Science.gov

Sample records for energy efficient products

  1. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  2. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the mode ling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  3. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  4. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-12-03

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  7. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    This dissertation deals with economic efficiency in the energy industry and consists of three parts. The first examines how joint experience between pairs of firms working together in oil and gas drilling improves productivity. Part two asks whether oil producers time their drilling optimally by taking real options effects into consideration. Finally, I investigate the efficiency with which energy is consumed, asking whether extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) reduces electricity use. The chapter "Learning by Drilling: Inter-Firm Learning and Relationship Persistence in the Texas Oilpatch" examines how oil production companies and the drilling rigs they hire improve drilling productivity by learning through joint experience. I find that the joint productivity of a lead firm and its drilling contractor is enhanced significantly as they accumulate experience working together. Moreover, this result is robust to other relationship specificities and standard firm-specific learning-by-doing effects. The second chapter, "Drill Now or Drill Later: The Effect of Expected Volatility on Investment," investigates the extent to which firms' drilling behavior accords with a key prescription of real options theory: irreversible investments such as drilling should be deferred when the expected volatility of the investments' payoffs increases. I combine detailed data on oil drilling with expectations of future oil price volatility that I derive from the NYMEX futures options market. Conditioning on expected price levels, I find that oil production companies significantly reduce the number of wells they drill when expected price volatility is high. I conclude with "Daylight Time and Energy: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," co-authored with Hendrik Wolff. This chapter assesses DST's impact on electricity demand using a quasi-experiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. We show that the extension did not reduce overall

  8. Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John A. Baumann

    2012-06-08

    Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible

  9. Electrorheology for Efficient Energy Production and Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Du, Enpeng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Xiaojun; Liu, Yun

    2011-03-01

    At present, most of our energy comes from liquid fuels. The viscosity plays a very important role in liquid fuel production and conservation. For example, reducing the viscosity of crude oil is the key for oil extraction and its transportation from off-shore via deep water pipelines. Currently, the dominant method to reduce viscosity is to raise oil's temperature, which does not only require much energy, but also impacts the environment. Recently, based on the basic physics of viscosity, we proposed a new theory and developed a new technology, utilizing electrorheology to reduce the viscosity of liquid fuels. The method is energy-efficient, and the results are significant. When this technology is applied to crude oil, the suspended nanoscale paraffin particle, asphalt particles, and other particles are aggregated into micrometer-size streamline aggregates, leading to significant viscosity reduction. When the temperature is below 0circ; C and the water content inside the oil becomes ice, the viscosity reduction can be as high as 75%. Our recent neutron scattering experiment has verified the physical mechanism of viscosity reduction. In comparison with heating, to reach the same level of viscosity reduction, this technology requires less than 1% of the energy needed for heating. Moreover, this technology only takes several seconds to complete the viscosity reduction, while heating takes at least several minutes to complete.

  10. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  11. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  12. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition....

  13. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition....

  14. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition....

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition....

  16. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products... Efficiency Standard for Residential Non- Weatherized Gas Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeking an exemption from Federal preemption of certain energy...

  17. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lucy deButts, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  18. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  19. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  20. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  1. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  2. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  3. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  4. A more energy efficient product for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect

    Niswander, R.H.; Edwards, D.J.; DuPart, M.S.; Tse, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA) have been used for years to separate carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from other gases in continuous absorption/desorption processes to meet very low treated gas specifications. However, MEA can undergo side reactions with CO{sub 2} which produce various types of degradation compounds. These by-products reduce performance of the solvent leading to increased energy consumption and corrosion. This can be a serious problem in applications such as the removal of CO{sub 2} in synthesis gas and natural gas treating with down stream cryogenic equipment. Formulated alkanolamine products based on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have made significant advances in energy efficiency, but are still susceptible to degradation and decreased performance. A next generation product, GAS/SPEC CS-PLUS, has now been developed and shown to be even more energy efficient. In addition, it improves separation and overall capacity while maintaining long term performance.

  5. India's aluminum industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's aluminum sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. An analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector declined slightly by 0.2%. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's aluminum sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been labor saving. The decline in productivity was mainly driven by a decline in the 1970s when capacity utilization was low and the energy crisis hit India and the world. From the early 1980s on productivity recuperated. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian aluminum sector has high potential to move towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. Substantial energy savings and carbon reduction options exist.

  6. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  7. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  8. National voluntary laboratory accreditation program: Energy efficient lighting products. Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Galowin, L.S.; Hall, W.; Rossiter, W.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to set out procedures and technical requirements for the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) accreditation of laboratories which perform test methods covered by the Energy Efficient Lighting (EEL) Products program. It complements and supplements the NVLAP programmatic procedures and general requirements found in NIST Handbook 150 (PB94-178225). The interpretive comments and additional requirements contained in this handbook make the general NVLAP criteria specifically applicable to the EEL program.

  9. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    PubMed

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs. PMID:23079413

  10. 48 CFR 970.2307 - Contracting for Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient Products and Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmentally Preferable and Energy-Efficient Products and Services. 970.2307 Section 970.2307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies,...

  11. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  12. 75 FR 24824 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC19 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and......

  13. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers.

  14. 76 FR 57612 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB92 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J,...

  15. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  16. 75 FR 70852 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC39 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Automatic Commercial Ice-Makers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and.... Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  17. AET's new energy-efficient facility gears up for production

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, A.

    1993-01-01

    American Energy Technologies, Inc. (AET), a company based just north of Green Cove Springs, Florida, has become the largest manufacturer of solar thermal products in the U.S. Phase 1 of the construction of AET's new manufacturing facility, which commenced in October 1992, was completed in April 1993. It houses high-output tooling designed by AET to ensure affordable, high-quality solar thermal hardware which is rated among the most efficient in the world today. The AET facility has integrated a number of energy-efficient design considerations and conservation measures. The passive-solar design of the building minimizes direct solar gain in the summer and maximizes tropical winds for passive cooling. Strategically placed native landscaping requires minimal maintenance, thus reducing water consumption, and provides natural shading for the offices. The exterior walls are constructed of Poly Steel hollow-core styrofoam forms filled with pumped concrete. This design provides an insulation rate of R-22, a wind load of 160 mph, and a two-hour fire rating. The light-colored office and the plant's exterior skin assist in reducing the cooling load with the protection of Lomit, a spray-applied radiant barrier manufactured by SOLEC Corporation, which coats the office roof decks. Climate control for the manufacturing area is provided by an AET solar heating system which works in tandem with two LPG Amana Command Aire 80s for back up. Office space heating is supplied by a warm forced-air system by US Solar Corporation which utilizes a 320-square-foot solar array with a 1,000-gallon storage tank. Circulation is powered by a Siemens Solar Pro photovoltaic array and the thermal system also provides solar hot water for the manufacturing process.

  18. Energy baseline and energy efficiency resource opportunities for the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Richman, E.E.; Parker, G.B.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides recommendations to improve the energy use efficiency at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. The assessment focuses upon the four largest buildings and central heating plant at the facility comprising a total of approximately 287,000 square feet. The analysis is comprehensive in nature, intended primarily to determine what if any energy efficiency improvements are warranted based upon the potential for cost-effective energy savings. Because of this breadth, not all opportunities are developed in detail; however, baseline energy consumption data and energy savings concepts are described to provide a foundation for detailed investigation and project design where warranted.

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15...

  20. Buy Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers and Specifiers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-03

    Efficient product purchases can really add up. In a single year, they could save the Federal Government almost a half billion dollars worth of energy. Every day, Federal employees and contractors make product choices. With each choice comes an opportunity to capture ongoing savings through the purchase of energy-efficient products. By purchasing products that exceed required efficiency levels, you save the government even more energy and money.

  1. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  2. Irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency of traditional and modern farms in the Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taher, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Al-Hassa Oasis is located in eastern Saudi Arabia. The dry tropical climate requires irrigation throughout the year for agricultural crop production, which currently faces the following problems: declining groundwater tables, scarcity of surface water, high soil salinity in substantial parts of the districts serviced by the irrigation authority, low efficiency of irrigation water use in fields, rising costs for production inputs, and declining crop yields. The objectives of this research are to assess field irrigation efficiency under traditional, intermediate, and modern irrigation methods, to calculate energy efficiency under transitional, intermediate, and modern soil management practices, and to determine the relationship between irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency within the current agricultural scenario of the Oasis. Analyses regarding the relationship between (1) food energy output and irrigation energy input, non-irrigation energy input and irrigation efficiency, (2) irrigation efficiency and total cultural energy input, (3) irrigation efficiency and irrigation energy input, (4) food energy output and cultural energy input, and (5) production energy efficiency and irrigation efficiency under tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, other vegetables, alfalfa, wheat, dates, and rice indicate that the effect varies from one crop to another.

