POES MEPED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanger, Marit Irene; Stadsnes, Johan; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Glesnes Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine; Åsnes, Arne

    2015-04-01

    The Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) onboard the Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) consists of two electron telescopes, one viewing nearly radially outward from Earth (the 0o detector) and the other viewing antiparallel to the satellite's velocity (the 90o detector). Energetic particle measurements from POES are often used to estimate the energy deposition in the mesosphere. The electron fluxes usually show strong pitch angle anisotropy. Until now, it has been customary to derive a lower estimate of the energy deposition in the mesosphere from the 0o detector, while an upper estimate is derived from the 90odetector. We have developed a method using measurements from both the 0o and 90o telescopes in a combination with theoretically determined pitch angle distributions, in order to give a more precise estimate of the energy deposition in the upper atmosphere. The derived anisotropic flux distributions are used to calculate the energy deposition during Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP) events.

  14. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... FEDERAL POWER ACT Charges for Headwater Benefits § 11.13 Energy gains calculations. (a) Energy gains at a... not complex or in which headwater benefits are expected to be small, calculations will be made...

  15. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Griesheimer, D. P.; Stedry, M. H.

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  16. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-29

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  17. Computer Program for the Calculation of Multicomponent Convective Diffusion Deposition Rates from Chemically Frozen Boundary Layer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Chen, B. K.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The computer program based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layer (CFBL) theory for calculating vapor and/or small particle deposition rates is documented. A specific application to perimter-averaged Na2SO4 deposition rate calculations on a cylindrical collector is demonstrated. The manual includes a typical program input and output for users.

  18. Study of the energy deposit of muon bundles in the NEVOD detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Dushkin, L. I.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Khomyakov, V. A.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Kovylyaeva, E. A.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Shutenko, V. V.; Trinchero, G.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-08-01

    In several cosmic ray experiments, an excess of multi-muon events in comparison with calculations performed in frame of the widely used hadron interaction models was found. In order to solve this puzzle, investigations of muon energy characteristics in EAS are required. An experiment on the measurement of the energy deposit of muon bundles in water has been started with the NEVOD-DECOR experimental complex. The results of the analysis of the first experimental data are discussed. It has been found that the average specific energy deposit in the Cherenkov calorimeter appreciably increases with zenith angle, thus reflecting the increase of the mean muon energy in the bundles. A possible evidence for an increase of the energy deposit at primary energies above 1017 eV is observed.

  19. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patashova, T.

    2009-04-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. I would like present the work wherein discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying most popular resources calculating methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages, their availability subject to deposits‘genetic types.

  20. A Lagrangian Approach for Calculating Microsphere Deposition in a One-Dimensional Lung-Airway Model.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Mayank; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2015-09-01

    Using the open-source software openfoam as the solver, a novel approach to calculate microsphere transport and deposition in a 1D human lung-equivalent trumpet model (TM) is presented. Specifically, for particle deposition in a nonlinear trumpetlike configuration a new radial force has been developed which, along with the regular drag force, generates particle trajectories toward the wall. The new semi-empirical force is a function of any given inlet volumetric flow rate, micron-particle diameter, and lung volume. Particle-deposition fractions (DFs) in the size range from 2 μm to 10 μm are in agreement with experimental datasets for different laminar and turbulent inhalation flow rates as well as total volumes. Typical run times on a single processor workstation to obtain actual total deposition results at comparable accuracy are 200 times less than that for an idealized whole-lung geometry (i.e., a 3D-1D model with airways up to 23rd generation in single-path only). PMID:26141916

  1. Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason

    2007-03-01

    Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.

  2. Validation of model calculation of ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of a poultry farm using measured NH 3 concentrations and N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, S. G.; Østergård, H. S.; Løfstrøm, P.; Andersen, H. V.; Jensen, L. S.

    Substantial emission of ammonia (NH 3) from animal houses and the related high local deposition of NH 3-N are a threat to semi-natural nitrogen-deficient ecosystems situated near the NH 3 source. In Denmark, there are regulations limiting the level of NH 3 emission from livestock houses near N-deficient ecosystems that are likely to change due to nitrogen (N) enrichment caused by NH 3 deposition. The models used for assessing NH 3 emission from livestock production, therefore, need to be precise, as the regulation will affect both the nature of the ecosystem and the economy of the farmer. Therefore a study was carried out with the objective of validating the Danish model used to monitor NH 3 transport, dispersion and deposition from and in the neighbourhood of a chicken farm. In the study we measured NH 3 emission with standard flux measuring methods, NH 3 concentrations at increasing distances from the chicken houses using passive diffusion samplers and deposition using 15N-enriched biomonitors and field plot studies. The dispersion and deposition of NH 3 were modelled using the Danish OML-DEP model. It was also shown that model calculations clearly reflect the measured NH 3 concentration and N deposition. Deposition of N measured by biomonitors clearly reflected the variation in NH 3 concentrations and showed that deposition was not significantly different from zero ( P < 0.05) at distances greater than 150-200 m from these chicken houses. Calculations confirmed this, as calculated N deposition 320 m away from the chicken farm was only marginally affected by the NH 3 emission from the farm. There was agreement between calculated and measured deposition showing that the model gives true estimates of the deposition in the neighbourhood of a livestock house emitting NH 3.

  3. Modeling Atmospheric Energy Deposition (by energetic ions): New Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, C.; Brain, D. A.; Lillis, R. J.; Liemohn, M. W.; Bougher, S. W.

    2012-12-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth, Mars and Jupiter using a guiding center precipitation model with extensive collisional physics. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation that can perform calculations for cases where there is only a weak or nonexistent magnetic field that includes detailed physical interaction with the atmosphere (i.e. collisional physics). We show initial efforts to apply a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan. A systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy

  4. Stochastic spatial energy deposition profiles for MeV protons and keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, C.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid advances being made in novel high-energy ion-beam techniques such as proton beam writing, single-ion-event effects, ion-beam-radiation therapy, ion-induced fluorescence imaging, proton/ion microscopy, and ion-induced electron imaging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the spatial energy-deposition profiles of energetic ions as they penetrate matter. In this work we present the results of comprehensive yet straightforward event-by-event Monte Carlo calculations that simulate ion/electron propagation and secondary electron ( δ ray) generation to yield spatial energy-deposition data. These calculations combine SRIM/TRIM features, EEDL97 data and volume-plasmon-localization models with a modified version of one of the newer δ ray generation models, namely, the Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht. The development of the computer code DEEP (deposition of energy due to electrons and protons) offers a unique means of studying the energy-deposition/redistribution problem while still retaining the important stochastic nature inherent in these processes which cannot be achieved with analytical modeling. As an example of an application of DEEP we present results that compare the energy-deposition profiles of primary MeV protons and primary keV electrons in polymethymethacrylate. Such data are important when comparing proximity effects in the direct write lithography processes of proton-beam writing and electron-beam writing. Our calculations demonstrate that protons are able to maintain highly compact spatial energy-deposition profiles compared with electrons.

  5. Low-energy calculations for nuclear photodisintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deflorian, S.; Efros, V. D.; Leidemann, W.

    2016-03-01

    In the Standard Solar Model a central role in the nucleosynthesis is played by reactions of the kind {}{Z_1}{A_1}{X_1} + {}{Z_2}{A_2}{X_2} to {}{Z_1 + {Z_2}}{A_1 + {A_2}}Y + γ , which enter the proton-proton chains. These reactions can also be studied through the inverse photodisintegration reaction. One option is to use the Lorentz Integral Transform approach, which transforms the continuum problem into a bound state-like one. A way to check the reliability of such methods is a direct calculation, for example using the Kohn Variational Principle to obtain the scattering wave function and then directly calculate the response function of the reaction.

  6. Calculation of molecular free energies in classical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, Asaf; Singh, Bipin

    2016-02-01

    Free energies of molecules can be calculated by quantum chemistry computations or by normal mode classical calculations. However, the first can be computationally impractical for large molecules and the second is based on the assumption of harmonic dynamics. We present a novel, accurate and complete calculation of molecular free energies in standard classical potentials. In this method we transform the molecule by relaxing potential terms which depend on the coordinates of a group of atoms in that molecule and calculate the free energy difference associated with the transformation. Then, since the transformed molecule can be treated as non-interacting systems, the free energy associated with these atoms is analytically or numerically calculated. This two-step calculation can be applied to calculate free energies of molecules or free energy difference between (possibly large) molecules in a general environment. We demonstrate the method in free energy calculations for methanethiol and butane molecules in vacuum and solvent. We suggest the potential application of free energy calculation of chemical reactions in classical molecular simulations.

  7. Global Auroral Energy Deposition Derived from Polar UVI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Elsen, R.; Parks, G. K.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of the transfer of energy and momentum to the ionosphere from the solar wind is one of the main objectives of the ISTP program. Global measurement of auroral energy deposition derived from observations of the longer wavelength LBH band emissions made by the Ultraviolet Imager on the Polar spacecraft is one of the key elements in this satellite and ground-based instrument campaign. These "measurements" are inferred by combining information from consecutive images using different filters and have a time resolution on the average of three minutes and are made continuously over a 5 to 8 hour period during each 18 hour orbit of the Polar spacecraft. The energy deposition in the ionosphere from auroral electron precipitation augments are due to Joule heating associated with field aligned currents. Assuming conjugacy of energy deposition between the two hemispheres the total energy input to the ionosphere through electron precipitation can be determined at high time resolution. Previously, precipitating particle measurements along the tracks of low altitude satellites provided only local measurements and the global energy precipitation could be inferred through models but not directly measured. We use the UVI images for the entire month of January 1997 to estimate the global energy deposition at high time resolution. We also sort the energy deposition into sectors to find possible trends, for example, on the dayside and nightside, or the dawn and dusk sides.

  8. Energetic particle energy deposition in Titan's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, J. H.; Smith, H. T.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C. P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mandt, K. E.

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s upper atmosphere has been observed to be variable on a pass-by-pass basis. During the nominal mission where the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) only sampled the northern hemisphere this variability was initially believed to be tied to solar drivers manifest in latitudinal variations in the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere. However, when Cassini delved into the southern hemisphere the latitudinal dependence was not present in the data. Recently, Westlake et al. (2011) showed that the pass-by-pass variability is correlated with the deviations in the plasma environment as identified by Rymer et al. (2009) and Simon et al. (2010). Furthermore, the studies of Westlake et al. (2011) and Bell et al. (2011) showed that Titan’s upper atmosphere responds to changes in the ambient magnetospheric plasma on timescales of roughly one Titan day (16 Earth days). We report on recent studies of energy deposition in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Previous studies by Smith et al. (2009), Cravens et al. (2008), Tseng et al. (2008), and Shah et al. (2009) reported on energetic proton and oxygen ion precipitation. Back of the envelope calculations by Sittler et al. (2009) showed that magnetospheric energy inputs are expected to be of the order of or greater than the solar processes. We report on further analysis of the plasma environment around Titan during the flybys that the INMS has good data. We utilize data from the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument to determine how the magnetospheric particle population varies from pass to pass and how this influences the net magnetospheric energy input prior to the flyby. We also report on enhanced energetic neutral atom emissions during select highly energetic passes. References: Bell, J., et al.: “Simulating the time-dependent response of Titan's upper atmosphere to periods of magnetospheric forcing”. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06202, 2011. Rymer, A. M., et al.: “Discrete classification and electron

  9. Comparison of mineral resources calculation methods for different genetic types of gravel and sand deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patašova, Tatjana; Jurgaitis, Algirdas

    2008-01-01

    Calculation of mineral resources and their proper assessment is relevant, since the stock of resources determines the economic independence of the state. The present work discusses gravel and sand deposits of different genetic type (kames, eskers, marginal glaciofluvial ridges, sandurs, glaciofluvial deltas and redrifted glaciofluvial aeolian formations). Their geological structure and formation conditions have been assessed; quality characteristics of mineral resources have been analysed; calculation of resources has been performed by applying old methods used in Lithuania up to now, such as those of geological blocks, profiles and isolines, as well as the up-to-date GRID method created on the basis of the triangle method in GIS environment. Comparison of resources assessed by different methods has revealed their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Calculation of Modulated Transport Coefficients for Recovery of ECH Deposition Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Horton, C. W.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-11-01

    Ray tracing of ECRF power through fixed plasma profiles may significantly underestimate the ECH and ECCD deposition profile width. Density fluctuations present in tokamak plasmas modify the path of radiation on a fluctuation timescale, spreading the heating power over a wide area. Deposition is hard to measure as transport quickly spreads power, and transport effects are difficult to separate from a truly broadened profile. While the total power deposited should be unchanged in an ITER-like scenario, tearing mode suppression is sensitive to the alignment and width of the ECCD profile. A novel integral method for calculating thermal transport coefficients based on ECE measurements of Te is presented and applied to DIII-D data. These are compared with computational predictions of broadening from the ray tracing code C3PO and distribution code LUKE. This work will provide the analytical framework for measuring fluctuation broadening in a future DIII-D experiment. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG03-97ER54415 & DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  11. Simulation of proton-induced energy deposition in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernald, Kenneth W.; Kerns, Sherra E.

    1988-01-01

    A time-efficient simulation technique was developed for modeling the energy deposition by incident protons in modern integrated circuits. To avoid the excessive computer time required by many proton-effects simulators, a stochastic method was chosen to model the various physical effects responsible for energy deposition by incident protons. Using probability density functions to describe the nuclear reactions responsible for most proton-induced memory upsets, the simulator determines the probability of a proton hit depositing the energy necessary for circuit destabilization. This factor is combined with various circuit parameters to determine the expected error-rate in a given proton environment. An analysis of transient or dose-rate effects is also performed. A comparison to experimental energy-disposition data proves the simulator to be quite accurate for predicting the expected number of events in certain integrated circuits.

  12. The measurement and calculation of nanodosimetric energy distributions for electrons and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Thomas Michael

    1997-09-01

    Low dose and low dose rate fields constitute the majority of radiation exposure scenarios in radiation protection. Conversely, very little epidemiological or physical data are available at these levels. This situation exists because the parameters characterizing low dose and low dose rate environments are difficult to assess at cellular levels where the fundamental biological effects from radiation insults occur. The quantities required for a complete biological assessment are the distribution of energy deposition in biological targets and the cellular response to such insults. A new detector to measure physical energy depositions on nanometer scales was developed in this thesis. A computational tool was also developed to calculate clustered distributions of energy deposition from electrons and photons. A dosimeter has been developed which characterizes energy depositions from charged particles in nanometer dimensions. The dosimeter is a threshold-type detector based on the temperature response of the superheated liquid droplet detector (SLDD). SLDDs based on Freon-115 have been designed and tested. A data acquisition system that measures the acoustic signals from bubble nucleation events has been developed. An original electron track code, ESLOW3.1, has been developed. The code simulates electron tracks on an event-by-event basis down to an absolute minimum of 20 eV. The transport medium is water vapor. The cross sections have been compared with published data and theoretical models where available. Trial calculations of pertinent quantities are in good agreement with published results. A new operational quantity, the cluster spectrum, given the symbol c(/varepsilon), has been defined. This quantity is measured by the SLDD operated in nanodosimetry mode. The performance of the SLDD has been tested with a 60Co point source. The effective measurement range of the nanodosimeter is between 60 and 500 eV of energy deposition. Measured values of c(/varepsilon) are

  13. A nuclear fragmentation energy deposition model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, D. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Fogarty, T. N.; Buck, W. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. A nuclear data base is recommended that agrees well with the measurements of McNulty et al. using surface barrier detectors. High-energy events observed by McNulty et al., which are not predicted by intranuclear cascade models, are well represented by the present work.

  14. System to quantify gamma-ray radial energy deposition in semiconductor detectors

    DOEpatents

    Kammeraad, Judith E.; Blair, Jerome J.

    2001-01-01

    A system for measuring gamma-ray radial energy deposition is provided for use in conjunction with a semiconductor detector. The detector comprises two electrodes and a detector material, and defines a plurality of zones within the detecting material in parallel with the two electrodes. The detector produces a charge signal E(t) when a gamma-ray interacts with the detector. Digitizing means are provided for converting the charge signal E(t) into a digitized signal. A computational means receives the digitized signal and calculates in which of the plurality of zones the gamma-ray deposited energy when interacting with the detector. The computational means produces an output indicating the amount of energy deposited by the gamma-ray in each of the plurality of zones.

  15. Biological consequences of nanoscale energy deposition near irradiated heavy atom nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Muir, Mark F.; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Dickson, Glenn R.; Hounsell, Alan R.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Prise, Kevin M.; Hirst, David G.; Currell, Fred J.

    2011-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being proposed as contrast agents to enhance X-ray imaging and radiotherapy, seeking to take advantage of the increased X-ray absorption of gold compared to soft tissue. However, there is a great discrepancy between physically predicted increases in X-ray energy deposition and experimentally observed increases in cell killing. In this work, we present the first calculations which take into account the structure of energy deposition in the nanoscale vicinity of GNPs and relate this to biological outcomes, and show for the first time good agreement with experimentally observed cell killing by the combination of X-rays and GNPs. These results are not only relevant to radiotherapy, but also have implications for applications of heavy atom nanoparticles in biological settings or where human exposure is possible because the localised energy deposition high-lighted by these results may cause complex DNA damage, leading to mutation and carcinogenesis.

  16. Biological consequences of nanoscale energy deposition near irradiated heavy atom nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Muir, Mark F.; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Dickson, Glenn R.; Hounsell, Alan R.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Prise, Kevin M.; Hirst, David G.; Currell, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being proposed as contrast agents to enhance X-ray imaging and radiotherapy, seeking to take advantage of the increased X-ray absorption of gold compared to soft tissue. However, there is a great discrepancy between physically predicted increases in X-ray energy deposition and experimentally observed increases in cell killing. In this work, we present the first calculations which take into account the structure of energy deposition in the nanoscale vicinity of GNPs and relate this to biological outcomes, and show for the first time good agreement with experimentally observed cell killing by the combination of X-rays and GNPs. These results are not only relevant to radiotherapy, but also have implications for applications of heavy atom nanoparticles in biological settings or where human exposure is possible because the localised energy deposition high-lighted by these results may cause complex DNA damage, leading to mutation and carcinogenesis. PMID:22355537

  17. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Klimovich, Pavel V; Shirts, Michael R; Mobley, David L

    2015-05-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, alchemical-analysis.py, freely available on GitHub as part of the pymbar package (located at http://github.com/choderalab/pymbar), that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope this tool and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations. PMID:25808134

  18. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations

    PubMed Central

    Klimovich, Pavel V.; Shirts, Michael R.; Mobley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, alchemical–analysis.py, freely available on GitHub at https://github.com/choderalab/pymbar–examples, that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope these tools and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations. PMID:25808134

  19. Spectroscopically Accurate Calculations of the Rovibrational Energies of Diatomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Jason

    2005-05-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation has been used to calculate the rotational and vibrational states of diatomic hydrogen. Because it is an approximation, our group now wants to use a Born-Oppenheimer potential to calculate the electronic energy that has been corrected to match closely with spectroscopic results. We are using a code that has corrections for adiabatic, relativistic, radiative, and non-adiabatic effects. The rovibrational energies have now been calculated for both bound and quasi-bound states. We also want to compute quadrupole transition probabilities for diatomic hydrogen. These calculations aspire to investigate diatomic hydrogen in astrophysical environments.

  20. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF...

  1. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF...

  2. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF...

  3. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF...

  4. The EXPURT model for calculating external gamma doses from deposited material in inhabited areas.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Singer, L N; Brown, J

    2006-01-01

    EXPURT, NRPB's model for calculating external gamma doses in inhabited areas, was originally developed in the mid-1980s. Deposition on surfaces in the area, the subsequent transfer of material between different surfaces or its removal from the system, and dose rates in various locations from material on the different surfaces are modelled. The model has been updated to take account of more recent experimental data on the transfer rates between surfaces and to make it more flexible for use in assessing dose rates following an accidental release. EXPURT is a compartmental model and models the transfer of material between the surfaces using a set of first order differential equations. It enables the impact of the decontamination of surfaces on doses and dose rates to be explored. The paper describes the EXPURT model and presents some preliminary results obtained using it. PMID:16242820

  5. New approach to calculating the potential energy of colliding nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kurmanov, R. S.; Kosenko, G. I.

    2014-12-15

    The differential method proposed by the present authors earlier for the reduction of volume integrals in calculating the potential energy of a compound nucleus is generalized to the case of two interacting nuclei. The Coulomb interaction energy is obtained for the cases of a sharp and a diffuse boundary of nuclei, while the nuclear interaction energy is found only for nuclei with a sharp boundary, the finiteness of the nuclear-force range being taken into account. The present method of calculations permits reducing the time it takes to compute the potential energy at least by two orders of magnitude.

  6. Transonic flow control by means of local energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aul'Chenko, S. M.; Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2011-11-01

    Experimental data for the feasibility of transonic flow control by means of energy deposition are generalized. Energy supplied to the immediate vicinity of a body in stream before a compression shock is found to result in the nonlinear interaction of introduced disturbances with the shock and the surface in zones extended along the surface. A new, explosive gasdynamic mechanism behind the shift of the compression shock is discovered. It is shown that the nonlinear character of the interaction may considerably decrease the wave resistance of, e.g., transonic airfoils. It is found that energy supply from without stabilizes a transonic flow about an airfoil—the effect similar to the Khristianovich stabilization effect. The dependence of the energy deposition optimal frequency on the energy source parameters and Mach number of the incoming flow at which the resistance drops to the greatest extent is obtained. The influence of the real thermodynamic properties and viscosity of air is studied.

  7. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  8. Protein thermostability calculations using alchemical free energy simulations.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Daniel; de Groot, Bert L

    2010-05-19

    Thermal stability of proteins is crucial for both biotechnological and therapeutic applications. Rational protein engineering therefore frequently aims at increasing thermal stability by introducing stabilizing mutations. The accurate prediction of the thermodynamic consequences caused by mutations, however, is highly challenging as thermal stability changes are caused by alterations in the free energy of folding. Growing computational power, however, increasingly allows us to use alchemical free energy simulations, such as free energy perturbation or thermodynamic integration, to calculate free energy differences with relatively high accuracy. In this article, we present an automated protocol for setting up alchemical free energy calculations for mutations of naturally occurring amino acids (except for proline) that allows an unprecedented, automated screening of large mutant libraries. To validate the developed protocol, we calculated thermodynamic stability differences for 109 mutations in the microbial Ribonuclease Barnase. The obtained quantitative agreement with experimental data illustrates the potential of the approach in protein engineering and design. PMID:20483340

  9. Is ring breaking feasible in relative binding free energy calculations?

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Lingle; Mobley, David L

    2015-04-27

    Our interest is relative binding free energy (RBFE) calculations based on molecular simulations. These are promising tools for lead optimization in drug discovery, computing changes in binding free energy due to modifications of a lead compound. However, in the "alchemical" framework for RBFE calculations, some types of mutations have the potential to introduce error into the computed binding free energies. Here we explore the magnitude of this error in several different model binding calculations. We find that some of the calculations involving ring breaking have significant errors, and these errors are especially large in bridged ring systems. Since the error is a function of ligand strain, which is unpredictable in advance, we believe that ring breaking should be avoided when possible. PMID:25835054

  10. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

  11. Free energy calculations for molecular solids using GROMACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragones, J. L.; Noya, E. G.; Valeriani, C.; Vega, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we describe a procedure to evaluate the free energy of molecular solids with the GROMACS molecular dynamics package. The free energy is calculated using the Einstein molecule method that can be regarded as a small modification of the Einstein crystal method. Here, the position and orientation of the molecules is fixed by using an Einstein field that binds with harmonic springs at least three non-collinear atoms (or points of the molecule) to their reference positions. The validity of the Einstein field is tested by performing free-energy calculations of methanol, water (ice), and patchy colloids molecular solids. The free energies calculated with GROMACS show a very good agreement with those obtained using Monte Carlo and with previously published results.

  12. Energy deposition and thermal effects of runaway electrons in ITER-FEAT plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Maruccia, G.; Merola, M.; Rollet, S.

    2003-03-01

    The profile of energy deposited by runaway electrons (RAEs) of 10 or 50 MeV in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT) plasma facing components (PFCs) and the subsequent temperature pattern have been calculated by using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and the finite element heat conduction code ANSYS. The RAE energy deposition density was assumed to be 50 MJ/m 2 and both 10 and 100 ms deposition times were considered. Five different configurations of PFCs were investigated: primary first wall armoured with Be, with and without protecting CFC poloidal limiters, both port limiter first wall options (Be flat tile and CFC monoblock), divertor baffle first wall, armoured with W. The analysis has outlined that for all the configurations but one (port limiter with Be flat tile) the heat sink and the cooling tube beneath the armour are well protected for both RAE energies and for both energy deposition times. On the other hand large melting (W, Be) or sublimation (C) of the surface layer occurs, eventually affecting the PFCs lifetime.

  13. S-matrix calculations of energy levels of alkalilike ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapirstein, Jonathan; Cheng, K. T.

    2013-05-01

    A recent S-matrix based QED calculation of energy levels of the lithium isoelectronic sequence is extended to the general case of a valence electron outside an arbitrary filled core. Formulas are presented that allow calculation of the energy levels of valence ns , np1 / 2 , np3 / 2 , nd3 / 2 , and nd5 / 2 states. Emphasis is placed on modifications of the lithiumlike formulas required because more than one core state is present, and a discussion of an unusual feature of the two-photon exchange contribution involving autoiononizing states is given. The method is illustrated with a calculation of energy levels of the sodium isoelectronic sequence, with results for 3s1 / 2 , 3p1 / 2 , and 3p3 / 2 energies tabulated for the range Z = 20 - 100 . A detailed breakdown of the calculation is given for Z = 74 . Comparison with experiment and other calculations is given, and prospects for extension of the method to ions with more complex electronic structure discussed. The work of JS was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1068065. The work of KTC was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

    2014-12-01

    High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

  15. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  16. Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

  17. Estimating the energy deposition in the mesosphere from anisotropic electron fluxes during REP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadsnes, Johan; Sandanger, Marit; Nesse Tyssoy, Hilde; Odegaard, Linn-Kristine; Asnes, Arne

    Data from the MEPED particle spectrometers on the Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) are often used for estimating the energy deposition in the upper atmosphere from electrons in the energy range 30 keV - 2.5 MeV. MEPED includes two collimated electron detectors, which are pointing approximately towards zenith (0 degree detector) and in the horizontal plane (90 degree detector). At medium and high geomagnetic latitudes the 0 degree detector measures particles within a limited part of the bounce loss cone and the 90 degree detector measures particles outside or near the edge of the loss cone. The electron fluxes often show strong pitch angle anisotropy which causes large uncertainty in the estimate of energy deposition based on these measurements. An upper estimate is derived from the 90 degree detector and a lower estimate from the 0 degree detector. The electron anisotropy is to a large extent determined by wave-particle interactions causing pitch angle diffusion driving electrons into the bounce loss cone. The pitch angle anisotropy is dependent on the strength of the diffusion. We are developing a method for calculating the flux versus pitch angle in the loss cone based on the measured electron fluxes and modeled flux profiles from pitch angle scattering by whistler mode waves. We will present results from calculation of the energy deposition using the derived anisotropic flux distribution during a REP event in 2008.

  18. Distributions of deposited energy and ionization clusters around ion tracks studied with Geant4 toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burigo, Lucas; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Hilgers, Gerhard; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    The Geant4-based Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) was extended to study the patterns of energy deposition at sub-micrometer distance from individual ion tracks. Dose distributions for low-energy 1H, 4He, 12C and 16O ions measured in several experiments are well described by the model in a broad range of radial distances, from 0.5 to 3000 nm. Despite the fact that such distributions are characterized by long tails, a dominant fraction of deposited energy (∼80%) is confined within a radius of about 10 nm. The probability distributions of clustered ionization events in nanoscale volumes of water traversed by 1H, 2H, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, and 12C ions are also calculated. A good agreement of calculated ionization cluster-size distributions with the corresponding experimental data suggests that the extended MCHIT can be used to characterize stochastic processes of energy deposition to sensitive cellular structures.

  19. Total-energy and pressure calculations for random substitutional alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.D. ); Nicholson, D.M. ); Pinski, F.J. ); Gyoerffy, B.L. ); Stocks, G.M. )

    1990-05-15

    We present the details and the derivation of density-functional-based expressions for the total energy and pressure for random substitutional alloys (RSA) using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's-function approach in combination with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) to treat the configurational averaging. This includes algebraic cancellation of various electronic core contributions to the total energy and pressure, as in ordered-solid muffin-tin-potential calculations. Thus, within the CPA, total-energy and pressure calculations for RSA have the same foundation and have been found to have the same accuracy as those obtained in similar calculations for ordered solids. Results of our calculations for the impurity formation energy, and for the bulk moduli, the lattice parameters, and the energy of mixing as a function of concentration in fcc Cu{sub {ital c}}Zn{sub 1{minus}{ital c}} alloys show that this generalized density-functional theory will be useful in studying alloy phase stability.

  20. Si deposition rates in a two-dimensional CVD (chemical vapor deposition) reactor and comparisons with model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

    1989-10-01

    Deposition rates are presented for silicon from silane in a helium carrier gas using a tubular CVD reactor with a two-dimensional flow geometry. Measured surface-temperature profiles, inlet gas velocities, total pressures, and silane/helium concentrations are reported, providing exact boundary conditions that can be used in a two-dimensional numerical CVD model. Comparisons are made between this data and two variations of a model by Coltrin, Kee, and Miller in which different empirical expressions for the silane and disilane reactive sticking coefficient are used.

  1. Ion beam energy spectrum calculation via dosimetry data deconvolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Sharp, Andrew Clinton

    2010-10-01

    The energy spectrum of a H{sup +} beam generated within the HERMES III accelerator is calculated from dosimetry data to refine future experiments. Multiple layers of radiochromic film are exposed to the beam. A graphic user interface was written in MATLAB to align the film images and calculate the beam's dose depth profile. Singular value regularization is used to stabilize the unfolding and provide the H{sup +} beam's energy spectrum. The beam was found to have major contributions from 1 MeV and 8.5 MeV protons. The HERMES III accelerator is typically used as a pulsed photon source to experimentally obtain photon impulse response of systems due to high energy photons. A series of experiments were performed to explore the use of Hermes III to generate an intense pulsed proton beam. Knowing the beam energy spectrum allows for greater precision in experiment predictions and beam model verification.

  2. Calculation of exchange energies using algebraic perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, B. L.; Dalgarno, A.; Cohen, M.

    2010-04-15

    An algebraic perturbation theory is presented for efficient calculations of localized states and hence of exchange energies, which are the differences between low-lying states of the valence electron of a molecule, formed by the collision of an ion Y{sup +} with an atom X. For the case of a homonuclear molecule these are the gerade and ungerade states and the exchange energy is an exponentially decreasing function of the internuclear distance. For such homonuclear systems the theory is used in conjunction with the Herring-Holstein technique to give accurate exchange energies for a range of intermolecular separations R. Since the perturbation parameter is essentially 1/R, this method is suitable for large R. In particular, exchange energies are calculated for X{sub 2}{sup +} systems, where X is H, Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs.

  3. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  4. Solar energy deposition rates in the mesosphere derived from airglow measurements: Implications for the ozone model deficit problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-07-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-μm oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat.budget.gats.inc.com.

  5. Critical energy deposit in heavy ion complete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fonte, R.; Insolia, A. Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Catania corso Italia, 57-95129 Catania, Italy)

    1991-07-01

    In the framework of an {ital l}-window model for complete fusion reactions within a sharp cutoff approximation, the problem of the maximum excitation energy which can be deposited in a compound nucleus is discussed. Predictions about the spin distribution of the compound nucleus are compared with the conclusions of a recent analysis of the {sup 28}Si+{sup 28}Si fusion reaction.

  6. On the calculation of classical vibrational energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, John P.; Stettler, John D.

    1982-07-01

    A three-dimensional, Monte Carlo classical model for the calculation of vibrational energy relaxation and transfer rates for both diatomic—monatomic and diatomic—diatomic systems was developed, analyzed and implemented. Mediation by internal angular momentum changes was demonstrated to be important in these energy transfer processes. This mechanism was incorporated into the model in order to achieve statistically significant results within reasonable computer running times. This made possible the extension of the model calculations to much lower temperatures than had been previously investigated. This calculational procedure was applied to Ar—O 2, to He—O 2 and to the near resonant CO—N 2 process at several temperatures between room temperature and 4000 K with the use of exponential repulsive intermolecular potential. Three different sets of potential parameters obtained from three independent sources were used. The results were compared to experiment.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of energy deposition by low-energy electrons in molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, M. G.; Furman, D. R.; Green, A. E. S.

    1975-01-01

    A set of detailed atomic cross sections has been used to obtain the spatial deposition of energy by 1-20-eV electrons in molecular hydrogen by a Monte Carlo simulation of the actual trajectories. The energy deposition curve (energy per distance traversed) is quite peaked in the forward direction about the entry point for electrons with energies above the threshold of the electronic states, but the peak decreases and broadens noticeably as the electron energy decreases below 10 eV (threshold for the lowest excitable electronic state of H2). The curve also assumes a very symmetrical shape for energies below 10 eV, indicating the increasing importance of elastic collisions in determining the shape of the curve, although not the mode of energy deposition.

  8. Accurate calculation of diffraction-limited encircled and ensquared energy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2015-09-01

    Mathematical properties of the encircled and ensquared energy functions for the diffraction-limited point-spread function (PSF) are presented. These include power series and a set of linear differential equations that facilitate the accurate calculation of these functions. Asymptotic expressions are derived that provide very accurate estimates for the relative amount of energy in the diffraction PSF that fall outside a square or rectangular large detector. Tables with accurate values of the encircled and ensquared energy functions are also presented. PMID:26368873

  9. The Calculation of Accurate Metal-Ligand Bond Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Partridge, Harry, III; Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of the geometry and calculation of zero-point energies are carried out at the B3LYP level of theory. The bond energies are determined at this level, as well as at the CCSD(T) level using very large basis sets. The successive OH bond energies to the first row transition metal cations are reported. For most systems there has been an experimental determination of the first OH. In general, the CCSD(T) values are in good agreement with experiment. The bonding changes from mostly covalent for the early metals to mostly electrostatic for the late transition metal systems.

  10. Calculation of Mg(+)-ligand relative binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The calculated relative binding energies of 16 organic molecules to Mg(+) are compared with experimental results where available. The geometries of the ligands and the Mg(+)-ligand complexes arc optimized at the self-consistent field level using a 6-31G* basis set. The Mg(+) binding energies are evaluated using second-order perturbation theory and basis sets of triple-sigma quality augmented with two sets of polarization functions. This level of theory is calibrated against higher levels of theory for selected systems. The computed binding energies are accurate to about 2 kcal/mol.

  11. Three dimensional calculation of flux of low energy atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H.; Bludman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation of low energy flux of atmospheric neutrinos are presented and compared with earlier one-dimensional calculations 1,2 valid at higher neutrino energies. These low energy neutrinos are the atmospheric background in searching for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Primary cosmic rays produce the neutrino flux peaking at near E sub=40 MeV and neutrino intensity peaking near E sub v=100 MeV. Because such neutrinos typically deviate by 20 approximately 30 from the primary cosmic ray direction, three-dimensional effects are important for the search of atmospheric neutrinos. Nevertheless, the background of these atmospheric neutrinos is negligible for the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos.