  3. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan and, as such, it is a crucial year to push forward the work of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Important large-scale energy conservation policies issued in 2011 include Outline of the 12th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of The People’s Republic of China (the “Plan”) and Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Comprehensive Work Proposal for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (GF (2011) No. 26) (the “Proposal”). These two policies have established strategic objectives for energy conservation during the 12th Five-Year Plan in China, and they have also identified the key tasks and direction of energy efficiency programs for energy-using products.

  4. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  5. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy And Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2923.271 Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and...-efficient products, alternate fuel vehicles, and products using renewable energy. (1) To the...

  6. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy And Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2923.271 Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and...-efficient products, alternate fuel vehicles, and products using renewable energy. (1) To the...

  7. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy And Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2923.271 Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and...-efficient products, alternate fuel vehicles, and products using renewable energy. (1) To the...

  8. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy And Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2923.271 Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and...-efficient products, alternate fuel vehicles, and products using renewable energy. (1) To the...

  9. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy And Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2923.271 Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and...-efficient products, alternate fuel vehicles, and products using renewable energy. (1) To the...

  10. Hydrogen and oxygen production by photosynthetic water splitting: Energy and quantum conversion efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1985-01-01

    Absolute energy and quantum conversion efficiencies based on incident radiation have been measured for five species of green algae. Experiments have been performed with broadband illumination and monochromatic illumination. Maximum efficiencies were obtained in the linear low-intensity portion of the light saturation curve. At these intensities, equivalent solar energy conversion efficiencies of 2-3% were obtained with Chlamydomonas reinhardtil 137C(+). Although this efficiency decreased to less than 0.01% at equivalent incident solar irradiances above 100 w/m)sup)2)), a knowledge of the structure of photosynthetic units and the turnover time of photosynthesis suggest a procedure to overcome this limitation. Using monochromatic illumination at 700 nm, quantum efficiencies were computed from measured energy conversion efficiencies. The maximum measured quantum efficiency for photobiological hydrogen production was 6.3% in the marine species Chlamydomonas D. This value is about 25% of the maximum theoretical value of the quantum efficiency of photobiological hydrogen production. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  11. 75 FR 4548 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... products at 78% AFUE, with a compliance date of January 1, 1992. 54 FR 47916. 2. Massachusetts Petition and... through cost effective energy efficiency and demand reduction resources, and the Global Warming...

  12. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  13. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  14. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  15. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... external power supplies (EPSs). (77 FR 18478) That notice also proposed to establish standards for non... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external...

  16. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming. PMID:24869918

  17. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  18. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  19. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits and environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.

  20. Quantify the energy and environmental benefits of implementing energy-efficiency measures in China’s iron and steel production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Ding; Chen, Wenying; Xu, Tengfang

    2015-08-21

    As one of the most energy-, emission- and pollution-intensive industries, iron and steel production is responsible for significant emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutants. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate GHG emissions and to improve air quality, lacking full understanding of the costs and benefits has created barriers against implementing these measures widely. This paper sets out to advance the understanding by addressing the knowledge gap in costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures in iron and steel production. Specifically, we build a new evaluation framework to quantify energy benefits andmore » environmental benefits (i.e., CO2 emission reduction, air-pollutants emission reduction and water savings) associated with 36 energy-efficiency measures. Results show that inclusion of benefits from CO2 and air-pollutants emission reduction affects the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures significantly, while impacts from water-savings benefits are moderate but notable when compared to the effects by considering energy benefits alone. The new information resulted from this study should be used to augment future programs and efforts in reducing energy use and environmental impacts associated with steel production.« less

  1. Life-cycle energy efficiency and environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Shi, Yu; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Dinglong; Chen, Qun

    2013-04-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of sweet potato-based bioethanol production. The scope covered all stages in the life cycle of bioethanol production, including the cultivation and treatment, transport, as well as bioethanol conversion of sweet potato. Results show that the net energy ratio of sweet potato-based bioethanol is 1.48 and the net energy gain is 6.55 MJ/L. Eutrophication is identified as the most significant environmental impact category, followed by acidification, global warming, human toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that steam consumption during bioethanol conversion exerts the most effect on the results, followed by sweet potato yields and fertilizers input. It is suggested that substituting coal with cleaner energy for steam generation in bioethanol conversion stage and promotion of better management practices in sweet potato cultivation stage could lead to a significant improvement of energy and environmental performance. PMID:23434804

  2. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  3. Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene

    DOEpatents

    Buelna, Genoveva; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

  4. Green and energy-efficient methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Mitra; Taheran, Mehrdad; Verma, M; Surampalli, R Y; Valero, J R

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the last decade, researchers paid great attention to the concept of “Green Chemistry”, which aims at development of efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) in terms of the least possible impact on human life and environment. Generally, several reagents including precursors, reducing agents, stabilizing agents and solvents are used for the production of NPs and in some cases, energy is needed to reach the optimum temperature for reduction. Therefore, to develop a green approach, researchers had the opportunity to investigate eco-friendly reagents and new energy transfer techniques. In order to substitute the harmful reagents with green ones, researchers worked on different types of saccharides, polyols, carboxylic acids, polyoxometalates and extracts of various plants that can play the role of reducers, stabilizers or solvents. Also, there are some reports on using ultraviolet (UV), gamma and microwave irradiation that are capable of reducing and provide uniform heating. According to the literature, it is possible to use green reagents and novel energy transfer techniques for production of NPs. However, these new synthesis routes should be optimized in terms of performance, cost, product quality (shape and size distribution) and scale-up capability. This paper presents a review on most of the employed green reagents and new energy transfer techniques for the production of metallic NPs. PMID:26734527

  5. Auto-flotation of heterocyst enables the efficient production of renewable energy in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Li, Jihong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing cyanobacteria as a bioenergy resource is difficult due to the cost and energy consuming harvests of microalgal biomass. In this study, an auto-floating system was developed by increasing the photobiological H2 production in the heterocysts of filamentous cyanobacteria. An amount of 1.0 μM of diuron, which inhibited O2 production in cyanobacteria, resulted in a high rate of H2 production in heterocysts. The auto-floating process recovered 91.71% ± 1.22 of the accumulated microalgal biomass from the liquid media. Quantification analysis revealed that 0.72–1.10 μmol H2 per mg dry weight microalgal biomass was necessary to create this auto-floating system. Further bio-conversion by using anaerobic digestion converted the harvested microalgal biomass into biogas. Through this novel coupled system of photobiological H2 production and anaerobic digestion, a high level of light energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to bioenergy was attained with the values of 3.79% ± 0.76. PMID:24499777

  6. Auto-flotation of heterocyst enables the efficient production of renewable energy in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Li, Jihong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing cyanobacteria as a bioenergy resource is difficult due to the cost and energy consuming harvests of microalgal biomass. In this study, an auto-floating system was developed by increasing the photobiological H2 production in the heterocysts of filamentous cyanobacteria. An amount of 1.0 μM of diuron, which inhibited O2 production in cyanobacteria, resulted in a high rate of H2 production in heterocysts. The auto-floating process recovered 91.71% ± 1.22 of the accumulated microalgal biomass from the liquid media. Quantification analysis revealed that 0.72-1.10 μmol H2 per mg dry weight microalgal biomass was necessary to create this auto-floating system. Further bio-conversion by using anaerobic digestion converted the harvested microalgal biomass into biogas. Through this novel coupled system of photobiological H2 production and anaerobic digestion, a high level of light energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to bioenergy was attained with the values of 3.79% ± 0.76. PMID:24499777

  7. Draft Regulatory Analysis. Technical support document No. 1: energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    A Draft Regulatory Analysis is presented that describes the analyses performed by DOE to arrive at proposed energy efficiency standards for refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling only), and furnaces. Standards for dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiders are required to be published in the Federal Register no later than December 1981. Standards for central air conditioners (heat pumps) and home heating equipment are to be published in the Federal Register no later than January 1982. Accordingly, these products are not discussed in this Draft Regulatory Analysis.