  12. Neutron energy spectrum adjustment using deposited metal films on Teflon in the miniature neutron source reactor.

    PubMed

    Nassan, L; Abdallah, B; Omar, H; Sarheel, A; Alsomel, N; Ghazi, N

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article was on the experimental estimation of the neutron energy spectrum in the inner irradiation site of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR), using, for the first time, a selected set of deposited metal films on Teflon (DMFTs) neutron detectors. Gold, copper, zinc, titanium, aluminum, nickel, silver, and chromium were selected because of the dependence of their neutron cross-sections on neutron energy. Emphasis was placed on the usability of this new type of neutron detectors in the total neutron energy spectrum adjustment. The measured saturation activities per target nucleus values of the DMFTs, and the calculated neutron spectrum in the inner irradiation site using the MCNP-4C code were used as an input for the STAY'SL computer code during the adjustment procedure. The agreement between the numerically calculated and experimentally adjusted spectra results was discussed. PMID:26562448

  13. Energy deposited in the high luminosity inner triplets of the LHC by collision debris

    SciTech Connect

    Wildner, E.; Broggi, F.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Hoa, C.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Mokhov, N.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The 14 TeV center of mass proton-proton collisions in the LHC produce not only debris interesting for physics but also showers of particles ending up in the accelerator equipment, in particular in the superconducting magnet coils. Evaluations of this contribution to the heat, that has to be transported by the cryogenic system, have been made to guarantee that the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets does not exceed limits for magnet quenching and the capacity of the cryogenic system. The models of the LHC base-line are detailed and include description of, for energy deposition, essential elements like beam-pipes and corrector magnets. The evaluations made using the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA are compared to previous studies using MARS. For the consolidation of the calculations, a dedicated comparative study of these two codes was performed for a reduced setup.

  14. Composite electron propagator methods for calculating ionization energies.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V

    2016-06-14

    Accurate ionization energies of molecules may be determined efficiently with composite electron-propagator (CEP) techniques. These methods estimate the results of a calculation with an advanced correlation method and a large basis set by performing a series of more tractable calculations in which large basis sets are used with simpler approximations and small basis sets are paired with more demanding correlation techniques. The performance of several CEP methods, in which diagonal, second-order electron propagator results with large basis sets are combined with higher-order results obtained with smaller basis sets, has been tested for the ionization energies of closed-shell molecules from the G2 set. Useful compromises of accuracy and computational efficiency employ complete-basis-set extrapolation for second-order results and small basis sets in third-order, partial third-order, renormalized partial-third order, or outer valence Green's function calculations. Analysis of results for vertical as well as adiabatic ionization energies leads to specific recommendations on the best use of regular and composite methods. Results for 22 organic molecules of interest in the design of photovoltaic devices, benzo[a]pyrene, Mg-octaethylporphyrin, and C60 illustrate the capabilities of CEP methods for calculations on large molecules. PMID:27305999

  15. Composite electron propagator methods for calculating ionization energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Tinoco, Manuel; Dolgounitcheva, O.; Zakrzewski, V. G.; Ortiz, J. V.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ionization energies of molecules may be determined efficiently with composite electron-propagator (CEP) techniques. These methods estimate the results of a calculation with an advanced correlation method and a large basis set by performing a series of more tractable calculations in which large basis sets are used with simpler approximations and small basis sets are paired with more demanding correlation techniques. The performance of several CEP methods, in which diagonal, second-order electron propagator results with large basis sets are combined with higher-order results obtained with smaller basis sets, has been tested for the ionization energies of closed-shell molecules from the G2 set. Useful compromises of accuracy and computational efficiency employ complete-basis-set extrapolation for second-order results and small basis sets in third-order, partial third-order, renormalized partial-third order, or outer valence Green's function calculations. Analysis of results for vertical as well as adiabatic ionization energies leads to specific recommendations on the best use of regular and composite methods. Results for 22 organic molecules of interest in the design of photovoltaic devices, benzo[a]pyrene, Mg-octaethylporphyrin, and C60 illustrate the capabilities of CEP methods for calculations on large molecules.

  16. Calculating Free Energy Changes in Continuum Solvation Models.

    PubMed

    Ho, Junming; Ertem, Mehmed Z

    2016-02-25

    We recently showed for a large data set of pKas and reduction potentials that free energies calculated directly within the SMD continuum model compares very well with corresponding thermodynamic cycle calculations in both aqueous and organic solvents [ Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 17 , 2859 ]. In this paper, we significantly expand the scope of our study to examine the suitability of this approach for calculating general solution phase kinetics and thermodynamics, in conjunction with several commonly used solvation models (SMD-M062X, SMD-HF, CPCM-UAKS, and CPCM-UAHF) for a broad range of systems. This includes cluster-continuum schemes for pKa calculations as well as various neutral, radical, and ionic reactions such as enolization, cycloaddition, hydrogen and chlorine atom transfer, and SN2 and E2 reactions. On the basis of this benchmarking study, we conclude that the accuracies of both approaches are generally very similar-the mean errors for Gibbs free energy changes of neutral and ionic reactions are approximately 5 and 25 kJ mol(-1), respectively. In systems where there are significant structural changes due to solvation, as is the case for certain ionic transition states and amino acids, the direct approach generally afford free energy changes that are in better agreement with experiment. PMID:26878566

  17. REFLEX: An energy deposition code that models the effects of electron reflection during electron beam heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.A. IV; Croessmann, C.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an energy coupling model that considers electron reflection losses during electron beam heating experiments. This model is embodied on the REFLEX computer code, written in standard FORTRAN 77. REFLEX currently models energy deposition phenomena in three different sample geometries. These configurations include flat, cylindrical shell, and hemispherical shell surfaces. Given the electron beam operating parameters, REFLEX calculates the heat flux profile over a sample's surface, the total amount of energy deposited into a sample, and the percentage of the electron beam energy that is transferred to a sample. This document describes the energy deposition equations used in the REFLEX code; the program is described and detailed instructions are given regarding the input. Results are given for each geometry and possible experimental applications are presented. 3 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Energy deposition model based on electron scattering cross section data from water molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, A.; Oiler, J. C.; Blanco, F.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Maira-Vidal, A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Tengblad, O.; Huerga, C.; Téllez, M.; García, G.

    2008-10-01

    A complete set of electrons scattering cross sections by water molecules over a broad energy range, from the me V to the Me V ranges, is presented in this study. These data have been obtained by combining experiments and calculations and cover most relevant processes, both elastic and inelastic, which can take place in the considered energy range. A new Monte Carlo simulation programme has been developed using as input parameter these cross sectional data as well as experimental energy loss spectra. The simulation procedure has been applied to obtain electron tracks and energy deposition plots in water when irradiated by a Ru-106 plaque as those used for brachyteraphy of ocular tumours. Finally, the low energy electron tracks provided by the present model have been compared with those obtained with other codes available in the literature

  19. Detailed modeling of microwave energy deposition in EBT devices

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Goldfinger, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    Ray-tracing studies have been combined with a simple wave power balance model to provide a complete, albeit approximate, description of microwave power deposition in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT-I), EBT-Scale (EBT-S), and EBT Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) devices. Electron cyclotron absorption of ordinary and extraordinary waves by the combined core plasma and relativistic annuli is calculated using a fully relativistic damping package developed for the RAYS geometrical optics code. The rays are traced in finite-beta bumpy cylinder plasma equilibria that are obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium code. These results for direct, single-pass absorption are combined with results from a statistical model for the deposition of multiply reflected and mode-converted waves to obtain estimates of the power deposited in the core, surface, and annulus plasma components. Wave absorption by the annuli and by the core components at the fundamental and second harmonic resonances, reflection and Budden tunneling of the extraordinary mode at the right-hand cutoff, and conversion between ordinary and extraordinary modes upon wall reflection are the processes included in the power balance model. Experimental measurements of wave power flux on the cavity wall in EBT-S made with a simple microwave calorimeter are in good agreement with predictions of the model for a variety of operating configurations.

  20. Binding Energy Calculations for Novel Ternary Ionic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Mijangos, Ricardo; Vazquez-Polo, Gustavo

    2002-03-01

    Theoretical calculations for the binding energy between metalic ions and negative ions on a novel ternary ionic lattice is carried out for several solid solutions prepared with different concentrations and characterized recently (1). The ternary lattices that reach a good miscibility are: KCl(x)KBr(y)RbCl(z) in three different concentrations: (x=y=z=0.33), (x=0.5, y=0.25, z=0.25) and (x=0.33, y=0.07, z=0.60). The binding energy for these novel structures is calculated from the lattice constants obtained by X ray diffractometry analysis performed on the samples and the Vegard law (2). For the repulsive force exponent m, an average of the m values was considered. The energy values obtained by the Born´expression are compared with corresponding energy values from the lattice with more complex expressions, such as the Born Mayer, Born-Van der Walls. There is a good aggreement between all these calculations. (1)R. R. Mijangos, A. Cordero-Borboa, E. Alvarez, M. Cervantes, Physics Letters A 282 (2001) 195-200. (2) G. Vazquez-Polo, R. R. Mijangos et al. Revista Mexicana de Fisica, 47, Diciembre 2001. In Press.

  1. Ultrasonic energy in liposome production: process modelling and size calculation.

    PubMed

    Barba, A A; Bochicchio, S; Lamberti, G; Dalmoro, A

    2014-04-21

    The use of liposomes in several fields of biotechnology, as well as in pharmaceutical and food sciences is continuously increasing. Liposomes can be used as carriers for drugs and other active molecules. Among other characteristics, one of the main features relevant to their target applications is the liposome size. The size of liposomes, which is determined during the production process, decreases due to the addition of energy. The energy is used to break the lipid bilayer into smaller pieces, then these pieces close themselves in spherical structures. In this work, the mechanisms of rupture of the lipid bilayer and the formation of spheres were modelled, accounting for how the energy, supplied by ultrasonic radiation, is stored within the layers, as the elastic energy due to the curvature and as the tension energy due to the edge, and to account for the kinetics of the bending phenomenon. An algorithm to solve the model equations was designed and the relative calculation code was written. A dedicated preparation protocol, which involves active periods during which the energy is supplied and passive periods during which the energy supply is set to zero, was defined and applied. The model predictions compare well with the experimental results, by using the energy supply rate and the time constant as fitting parameters. Working with liposomes of different sizes as the starting point of the experiments, the key parameter is the ratio between the energy supply rate and the initial surface area. PMID:24647821

  2. A Calculation of Spatial Range of Colloidal Silicic Acid Deposited Downstream from the Alkali Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niibori, Yuichi; Iijima, Kazuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi

    A high alkali domain spreads out due to the use of cement materials for the construction of the repository of radioactive wastes. Sudden change of pH at this alkali front produces colloidal silicic acid (polymeric silicic acid) in addition to the deposition of supersaturated monomeric silicic acid onto the fracture surface of flow-pathway. The colloidal silicic acid also deposits with relatively small rate-constant in the co-presence of solid phase. Once the flow-path surface is covered with the amorphous silica, the surface seriously degrades the sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs). Therefore, so far, the authors have examined the deposition rates of supersaturated silicic acid. This study summarized the deposition rate-constants defined by the first-order reaction equation under various conditions of co-presence of amorphous silica powder. Then, using the smallest rate-constant (1.0×10-12 m/s in the co-presence of calcium ions of 1 mM) and a simulation code, COLFRAC-MRL, the spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front was estimated. The results suggested the clogging caused by the deposition of colloidal silicic acid in flow-path. The altered spatial range in the flow-path was limited to around 30 m in fracture and to several centimeters in rock matrix.

  3. Self-consistent calculations of alpha-decay energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2013-06-15

    On the basis of the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems, the energies of alphadecay chains were calculated for several new superheavy nuclei discovered recently in experiments of the Dubna-Livermore Collaboration headed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian. The approach in question is implemented on the basis of the generalized method of the density functional proposed by Fayans and his coauthors. The version used here relies on the functional DF3-a proposed recently for describing a wide array of nuclear data, including data on superheavy nuclei. A detailed comparison of the results obtained on this basis with the predictions of different approaches, including the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method, the micro-macro method in the version developed by Sobiczewski and his coauthors, and the phenomenological method of Liran and his coauthors, is performed. The resulting alpha-decay energies are used to calculate respective lifetimes with the aid of the phenomenological Parkhomenko-Sobiczewski formula.

  4. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations.

    PubMed

    Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt; Jónsson, Hannes

    2014-06-01

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used. PMID:24907989

  5. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt

    2014-06-07

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.

  6. Calculating Free Energies Using Scaled-Force Molecular Dynamics Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darve, Eric; Wilson, Micahel A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    One common objective of molecular simulations in chemistry and biology is to calculate the free energy difference between different states of the system of interest. Examples of problems that have such an objective are calculations of receptor-ligand or protein-drug interactions, associations of molecules in response to hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions or partition of molecules between immiscible liquids. Another common objective is to describe evolution of the system towards a low energy (possibly the global minimum energy), 'native' state. Perhaps the best example of such a problem is folding of proteins or short RNA molecules. Both types of problems share the same difficulty. Often, different states of the system are separated by high energy barriers, which implies that transitions between these states are rare events. This, in turn, can greatly impede exploration of phase space. In some instances this can lead to 'quasi non-ergodicity', whereby a part of phase space is inaccessible on timescales of the simulation. A host of strategies has been developed to improve efficiency of sampling the phase space. For example, some Monte Carlo techniques involve large steps which move the system between low-energy regions in phase space without the need for sampling the configurations corresponding to energy barriers (J-walking). Most strategies, however, rely on modifying probabilities of sampling low and high-energy regions in phase space such that transitions between states of interest are encouraged. Perhaps the simplest implementation of this strategy is to increase the temperature of the system. This approach was successfully used to identify denaturation pathways in several proteins, but it is clearly not applicable to protein folding. It is also not a successful method for determining free energy differences. Finally, the approach is likely to fail for systems with co-existing phases, such as water-membrane systems, because it may lead to spontaneous

  7. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  8. An energy transfer method for 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation

    PubMed Central

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Zhong, Hualiang

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new method for four-dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculations which properly addresses dose mapping for deforming anatomy. The method, called the energy transfer method (ETM), separates the particle transport and particle scoring geometries: Particle transport takes place in the typical rectilinear coordinate system of the source image, while energy deposition scoring takes place in a desired reference image via use of deformable image registration. Dose is the energy deposited per unit mass in the reference image. ETM has been implemented into DOSXYZnrc and compared with a conventional dose interpolation method (DIM) on deformable phantoms. For voxels whose contents merge in the deforming phantom, the doses calculated by ETM are exactly the same as an analytical solution, contrasting to the DIM which has an average 1.1% dose discrepancy in the beam direction with a maximum error of 24.9% found in the penumbra of a 6 MV beam. The DIM error observed persists even if voxel subdivision is used. The ETM is computationally efficient and will be useful for 4D dose addition and benchmarking alternative 4D dose addition algorithms. PMID:18841862

  9. An energy transfer method for 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Jeffrey V; Zhong, Hualiang

    2008-09-01

    This article presents a new method for four-dimensional Monte Carlo dose calculations which properly addresses dose mapping for deforming anatomy. The method, called the energy transfer method (ETM), separates the particle transport and particle scoring geometries: Particle transport takes place in the typical rectilinear coordinate system of the source image, while energy deposition scoring takes place in a desired reference image via use of deformable image registration. Dose is the energy deposited per unit mass in the reference image. ETM has been implemented into DOSXYZnrc and compared with a conventional dose interpolation method (DIM) on deformable phantoms. For voxels whose contents merge in the deforming phantom, the doses calculated by ETM are exactly the same as an analytical solution, contrasting to the DIM which has an average 1.1% dose discrepancy in the beam direction with a maximum error of 24.9% found in the penumbra of a 6 MV beam. The DIM error observed persists even if voxel subdivision is used. The ETM is computationally efficient and will be useful for 4D dose addition and benchmarking alternative 4D dose addition algorithms. PMID:18841862

  10. Free energy calculations for a flexible water model.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

    2011-11-28

    In this work, we consider the problem of calculating the classical free energies of liquids and solids for molecular models with intramolecular flexibility. We show that thermodynamic integration from the fully-interacting solid of interest to a Debye crystal reference state, with anisotropic harmonic interactions derived from the Hessian of the original crystal, provides a straightforward route to calculating the Gibbs free energy of the solid. To calculate the molecular liquid free energy, it is essential to correctly account for contributions from both intermolecular and intramolecular motion; we employ thermodynamic integration to a Lennard-Jones reference fluid, coupled with direct evaluation of the molecular ro-vibrational partition function. These approaches are used to study the low-pressure classical phase diagram of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model. We find that, while the experimental ice-I/liquid and ice-III/liquid coexistence lines are described reasonably well by this model, the ice-II phase is predicted to be metastable. In light of this finding, we go on to examine how the coupling between intramolecular flexibility and intermolecular interactions influences the computed phase diagram by comparing our results with those of the underlying rigid-body water model. PMID:21887423

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    PubMed

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting. PMID:27246652

  12. Free energy calculation of permeation through aquaporin-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, David

    The work of this paper continues upon the large area of research being done on aquaporins (AQPs). AQPs are proteins that take on the role of facilitating the transfer of substances, mainly water, across cell membranes. There are many different types of AQPs, with each of these highly selective proteins conducting only certain solutes, along with unique permeability rates. The permeation characteristics of aquaporins rely mostly on the residue hydrophobicity and steric restraints of the aromatic arginine (ar/R) region of the protein channel. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structures of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) and aquaglycerolporin (Glpf), including a radius profile of the respective protein channels, and to compare them to permeation events using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) pulling simulations. Two in silico experiments are performed in order to achieve the free Energy landscape of a single water molecule permeating through the four channels of both Aqp5 and GlpF. The equilibrium free energy curves are calculated from the non-equilibrium, irreversible work measurements using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) of Brownian dynamicis (BD). The free energy profiles are then compared and related to the structural profiles of AQP5 and GlpF. The change in free energy across the ar/R region in AQP5 is found to be reasonably larger than that of GlpF. The free energy profiles of AQP5 and GlpF agree with the diameter profile of the channels respectively. Furthermore, free energy calculations are computed for the permeation of Na+ and Cl- ions through the central pore of Aqp5, which provide some insight into the structural mechanisms of AQP5. The free energy barrier for ion transport through the central pore is found to be very large, peaking at around 11 Kcal/mol for chloride and 20 Kcal/mol for sodium.

  13. Dayside pickup oxygen ion precipitation at Venus and Mars - Spatial distributions, energy deposition and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Kozyra, J. U.

    1991-04-01

    The fluxes and energy spectra of picked-up planetary O(+) ions incident on the dayside atmospheres of Venus and Mars are calculated. Maps of precipitating ion number flux and energy flux are presented which show the asymmetrical distribution of dayside energy deposition expected from this source. Although the associated heating of the atmosphere and ionosphere is found to be negligible compared to that from the usual sources, backscattered or sputtered neutral oxygen atoms are produced at energies which exceed that needed for escape from the gravitational fields of both planets. These neutral 'winds', driven by pickup ion precipitation, represent a possibly significant loss of atmospheric constituents over the age of the solar system.

  14. Validation of back-calculated body lengths and timing of growth mark deposition in Hawaiian green sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Goshe, Lisa R; Snover, Melissa L; Hohn, Aleta A; Balazs, George H

    2016-05-01

    Somatic growth rate data for wild sea turtles can provide insight into life-stage durations, time to maturation, and total lifespan. When appropriately validated, the technique of skeletochronology allows prior growth rates of sea turtles to be calculated with considerably less time and labor than required by mark--recapture studies. We applied skeletochronology to 10 dead, stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas that had previously been measured, tagged, and injected with OTC (oxytetracycline) during mark-recapture studies in Hawaii for validating skeletochronological analysis. We tested the validity of back-calculating carapace lengths (CLs) from diameters of LAGs (lines of arrested growth), which mark the outer boundaries of individual skeletal growth increments. This validation was achieved by comparing CLs estimated from measurements of the LAG proposed to have been deposited closest to the time of tagging to actual CLs measured at the time of tagging. Measureable OTC-mark diameters in five turtles also allowed us to investigate the time of year when LAGs are deposited. We found no significant difference between CLs measured at tagging and those estimated through skeletochronology, which supports calculation of somatic growth rates by taking the difference between CLs estimated from successive LAG diameters in humerus bones for this species. Back-calculated CLs associated with the OTC mark and growth mark deposited closest to tagging indicated that annual LAGs are deposited in the spring. The results of this validation study increase confidence in utilization of skeletochronology to rapidly obtain accurate age and growth data for green turtles. PMID:27096079

  15. Effects of depositional facies and diagenesis on calculating petrophysical properties for wireline logs in Permian carbonate reservoirs of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H.; Major, R.P. )

    1994-03-01

    The complex interplay between depositional facies and diagenesis in carbonate rocks presents numerous problems for calculating petrophysical properties from wireline logs. If carbonate reservoirs are divided into flow units of similar depositional and diagenetic textures, empirical equations that apply specifically to that geologically identified flow unit can be developed to accurately measure porosity and water saturation. In Guadalupian and Leonardian reservoirs, carbonate mudstones deposited in subtidal marine settings are predominantly dolomite, although they contain some shale. The shale in these rocks can be detected with gamma-ray logs and empirical equations for calculation of porosity from log must include a gamma-ray component to compensate for the presence of shale. Because porosity in these rocks is dominantly intercrystalline, capillary pressure characteristics are predictable and saturations can be calculated with the Archie equation. Subtidal carbonate packstones and grainstones are composed of dolomite, anhydrite, and gypsum. The matrix acoustic transit times of these three minerals are similar, and acoustic logs are the best tool for measuring porosity. Neutron logs are the least accurate porosity tools if gypsum is present. Photo-electric density logs can distinguish gypsum from anhydrite. Because porosity in these rocks is dominantly interparticle and/or moldic, dual porosity cementation exponent corrections are needed to calculate saturations with the Archie equation, and capillary pressure saturation relationships are variable. Carbonates deposited in tidal-flat environments are generally composed of dolomite, sulfate minerals, and quartz silt, requiring a full suite of open-hole logs to make reliable porosity measurements. Diagenesis influences reservoir mineralogy and pore types. A common style of burial diagenesis in Guadalupian and Leonardian reservoirs is hydration of anhydrite to gypsum and leaching of sulfate cement and dolomite matrix.

  16. Characteristic properties of the Casimir free energy for metal films deposited on metallic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Casimir free energy and pressure of thin metal films deposited on metallic plates are considered using the Lifshitz theory and the Drude and plasma model approaches to the role of conduction electrons. The bound electrons are taken into account by using the complete optical data of film and plate metals. It is shown that for films of several tens of nanometers thickness the Casimir free energy and pressure calculated using these approaches differ by hundreds and thousands percent and can be easily discriminated experimentally. According to our results, the free energy of a metal film does not vanish in the limiting case of ideal metal if the Drude model approach is used in contradiction with the fact that the fluctuating field cannot penetrate in its interior. Numerical computations of the Casimir free energy and pressure of Ag and Au films deposited on Cu and Al plates have been performed using both theoretical approaches. It is shown that the free energy of a film can be both negative and positive depending on the metals used. For a Au film on a Ag plate and vice versa the Casimir energy of a film changes its sign with increasing film thickness. Applications of the obtained results for resolving the Casimir puzzle and the problem of stability of thin films are discussed.

  17. Comparisons of Solar Wind Coupling Parameters with Auroral Energy Deposition Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsen, R.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Germany G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the global rate of energy deposition in the ionosphere via auroral particle precipitation is one of the primary goals of the Polar UVI program and is an important component of the ISTP program. The instantaneous rate of energy deposition for the entire month of January 1997 has been calculated by applying models to the UVI images and is presented by Fillingim et al. In this session. A number of parameters that predict the rate of coupling of solar wind energy into the magnetosphere have been proposed in the last few decades. Some of these parameters, such as the epsilon parameter of Perrault and Akasofu, depend on the instantaneous values in the solar wind. Other parameters depend on the integrated values of solar wind parameters, especially IMF Bz, e.g. applied flux which predicts the net transfer of magnetic flux to the tail. While these parameters have often been used successfully with substorm studies, their validity in terms of global energy input has not yet been ascertained, largely because data such as that supplied by the ISTP program was lacking. We have calculated these and other energy coupling parameters for January 1997 using solar wind data provided by WIND and other solar wind monitors. The rates of energy input predicted by these parameters are compared to those measured through UVI data and correlations are sought. Whether these parameters are better at providing an instantaneous rate of energy input or an average input over some time period is addressed. We also study if either type of parameter may provide better correlations if a time delay is introduced; if so, this time delay may provide a characteristic time for energy transport in the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system.

  18. Analysis of uncertainties in CRAC2 calculations: wet deposition and plume rise

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.C.; Kocher, D.C.; Hicks, B.B.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.; Ku, J.Y.; Rao, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the sensitivity of results from the CRAC2 computer code, which predicts health impacts from a reactor-accident scenario, to uncertainties in selected meteorological models and parameters. The sources of uncertainty examined include the models for plume rise and wet deposition and the meteorological bin-sampling procedure. An alternative plume-rise model usually had little effect on predicted health impacts. In an alternative wet-deposition model, the scavenging rate depends only on storm type, rather than on rainfall rate and atmospheric stability class as in the CRAC2 model. Use of the alternative wet-deposition model in meteorological bin-sampling runs decreased predicted mean early injuries by as much as a factor of 2 to 3 and, for large release heights and sensible heat rates, decreased mean early fatalities by nearly an order of magnitude. The bin-sampling procedure in CRAC2 was expanded by dividing each rain bin into four bins that depend on rainfall rate. Use of the modified bin structure in conjunction with the CRAC2 wet-deposition model changed all predicted health impacts by less than a factor of 2. 9 references.

  19. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF TOXIC METALS TO LAKE MICHIGAN: PRELIMINARY ANNUAL MODEL CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern is growing for the environmental water quality of the Great Lakes. tmospheric deposition of toxic substances is recognized as a major pathway of contaminants to the water medium. o estimate the annual atmospheric loadings of five toxic metals -- arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd)...

  20. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  1. Hot-Jupiter Inflation due to Deep Energy Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2015-04-01

    Some extrasolar giant planets in close orbits—“hot Jupiters”—exhibit larger radii than that of a passively cooling planet. The extreme irradiation {{L}eq} these hot Jupiters receive from their close in stars creates a thick isothermal layer in their envelopes, which slows down their convective cooling, allowing them to retain their inflated size for longer. This is still insufficient to explain the observed sizes of the most inflated planets. Some models invoke an additional power source, deposited deep in the planet's envelope. Here, we present an analytical model for the cooling of such irradiated and internally heated gas giants. We show that a power source {{L}dep}, deposited at an optical depth {{τ }dep}, creates an exterior convective region, between optical depths {{L}eq}/{{L}dep} and {{τ }dep}, beyond which a thicker isothermal layer exists, which in extreme cases may extend to the center of the planet. This convective layer, which occurs only for {{L}dep}{{τ }dep}\\gt {{L}eq}, further delays the cooling of the planet. Such a planet is equivalent to a planet irradiated with {{L}eq}{{(1+{{L}dep}{{τ }dep}/{{L}eq})}β }, where β ≈ 0.35 is an effective power-law index describing the radiative energy density as a function of the optical depth for a convective planet U\\propto {{τ }β }. Our simple analytical model reproduces the main trends found in previous numerical works and provides an intuitive understanding. We derive scaling laws for the cooling rate of the planet, its central temperature, and radius. These scaling laws can be used to estimate the effects of tidal or Ohmic dissipation, wind shocks, or any other mechanism involving energy deposition on the sizes of hot Jupiters.

  2. Hot-electron energy deposition around unsupported laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eidmann, K.; Maaswinkel, A.; Sigel, R.; Witkowski, S.; Amiranoff, F.; Fabbro, R.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    Free-falling spheres, released by a simple mechanism, are used as laser targets. Hot-electron energy transport upon one-sided irradiation with 300-ps iodine laser pulses (6 x 10/sup 15/ W cm/sup -2/) is studied by various methods, including x-ray pinhole photography and time-resolved shadowgraphy. Spatial energy deposition is consistent with hot-electron spreading in the presence of self-generated magnetic fields, as suggested by recent experiments and simulations. The insensitivity of the results to the presence of a supporting stalk is attributed to inductive decoupling of the target. Free-falling targets open the possibility of highly symmetric implosion experiments.

  3. Energy deposition of corpuscular radiation in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudela, K.

    1989-01-01

    Main components of corpuscular radiation contributing to energy deposition (ED in eV/cu cm/s) in the atmosphere (10 to 100 km) are cosmic ray nuclei (CR - galactic and solar) and high energy electrons (HEE), mainly of magnetospheric origin. Galactic CR depending on solar cycle phase and latitude are dominant source of ED by corpuscular radiation below 50 to 60 km. Below 20 km secondaries must be assumed. More accurate treatment need assuming of individual HE solar flare particles, cut off rigidities in geomagnetic field and their changes during magnetospheric disturbances. Electrons E sub e greater than 30 keV of magnetospheric origin penetrating to atmosphere contribute to production rate below 100 km especially on night side. High temporal variability, local time dependence and complicated energy spectra lead to complicated structure of electron ED rate. Electrons of MeV energy found at geostationary orbit, pronouncing relation to solar and geomagnetic activity, cause maximum ED at 40 to 60 km. Monitoring the global distribution of ED by corpuscular radiation in middle atmosphere need continuing low altitude satellite measurements of both HEE and x ray BS from atmosphere as well as measurements of energy spectra and charge composition of HE solar flare particles.

  4. Variational calculations of the HT{sup +} rovibrational energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bekbaev, A. K.; Korobov, V. I.; Dineykhan, M.

    2011-04-15

    In this Brief Report, we use the exponential explicitly correlated variational basis set of the type exp(-{alpha}{sub n}R-{beta}{sub n}r{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub n}r{sub 2}) to calculate systematically the nonrelativistic bound-state energies for the hydrogen molecular ion HT{sup +}. We perform calculations for the states of the total orbital angular momentum L=0 and 1 with the complete set of vibrational quantum numbers v= 0-23, as well as for the states of L= 2-5 and v= 0-5. The E1 dipole transition moments, which are of importance for the planning of spectroscopic laser experiments, have been obtained as well.

  5. SCALE Continuous-Energy Eigenvalue Sensitivity Coefficient Calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perfetti, Christopher M.; Rearden, Bradley T.; Martin, William R.

    2016-02-25

    Sensitivity coefficients describe the fractional change in a system response that is induced by changes to system parameters and nuclear data. The Tools for Sensitivity and UNcertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation (TSUNAMI) code within the SCALE code system makes use of eigenvalue sensitivity coefficients for an extensive number of criticality safety applications, including quantifying the data-induced uncertainty in the eigenvalue of critical systems, assessing the neutronic similarity between different critical systems, and guiding nuclear data adjustment studies. The need to model geometrically complex systems with improved fidelity and the desire to extend TSUNAMI analysis to advanced applications has motivated the developmentmore » of a methodology for calculating sensitivity coefficients in continuous-energy (CE) Monte Carlo applications. The Contributon-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Tracklength importance CHaracterization (CLUTCH) and Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) eigenvalue sensitivity methods were recently implemented in the CE-KENO framework of the SCALE code system to enable TSUNAMI-3D to perform eigenvalue sensitivity calculations using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. This work provides a detailed description of the theory behind the CLUTCH method and describes in detail its implementation. This work explores the improvements in eigenvalue sensitivity coefficient accuracy that can be gained through the use of continuous-energy sensitivity methods and also compares several sensitivity methods in terms of computational efficiency and memory requirements.« less

  6. Prediction of Protein Solubility from Calculation of Transfer Free Energy

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Solubility plays a major role in protein purification, and has serious implications in many diseases. We studied the effects of pH and mutations on protein solubility by calculating the transfer free energy from the condensed phase to the solution phase. The condensed phase was modeled as an implicit solvent, with a dielectric constant lower than that of water. To account for the effects of pH, the protonation states of titratable side chains were sampled by running constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations. Conformations were then selected for calculations of the electrostatic solvation energy: once for the condensed phase, and once for the solution phase. The average transfer free energy from the condensed phase to the solution phase was found to predict reasonably well the variations in solubility of ribonuclease Sa and insulin with pH. This treatment of electrostatic contributions combined with a similar approach for nonelectrostatic contributions led to a quantitative rationalization of the effects of point mutations on the solubility of ribonuclease Sa. This study provides valuable insights into the physical basis of protein solubility. PMID:18515380

  7. Exploiting the Properties of Aquaporin to Calculate Free Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejel, Hugo; Chen, Liao

    2010-03-01

    Aquaporins' (AQPs) main purpose is to facilitate the transfer of water molecules through a molecular membrane. We can calculate the free energy of the AQP system when water permeates through it. This is performed using the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) and the Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics (NAMD) programs. In our first set of experiments, AQP is submerged in a body of water, in which case a water molecule near AQP is pulled through the protein. The data is then used to calculate the free energy using two different equations: the Jarzynski equality and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The values from both equations are then compared to examine their accuracy. The second set of experiments has the same set up, but now AQP is embedded in a lipid bilayer. We found that both equations give values that are much smaller than kT. This verifies that AQP is a channel for water molecules because the pulling of water gives constant values of free energy. We also found that the water molecules' negative poles were all pointing towards the center of the AQP channel. This means that the process of proton transport in AQP is overwhelmingly difficult.

  8. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  9. Parquet decomposition calculations of the electronic self-energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schäfer, T.; LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Merino, J.; Sangiovanni, G.; Rohringer, G.; Toschi, A.

    2016-06-01

    The parquet decomposition of the self-energy into classes of diagrams, those associated with specific scattering processes, can be exploited for different scopes. In this work, the parquet decomposition is used to unravel the underlying physics of nonperturbative numerical calculations. We show the specific example of dynamical mean field theory and its cluster extensions [dynamical cluster approximation (DCA)] applied to the Hubbard model at half-filling and with hole doping: These techniques allow for a simultaneous determination of two-particle vertex functions and self-energies and, hence, for an essentially "exact" parquet decomposition at the single-site or at the cluster level. Our calculations show that the self-energies in the underdoped regime are dominated by spin-scattering processes, consistent with the conclusions obtained by means of the fluctuation diagnostics approach [O. Gunnarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 236402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.236402]. However, differently from the latter approach, the parquet procedure displays important changes with increasing interaction: Even for relatively moderate couplings, well before the Mott transition, singularities appear in different terms, with the notable exception of the predominant spin channel. We explain precisely how these singularities, which partly limit the utility of the parquet decomposition and, more generally, of parquet-based algorithms, are never found in the fluctuation diagnostics procedure. Finally, by a more refined analysis, we link the occurrence of the parquet singularities in our calculations to a progressive suppression of charge fluctuations and the formation of a resonance valence bond state, which are typical hallmarks of a pseudogap state in DCA.