  8. Energy-efficient syngas production through catalytic oxy-methane reforming reactions.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Choudhary, Vasant R

    2008-01-01

    The considerable recent interest in the conversion of stranded methane into transportable liquids as well as fuel cell technology has provided a renewed impetus to the development of efficient processes for the generation of syngas. The production of syngas (CO/H2), a very versatile intermediate, can be the most expensive step in the conversion of methane to value-added liquid fuels. The catalytic oxy reforming of methane, which is an energy-efficient process that can produce syngas at extremely high space-time yields, is discussed in this Review. As long-term catalyst performance is crucial for the wide-scale commercialization of this process, catalyst-related studies are abundant. Correspondingly, herein, emphasis is placed on discussing the different issues related to the development of catalysts for oxy reforming. Important aspects of related processes such as catalytic oxy-steam, oxy-CO2, and oxy-steam-CO2 processes will also be discussed. PMID:18188848

  9. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  10. Multi-Partner Demonstration of Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Improved Methods for the Production of Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Mark L. Listemann

    2006-03-08

    The work described was focused on commercializing a new energy-efficient, enabling technology silicon surfactants that will allow the flexible foam industry to utilize environmentally benign CO2 as a blowing agent. These new products provide the means for more cost-effective and energy-efficient production of foam in an industry that is under increasing threat from foreign competition and environmental regulation.

  11. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  12. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of communicable respiratory illness, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  13. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  14. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  15. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  16. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  17. Membrane processes for alcohol-water separation: Improving the energy efficiency of biofuel production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics and environmental impact of producing fuels and chemicals biologically can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol an...

  18. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  19. Optical coatings for energy-efficient fenestration: principles, products and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-02-01

    Buildings use as much as 40% of the world's total primary energy. This huge energy consumption is mainly tied to poor designs and entrenched practices for buildings' envelopes. One major road toward more energy efficient buildings is to employ design principles that are in harmony with the radiation in our natural surroundings. Glass coatings with spectral selectivity can lead to windows and glass facades with good thermal insulation and capability to transmit mainly visible light or, alternatively, across the full solar spectrum. Chromogenic glazings, especially if based on electrochromism, can regulate the inflow of visible light and solar energy between widely separated limits and achieve further energy efficiency. The new fenestration technologies are able to improve indoor comfort.

  20. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  1. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology and results for assessing the impact of production and energy efficiency, environmental regulation, and abatement capital expenditure constraints (e.g. capital rationing) on the productivity of energy and pollution intensive sectors. Energy is treated like any other production input when examining evidence of inefficiency. We find that capital rationing and environmental regulations do contribute to productivity and energy efficiency losses, but do not explain all of the production and energy inefficiencies observed in the paper industry. A summary of the energy source of production inefficiency found in the paper industry, is presented.. Each source is derived as the incremental contribution., i.e. the first is constraints on capital, the second in environmental regulation not accounted for by the first, and the final component is production inefficiency that is not accounted for my any of the- environmental analysis. While the methods are very data intensive, they reveal much more that analysis of aggregate data, 1835 since the only plant level data can provide the estimates of inefficiency that this methodology employs.

  2. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. PMID:24582427

  3. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selection and integration of high performance home features are two sides of the same coin in energy efficient sustainable construction. Many advanced technologies are available for selection, but it is in the integration of these technologies into an affordable set of features that can be used on a production basis by builders, that ensures whole-house performance meets expectations. This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4). The builder plans to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed. The information in this report can be used by builders and designers to evaluate options, and the integration of options, for increasing the efficiency of home designs in climate zone 4. The data also provide a point of reference for evaluating estimates of energy savings and costs for specific features.

  4. Peruvian upwelling plankton respiration: calculations of carbon flux, nutrient retention efficiency, and heterotrophic energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Osma, N.; Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Codispoti, L. A.; Christensen, J. P.; Gómez, M.

    2015-05-01

    Oceanic depth profiles of plankton respiration are described by a power function, RCO2 = (RCO2)0 (z/z0)b, similar to the vertical carbon flux profile. Furthermore, because both ocean processes are closely related, conceptually and mathematically, each can be calculated from the other. The exponent b, always negative, defines the maximum curvature of the respiration-depth profile and controls the carbon flux. When |b| is large, the carbon flux (FC) from the epipelagic ocean is low and the nutrient retention efficiency (NRE) is high, allowing these waters to maintain high productivity. The opposite occurs when |b| is small. This means that the attenuation of respiration in ocean water columns is critical in understanding and predicting both vertical FC as well as the capacity of epipelagic ecosystems to retain their nutrients. The ratio of seawater RCO2 to incoming FC is the NRE, a new metric that represents nutrient regeneration in a seawater layer in reference to the nutrients introduced into that layer via FC. A depth profile of FC is the integral of water column respiration. This relationship facilitates calculating ocean sections of FC from water column respiration. In an FC section and in a NRE section across the Peruvian upwelling system we found an FC maximum and a NRE minimum extending down to 400 m, 50 km off the Peruvian coast over the upper part of the continental slope. Finally, considering the coupling between respiratory electron transport system activity and heterotrophic oxidative phosphorylation promoted the calculation of an ocean section of heterotrophic energy production (HEP). It ranged from 250 to 500 J d-1 m-3 in the euphotic zone to less than 5 J d-1 m-3 below 200 m on this ocean section.

  5. Peru upwelling plankton respiration: calculations of carbon flux, nutrient retention efficiency and heterotrophic energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, T. T.; Osma, N.; Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Codispoti, L. A.; Christensen, J. P.; Gómez, M.

    2014-11-01

    Oceanic depth profiles of plankton respiration are described by a power function, RCO2 = (RCO2)0(z/z0)b similar to the vertical carbon flux profile. Furthermore, because both ocean processes are closely related, conceptually and mathematically, each can be calculated from the other. The exponent (b), always negative, defines the maximum curvature of the respiration depth-profile and controls the carbon flux. When b is large, the C flux (FC) from the epipelagic ocean is low and the nutrient retention efficiency (NRE) is high allowing these waters to maintain high productivity. The opposite occurs when b is small. This means that the attenuation of respiration in ocean water columns is critical in understanding and predicting both vertical FC as well as the capacity of epipelagic ecosystems to retain their nutrients. The NRE is a new metric defined as the ratio of nutrient regeneration in a seawater layer to the nutrients introduced into that layer via FC. A depth-profile of FC is the integral of water column respiration. This relationship facilitates calculating ocean sections of FC from water column respiration. In a FC section across the Peru upwelling system we found a FC maximum extending down to 400 m, 50 km off the Peru coast. Finally, coupling respiratory electron transport system activity to heterotrophic oxidative phosphorylation promoted the calculation of an ocean section of heterotrophic energy production (HEP). It ranged from 250 to 500 J d-1 m-3 in the euphotic zone, to less than 5 J d-1 m-3 below 200 m on this ocean section.

  6. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  7. Heat production and efficiency of energy utilization in finishing steers fed diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate heat production (HP) and efficiency of energy utilization in feedlot cattle fed diets containing WDGS. Steers (n=24, BW = 452.5 ± 36.8 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to diets containing 0, 20, 40, or 60% WDGS on a DM basis providing calcu...

  8. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.

    2014-10-01

    This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy-efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4) and they plan to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed.

  9. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. PMID:24787319

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Energy efficiency buildings program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Progress is reported in developing techniques for auditing the energy performance of buildings. The ventilation of buildings and indoor air quality is discussed from the viewpoint of (1) combustion generated pollutants; (2) organic contaminants; (3) radon emanation, measurements, and control; (4) strategies for the field monitoring of indoor air quality; and (5) mechanical ventilation systems using air-to-air heat exchanges. The development of energy efficient windows to provide optimum daylight with minimal thermal losses in cold weather and minimum thermal gain in hot weather is considered as well as the production of high frequency solid state ballasts for fluorescent lights to provide more efficient lighting at a 25% savings over conventional core ballasts. Data compilation, analysis, and demonstration activities are summarized.