  10. Investigation of Multipole Electrostatics in Hydration Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yue; Wu, Chuanjie; Ponder, Jay W.; Ren, Pengyu

    2010-01-01

    Hydration free energy (HFE) is generally used for evaluating molecular solubility, which is an important property for pharmaceutical and chemical engineering processes. Accurately predicting HFE is also recognized as one fundamental capability of molecular mechanics force field. Here we present a systematic investigation on HFE calculations with AMOEBA polarizable force field at various parameterization and simulation conditions. The HFEs of seven small organic molecules have been obtained alchemically using the Bennett Acceptance Ratio (BAR) method. We have compared two approaches to derive the atomic multipoles from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations: one directly from the new distributed multipole analysis (DMA) and the other involving fitting to the electrostatic potential around the molecules. Wave functions solved at the MP2 level with four basis sets (6-311G*, 6-311++G(2d,2p), cc-pVTZ, and aug-cc-pVTZ) are used to derive the atomic multipoles. HFEs from all four basis sets show a reasonable agreement with experimental data (root mean square error 0.63 kcal/mol for aug-ccpVTZ). We conclude that aug-cc-pVTZ gives the best performance when used with AMOEBA, and 6-311++G(2d,2p) is comparable but more efficient for larger systems. The results suggest that the inclusion of diffuse basis functions is important for capturing intermolecular interactions. The effect of long-range correction to van der Waals interaction on the hydration free energies is about 0.1 kcal/mol when the cutoff is 12Å, and increases linearly with the number of atoms in the solute/ligand. In addition, we also discussed the results from a hybrid approach that combines polarizable solute with fixed-charge water in the hydration free energy calculation. PMID:20925089

  11. Empirically corrected HEAT method for calculating atomization energies

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, Holmann V

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to increase the accuracy ofthe most recent variants ofthe HEAT method for calculating atomization energies of molecules by means ofextremely simple empirical corrections that depend on stoichiometry and the number ofunpaired electrons in the molecule. Our corrections reduce the deviation from experiment for all the HEAT variants. In particular, our corrections reduce the average absolute deviation and the root-mean-square deviation ofthe 456-QP variant to 0.18 and 0.23 kJoule/mol (i.e., 0.04 and 0.05 kcallmol), respectively.

  12. Multiple scattering calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, K.; Rehr, J. J.; Verbeeck, J.

    2010-04-01

    A generalization of the real-space Green’s-function approach is presented for ab initio calculations of relativistic electron energy loss spectra (EELS) which are particularly important in anisotropic materials. The approach incorporates relativistic effects in terms of the transition tensor within the dipole-selection rule. In particular, the method accounts for relativistic corrections to the magic angle in orientation resolved EELS experiments. The approach is validated by a study of the graphite CK edge, for which we present an accurate magic angle measurement consistent with the predicted value.

  13. Athermal Energy Loss from X-rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Films on Solid Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozorezov, Alexander G.; Lambert, Colin J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Sagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.

    2013-01-01

    When energy is deposited in a thin-film cryogenic detector, such as from the absorption of an X-ray, an important feature that determines the energy resolution is the amount of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the elementary excitation systems coming into thermal equilibrium. This form of energy loss will be position-dependent and therefore can limit the detector energy resolution. An understanding of the physical processes that occur when elementary excitations are generated in metal films on dielectric substrates is important for the design and optimization of a number of different types of low temperature detector. We have measured the total energy loss in one relatively simple geometry that allows us to study these processes and compare measurements with calculation based upon a model for the various di.erent processes. We have modeled the athermal phonon energy loss in this device by finding an evolving phonon distribution function that solves the system of kinetic equations for the interacting system of electrons and phonons. Using measurements of device parameters such as the Debye energy and the thermal di.usivity we have calculated the expected energy loss from this detector geometry, and also the position-dependent variation of this loss. We have also calculated the predicted impact on measured spectral line-shapes, and shown that they agree well with measurements. In addition, we have tested this model by using it to predict the performance of a number of other types of detector with di.erent geometries, where good agreement is also found.

  14. Model for analytical calculation of nuclear photoabsorption at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, M.-Th.; Milstein, A. I.; Schumacher, M.

    1997-02-01

    The universal curve {σ}/{A} of nuclear photoabsorption is investigated within a Fermi gas model of nuclear matter. An energy range from pion threshold up to 400 MeV is considered. The interactions between nucleon, pion, Δ-isobar and photon are considered in the non-relativistic approximation with corrections of the order {1}/{M} taken into account with respect to proton mass. Analytical expressions are obtained, in which the influence of nuclear correlations and two-nucleon contributions is studied explicitly. The contributions of real and virtual pions are found to be sufficient to obtain agreement with experimental data in this energy range. An extension of the model calculation to nucleon knock-out reactions is discussed.

  15. Modeling Planetary Atmospheric Energy Deposition By Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Christopher; Bougher, Stephen; Gronoff, Guillaume; Barthelemy, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    The structure, dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of planetary upper atmospheres are in large part determined by the available sources of energy. In addition to the solar EUV flux, the solar wind and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are also important sources. Both of these particle populations can significantly affect an atmosphere, causing atmospheric loss and driving chemical reactions. Attention has been paid to these sources from the standpoint of the radiation environment for humans and electronics, but little work has been done to evaluate their impact on planetary atmospheres. At unmagnetized planets or those with crustal field anomalies, in particular, the solar wind and SEPs of all energies have direct access to the atmosphere and so provide a more substantial energy source than at planets having protective global magnetic fields. Additionally, solar wind and energetic particle fluxes should be more significant for planets orbiting more active stars, such as is the case in the early history of the solar system for paleo-Venus and Mars. Therefore quantification of the atmospheric energy input from the solar wind and SEP events is an important component of our understanding of the processes that control their state and evolution. We have applied a full Lorentz motion particle transport model to study the effects of particle precipitation in the upper atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Such modeling has been previously done for Earth and Mars using a guiding center precipitation model. Currently, this code is only valid for particles with small gyroradii in strong uniform magnetic fields. There is a clear necessity for a Lorentz formulation, hence, a systematic study of the ionization, excitation, and energy deposition has been conducted, including a comparison of the influence relative to other energy sources (namely EUV photons). The result is a robust examination of the influence of energetic ion transport on the Venus and Mars upper atmosphere which

  16. Calculated photoelectron pitch angle and energy spectra. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantas, G. P.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Calculations of the steady-state photoelectron energy and angular distribution in the altitude region between 120 and 1000 km are presented. The distribution is found to be isotropic at all altitudes below 250 km, while above this altitude anisotropies in both pitch angle and energy are found. The isotropy found in the angular distribution below 250 km implies that photoelectron transport below 250 km is insignificant, while the angular anisotropy found above this altitude implies a net photoelectron current in the upward direction. The energy anisotropy above 500 km arises from the selective backscattering of the low energy photoelectron population of the upward flux component by Coulomb collisions with the ambient ions. The total photoelectron flux attains its maximum value between about 40 and 70 km above the altitude at which the photoelectron production rate is maximum. The displacement of the maximum of the equilibrium flux is attributed to an increasing (with altitude) photoelectron lifetime. Photoelectrons at altitudes above that where the flux is maximum are on the average more energetic than those below that altitude.

  17. Hypersonic Flow Control Using Upstream Focused Energy Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins David W.; Nelson, H. F.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical study of centerline and off-centerline power deposition at a point upstream of a two-dimensional blunt body at Mach 6.5 at 30 km altitude are presented. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used. Wave drag, lift, and pitching moment are presented as a function of amount of power absorbed in the flow and absorption point location. It is shown that wave drag is considerably reduced. Modifications to the pressure distribution in the flow field due to the injected energy create lift and a pitching moment when the injection is off-centerline. This flow control concept may lead to effective ways to improve the performance and to stabilize and control hypersonic vehicles.

  18. Enhancement of fast electron energy deposition by external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honrubia, J. J.; Murakami, M.; Mima, K.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, generation of external magnetic fields of a few kT has been reported [Fujioka et al. Scientific Reports 2013 3 1170]. These fields can be used in fast ignition to mitigate the large fast electron divergence. In this summary, two fast ignition applications are briefly outlined. The first one deals with electron guiding by external B-fields applied at the end of the shell implosion of a re-entrant cone target. Preliminary results show that the B-field strength at the time of peak ρR may be sufficiently high for fast electron guiding. The second application deals with guiding of fast electrons in magnetized wires surrounded by plasma. Results show a significant enhancement of electron energy deposition at the end of the wire, which is particularly important for low-Z wires.

  19. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G. ); Poston, J.W. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor cross fire between vessel was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the dose in blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr. )

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No penetration of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor was cross fire between the vessel assumed. The results are useful in assessing the dose to blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures.

  1. Magnetic field effects on the energy deposition spectra of MV photon radiation.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, C; Stanescu, T; Fallone, B G

    2009-01-21

    Several groups worldwide have proposed various concepts for improving megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy that involve irradiating patients in the presence of a magnetic field-either for image guidance in the case of hybrid radiotherapy-MRI machines or for purposes of introducing tighter control over dose distributions. The presence of a magnetic field alters the trajectory of charged particles between interactions with the medium and thus has the potential to alter energy deposition patterns within a sub-cellular target volume. In this work, we use the MC radiation transport code PENELOPE with appropriate algorithms invoked to incorporate magnetic field deflections to investigate electron energy fluence in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and the energy deposition spectra within a 10 microm water sphere as a function of magnetic field strength. The simulations suggest only very minor changes to the electron fluence even for extremely strong magnetic fields. Further, calculations of the dose-averaged lineal energy indicate that a magnetic field strength of at least 70 T is required before beam quality will change by more than 2%. PMID:19088391

  2. Evaluation of energy deposition and secondary particle production in proton therapy of brain using a slab head phantom

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sayyed Bijan; Hadizadeh, Mohammad Hadi; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Loushab, Mahdy Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of energy deposition of protons in human brain and calculation of the secondary neutrons and photons produced by protons in proton therapy. Background Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of treating localized cancer tumors. The use of high energy proton beam in radiotherapy was proposed almost 60 years ago. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in this subject in the context of radiation therapy. High energy protons suffer little angular deflection and have a well-defined penetration range, with a sharp increase in the energy loss at the end of their trajectories, namely the Bragg peak. Materials and methods A slab head phantom was used for the purpose of simulating proton therapy in brain tissue. In this study simulation was carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Results By using mono energetic proton pencil beams, energy depositions in tissues, especially inside the brain, as well as estimating the neutron and photon production as a result of proton interactions in the body, together with their energy spectra, were calculated or obtained. The amount of energy escaped from the head by secondary neutrons and photons was determined. Conclusions It was found that for high energy proton beams the amount of escaped energy by neutrons is almost 10 times larger than that by photons. We estimated that at 110 MeV beam energy, the overall proton energy “leaked” from the head by secondary photons and neutrons to be around 1%. PMID:25337410

  3. Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings designed by modelling calculations and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Chu; Hadavi, M. S.; Lee, K.-D.; Shen, Y. G.

    2003-03-01

    High solar performance Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar coatings were designed using a numerical computer model and deposited experimentally. The layer thickness and Zr metal volume fraction for the Zr-ZrO2 cermet solar selective coatings on a Zr or Al reflector with a surface ZrO2 or Al2O3 anti-reflection layer were optimized to achieve maximum photo-thermal conversion efficiency at 80°C under concentration factors of 1-20 using the downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions in the numerical calculation. The dielectric function and the complex refractive index of Zr-ZrO2 cermet materials were calculated using Sheng's approximation. Optimization calculations show that Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coatings with two cermet layers and three cermet layers have nearly identical solar absorptance, emittance and photo-thermal conversion efficiency that are much better than those for films with one cermet layer. The optimized Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar coating film with two cermet layers has a high solar absorptance value of 0.97 and low hemispherical emittance value of 0.05 at 80°C for a concentration factor of 2. The Al2O3/Zr-ZrO2/Al solar selective coatings with two cermet layers were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering technology. During the deposition of Zr-ZrO2 cermet layer, a Zr metallic target was run in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen. By control of oxygen flow rate the different metal volume fractions in the cermet layers were achieved using dc reactive sputtering. A solar absorptance of 0.96 and normal emittance of 0.05 at 80°C were achieved.

  4. Modelling heavy-ion energy deposition in extended media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishustin, I.; Pshenichnov, I.; Greiner, W.

    2010-10-01

    We present recent developments of the Monte Carlo model for heavy-ion therapy (MCHIT), which is currently based on the Geant4 toolkit of version 9.2. The major advancement of the model concerns the modelling of violent fragmentation reactions by means of the Fermi break-up model, which is used to simulate decays of hot fragments created after the first stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions. By means of MCHIT we study the dose distributions from therapeutic beams of carbon nuclei in tissue-like materials, like water and PMMA. The contributions to the total dose from primary beam nuclei and from charged secondary fragments produced in nuclear fragmentation reactions are calculated. The build-up of secondary fragments along the beam axis is calculated and compared with available experimental data. Finally, we demonstrate the impact of violent multifragment decays on energy distributions of secondary neutrons produced by carbon nuclei in water.

  5. Scattering Theory Calculations of Casimir Energies at High Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Noah; Emig, Thorsten; Forrow, Aden; Jaffe, Robert; Kardar, Mehran; Maghrebi, Mohammad; Rahi, Jamal; Shpunt, Alex

    2013-03-01

    Scattering theory provides a powerful tool for capturing the response of an object to electromagnetic charge and field fluctuations. Techniques based on scattering theory have made possible a wide range of new calculations of Casimir energies. In this approach, the Casimir interaction energy for a collection of objects can be expressed in terms of the scattering T-matrices for each object individually, combined with universal translation matrices describing the objects' relative positions and orientations. These translation matrices are derived from an expansion of the free Green's function in an appropriate coordinate system, independent of the details of the objects themselves. This method proves particularly valuable for geometries involving high curvature, such as edges and tips. I will describe this approach in general terms and then give results from several problems to which it has been applied successfully. I will also discuss new developments in scattering theory that have been motivated by these problems. I would like to request that this abstract be part of a session on Casimir physics. Supported by the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

  6. Energy deposition and non-equilibrium infared radiation of energetic auroral electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yadong; Gao, Bo; Zhu, Guangsheng; Li, Ziguang

    2016-07-01

    Infrared radiation caused by energetic auroral electrons plays an important role in the thermospheric hear budget, and may be seen as background by infrared surveillance sensors. The auroral electron deposition leads to the ionization, excitation, and dissociation of neutral species(N2,O2,and O), and initiates a series of chemical reaction in the upper atmosphere, finally causes the optical emission of infared excited emitters. In this study, the whole progress from the initial auroral electrons energy deposition to the final infrared emissions has been modeled, which including space plasma, atmospheric physical chemistry, and radiative transfer. The initial atmosphere parameters before auroral disturbing are given by MSIS00 model. The primary electron flux at the top of atmosphere is given by a statistical fitting with the sum of three distribution terms, a power law, a Maxwellian and a Guassian. A semi-emprical model is used in the calculation of energy depositon of single primary electron. The total integral ion pairs production rate is obtained after combining with the initial primary electron flux. The production rate and flux of secondary electrons are modeled with a continuous slow down approximation, using different excitation, ionization, dissociation cross sections of N2, O2, and O to electrons. The photochemical reactions with auroral disturbance is analysed, and its calculation model is established. A "three-step" calculation method is created to obtain number densities of eleven species in the hight between 90-160 km, which containing N2+, O2+, O+, O2+(a4Π), O+(2D), O+(2P), N2(A3Σ), N(2D), N(4S), NO+, and N+. Number densities of different vibraional levels of NO and NO+ are got with steady state assumption, considering 1-12 vibrational levels of NO and 1-14 vibrational levels of NO+. The infared emissions and the spectral lines of the two radiating bodies are calculated with a fuzzy model of spectral band.

  7. Efficiency of energy and protein deposition in swine measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of studies were conducted using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure energy and protein deposition in pigs. In an initial validation study DXA was compared directly with slaughter analysis as a method for measuring body composition and energy deposition in pigs. Mean values fo...

  8. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  9. 3DRISM Multigrid Algorithm for Fast Solvation Free Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2012-06-12

    In this paper we present a fast and accurate method for modeling solvation properties of organic molecules in water with a main focus on predicting solvation (hydration) free energies of small organic compounds. The method is based on a combination of (i) a molecular theory, three-dimensional reference interaction sites model (3DRISM); (ii) a fast multigrid algorithm for solving the high-dimensional 3DRISM integral equations; and (iii) a recently introduced universal correction (UC) for the 3DRISM solvation free energies by properly scaled molecular partial volume (3DRISM-UC, Palmer et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter2010, 22, 492101). A fast multigrid algorithm is the core of the method because it helps to reduce the high computational costs associated with solving the 3DRISM equations. To facilitate future applications of the method, we performed benchmarking of the algorithm on a set of several model solutes in order to find optimal grid parameters and to test the performance and accuracy of the algorithm. We have shown that the proposed new multigrid algorithm is on average 24 times faster than the simple Picard method and at least 3.5 times faster than the MDIIS method which is currently actively used by the 3DRISM community (e.g., the MDIIS method has been recently implemented in a new 3DRISM implicit solvent routine in the recent release of the AmberTools 1.4 molecular modeling package (Luchko et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 607-624). Then we have benchmarked the multigrid algorithm with chosen optimal parameters on a set of 99 organic compounds. We show that average computational time required for one 3DRISM calculation is 3.5 min per a small organic molecule (10-20 atoms) on a standard personal computer. We also benchmarked predicted solvation free energy values for all of the compounds in the set against the corresponding experimental data. We show that by using the proposed multigrid algorithm and the 3DRISM-UC model, it is possible to obtain good

  10. Valence calculations of lanthanide anion binding energies: a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Steven M.; Beck, Donald R.