  12. Steel: Energy-Efficient Arc Furnace Dust into Saleable Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-29

    Drinkard Metalox, Inc., has developed an innovative new technology to completely process electric arc furnace dust into saleable products by means of a hydro metallurgical process. Order this fact sheet to read how this new technology can both lower energy costs and eliminate the need to dispose of and transport hazardous waste off site.

  13. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Shows how libraries can save money and energy with energy-efficient technologies, improving maintenance, and encouraging staff efforts to conserve energy. Specific techniques such as life-cycle cost analysis and energy audits focusing on lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and water efficiency are described. Funding options and…

  15. Efficiency of the biodiesel production from microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass of the highly productive algae is a promising nontraditional raw material for biopower engineering, including production of energy and motor fuels from it. The paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of solar energy conversion to microalgae biofuel based both on the general theoretical approaches and on the experimental results obtained in various pilot projects. Some data on the economic efficiency of biofuel production from algae are also discussed. The possible ways to enhance the efficiency of microalgae energy use are formulated.

  16. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

  17. A random-key encoded harmony search approach for energy-efficient production scheduling with shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santiago, C. A.; Del Ser, J.; Upton, C.; Quilligan, F.; Gil-Lopez, S.; Salcedo-Sanz, S.

    2015-11-01

    When seeking near-optimal solutions for complex scheduling problems, meta-heuristics demonstrate good performance with affordable computational effort. This has resulted in a gravitation towards these approaches when researching industrial use-cases such as energy-efficient production planning. However, much of the previous research makes assumptions about softer constraints that affect planning strategies and about how human planners interact with the algorithm in a live production environment. This article describes a job-shop problem that focuses on minimizing energy consumption across a production facility of shared resources. The application scenario is based on real facilities made available by the Irish Center for Manufacturing Research. The formulated problem is tackled via harmony search heuristics with random keys encoding. Simulation results are compared to a genetic algorithm, a simulated annealing approach and a first-come-first-served scheduling. The superior performance obtained by the proposed scheduler paves the way towards its practical implementation over industrial production chains.

  18. Efficient Use of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains efficiency in terms of thermodynamics, and states specific ways in which energy efficiency can be increased in the following areas: automobiles, industrial processes, and indoor use in the home. (MLH)

  19. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  20. Insulation products promote thermal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, R.

    1985-04-01

    The judicious use of thermal insulation products in non-residential buildings can provide a number of advantages including increased energy efficiency, lower first costs (by avoiding overside HVAC systems), improved fire safety and better acoustics. Thermal insulation products are those products which retard the flow of heat energy. Materials include glass, plastics, and organic materials such as wood fibers, vermiculite and perlite. Forms range from the familiar batts and blankets of glass fibers to foamed plastic, rigid boards, losse fill and systems combining two or more products, such as polystyrene boards covered with insulating plaster. The R values of selected insulation materials with a cost/sq. ft. of each material at R 10 are given. Costs cover both the material and installation and may vary depending on local conditions.

  1. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  2. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  3. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.D.; Ross, M.

    1995-12-31

    The research in this paper is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, in industry consultations with the Department of Energy for the Energy Policy Act Section 131(c) and Section 1605(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The paper present preliminary results from one of two industry case studies, integrated pulp and paper production (a second case study of integrated steel plants is still underway). These case studies have been undertaken to obtain a clearer understanding of the process in industry that gives rise to (potential) conflicts in compliance with environmental goals and constraints, improving productivity, and improving energy efficiency. The project consists of two phases, the industry consultation phase and the analytic phase. This paper present the framework and some results from the analytic phase. This study is still ongoing and interested persons can contact the authors for a more complete report of the study findings.

  4. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  5. Integrated window systems: An advanced energy-efficient residential fenestration product

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.; Griffith, B.; LaBerge, P.

    1994-03-01

    The last several years have produced a wide variety of new window products aimed at reducing the energy impacts associated with residential windows. Improvements have focused on reducing the rate at which heat flows through the total window product by conduction/convection and thermal radiation (quantified by the U-factor) as well as in controlling solar heat gain (measured by the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or Shading Coefficient (SC)). Significant improvements in window performance have been made with low-E coated glazings, gas fills in multiple pane windows and with changes in spacer and frame materials and designs. These improvements have been changes to existing design concepts. They have pushed the limits of the individual features and revealed weaknesses. The next generation of windows will have to incorporate new materials and ideas, like recessed night insulation, seasonal sun shades and structural window frames, into the design, manufacturing and construction process, to produce an integrated window system that will be an energy and comfort asset.

  6. Heat Production and Energy Efficiency of Broilers Infected With Necrotic Enteritis.

    PubMed

    M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Swick, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry is the most important bacterial disease in terms of economic losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an experimental challenge with necrotic enteritis on respiration and heat production in birds pretreated with dietary acylated starch or antibiotics (AB) zinc bacitracin (50 mg/kg) plus salinomycin (60 mg/kg). In total, 48 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were assigned to floor pens until day 10. On day 11, birds were randomly placed into 16 calorimetric chambers with four replicates of three birds per treatment. Treatments were: control, AB, acetylated high-amylose maize starch (SA), or butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (SB). Birds were NE challenged by inoculation with 5000 sporulated oocysts each of Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina and 2500 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria brunetti on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (3.8 × 10(8) colony-forming units) on day 14. The results showed that heat production (HP), respiratory quotient (RQ), heat increment, weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and livability (LV) of birds fed control, SA, and SB diets were lower than birds fed AB at 19 and 42 hr postinoculation (P < 0.05). At 65 hr postchallenge, increased FI and WG of birds were observed, indicating recovery from NE. During the entire period, from day 14 to day 17, birds fed control, SA, and SB had lower WG, FI, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and metabolizable energy (P < 0.01) than those fed AB. The data demonstrate that Eimeria sp. and C. perfringens challenge reduces growth performance, HP, RQ, metabolizable energy, and MEI of birds fed control, SA, and SB but not AB diets. PMID:26953943

  7. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be

  8. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  9. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  11. Basic energy efficiency of plasma production in electrical discharge and electron beam reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Kuthi, A.; Burkhart, C.P.; Bayless, J.R.

    1996-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in atmospheric pressure gas streams. Either electrical discharge of electron beam methods can produce these plasmas. This paper presents a comparative assessment of various non-thermal plasma reactors. The goal of our project is two-fold: (1) to understand the feasibility and scalability of various non-thermal plasma reactors by focusing on the energy efficiency of the electron and chemical kinetics, and (2) to optimize process parameters and provide performance and economic data. Experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, pulsed corona reactor and dielectric-barrier discharge will be presented. These reactors have been used to study the removal of NO{sub x} and a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas decomposition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. The decomposition mechanisms are discussed to illustrate how the chemistry could strongly affect the economics of the process. An analysis of the electron kinetics show that electrical discharge reactors are the most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For pollution control applications requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the sue of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption.

  12. Efficient energy use in manufacturing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improved industrial efficiency is great and a substantial part of that potential is being realized in the course of events. With new technology and increasing affluence, the composition of production is changing such that energy and materials consumption is growing more slowly than the economy. Through new technologies and appropriate public policies, the energy intensities of all production processes should also continue to decline. Potential difficulties facing this relatively rosy scenario are also discussed. PMID:11607261

  13. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  14. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes. PMID:22510094

  15. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Anypas, Katie

    2014-10-17

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  16. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  17. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  18. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  19. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  20. Energy requirements of different breeds of beef cattle and their relationship to production efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concepts discussed in this manuscript are that defining an animal's genetic merit without consideration of the production environment could result in disconnects between the animals' genetic potential for production and the capability of the production environment to support that level of productivi...

  1. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  2. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  3. The role of emerging energy-efficient technology in promoting workplace productivity and health: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this particular Indoor Health and Productivity (IHP) project is to improve the communication of research findings in the indoor health and productivity area to scientists and building professionals (e.g. architects and engineers) and, thus, to help stimulate implementation of existing knowledge.

  4. 75 FR 80289 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Waiver of Federal Preemption of State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    .... 63 FR 13308. Because more than five years have passed since ASME/ANSI last amended the water... Regulations Concerning the Water Use or Water Efficiency of Showerheads, Faucets, Water Closets and Urinals... conservation standards under 42 U.S.C. 6297(c) with respect to any State regulation concerning the water use...

  5. Energy production, distribution, and pollution controls: Combining engineering and economic analysis to enhance efficiency and policy design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkis, David F.

    Three published articles are presented which focus on enhancing various aspects of the energy supply chain. While each paper adopts a different methodology, all three combine engineering data and/or techniques with economic analysis to improve efficiency or policy design within energy markets. The first paper combines a chemical engineering plant design model with an economic assessment of product enhancements within an ethanol production facility. While a new chemical process is shown to achieve greater ethanol yields, the animal feed by-products are denatured and decrease in value due to the degradation of a key nutritional amino acid. Overall, yield increases outweigh any costs, providing additional value to firms adopting this process. The second paper uses a mixed integer linear model to assess the optimal location of cellulosic ethanol production facilities within the state of Indiana. Desired locations with low costs are linked to regions with high yield corn growth, as these areas provide an abundance of corn stover, a by-product of corn and a cellulosic source of ethanol. The third paper implements experimental economic methods to assess the effectiveness of policies intended to control prices in emissions permit markets. When utilizing reserve permit auctions as an alternative to setting explicit maximum prices, prices are elevated beyond the theoretical predictions of the model within the conditions of the experiment. The most likely cause of higher prices is the negotiating power provided to sellers by grandfathering permits as evidenced by higher than expected welfare gains to sellers. Before presenting the articles, a discussion is introduced regarding the role of assumptions used by economists. For each article, a key assumption is highlighted and the consequences of making a different assumption are provided. Whether the consequences are large or small, the benefits of elucidating our models with assumptions based on real world behaviors are clearly

  6. Partitioning of heat production in growing pigs as a tool to improve the determination of efficiency of energy utilization

    PubMed Central

    Labussière, Etienne; Dubois, Serge; van Milgen, Jaap; Noblet, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In growing pigs, the feed cost accounts for more than 60% of total production costs. The determination of efficiency of energy utilization through calorimetry measurements is of importance to sustain suitable feeding practice. The objective of this paper is to describe a methodology to correct daily heat production (HP) obtained from measurements in respiration chamber for the difference in energy expenditure related to physical activity between animals. The calculation is based on a preliminary published approach for partitioning HP between HP due to physical activity (AHP), thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and basal metabolic rate (fasting HP; FHP). Measurements with male growing pigs [mean body weight (BW): 115 kg] which were surgically castrated (SC), castrated through immunization against GnRH (IC), or kept as entire male (EM) were used as an example. Animals were fed the same diet ad-libitum and were housed individually in two 12-m3 open-circuit respiration chambers during 6 days when fed ad-libitum and one supplementary day when fasted. Physical activity was recorded through interruption of an infrared beam to detect standing and lying positions and with force transducers that recorded the mechanical force the animal exerted on the floor of the cage. Corrected AHP (AHPc), TEF (TEFc), and HP (HPc) were calculated to standardize the level of AHP between animals, assuming that the ratio between AHPc and ME intake should be constant. Inefficiency of energy utilization (sum of AHPc and TEFc) was lower than the inefficiency estimated from the slope of the classical relationship between HPc and ME intake but was associated with higher requirements for maintenance. Results indicate that EM pigs had higher FHP but lower TEFc than IC and SC pigs. These results agree with the higher contents in viscera of EM pigs that stimulate their basal metabolic rate and with the reduced utilization of dietary protein to provide energy for maintenance energy requirements and fat

  7. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  8. 76 FR 56678 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...). 74 FR 34080 (July 14, 2009). The 2009 Lamps rule addressed two statutory directives under 42 U.S.C... products by publishing a framework document and publishing a notice announcing its availability. 75 FR... also note that those wishing to bring laptops to the meeting will be required to obtain a property...

  9. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  10. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  11. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  12. Investigation of Ultrasonics as a tool for energy efficient recycling of Lactic acid from postconsumer PLA products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Gowrishankar

    The growing use of "ecofriendly," biodegradable polymers have created a need for a suitable recycling technique because, unlike petroleum derived plastics, their properties deteriorate during conventional recycling. These new techniques must be cost efficient and yield material properties same as virgin polymer. This research investigates the effectiveness of high-power ultrasonics as an efficient technique to recover lactic acid from postconsumer polylactic acid (PLA) products. Polylactic acid is a commercially available bioplastic derived from corn starch and/or sugar cane that is biorenewable and compostable (biodegradable). The various ongoing researches to recover lactic acid from PLA employ a common platform of high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) to effect polymer hydrolysis. The energy intensiveness of these HTHP processes prompted this work to investigate ultrasonics as an low energy alternative process to cause PLA depolymerization. The energy consumption and the time required for depolymerization were utilized as the metrics to quantify and compare depolymerization enhanced by ultrasonics with hot-bath technique. The coupled effect of catalysts concentration and different solvents, along with ultrasonic were studied based on preliminary trial results. In addition, the correlation between the rates of de-polymerization was analyzed for ultrasonic amplitude, treatment time, and catalyst concentration and types. The results indicate that depolymerization of PLA was largely effected by heating caused by ultrasonic-induced cavitations. Other effects of ultrasonics, namely cavitations and acoustic streaming, were shown to have minimal effects in enhancing depolymerization. In fact, thermal energy predominately affected the reaction kinetics; the heat introduced by conventional method (i.e., electrical heaters) was more efficient than ultrasonic heating in terms of energy (for depolymerization) per unit mass of PLA and depolymerizing time. The degree of

  13. High Efficiency Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Laboratory Demonstration of S-I Water-Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Brown, L.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Gelbard, F.; Pickard F.S.; Leybros, J.; Le Duigou, A.; Borgard, J.M.

    2004-11-30

    The objective of the French CEA, US-DOE INERI project is to perform a lab scale demonstration of the sulfur iodine (S-I) water splitting cycle, and assess the potential of this cycle for application to nuclear hydrogen production. The project will design, construct and test the three major component reaction sections that make up the S-I cycle. The CEA will design and test the prime (Bunsen) reaction section. General Atomics will develop and test the HI decomposition section, and SNL will develop and test the H2SO4 decomposition section. Activities for this period included initial program coordination and information exchange, the development of models and analyses that will support the design of the component sections, and preliminary designs for the component reaction sections. The sections are being designed to facilitate integration into a closed loop demonstration in a later stage of the program.

  14. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  15. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  16. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

  18. Performance Verification of Production-Scalable Energy-Efficient Solutions: Winchester/Camberley Homes Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Winchester/Camberley Homes with the Building America program and its NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership collaborated to develop a new set of high performance home designs that could be applicable on a production scale. The new home designs are to be constructed in the mixed humid climate zone four and could eventually apply to all of the builder's home designs to meet or exceed future energy codes or performance-based programs. However, the builder recognized that the combination of new wall framing designs and materials, higher levels of insulation in the wall cavity, and more detailed air sealing to achieve lower infiltration rates changes the moisture characteristics of the wall system. In order to ensure long term durability and repeatable successful implementation with few call-backs, this report demonstrates through measured data that the wall system functions as a dynamic system, responding to changing interior and outdoor environmental conditions within recognized limits of the materials that make up the wall system. A similar investigation was made with respect to the complete redesign of the heating, cooling, air distribution, and ventilation systems intended to optimize the equipment size and configuration to significantly improve efficiency while maintaining indoor comfort. Recognizing the need to demonstrate the benefits of these efficiency features, the builder offered a new house model to serve as a test case to develop framing designs, evaluate material selections and installation requirements, changes to work scopes and contractor learning curves, as well as to compare theoretical performance characteristics with measured results.

  19. Performance Verification of Production-Scalable Energy-Efficient Solutions: Winchester/Camberley Homes Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Winchester/Camberley Homes collaborated with the Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation to develop a new set of high performance home designs that could be applicable on a production scale. The new home designs are to be constructed in the mixed humid climate zone and could eventually apply to all of the builder's home designs to meet or exceed future energy codes or performance-based programs. However, the builder recognized that the combination of new wall framing designs and materials, higher levels of insulation in the wall cavity, and more detailed air sealing to achieve lower infiltration rates changes the moisture characteristics of the wall system. In order to ensure long term durability and repeatable successful implementation with few call-backs, the project team demonstrated through measured data that the wall system functions as a dynamic system, responding to changing interior and outdoor environmental conditions within recognized limits of the materials that make up the wall system. A similar investigation was made with respect to the complete redesign of the HVAC systems to significantly improve efficiency while maintaining indoor comfort. Recognizing the need to demonstrate the benefits of these efficiency features, the builder offered a new house model to serve as a test case to develop framing designs, evaluate material selections and installation requirements, changes to work scopes and contractor learning curves, as well as to compare theoretical performance characteristics with measured results.