    2009-05-01

    We have applied a methodology of universal jls restrictions on the 4f^n subgroup of relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of progressively more complex lanthanide anionsootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012505 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 78, 012510 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A, in press.. Our completed study of the row predicts bound 6p attachments to all lanthanide ground state configurations except Yb, additional 6p attachments to excited opposite parity configurations in Tb and Lu, and 6s attachments to excited open-6s thresholds in La, Ce, Pr, and Gd. In total we predict more than 100 bound states for the lanthanide anions, and we hope this comprehensive study encourages further experimentalootnotetexte.g. V. T. Davis et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 241, 118 (2005).^,ootnotetexte.g. C. W. Walter et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 052702 (2007). interest in these anions. Such measurements will be useful in ``fine tuning'' these ab initio binding energies to account for missing core-valence correlation and the approximations that were necessary in these complex calculations.

  11. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Liming

    2009-04-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons. PMID:19138526

  12. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-09-09

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny.

  13. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  14. Free-energy calculation via mean-force dynamics using a logarithmic energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Tetsuya; Itoh, Satoru G; Okumura, Hisashi; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2012-06-01

    A method for free-energy calculation based on mean-force dynamics (fictitious dynamics on a potential of mean force) is presented. The method utilizes a logarithmic form of free energy to enhance crossing barriers on a free-energy landscape, which results in efficient sampling of "rare" events. Invoking a conserved quantity in mean-force dynamics, free energy can be estimated on-the-fly without postprocessing. This means that an estimate of the free-energy profile can be locally made in contrast to the other methods based on mean-force dynamics such as metadynamics. The method is benchmarked against conventional methods and its high efficiency is demonstrated in the free-energy calculation for a glycine dipeptide molecule. PMID:23005238

  15. INDIVIDUALISED CALCULATION OF TISSUE IMPARTED ENERGY IN BREAST TOMOSYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Geeraert, N; Klausz, R; Muller, S; Bloch, I; Bosmans, H

    2016-06-01

    The imparted energy to the glandular tissue in the breast (glandular imparted energy, GIE) is proposed for an improved assessment of the individual radiation-induced risk resulting from X-ray breast imaging. GIE is computed from an estimation of the quantity and localisation of glandular tissue in the breast. After a digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisition, the volumetric glandular content (volumetric breast density, VBD) is computed from the central X-ray projection. The glandular tissue distribution is determined by labelling the DBT voxels to ensure the conservation of the VBD. Finally, the GIE is calculated by Monte Carlo computation on the resulting tissue-labelled DBT volume. For verification, the method was applied to 10 breast-shaped digital phantoms made of different glandular spheres in an adipose background, and to a digital anthropomorphic phantom. Results were compared to direct GIE computations on the phantoms considered as 'ground-truth'. The major limitations in accuracy are those of DBT, in particular the limited z-resolution. However, for most phantoms, the results can be considered as acceptable. PMID:27127209

  16. Calculations of Solvation Free Energy through Energy Reweighting from Molecular Mechanics to Quantum Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangyu; Wang, Meiting; Shao, Yihan; König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R; Zhang, John Z H; Mei, Ye

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the solvation free energies of 20 organic molecules from the 4th Statistical Assessment of the Modeling of Proteins and Ligands (SAMPL4) have been calculated. The sampling of phase space is carried out at a molecular mechanical level, and the associated free energy changes are estimated using the Bennett Acceptance Ratio (BAR). Then the quantum mechanical (QM) corrections are computed through the indirect Non-Boltzmann Bennett's acceptance ratio (NBB) or the thermodynamics perturbation (TP) method. We show that BAR+TP gives a minimum analytic variance for the calculated solvation free energy at the Gaussian limit and performs slightly better than NBB in practice. Furthermore, the expense of the QM calculations in TP is only half of that in NBB. We also show that defining the biasing potential as the difference of the solute-solvent interaction energy, instead of the total energy, can converge the calculated solvation free energies much faster but possibly to different values. Based on the experimental solvation free energies which have been published before, it is discovered in this study that BLYP yields better results than MP2 and some other later functionals such as B3LYP, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D. PMID:26731197

  17. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

  18. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Handford, C.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  19. Gold deposited on a Ge(0 0 1) surface: DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Shiow-Fon

    2016-11-01

    The atomic geometry, stability and electronic properties of self-organized Au induced nanowires on a Ge(0 0 1) surface are investigated based on the density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation and the stoichiometry of Au. According to the formation energy and the simulated STM image, the Ge atoms substituted by the Au atoms have been confirmed as occurring at a Au coverage lower than 0.25 Ml. The STM image with single and double dimer vacancies looks like the Au atoms have penetrated the subsurface. The energetically favorable dimer-row arrayed structures at 0.50 Ml and 0.75 Ml Au coverages have a 4  ×  1, 4  ×  2 or c(8  ×  2) transition symmetry, which comprise a flat Au-Au homodimer row and an alternating various buckling phase Ge-Ge or Au-Ge dimer row. The c(8  ×  2) zigzag-shaped protruding chains of shallow-groove STM images are highly consistent with the observations, but a long-range order dimer-row arrayed structure formation requires sufficient mobile energy to complete mass transport of the substituted Ge atoms in order to avoid the re-adsorption of these atoms; otherwise a deep-groove structure reconstruction is sequentially formed. A quasi-1D electron-like energy trough aligns in the direction perpendicular to the nanowire of the dimer-row arrayed structure in the c(8  ×  2) phase on a 0.75 Ml Au/Ge(0 0 1) surface, which is contributed by the Au-Ge dimer rows and the subsurface Ge atoms below them. The bottom energy of the energy trough is consistent with angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy studies (Schäfer et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 236802, Meyer et al 2011 Phys. Rev. B 83 121411(R)). PMID:27603175

  20. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  1. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  2. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1999-06-29

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

  3. Energy deposition via magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration: II. modeling and performance predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikellides, P. G.; England, B.; Gilland, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics code is employed to model, validate and extend the experimentally-limited performance characteristics of a gigawatt-level plasma source that utilized magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) acceleration for gas energy deposition. Accurate modeling required an upgrade of the code's circuit routines to properly capture the pulse-forming-network current waveform which also serves as the primary variable for validation. Comparisons with experimentally deduced current waveforms were in good agreement for all power levels. The simulations also produced values for the plasma voltage which were compared with the measured voltage across the electrodes. The trend agreement was encouraging while the magnitude of the discrepancy is approximately constant and interpreted as a representation of the electrode fall voltage. Force computations captured the expected electromagnetic acceleration trends and serve as further verification. They also allow examination of the device as a very high power MPD thruster operating at power levels in excess of 180 MW. The computations offer insights into the plasma's characteristics at different power levels through two-dimensional distributions of pertinent parameters and identify design guidelines for effective stagnation temperature values as a function of the mass-flow rate.

  4. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  5. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  6. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  7. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  8. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  9. Identification of HIV Inhibitors Guided by Free Energy Perturbation Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Orlando; Ambrose, Zandrea; Flaherty, Patrick T.; Aamer, Hadega; Jain, Prashi; Sambasivarao, Somisetti V.

    2013-01-01

    Free energy perturbation (FEP) theory coupled to molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) statistical mechanics offers a theoretically precise method for determining the free energy differences of related biological inhibitors. Traditionally requiring extensive computational resources and expertise, it is only recently that its impact is being felt in drug discovery. A review of computer-aided anti-HIV efforts employing FEP calculations is provided here that describes early and recent successes in the design of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. In addition, our ongoing work developing and optimizing leads for small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilin A (CypA) is highlighted as an update on the current capabilities of the field. CypA has been shown to aid HIV-1 replication by catalyzing the cis/trans isomerization of a conserved Gly-Pro motif in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein. In the absence of a functional CypA, e.g., by the addition of an inhibitor such as cyclosporine A (CsA), HIV-1 has reduced infectivity. Our simulations of acylurea-based and 1-indanylketone-based CypA inhibitors have determined that their nanomolar and micromolar binding affinities, respectively, are tied to their ability to stabilize Arg55 and Asn102. A structurally novel 1-(2,6-dichlorobenzamido) indole core was proposed to maximize these interactions. FEP-guided optimization, experimental synthesis, and biological testing of lead compounds for toxicity and inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 and CA mutants have demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 infection in two cell lines. While the inhibition is modest compared to CsA, the results are encouraging. PMID:22316150

  10. Spectroscopic and electrical calculation of band alignment between atomic layer deposited SiO2 and β-Ga2O3 ( 2 ¯ 01 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ye; Zeng, Ke; Wallace, Joshua S.; Gardella, Joseph A.; Singisetti, Uttam

    2015-03-01

    The energy band alignment between atomic layer deposited (ALD) SiO2 and β-Ga2O3 ( 2 ¯ 01 ) is calculated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurement of metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor structures. The valence band offset between SiO2 and Ga2O3 is found to be 0.43 eV. The bandgap of ALD SiO2 was determined to be 8.6 eV, which gives a large conduction band offset of 3.63 eV between SiO2 and Ga2O3. The large conduction band offset makes SiO2 an attractive gate dielectric for power devices.

  11. Investigation of various energy deposition kernel refinements for the convolution/superposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.; Eklund, David; Childress, Nathan L.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Several simplifications used in clinical implementations of the convolution/superposition (C/S) method, specifically, density scaling of water kernels for heterogeneous media and use of a single polyenergetic kernel, lead to dose calculation inaccuracies. Although these weaknesses of the C/S method are known, it is not well known which of these simplifications has the largest effect on dose calculation accuracy in clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to generate and characterize high-resolution, polyenergetic, and material-specific energy deposition kernels (EDKs), as well as to investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing spatially variant polyenergetic and material-specific kernels in a collapsed cone C/S algorithm.Methods: High-resolution, monoenergetic water EDKs and various material-specific EDKs were simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Polyenergetic kernels, reflecting the primary spectrum of a clinical 6 MV photon beam at different locations in a water phantom, were calculated for different depths, field sizes, and off-axis distances. To investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing spatially variant polyenergetic kernels, depth dose curves in water were calculated using two different implementations of the collapsed cone C/S method. The first method uses a single polyenergetic kernel, while the second method fully takes into account spectral changes in the convolution calculation. To investigate the dosimetric impact of implementing material-specific kernels, depth dose curves were calculated for a simplified titanium implant geometry using both a traditional C/S implementation that performs density scaling of water kernels and a novel implementation using material-specific kernels.Results: For our high-resolution kernels, we found good agreement with the Mackie et al. kernels, with some differences near the interaction site for low photon energies (<500 keV). For our spatially variant polyenergetic kernels, we found

  12. Calculation Of A Micro Discharge Energy Balance With PIC-MCC Method

    SciTech Connect

    Benstaali, W.; Belasri, A.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2008-09-23

    In this paper, we present a 1D Particle in Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions model, developed in order to calculate the energy balance in a micro-discharge, under conditions similar to those of a Plasma Display Panel (PDP) cell. The discharge takes place in a xenon-neon (10%-;90%) mixture at 560 torr and for a gap length of 100 {mu}m. The model is used to analyze in details the energy deposition during the discharge pulse. The results show the amount of energy dissipated by ions (collisions in the gas and on the cathode), by electrons (excitation of the different electronic states, ionization), and their variations with the applied voltage. This model will be used in the future to test the approximations of the fluid models which are generally used to optimize PDP operating conditions, and to check whether or not fluid models can correctly predict the trends in the variations of the energy balance with parameters such as voltage, pressure, gas mixture.

  13. Calculating activation energies for temperature compensation in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenstein, C.; Heiland, I.; Schuster, S.

    2011-10-01

    Many biological species possess a circadian clock, which helps them anticipate daily variations in the environment. In the absence of external stimuli, the rhythm persists autonomously with a period of approximately 24 h. However, single pulses of light, nutrients, chemicals or temperature can shift the clock phase. In the case of light- and temperature-cycles, this allows entrainment of the clock to cycles of exactly 24 h. Circadian clocks have the remarkable property of temperature compensation, that is, the period of the circadian rhythm remains relatively constant within a physiological range of temperatures. For several organisms, temperature-regulated processes within the circadian clock have been identified in recent years. However, how these processes contribute to temperature compensation is not fully understood. Here, we theoretically investigate temperature compensation in general oscillatory systems. It is known that every oscillator can be locally temperature compensated around a reference temperature, if reactions are appropriately balanced. A balancing is always possible if the control coefficient with respect to the oscillation period of at least one reaction in the oscillator network is positive. However, for global temperature compensation, the whole physiological temperature range is relevant. Here, we use an approach which leads to an optimization problem subject to the local balancing principle. We use this approach to analyse different circadian clock models proposed in the literature and calculate activation energies that lead to temperature compensation.

  14. Path-breaking schemes for nonequilibrium free energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, Riccardo; Gellini, Cristina; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni

    2013-06-01

    We propose a path-breaking route to the enhancement of unidirectional nonequilibrium simulations for the calculation of free energy differences via Jarzynski's equality [C. Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2690 (1997)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.2690. One of the most important limitations of unidirectional nonequilibrium simulations is the amount of realizations necessary to reach suitable convergence of the work exponential average featuring the Jarzynski's relationship. In this respect, a significant improvement of the performances could be obtained by finding a way of stopping trajectories with negligible contribution to the work exponential average, before their normal end. This is achieved using path-breaking schemes which are essentially based on periodic checks of the work dissipated during the pulling trajectories. Such schemes can be based either on breaking trajectories whose dissipated work exceeds a given threshold or on breaking trajectories with a probability increasing with the dissipated work. In both cases, the computer time needed to carry out a series of nonequilibrium trajectories is reduced up to a factor ranging from 2 to more than 10, at least for the processes under consideration in the present study. The efficiency depends on several aspects, such as the type of process, the number of check-points along the pathway and the pulling rate as well. The method is illustrated through radically different processes, i.e., the helix-coil transition of deca-alanine and the pulling of the distance between two methane molecules in water solution.

  15. Evaluation of the mean energy deposit during the impact of charged particles on liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The DNA strand break yield due to the impact of ionizing particles on living beings is closely related to the number of inelastic events per unit absorbed dose produced by these particles. The higher this number, the higher the probability of causing DNA strand breaks per unit absorbed dose. In a previous work, it was found that the total number of events produced by primary particles and the secondary electrons is almost independent of the type and energy of the incident particle (or LET). This finding could be supported by a quasi-constant mean energy deposit by inelastic event (\\bar{\\varepsilon }). In this work, \\bar{\\varepsilon } was defined and determined for electrons and the non-negative charge states of hydrogen (H0, +) and helium (He0, +, 2 +) species impacting on liquid water. Ionization, excitation and charge transfer (up to two-electron transfers) processes have been included in present calculations. We found that, for liquid water, \\bar{\\varepsilon } is within 13.7 ± 4.1 eV, 14.2 ± 1.7 eV and 13.8 ± 1.4 eV for electrons, hydrogen and helium species, respectively, with impact energies changing over three orders of magnitude. Unlike the mean excitation energy, the mean energy deposit per inelastic event depends not only on the target molecule but also on the projectile features. However, this dependence is relatively weak. This fact supports the quasi-independent number of inelastic events per unit absorbed dose found previously when charged particles impact on matter.

  16. Use of energy deposition spectrometer Liulin for individual monitoring of aircrew.

    PubMed

    Ploc, O; Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Spurny, F; Malušek, A; Dachev, T

    2011-03-01

    Silicon energy deposition spectrometer Liulin was primarily developed for cosmic radiation monitoring onboard spacecrafts. Nowadays, Liulin type detectors are also used to characterise radiation field on board aircraft, at alpine observatories and behind the shielding of heavy ion accelerators. In this work, experiments and calibrations performed in these radiation fields are presented and the method developed for calculation of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) on board aircraft is described. Since 2001, a simple method employing the energy deposition spectra had been used to determine H*(10) on board aircraft but, in 2004, it became clear that the resulting values were strongly biased at locations close to Earth's equator. An improved method for the determination of H*(10) on board aircraft using the Liulin detector was developed. It took into account the composition of the radiation field via the ratio of absorbed doses D(low) and D(neut) reflecting the contributions from low-LET particles and neutrons, respectively. It resulted in much better agreement with the EPCARD computer code for all aircraft locations; relative differences were within 11 % for low-LET and 20 % for neutron components of H*(10). PMID:21186209

  17. Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinberg, Dorothy S.

    This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

  18. Track structure simulations at relativistic energies: an update on cross section calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingfelder, Michael

    Charged particle track structure simulations follow the primary, as well as all (produced) sec-ondary particles in an event-by-event matter, from starting or ejection energies down to total stopping. They provide detailed information on the spacial distributions of energy depositions, interaction types, and radical species produced. These quantities provide a starting point to describe the interaction of the radiation with matter of biological interest and to explore and estimate the effects of radiation quality on various biological responses of these systems. Of special interest is liquid water which serves as surrogate for soft tissue. Ionization and excitation cross sections for bare charged particles can be calculated within the framework of the (relativistic) plane-wave Born approximation or the (relativistic) Bethe approximation. Both theories rely on a realistic model of the dielectric response function of the material under consideration and need to address relativistic medium polarization effects like the Fermi-density effect in a consistent way. In this talk we will review and present new and updated aspects of charged particle cross section calculations for relativistic heavy ions with liquid water and other materials of biological interest. This includes an updated model for the dielectric response function of liquid water to better reflect new data from inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) experiments using synchrotron radiation and a model for the dielectric response function of calcium, which serves as a bone surrogate. We will also discuss the implementation of relativistic effect, especially of the Fermi-density effect into the cross section calculations. This work is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), grant no. NNJ04HF39G.