  20. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload...

  1. Lighting quality and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Benya, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ten design actions result in good lighting quality if applied intelligently. These actions are to: conceal the light source; provide enough light; relate to the architecture; relate to the human mood; utilize and manage the color of light; utilize and manage contrast; relate to the human being; solve technical problems created by other light sources; relate to the quality of the space; and realize the creative potential of the space. The starting characteristics for energy-efficient lighting include dimming capability, color capabilities, and optical capabilities. The most efficacious light source for the job should be used. This includes daylight, although it is not always reliable. Energy-efficient quality lighting is evident, but to make it persistent, to give it staying power, there must be some changes, such as: minor product improvements; two to a few major product breakthroughs; better education for the designers and specifiers; lower prices for key components and systems; higher value placed on environmental quality; ongoing applications research; doing it right; more industry awards and recoginition for energy-efficient designs; continuation of utility efforts in rebates, education programs, and technology centers; unification of the industry and avoidance of duplication; more positive governmental response and less arbitrary product-oriented legislation until this issue is better understood.

  2. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  4. Energy efficient engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Sabla, P. E.; Bahr, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting or closely approaching the emissions goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Project with an advanced design, single annular combustor was determined. A total of nine sector combustor configurations and one full-annular-combustor configuration were evaluated. Acceptable levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were obtained with several of the sector combustor configurations tested, and several of the configurations tested demonstrated reduced levels of nitrogen oxides compared to conventional, single annular designs. None of the configurations tested demonstrated nitrogen oxide emission levels that meet the goal of the E3 Project.

  5. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  6. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  7. NITRO-HYDROLYSIS: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT SOURCE REDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-03-10

    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  8. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    PubMed

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed. PMID:27087253

  9. Modern improved and effective design of boundary layer turbine for robust control and efficient production of green energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman Saeed Khan, M.; Ali, Ehsan; Maqsood, M. Irfan; Nawaz, Haq

    2013-06-01

    Boundary layer turbine, although invented long before but has failed to commercialize and beat the bladed turbines due to certain lacks. In this paper we have proposed and suggested some techniques to improve the design of the boundary layer turbine such that to take the optimum advantage of its efficiency, compensating all of its draw backs. A test model of proposed boundary layer turbine has been physically made and tested under different conditions. The experiments using different flow rates, different discharge rates and changing many other factors has been made and the results of these experiments are included in this paper which verifies the improvements in the output power obtained from boundary layer turbine system. This modified turbine can thus become an efficient way of producing green energy like any other renewable energy resource.

  10. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  11. Maximizing efficiency of rumen microbial protein production

    PubMed Central

    Hackmann, Timothy J.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Rumen microbes produce cellular protein inefficiently partly because they do not direct all ATP toward growth. They direct some ATP toward maintenance functions, as long-recognized, but they also direct ATP toward reserve carbohydrate synthesis and energy spilling (futile cycles that dissipate heat). Rumen microbes expend ATP by vacillating between (1) accumulation of reserve carbohydrate after feeding (during carbohydrate excess) and (2) mobilization of that carbohydrate thereafter (during carbohydrate limitation). Protozoa account for most accumulation of reserve carbohydrate, and in competition experiments, protozoa accumulated nearly 35-fold more reserve carbohydrate than bacteria. Some pure cultures of bacteria spill energy, but only recently have mixed rumen communities been recognized as capable of the same. When these communities were dosed glucose in vitro, energy spilling could account for nearly 40% of heat production. We suspect that cycling of glycogen (a major reserve carbohydrate) is a major mechanism of spilling; such cycling has already been observed in single-species cultures of protozoa and bacteria. Interconversions of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) may also expend ATP and depress efficiency of microbial protein production. These interconversions may involve extensive cycling of intermediates, such as cycling of acetate during butyrate production in certain butyrivibrios. We speculate this cycling may expend ATP directly or indirectly. By further quantifying the impact of reserve carbohydrate accumulation, energy spilling, and SCFA interconversions on growth efficiency, we can improve prediction of microbial protein production and guide efforts to improve efficiency of microbial protein production in the rumen. PMID:26029197

  12. Utilising biohydrogen to increase methane production, energy yields and process efficiency via two stage anaerobic digestion of grass.

    PubMed

    Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Shipley, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Real time measurement of gas production and composition were used to examine the benefits of two stage anaerobic digestion (AD) over a single stage AD, using pelletized grass as a feedstock. Controlled, parallel digestion experiments were performed in order to directly compare a two stage digestion system producing hydrogen and methane, with a single stage system producing just methane. The results indicated that as well as producing additional energy in the form of hydrogen, two stage digestion also resulted in significant increases to methane production, overall energy yields, and digester stability (as indicated by bicarbonate alkalinity and volatile fatty acid removal). Two stage AD resulted in an increase in energy yields from 10.36 MJ kg(-1) VS to 11.74 MJ kg(-1) VS, an increase of 13.4%. Using a two stage system also permitted a much shorter hydraulic retention time of 12 days whilst maintaining process stability. PMID:25913885

  13. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  14. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  15. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  16. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  17. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  18. Material and energy productivity.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  19. Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Logan, B.E.

    2007-11-20

    Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles, but most hydrogen is generated from nonrenewable fossil fuels such as natural gas. Here, the authors show that efficient and sustainable hydrogen production is possible from any type of biodegradable organic matter by electrohydrogenesis. In this process, protons and electrons released by exoelectrogenic bateria in specially designed reactors (based on modifying microbial fuel cells) are catalyzed to form hydrogen gas through the addition of a small voltage to the circuit. By improving the materials and reactor architecture, hydrogen gas was produced at yields of 2.01-3.95 mol/mol (50-99% of the theoretical maximum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall energy efficiency of the process was 288% based solely on electricity applied, and 82% when the heat of combusion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m{sup 3} of H{sub 2} per cubic meter of reactor per day. Direct high-yield hydrogen gas production was further demonstrated by using glucose, several volatile acids (acetic, butyric, lactic, propionic, and valeric), and cellulose at maximum stoichiometric yields of 54-91% and overall energy efficiencies of 64-82%. This electrohydrogenic process thus provides a highly efficient route for producting hydrogen gas from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass resources.

  20. The Role of Emerging Energy-Efficient Technology in PromotingWorkplace Productivity and Health: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-02-13

    Research into indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and itseffects on health, comfort, and performance of occupants is becoming anincreasing priority as interest in high performance buildings andorganizational productivity advances. Facility managers are interested inIEQ's close relationship to energy use in facilities and employers wantto enhance employee comfort and productivity, reduce absenteeism andhealth costs, and reduce or even eliminate litigation by providingexcellent indoor environments to employees. The increasing interest inthis field as architects, engineers, facility managers, buildinginvestors, health officials, jurists, and the public seek simple andgeneral guidelines on creating safe, healthy, and comfortable indoorenvironment, has put additional pressure on the research community. Inthe last twenty years, IEQresearchers have advanced our understanding ofthe influence of IEQ on health and productivity, but many uncertaintiesremain. Consequently, there is a critical need to expand research in thisfield, particularly research that is highly multidisciplinary. Inaddition, there is a strong need to better communicate knowledgecurrently documented in research publications to building professionalsin order to encourage implementation of designs and practices thatenhance health and productivity. Against this background, the IndoorHealth and Productivity (IHP) project aims to develop a fullerunderstanding of the relationships between physical attributes of theworkplace (e.g. thermal, lighting, ventilation, and air quality) innon-residential and non-industrial buildings and the health andproductivity of occupants. A particular emphasis of the IHP project is toidentify and communicate key research findings, with their practical andpolicy implications, to policymakers, design practitioners, facilitymanagers, construction and energy services companies, and buildinginvestors.The IHP project has a steering committee of sponsors and seniorscientists. Advisory

  1. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  2. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2007-11-20

    Hydrogen gas has tremendous potential as an environmentally acceptable energy carrier for vehicles, but most hydrogen is generated from nonrenewable fossil fuels such as natural gas. Here, we show that efficient and sustainable hydrogen production is possible from any type of biodegradable organic matter by electrohydrogenesis. In this process, protons and electrons released by exoelectrogenic bacteria in specially designed reactors (based on modifying microbial fuel cells) are catalyzed to form hydrogen gas through the addition of a small voltage to the circuit. By improving the materials and reactor architecture, hydrogen gas was produced at yields of 2.01-3.95 mol/mol (50-99% of the theoretical maximum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall energy efficiency of the process was 288% based solely on electricity applied, and 82% when the heat of combustion of acetic acid was included in the energy balance, at a gas production rate of 1.1 m(3) of H(2) per cubic meter of reactor per day. Direct high-yield hydrogen gas production was further demonstrated by using glucose, several volatile acids (acetic, butyric, lactic, propionic, and valeric), and cellulose at maximum stoichiometric yields of 54-91% and overall energy efficiencies of 64-82%. This electrohydrogenic process thus provides a highly efficient route for producing hydrogen gas from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass resources. PMID:18000052

  4. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  5. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  6. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  7. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade... Energy (DOE) are organizing an Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Moscow and St. Petersburg on June 4-7... market for the sale of U.S. energy efficiency products and services. Russia presents...