  19. Simulation of Fine Resist Profile Formation by Electron Beam Drawing and Development with Solubility Rate Based on Energy Deposition Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Komori, Takuya; Zhang, Yulong; Yin, You; Hosaka, Sumio

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a model for calculating the resist profile in electron beam drawing. The model predicts the solubility rate on the basis of the energy deposition distribution (EDD) for the development of latent patterns in the resist. By unifying the exposure dose D (via experiments) and EDDs (via calculations), we roughly determined solubility rates for three-dimensional EDDs, and established the proposed model. The development simulation was achieved by the sequential calculation method for solubility rates based on EDD which was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. By determining a suitable EDD region to achieve good patterning, we obtained a sharp nanodot pattern of the resist. This simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a combination of 2.3 wt % tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and 4 wt % NaCl as the developer. The model was demonstrated to be useful for predicting resist profiles with different experimental solubility rates of developers.

  20. Monte Carlo approach to the spatial deposition of energy by electrons in molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, M. G.; Green, A. E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) and continuous slowdown approximation (CSDA) approaches to the spatial deposition of energy by electrons are compared using the same detailed atomic cross section (DACS). It is found that the CSDA method overestimates the amount of energy that is deposited near the end of the path for electrons above a few hundred electron volts. The MC results are in approximate agreement with experimental data in such a way as to be relatively independent of the actual gas used. Our MC results are extended to obtain the three-dimensional deposition of energy by sub-keV electrons in molecular hydrogen.

  1. Trypsin-Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculation with AMOEBA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yue; Jiao, Dian; Schnieders, Michael J.; Ren, Pengyu

    2010-01-01

    The binding free energies of several benzamidine-like inhibitors to trypsin were examined using a polarizable potential. All the computed binding free energies are in good agreement with the experimental data. From free energy decomposition, electrostatic interaction was found to be the driving force for the binding. Structural analysis shows that the ligands form hydrogen bonds with residues and water molecules nearby in a competitive fashion. The dependence of binding free energy on molecular dipole moment and polarizability was also studied. While the binding free energy is independent on the dipole moment, it shows a negative correlation with the polarizability. PMID:19965178

  2. Monte Carlo study of radial energy deposition from primary and secondary particles for narrow and large proton beamlet source models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeler, Christopher R.; Titt, Uwe

    2012-06-01

    In spot-scanning intensity-modulated proton therapy, numerous unmodulated proton beam spots are delivered over a target volume to produce a prescribed dose distribution. To accurately model field size-dependent output factors for beam spots, the energy deposition at positions radial to the central axis of the beam must be characterized. In this study, we determined the difference in the central axis dose for spot-scanned fields that results from secondary particle doses by investigating energy deposition radial to the proton beam central axis resulting from primary protons and secondary particles for mathematical point source and distributed source models. The largest difference in the central axis dose from secondary particles resulting from the use of a mathematical point source and a distributed source model was approximately 0.43%. Thus, we conclude that the central axis dose for a spot-scanned field is effectively independent of the source model used to calculate the secondary particle dose.

  3. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F.; Chang, I.

    1995-12-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny ({approximately} 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 {mu}m. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar.

  4. SU-E-T-78: Comparison of Dose-Averaged Linear Energy Transfer Calculation Methods Used in Monte Carlo Simulations of Clinical Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Carabe-Fernandez, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the differences in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) maps calculated in water by means of different strategies found in the literature in proton therapy Monte Carlo simulations and to compare their values with dose-mean lineal energy microdosimetry calculations. Methods: The Geant4 toolkit (version 9.6.2) was used. Dose and LETd maps in water were scored for primary protons with cylindrical voxels defined around the beam axis. Three LETd calculation methods were implemented. First, the LETd values were computed by calculating the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) associated to each single step weighted by the energy deposition (including delta-rays) along the step. Second, the LETd was obtained for each voxel by computing the LET along all the steps simulated for each proton track within the voxel, weighted by the energy deposition of those steps. Third, the LETd was scored as the quotient between the second momentum of the LET distribution, calculated per proton track, over the first momentum. These calculations were made with various voxel thicknesses (0.2 – 2.0 mm) for a 160 MeV proton beamlet and spread-out Bragg Peaks (SOBP). The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated in a uniformly-irradiated water sphere, 0.005 mm radius. Results: The value of the LETd changed systematically with the voxel thickness due to delta-ray emission and the enlargement of the LET distribution spread, especially at shallow depths. Differences of up to a factor 1.8 were found at the depth of maximum dose, leading to similar differences at the central and distal depths of the SOBPs. The third LETd calculation method gave better agreement with microdosimetry calculations around the Bragg Peak. Conclusion: Significant differences were found between LETd map Monte Carlo calculations due to both the calculation strategy and the voxel thickness used. This could have a significant impact in radiobiologically-optimized proton therapy treatments.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deible, Michael J.; Kessler, Melody; Gasperich, Kevin E.; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-01

    The accurate calculation of the binding energy of the beryllium dimer is a challenging theoretical problem. In this study, the binding energy of Be2 is calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, using single Slater determinant and multiconfigurational trial functions. DMC calculations using single-determinant trial wave functions of orbitals obtained from density functional theory calculations overestimate the binding energy, while DMC calculations using Hartree-Fock or CAS(4,8), complete active space trial functions significantly underestimate the binding energy. In order to obtain an accurate value of the binding energy of Be2 from DMC calculations, it is necessary to employ trial functions that include excitations outside the valence space. Our best estimate DMC result for the binding energy of Be2, obtained by using configuration interaction trial functions and extrapolating in the threshold for the configurations retained in the trial function, is 908 cm-1, only slightly below the 935 cm-1 value derived from experiment.

  6. Subtleties in Energy Calculations in the Image Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddei, M. M.; Mendes, T. N. C.; Farina, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this pedagogical work, we point out a subtle mistake that can be made by undergraduate or graduate students in the computation of the electrostatic energy of a system containing charges and perfect conductors if they naively use the image method. Specifically, we show that naive expressions for the electrostatic energy for these systems…

  7. A simplified confinement method for calculating absolute free energies and free energy and entropy differences.

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Cecchini, Marco; Karplus, Martin

    2013-01-24

    A simple and robust formulation of the path-independent confinement method for the calculation of free energies is presented. The simplified confinement method (SCM) does not require matrix diagonalization or switching off the molecular force field, and has a simple convergence criterion. The method can be readily implemented in molecular dynamics programs with minimal or no code modifications. Because the confinement method is a special case of thermodynamic integration, it is trivially parallel over the integration variable. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated using a model diatomic molecule, for which exact results can be computed analytically. The method is then applied to the alanine dipeptide in vacuum, and to the α-helix ↔ β-sheet transition in a 16-residue peptide modeled in implicit solvent. The SCM requires less effort for the calculation of free energy differences than previous formulations because it does not require computing normal modes. The SCM has a diminished advantage for determining absolute free energy values, because it requires decreasing the MD integration step to obtain accurate results. An approximate confinement procedure is introduced, which can be used to estimate directly the configurational entropy difference between two macrostates, without the need for additional computation of the difference in the free energy or enthalpy. The approximation has convergence properties similar to those of the standard confinement method for the calculation of free energies. The use of the approximation requires about 5 times less wall-clock simulation time than that needed to compute enthalpy differences to similar precision from an MD trajectory. For the biomolecular systems considered in this study, the errors in the entropy approximation are under 10%. Practical applications of the methods to proteins are currently limited to implicit solvent simulations. PMID:23268557

  8. Dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy in nanometric electronic devices: Experimental measurements and simulation possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raine, M.; Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Duhamel, O.; Martinez, M.; Bernard, H.

    2015-12-01

    The dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy is explored in nanometric electronic devices. Experimental data are reported, in a large thin SOI diode and in a SOI FinFET device, showing larger distributions of collected charge in the nanometric volume device. Geant4 simulations are then presented, using two different modeling approaches. Both of them seem suitable to evaluate the dispersion of deposited energy induced by heavy ion beams in advanced electronic devices with nanometric dimensions.

  9. Engineering properties of superhard films with ion energy and post-deposition processing

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Mari-Paule

    2002-10-14

    Recent developments in plasma synthesis of hard materials using energetic ions are described. Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID) has been used to prepare several hard films: from diamondlike carbon (DLC) to carbides, from nitrides to oxides. The energy of the depositing species is controlled to maximize adhesion as well as to change the physical and chemical properties of the films. Adhesion is promoted by the creation of a graded interface between the film and the substrate. The energy of the depositing ions is also used to modify and control the intrinsic stresses and the microstructure of the films. The deposition is carried out at room temperature, which is important for temperature sensitive substrates. A correlation between intrinsic stresses and the energetics of the deposition is presented for the case of DLC films, and means to reduce stress levels are discussed.

  10. Energy deposition studies for the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider inner triplet magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Rakhno, I. L.; Tropin, I. S.; Cerutti, F.; Esposito, L. S.; Lechner, A.

    2015-05-01

    A detailed model of the high-luminosity LHC inner triplet region with new large-aperture Nb3Sn magnets, field maps, corrector packages, and segmented tungsten inner absorbers was built and implemented into the fluka and mars15 codes. Detailed simulations have been performed coherently with the codes on the impact of particle debris from the 14-TeV center-of-mass pp-collisions on the short- and long-term stability of the inner triplet magnets. After optimizing the absorber configuration, the peak power density averaged over the magnet inner cable width is found to be safely below the quench limit at the luminosity of 5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1 . For the anticipated lifetime integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 , the peak dose calculated for the innermost magnet insulator ranges from 20 to 35 MGy, a figure close to the commonly accepted limit. Dynamic heat loads to the triplet magnet cold mass are calculated to evaluate the cryogenic capability. fluka and mars results on energy deposition are in very good agreement.

  11. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  12. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    PubMed

    Gruel, Gaëtan; Villagrasa, Carmen; Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  13. Laser energy deposition and its dynamic uniformity for direct-drive capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The total laser energy deposition of multi-laser-beam irradiation is not only associated with the dynamic behavior of capsule but also the time-dependent angular distribution of the energy deposition of each beam around its axis. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition does not linearly respond to the dynamic behavior of laser irradiation. The laser energy deposition uniformity determines the symmetry of implosion. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition non-uniformity in OMEGA for laser with square beam shape intensity profile is investigated. In the case of smaller laser spot, the initial non-uniformity caused by laser beam overlap is very high. The shell asymmetry caused by the high initial laser irradiation non-uniformity is estimated by the extent of distortion of shock front which is not as severe as expected before the shock driven by main pulse arrives. This suggests that the large initial non-uniformity due to smaller laser spot is one of the elements that seed disturbance before the main pulse. The rms of laser energy deposition during the main pulse remains above 2%. Since the intensity of main driving pulse usually is several times higher than that of picket pulses, the non-uniformity in main pulse period may jeopardize the symmetrical implosion. When dynamic behavior of capsule is considered, the influence of beam pointing error, the target positioning error, and beam-to-beam power unbalance is quite different for the case of static capsule.

  14. Energy deposition characteristics of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators: Influence of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correale, G.; Winkel, R.; Kotsonis, M.

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study aimed at the characterization of energy deposition of nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators was carried out. Special attention was given on the effect of the thickness and material used for dielectric barrier. The selected materials for this study were polyimide film (Kapton), polyamide based nylon (PA2200), and silicone rubber. Schlieren measurements were carried out in quiescent air conditions in order to observe density gradients induced by energy deposited. Size of heated area was used to qualify the energy deposition coupled with electrical power measurements performed using the back-current shunt technique. Additionally, light intensity measurements showed a different nature of discharge based upon the material used for barrier, for a fixed thickness and frequency of discharge. Finally, a characterisation study was performed for the three tested materials. Dielectric constant, volume resistivity, and thermal conductivity were measured. Strong trends between the control parameters and the energy deposited into the fluid during the discharge were observed. Results indicate that efficiency of energy deposition mechanism relative to the thickness of the barrier strongly depends upon the material used for the dielectric barrier itself. In general, a high dielectric strength and a low volumetric resistivity are preferred for a barrier, together with a high heat capacitance and a low thermal conductivity coefficient in order to maximize the efficiency of the thermal energy deposition induced by an ns-DBD plasma actuator.

  15. Accurate potential energy curve of the LiH+ molecule calculated with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions.

    PubMed

    Tung, Wei-Cheng; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-03-28

    Very accurate calculations of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) of the LiH(+) ion performed with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers are presented. The variational method is employed. The calculations involve optimization of nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians performed with the aid of the analytical first derivatives of the energy determined with respect to the parameters. The diagonal adiabatic correction is also calculated for each PEC point. The PEC is then used to calculate the vibrational energies of the system. In that calculation, the non-adiabatic effects are accounted for by using an effective vibrational mass obtained by the minimization of the difference between the vibrational energies obtained from the calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was not assumed and the results of the present calculations. PMID:24697449

  16. Accurate potential energy curve of the LiH+ molecule calculated with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Wei-Cheng; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-03-01

    Very accurate calculations of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) of the LiH+ ion performed with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers are presented. The variational method is employed. The calculations involve optimization of nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians performed with the aid of the analytical first derivatives of the energy determined with respect to the parameters. The diagonal adiabatic correction is also calculated for each PEC point. The PEC is then used to calculate the vibrational energies of the system. In that calculation, the non-adiabatic effects are accounted for by using an effective vibrational mass obtained by the minimization of the difference between the vibrational energies obtained from the calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was not assumed and the results of the present calculations.

  17. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  18. Auroral energy deposition rate, characteristic electron energy, and ionospheric parameters derived from Dynamics Explorer 1 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, M. H.; Lummerzheim, D.; Roble, R. G.; Winningham, J. D.; Craven, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Auroral images obtained by the Spin Scan Auroral Imager (SAI) aboard the DE-1 satellite were used to derive auroral energy deposition rate, characteristic electron energy, and ionospheric parameters. The principles involved in the imaging technique and the physical mechanisms that underlie the relationship between the spectral images and the geophysical parameters are discussed together with the methodology for implementing such analyses. It is shown that images obtained with the SAI provide global parameters at 12-min temporal resolution; the spatial resolution is limited by the field of view of a pixel. The analysis of the 12-min images presented yielded a representation of ionospheric parameters that was better than can be obtained using empirical models based on local measurements averaged over long periods of time.

  19. Oxyfluoroborate host glass for upconversion application: phonon energy calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2016-04-01

    Reducing the glass phonon energy is an essential procedure to achieve high efficient radiative upconversion process. The degree of covalence of chemical bonds is responsible for the high oscillator strength of intracenter transitions in rare-earth ions. So, conversion covalent to ionic glass character is proposed as a structure-sensitive criterion that controls the phonon energy of the glasses. A series of oxyfluoro aluminum-borate host glasses used for upconversion application is prepared by the conventional melt-quenching technique. Through lithium oxide substitution by lithium fluoride, the ionic-covalent property of Li+ ion successes to regulate the band gap energies of the studied glasses. Furthermore, a new method to determine the glass phonon energy is offered.

  20. Energy levels of isoelectronic impurities by large scale LDA calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2002-11-22

    Isoelectronic impurity states are localized states induced by stoichiometric single atom substitution in bulk semiconductor. Photoluminescence spectra indicate deep impurity levels of 0.5 to 0.9eV above the top of valence band for systems like: GaN:As, GaN:P, CdS:Te, ZnS:Te. Previous calculations based on small supercells seemingly confirmed these experimental results. However, the current ab initio calculations based on thousand atom supercells indicate that the impurity levels of the above systems are actually much shallower(0.04 to 0.23 eV), and these impurity levels should be compared with photoluminescence excitation spectra, not photoluminescence spectra.

  1. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-28

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint. PMID:26931692

  2. Alternative definitions of the frozen energy in energy decomposition analysis of density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Paul R.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of intermolecular interactions calculated via density functional theory, the initial supersystem wavefunction defines the so-called "frozen energy" including contributions such as permanent electrostatics, steric repulsions, and dispersion. This work explores the consequences of the choices that must be made to define the frozen energy. The critical choice is whether the energy should be minimized subject to the constraint of fixed density. Numerical results for Ne2, (H2O)2, BH3-NH3, and ethane dissociation show that there can be a large energy lowering associated with constant density orbital relaxation. By far the most important contribution is constant density inter-fragment relaxation, corresponding to charge transfer (CT). This is unwanted in an EDA that attempts to separate CT effects, but it may be useful in other contexts such as force field development. An algorithm is presented for minimizing single determinant energies at constant density both with and without CT by employing a penalty function that approximately enforces the density constraint.

  3. A Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Michele

    2015-03-01

    The presence of kinetic bottlenecks severely hampers the ability of widely used sampling methods like molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo to explore complex free energy landscapes. One of the most popular methods for addressing this problem is umbrella sampling which is based on the addition of an external bias which helps overcoming the kinetic barriers. The bias potential is usually taken to be a function of a restricted number of collective variables. However constructing the bias is not simple, especially when the number of collective variables increases. Here we introduce a functional of the bias which, when minimized, allows us to recover the free energy. We demonstrate the usefulness and the flexibility of this approach on a number of examples which include the determination of a six dimensional free energy surface. Besides the practical advantages, the existence of such a variational principle allows us to look at the enhanced sampling problem from a rather convenient vantage point.

  4. Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-08-01

    The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variables. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient, and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three-dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient and novel standpoint for looking at the sampling problem.

  5. Point-by-point near-field optical energy deposition around plasmonic nanospheres in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R K; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2015-08-01

    Here we investigate the effects of absorbing media on plasmon-enhanced near-field optical energy deposition. We find that increasing absorption by the medium results in increased particle scattering at the expense of particle absorption, and that much of this increased particle scattering is absorbed by the medium close to the particle surface. We present an analytical method for evaluating the spatial distribution of near-field enhanced absorption surrounding plasmonic metal nanospheres in absorbing media using a new point-by-point method. We propose criteria to define relevant near-field boundaries and calculate the properties of the local absorption enhancement, which redistributes absorption to the near-field and decays asymptotically as a function of the distance from the particle to background levels. Using this method, we performed a large-scale parametric study to understand the effect of particle size and wavelength on the near-field absorption for gold nanoparticles in aqueous media and silicon, and identified conditions that are relevant to enhanced local infrared absorption in silicon. The presented approach provides insight into the local energy transfer around plasmonic nanoparticles for predicting near-field effects for advanced concepts in optical sensing, thin-film solar cells, nonlinear imaging, and photochemical applications. PMID:26367296

  6. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (<10 MeV/n) secondary particles of high-LET that contribute significantly to overall radiation exposures. Track structure theories suggest that high charge and energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular

  7. Turbulent energy exchange: Calculation and relevance for profile prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.

    2013-08-15

    The anomalous heat production due to turbulence is neither routinely calculated in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations nor routinely retained in profile prediction studies. In this work, we develop a symmetrized method to compute the exchange which dramatically reduces the intermittency in the time-dependent moment, thereby improving the accuracy of the time-average. We also examine the practical impact on transport-timescale simulations, and show that the exchange has only a minor impact on profile evolution for a well-studied DIII-D discharge.

  8. Advancing QCD-based calculations of energy loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2013-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the basics and current developments of QCD-based calculations of radiative processes in medium. We put an emphasis on the underlying physics concepts and discuss the theoretical uncertainties inherently associated with the fundamental parameters to be extracted from data. An important area of development is the study of the single-gluon emission in medium. Moreover, establishing the correct physical picture of multi-gluon emissions is imperative for comparison with data. We will report on progress made in both directions and discuss perspectives for the future.

  9. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  10. Influence of the Presence of Tissue Expanders on Energy Deposition for Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Trombetta, Débora M.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Facure, Alessandro; da Silva, Ademir X.; da Rosa, Luiz Antonio R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have shown that post-mastectomy radiotherapy presents benefits associated with the patients survival and a significant fraction of the treated patients makes use of tissue expanders for breast reconstruction. Some models of tissue expanders have a magnetic disk on their surface that constitutes heterogeneity in the radiation field, which can affect the dose distribution during the radiotherapy treatment. In this study, the influence of a metallic heterogeneity positioned in a breast tissue expander was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX code and using Eclipse treatment planning system. Deposited energy values were calculated in structures which have clinical importance for the treatment. Additionally, the effect in the absorbed energy due to backscattering and attenuation of the incident beam caused by the heterogeneity, as well as due to the expansion of the prosthesis, was evaluated in target structures for a 6 MV photon beam by simulations. The dose distributions for a breast treatment were calculated using a convolution/superposition algorithm from the Eclipse treatment planning system. When compared with the smallest breast expander volume, underdosage of 7% was found for the largest volume of breast implant, in the case of frontal irradiation of the chest wall, by Monte Carlo simulations. No significant changes were found in dose distributions for the presence of the heterogeneity during the treatment planning of irradiation with an opposed pair of beams. Even considering the limitation of the treatment planning system, the results obtained with its use confirm those ones found by Monte Carlo simulations for a tangent beam irradiation. The presence of a heterogeneity didńt alters the dose distributions on treatment structures. The underdosage of 7% observed with Monte Carlo simulations were found for irradiation at 0°, not used frequently in a clinical routine. PMID:23405149

  11. The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to "coarsen" the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial an energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.

  12. An artificial energy method for calculating flows with shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The artificial-viscosity method, first proposed by von Neumann and Richtmyer, introduces an artificial viscous pressure term in regions of compression such that an increase in entropy occurs in shock transition zones. The paper describes how dissipative flows can be induced by reducing the total energy available for adiabatic processes in shock zones. A class of inviscid fluid flows, called semiflows, is described in which the flows exhibit thermodynamic differences. Induced dissipative flows modify the pressure in regions of compression in a manner analogous to the artificial-viscosity method and for a gas, the effect is equivalent to suitably modifying the gas constant in the equation of state. By employing MacCormack's method and the usual non-adiabatic equations, numerical solutions of a Riemann problem are compared with the modified artificial energy method, showing that the dissipation effect predicted by the analytical formulation is reflected in the numerical method as well.

  13. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of ion hydration free energies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B.; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von

    2009-05-28

    We apply ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods in conjunction with the thermodynamic integration or '{lambda}-path' technique to compute the intrinsic hydration free energies of Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, and Ag{sup +} ions. Using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional, adapting methods developed for classical force field applications, and with consistent assumptions about surface potential ({phi}) contributions, we obtain absolute AIMD hydration free energies ({Delta}G{sub hyd}) within a few kcal/mol, or better than 4%, of Tissandier et al.'s [J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7787 (1998)] experimental values augmented with the SPC/E water model {phi} predictions. The sums of Li{sup +}/Cl{sup -} and Ag{sup +}/Cl{sup -} AIMD {Delta}G{sub hyd}, which are not affected by surface potentials, are within 2.6% and 1.2 % of experimental values, respectively. We also report the free energy changes associated with the transition metal ion redox reaction Ag{sup +}+Ni{sup +}{yields}Ag+Ni{sup 2+} in water. The predictions for this reaction suggest that existing estimates of {Delta}G{sub hyd} for unstable radiolysis intermediates such as Ni{sup +} may need to be extensively revised.

  14. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  15. On the Total Energy Deposition Between Periodically Occurring Activations of the Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Winglee, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    Total energy deposition in the northern latitudes is used in models to determine the state of the magnetosphere. It is known that on occasion, a series of intensifications of the aurora occur that are regularly spaced. The energy profile of the total energy deposited reflects this occurance. What can be said of the state of the magnetosphere based on these profiles. We present the result of a study which looks at several of these periods when a series of intensifications occur. Conclusions as to what the magnetosphere may be doing are presented.

  16. Global Auroral Energy Deposition during Substorm Onset Compared with Local Time and Solar Wind IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Brittnacher, M.; Fillingim, M. O.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    The global images made by the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) aboard the IASTP/Polar Satellite are used to derive the global auroral energy deposited in the ionosphere resulting from electron precipitation. During a substorm onset, the energy deposited and its location in local time are compared to the solar wind IMF conditions. Previously, insitu measurements of low orbiting satellites have made precipitating particle measurements along the spacecraft track and global images of the auroral zone, without the ability to quantify energy parameters, have been available. However, usage of the high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution of consecutive UVI images enables quantitative measurement of the energy deposited in the ionosphere not previously available on a global scale. Data over an extended period beginning in January 1997 will be presented.

  17. Numerical Laser Energy Deposition on Supersonic Cavity Flow and Sensor Placement Strategies to Control the Flow

    PubMed Central

    Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  18. Numerical laser energy deposition on supersonic cavity flow and sensor placement strategies to control the flow.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  19. Experiment of Flow Control Using Laser Energy Deposition Around High Speed Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyoungJin; Jeung, InSeuck; Lee, SangHun; Kim, Seihwan

    2011-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser energy deposition on the shock structures in supersonic/hypersonic flow and quiescent air. The effect of the laser energy and pressure in the blast wave generation were also investigated. As a result, the strength of plasma and blast wave becomes stronger as pressure or laser energy increase. And the breakdown threshold of air by laser energy deposition is 0.015 bar at 508 mJ laser energy, the blast wave threshold generation in air by laser energy deposition is 0.100 bar at same laser energy. As qualitative analysis, schlieren images are also obtained. After the series of experiments, the effect of laser energy deposition (LED) on high speed flow around the shock—shock interaction created by a wedge and blunt body. By LED, the structure of shock—shock interaction was collapsed momentary and the pressure of the stagnation point was fluctuated while interference of wave.

  20. Free-energy calculation methods for collective phenomena in membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Fuhrmans, Marc; Barragan Vidal, Israel A.; Müller, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Collective phenomena in membranes are those which involve the co-operative reorganization of many molecules. Examples of these are membrane fusion, pore formation, bending, adhesion or fission. The time and length scales, on which these processes occur, pose a challenge for atomistic simulations. Therefore, in order to solve the length scale problem it is popular to introduce a coarse-grained representation. To facilitate sampling of the relevant states additional computational techniques, which encourage the system to explore the free-energy landscape far from equilibrium and visit transition states, are needed. These computational techniques provide insights about the free-energy changes involved in collective transformations of membranes, yielding information about the rate limiting states, the transformation mechanism and the influence of architectural, compositional and interaction parameters. A common approach is to identify an order parameter (or reaction coordinate), which characterizes the pathway of membrane reorganization. However, no general strategy exists to define such an order parameter that can properly describe cooperative reorganizations in membranes. Recently developed methods can overcome this problem of the order-parameter choice and allow us to study collective phenomena in membranes. We will discuss such methods as thermodynamic integration, umbrella sampling, and the string method and results provided by their applications to particle-based simulations, particularly focusing on membrane fusion and pore formation.

  1. Parallel implementation of electronic structure energy, gradient, and Hessian calculations.

    PubMed

    Lotrich, V; Flocke, N; Ponton, M; Yau, A D; Perera, A; Deumens, E; Bartlett, R J

    2008-05-21

    ACES III is a newly written program in which the computationally demanding components of the computational chemistry code ACES II [J. F. Stanton et al., Int. J. Quantum Chem. 526, 879 (1992); [ACES II program system, University of Florida, 1994] have been redesigned and implemented in parallel. The high-level algorithms include Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent field (SCF), second-order many-body perturbation theory [MBPT(2)] energy, gradient, and Hessian, and coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] energy and gradient. For SCF, MBPT(2), and CCSD(T), both restricted HF and unrestricted HF reference wave functions are available. For MBPT(2) gradients and Hessians, a restricted open-shell HF reference is also supported. The methods are programed in a special language designed for the parallelization project. The language is called super instruction assembly language (SIAL). The design uses an extreme form of object-oriented programing. All compute intensive operations, such as tensor contractions and diagonalizations, all communication operations, and all input-output operations are handled by a parallel program written in C and FORTRAN 77. This parallel program, called the super instruction processor (SIP), interprets and executes the SIAL program. By separating the algorithmic complexity (in SIAL) from the complexities of execution on computer hardware (in SIP), a software system is created that allows for very effective optimization and tuning on different hardware architectures with quite manageable effort. PMID:18500853

  2. Parallel implementation of electronic structure energy, gradient, and Hessian calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotrich, V.; Flocke, N.; Ponton, M.; Yau, A. D.; Perera, A.; Deumens, E.; Bartlett, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    ACES III is a newly written program in which the computationally demanding components of the computational chemistry code ACES II [J. F. Stanton et al., Int. J. Quantum Chem. 526, 879 (1992); [ACES II program system, University of Florida, 1994] have been redesigned and implemented in parallel. The high-level algorithms include Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent field (SCF), second-order many-body perturbation theory [MBPT(2)] energy, gradient, and Hessian, and coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] energy and gradient. For SCF, MBPT(2), and CCSD(T), both restricted HF and unrestricted HF reference wave functions are available. For MBPT(2) gradients and Hessians, a restricted open-shell HF reference is also supported. The methods are programed in a special language designed for the parallelization project. The language is called super instruction assembly language (SIAL). The design uses an extreme form of object-oriented programing. All compute intensive operations, such as tensor contractions and diagonalizations, all communication operations, and all input-output operations are handled by a parallel program written in C and FORTRAN 77. This parallel program, called the super instruction processor (SIP), interprets and executes the SIAL program. By separating the algorithmic complexity (in SIAL) from the complexities of execution on computer hardware (in SIP), a software system is created that allows for very effective optimization and tuning on different hardware architectures with quite manageable effort.

  3. Using Electronic Energy Derivative Information in Automated Potential Energy Surface Construction for Vibrational Calculations.

    PubMed

    Sparta, Manuel; Hansen, Mikkel B; Matito, Eduard; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove

    2010-10-12

    The availability of an accurate representation of the potential energy surface (PES) is an essential prerequisite in an anharmonic vibrational calculation. At the same time, the high dimensionality of the fully coupled PES and the adverse scaling properties with respect to the molecular size make the construction of an accurate PES a computationally demanding task. In the past few years, our group tested and developed a series of tools and techniques aimed at defining computationally efficient, black-box protocols for the construction of PESs for use in vibrational calculations. This includes the definition of an adaptive density-guided approach (ADGA) for the construction of PESs from an automatically generated set of evaluation points. Another separate aspect has been the exploration of the use of derivative information through modified Shepard (MS) interpolation/extrapolation procedures. With this article, we present an assembled machinery where these methods are embedded in an efficient way to provide both a general machinery as well as concrete computational protocols. In this framework we introduce and discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of two methods, called ADGA[2gx3M] and ADGA[2hx3M], where the ADGA recipe is used (with MS interpolation) to automatically define modest sized grids for up to two-mode couplings, while MS extrapolation based on, respectively, gradients only and gradients and Hessians from the ADGA determined points provides access to sufficiently accurate three-mode couplings. The performance of the resulting potentials is investigated in vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) calculations. Three molecular systems serve as benchmarks: a trisubstituted methane (CHFClBr), methanimine (CH2NH), and oxazole (C3H3NO). Furthermore, methanimine and oxazole are addressed in accurate calculations aiming to reproduce experimental results. PMID:26616778

  4. Effect of Low-Energy Ions on Plasma-Enhanced Deposition of Cubic Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torigoe, M.; Fukui, S.; Teii, K.; Matsumoto, S.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low-energy ions on deposition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) films in an inductively coupled plasma with the chemistry of fluorine is studied in terms of ion energy, ion flux, and ion to boron flux ratio onto the substrate. The ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are determined from the sheath potential and the ratio of incident ion flux to net deposited boron flux, respectively. For negative substrate biases where sp2-bonded BN phase only or no deposit is formed, both the ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are high. For positive substrate biases where cBN phase is formed, the ion energy and the ion to boron flux ratio are estimated in the range of a few eV to 35 eV and 100 to 130, respectively. The impact of negative ions is presumed to be negligible due to their low kinetic energy relative to the sheath potential over the substrate surface. The impact of positive ions with high ion to boron flux ratios is primarily responsible for reduction of the ion energy for cBN film deposition. Work supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), a Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers, and an Industrial Technology Research Grant Program 2008.

  5. Energy deposition dynamics of femtosecond pulses in water

    SciTech Connect

    Minardi, Stefano Pertsch, Thomas; Milián, Carles; Couairon, Arnaud; Majus, Donatas; Tamošauskas, Gintaras; Dubietis, Audrius; Gopal, Amrutha

    2014-12-01

    We exploit inverse Raman scattering and solvated electron absorption to perform a quantitative characterization of the energy loss and ionization dynamics in water with tightly focused near-infrared femtosecond pulses. A comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations suggests that the ionization energy of water is 8 eV, rather than the commonly used value of 6.5 eV. We also introduce an equation for the Raman gain valid for ultra-short pulses that validates our experimental procedure.

  6. CONTINUOUS-ENERGY MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR CALCULATING GENERALIZED RESPONSE SENSITIVITIES USING TSUNAMI-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Perfetti, Christopher M; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    This work introduces a new approach for calculating sensitivity coefficients for generalized neutronic responses to nuclear data uncertainties using continuous-energy Monte Carlo methods. The approach presented in this paper, known as the GEAR-MC method, allows for the calculation of generalized sensitivity coefficients for multiple responses in a single Monte Carlo calculation with no nuclear data perturbations or knowledge of nuclear covariance data. The theory behind the GEAR-MC method is presented here, and proof of principle is demonstrated by using the GEAR-MC method to calculate sensitivity coefficients for responses in several 3D, continuous-energy Monte Carlo applications.

  7. Study on deposition rate and laser energy efficiency of Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DengZhi; Hu, QianWu; Zheng, YinLan; Xie, Yong; Zeng, XiaoYan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding (LIHC) was introduced to prepare metal silicide based composite coatings, and influence of different factors such as laser type, laser power, laser scan speed and induction preheating temperature on the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency was studied systematically. Compared with conventional CO2 laser cladding, fiber laser-induction hybrid cladding improves the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency by 3.7 times. When a fiber laser with laser power of 4 kW was combined with an induction preheating temperature of 850 °C, the maximum coating deposition rate and maximum laser energy efficiency reaches 71 g/min and 64% respectively.

  8. Particle production and energy deposition studies for the neutrino factory target station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, John J.; Densham, Chris; Edgecock, Rob; Prior, Gersende

    2013-02-01

    We present FLUKA and MARS simulation studies of the pion production and energy deposition in the Neutrino Factory baseline target station, which consists of a 4 MW proton beam interacting with a liquid mercury jet target within a 20 T solenoidal magnetic field. We show that a substantial increase in the shielding is needed to protect the superconducting coils from too much energy deposition. Investigations reveal that it is possible to reduce the magnetic field in the solenoid capture system without adversely affecting the pion production efficiency. We show estimates of the amount of concrete shielding that will be required to protect the environment from the high radiation doses generated by the target station facility. We also present yield and energy deposition results for alternative targets: gallium liquid jet, tungsten powder jet, and solid tungsten bars.

  9. Mitigation of effects of beam-induced energy deposition in the LHC high-luminosity interaction regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov et al.

    2003-05-28

    Beam-induced energy deposition in the LHC high luminosity interaction region components is one of the serious limits for the machine performance. The results of further optimization and comprehensive MARS14 calculations in the IP1 and IP5 inner and outer triplets are summarized for the updated lattice, calculation model, baseline pp-collision source term, and for realistic engineering constraints on the hardware design. It is shown that the optimized layout and absorbers would provide a sufficient reduction of peak power density and dynamic heat load in the superconducting components with an adequate safety margin. Accumulated dose and residual dose rates in and around the region components are also kept below the tolerable limits in the proposed design.

  10. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Kiedrowski, Brian C; Brown, Forrest B; Wilson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.