  8. Improving aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, F. P.; Klineberg, J. M.; Kramer, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations conducted by a NASA task force concerning the development of aeronautical fuel-conservation technology are considered. The task force estimated the fuel savings potential, prospects for implementation in the civil air-transport fleet, and the impact of the technology on air-transport fuel use. Propulsion advances are related to existing engines in the fleet, to new production of current engine types, and to new engine designs. Studies aimed at the evolutionary improvement of aerodynamic design and a laminar flow control program are discussed and possibilities concerning the use of composite structural materials are examined.

  9. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process. PMID:12387426

  10. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  11. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  12. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components—up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  13. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components?up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  14. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  15. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  16. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2013-05-29

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  17. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  18. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  19. Implementing energy efficient embedded multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silven, Olli; Rintaluoma, Tero; Jyrkkä, Kari

    2006-02-01

    Multimedia processing in battery powered mobile communication devices is pushing their computing power requirements to the level of desktop computers. At the same time the energy dissipation limit stays at 3W that is the practical maximum to prevent the devices from becoming too hot to handle. In addition, several hours of active usage time should be provided on battery power. During the last ten years the active usage times of mobile communication devices have remained essentially the same regardless of big energy efficiency improvements at silicon level. The reasons can be traced to the design paradigms that are not explicitly targeted to creating energy efficient systems, but to facilitate implementing complex software solutions by large teams. Consequently, the hardware and software architectures, including the operating system principles, are the same for both mainframe computer system and current mobile phones. In this paper, we consider the observed developments against the needs of video processing in mobile communication devices and consider means of implementing energy efficient video codecs both in hardware and software. Although inflexible, monolithic video acceleration hardware is an attractive solution, while software based codecs are becoming increasingly difficult to implement in an energy efficient manner due to increasing system complexity. Approaches that combine both the flexibility of software and energy efficiency of hardware remain to be seen.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  1. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  2. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  3. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  4. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Andersson, B.

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  5. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B. ); Andersson, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  6. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  7. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  8. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  9. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  10. Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

  11. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  12. Renewable energy: Energy from agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-06-01

    Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10 percent of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10 percent mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production. Wider applications will require either government incentives or genetic engineering of crops and improve efficiencies in conversion processes to lower costs.

  13. 7 CFR 1710.255 - Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency... efficiency work plans—energy efficiency borrowers. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a..., replacements, and retirements of energy efficiency related equipment and activities; (b) An energy......

  14. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  15. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  16. Near-uv photon efficiency in a TiO2 electrode - Application to hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desplat, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    An n-type (001) TiO2 electrode irradiated at 365 nm was tested under anodic polarization. A saturation current independent of pH and proportional to light intensity has been observed. Accurate measurements of the incident power lead to a 60 per cent photon efficiency. A photoelectrochemical cell built with such an electrode, operated under solar irradiation without concentration, produced an electrolysis current of 0.7 mA/sq cm without applied voltage.

  17. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  18. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K. H.

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of the bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; and continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  19. 75 FR 13217 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Classifying Products as Covered Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Products, Docket No. EE-RM-03-630, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Consent Decree. In a memorandum for the Secretary of Energy, dated February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6537, Feb....

  20. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  1. Which Efficient Products Must Federal Agencies Buy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-24

    Fact sheet prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help Federal agencies comply with FEMP Designated, Low Standby Power, ENERGY STAR Qualified, and Water Sense Labeled product purchasing requirements.

  2. Ethanol Production from SPORL-pretreated Lodgepole Pine: Preliminary Evaluation of Mass Balance and Process Energy Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 liters (73 gallons) per ton of wood or 72% of theoretical. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subject to the sulfite pretreatment to ...

  3. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  4. Efficient Production of High-energy Nonthermal Particles during Magnetic Reconnection in a Magnetically Dominated Ion-Electron Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fan; Li, Xiaocan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Zhang, Bing; Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Zhang, Haocheng; Deng, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a leading mechanism for dissipating magnetic energy and accelerating nonthermal particles in Poynting-flux-dominated flows. In this Letter, we investigate nonthermal particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a magnetically dominated ion-electron plasma using fully kinetic simulations. For an ion-electron plasma with a total magnetization of {σ }0={B}2/(4π n({m}i+{m}e){c}2), the magnetization for each species is {σ }i˜ {σ }0 and {σ }e˜ ({m}i/{m}e){σ }0, respectively. We have studied the magnetically dominated regime by varying σe = 103-105 with initial ion and electron temperatures {T}i={T}e=5-20{m}e{c}2 and mass ratio {m}i/{m}e=1-1836. The results demonstrate that reconnection quickly establishes power-law energy distributions for both electrons and ions within several (2-3) light-crossing times. For the cases with periodic boundary conditions, the power-law index is 1\\lt s\\lt 2 for both electrons and ions. The hard spectra limit the power-law energies for electrons and ions to be {γ }{be}˜ {σ }e and {γ }{bi}˜ {σ }i, respectively. The main acceleration mechanism is a Fermi-like acceleration through the drift motions of charged particles. When comparing the spectra for electrons and ions in momentum space, the spectral indices sp are identical as predicted in Fermi acceleration. We also find that the bulk flow can carry a significant amount of energy during the simulations. We discuss the implication of this study in the context of Poynting-flux dominated jets and pulsar winds, especially the applications for explaining nonthermal high-energy emissions.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  6. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to..., Office of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration,...

  7. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a...: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  8. Visualization of Academic Efficiency and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Carl N.

    2006-01-01

    A simple and readily understandable visual display of quantitative measures of academic efficiency and productivity is demonstrated in this article. This graphical construction facilitates annual comparisons of unit efficiency and productivity as well as an analysis of temporal changes in unit activity. By establishing a common framework upon…

  9. No maintenance -- no energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Schliesing, J.S.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1994-12-01

    Field investigations illustrate that it is not realistic to expect new high-tech equipment to function for a full life expectancy at high efficiency without significant operations and maintenance (O&M). A simple walk through inspection of most buildings reveals extensive equipment that is being operated on manual override, is incorrectly adjusted and operating inefficiently, or is simply inoperative. This point is illustrated with two examples at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. The first describes development of a comprehensive, base-wide, steam trap maintenance program. The second describes a measured evaluation from a typical office building. The objective of both examples was to assess the importance of proper O&M. The proposed ``O&M First`` philosophy will result in more efficient building HVAC operation, provide improved services to the building occupants, and reduce energy consumption and unscheduled equipment repair/replacement. Implementation of a comprehensive O&M program will result in a 15--25% energy savings. The O&M foundation that is established will allow other energy conservation activities such is demand side management or energy management and control systems, to achieve and maintain their expected energy savings.

  10. Industrial energy efficiency opportunities in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Parker, S.; Evans, M.; Brown, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the energy assistance program to help Ukraine shut down the Chornobyl nuclear reactors, The US Department of Energy (DOE) asked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to identify and appraise industrial energy efficiency projects in Ukraine. The industrial sector currently accounts for over 60% of Ukraine's energy consumption. Most industrial enterprises in Ukraine use energy very inefficiently because the former Communist system provided few incentives to conserve energy or even account for its cost. Since 1994, however, the country's energy prices have risen close to world levels, and Ukraine finds itself saddled with very high energy costs. The Ukrainian Government is also under pressure to lower natural gas imports and reduce the country's trade imbalance with Russia. As a result, incentives to save energy in Ukraine are now great, and the market for energy efficiency products is growing. The Ukrainian Government estimates that this market will generate from $700 million to $1 billion worth of new product sales by the year 2000. However, few industrial enterprises have the money necessary for large-scale energy efficiency improvements. Therefore, one of the main goals of this project is to help the most promising enterprises obtain financing for energy efficiency projects form a variety of financial institutions, or through new, creative financing mechanisms. The project has involved several site visits to different industrial plants in Ukraine to gather preliminary data on the facilities. Most of these plants are in the process of being privatized or have been recently privatized and are financially sound. Among the plants visited have been a glass manufacturing plant, a coke-chemical plant, a paper mill, an alumina plant, a tire factory, a food processing plant, an iron mine, a metallurgical firm, and a steel cable factory. Following a preliminary analysis of the site-specific data obtained during the first visit, a limited number of

  11. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  12. How to buy energy-efficient distribution transformer

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The efficiency levels in this Recommendation are the same as those in NEMA`s TP-1 standard. Additionally, the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program identifies efficient low-voltage distribution transformers with the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label. Complying models meet the same efficiency criteria specified in this Recommendation (and TP-1).

  13. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  14. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the ITmore » investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.« less

  15. Production of lead metal by molten-salt electrolysis with energy-efficient electrodes. Rept. of investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.E.; Chambers, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated electrode designs for electrowinning lead metal from a LiCl-KCl-PbCl2 electrolyte at 450 C. The major objective of the investigation was to decrease the energy requirement for lead electrowinning. Electrolysis was performed in a bench-scale cell using several graphite electrode assemblies. Parameters, such as electrode spacing, current density, and chlorine gas removal from the anode, were investigated in the bench-scale tests. An optimum electrode assembly, termed the sawtooth design, was scaled up and operated at 3,000 and 4,000 A. The sawtooth electrodes operating at 3,000 A produced lead for 0.66 kW times h/kg. The electrodes were constructed by cutting large triangular grooves in the electrode surfaces. The electrodes were placed together such that the triangular peaks of one electrode projected into the triangular valleys of the other electrode. Chlorine did not build up on the anode with the sawtooth electrodes.

  16. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  17. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  18. Efficiency of work production by spastic muscles.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, G G; Detrembleur, C; Nielens, H; Lejeune, T M

    2005-12-01

    The present study compared the muscular efficiency in spastic and healthy lower limbs producing the same mechanical work. Sixteen chronic post-stroke hemiparetic and spastic patients and 14 age-matched healthy subjects were submitted to a submaximal stepwise exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer, pedalling with only one lower limb. Net energetic expenditure was computed from oxygen consumption above resting values. Electrical activity of antagonistic muscles in the thigh and in the shank was recorded and co-contraction was defined as the percentage of the pedalling cycle when antagonistic muscles were activated simultaneously. The efficiency was calculated as the ratio between the mechanical work done on the ergometer and the net energetic expenditure. Spasticity was quantitatively evaluated by measuring passive ankle plantar flexor muscle stiffness. The working capacity of the patients' paretic lower limb was very low (<40W). The energy expenditure increased linearly as a function of work intensity, without statistical difference between the patients paretic lower limb (PPL), the patients healthy lower limb (PHL) and the healthy subjects lower limb (HSL). Shank co-contraction was 2.9 times greater in PPL (p<0.05) and 2.3 times greater in PHL (p<0.05) than in HSL. Thigh co-contraction was also 1.8 times greater in PPL than in HSL (p<0.05). The ankle plantar flexor muscle stiffness was statistically greater in PPL than in PHL and HSL (p<0.05). The efficiency was not statistically different between the three groups (p=0.155). In conclusion, the efficiency of work production by paretic and spastic lower limb muscles was normal ( congruent with 20%) despite significant neurological impairments. PMID:16274915

  19. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  20. The energy efficient engine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macioce, L. E.; Schaefer, J. W.; Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine Project is directed at providing, by 1984, the advanced technologies which could be used for a generation of fuel conservative turbofan engines. The project is conducted through contracts with the General Electric Company and Pratt and Whitney Aircraft. The scope of the entire project and the current status of these efforts are summarized. A description of the preliminary designs of the fully developed engines is included and the potential benefits of these advanced engines, as well as highlights of some of the component technology efforts conducted to date, are discussed.

  1. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  2. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M.; Li, T.; Hassan, M.; Han, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in

  3. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette R; Raby, Eric Y; Brennan, Sean M; Kulathumani, Vinod; Rosten, Ed; Wolinski, Christophe; Wagner, Charles; Charot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  4. Microbial protein production: maximizing protein production efficiency in Space habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauwaert, Peter; Alloul, Abbas; Muys, Maarten; Sui, Yixing; Boon, Nico; Luther, Amanda; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Ilgrande, Chiara; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried

    2016-07-01

    On top of the goal of a closed material cycle for Space habitats or deep Space missions with food production, extreme requirements apply to such Life Support Systems (LSS) in terms of mass, volume, crew time, energy consumption and controllability. Although relatively high water recovery efficiencies (~70-90%) can be achieved, all Space missions until now have relied on terrestrial food resupply and thus no nutrient recovery has been achieved so far. Researchers and Space agencies have typically been focussing on the cultivation of higher plants to produce food for crew members for future Space LSS. It can be assumed that the required surface area (50-500 m2 per crew member), plant evaporation rates (~200 kg per crew member per day), power consumption (~65 kW per crew member) and the degree of controllability of a higher plant compartment will have a great impact on the feasibility of realizing a future closed loop LSS in Space for the first time. As the food production density is so critical in a LSS, a combination of higher plant cultivation and microbial protein production might increase the chances of success of future Space LSS's since the production densities are significantly higher. Higher plants in Space LSS's would typically have an average specific protein production rate in the order of 0-4 kg protein m-3 year-1 (calculated from Do, Owens et al. (2016)), whereas bacterial biomass can be produced continuously at a rate up to ~1000 kg protein m-3 year-1. Several routes for microbial food production will be discussed in this presentation, ranging from aerobic heterotrophic production with for instance Candida ingens (Strayer, Finger et al. 1997), photoheterotrophic production with PNSB such as Rhodospirillum rubrum (Hendrickx, De Wever et al. 2006) and hydrogenotrophic production with HOB such as Cupriavidus necator (Matassa, Boon et al. 2015)) and photoautotrophic production of oxygen and microbial food (e.g. Arthrospira sp. (Hendrickx, De Wever et al

  5. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  6. Renewable energy: energy from agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This study discusses major issues concerning fuels derived from agricultural products. Agricultural products, particularly sugarcane and corn, are currently meeting major energy needs in Florida. Recent figures indicate that about 10% of the gasoline sold in Florida is ethanol enriched. This gasohol contains a 10% mix of ethanol, which is generally produced from corn or sugarcane molasses. Sugarcane residues (bagasse) also supply most of the fuel to power Florida's large sugar processing industry. These products have the potential to play an expanded role in Florida's energy future. Principle areas of interest are: Growing crops such as napier grass or harvesting water hyacinths to produce methane that can be substituted for natural gas; expanded use of sugar, starch, and industrial and agricultural wastes as raw materials for ethanol production; improved efficiency in conversion processes such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at the University of Florida plays a leading national role in energy crops research, while Walt Disney World is using a demonstration project to convert water hyacinths into methane. Increased use of fuels produced from agricultural products depends largely on their costs compared to other fuels. Ethanol is currently attractive because of federal and state tax incentives. The growth potential of ethanol and methane is enhanced by the ease with which they can be blended with fossil fuels and thereby utilize the current energy distribution system. Neither ethanol nor methane appear able to compete in the free market for mass distribution at present, although studies indicate that genetic engineering and more efficient conversion processes may lower prices to cost effective levels. These fuels will be most cost effective in cases where waste products are utilized and the fuel is used close to the site of production.

  7. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  8. Increasing Efficiency in Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Turner, J.

    2002-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production promises to be a renewable, clean, and efficient way of storing the sun's energy for use in hydrogen-powered fuel cells. We use p-type Ga.51In.49P semiconductor (henceforth as GaInP2) to absorb solar energy and produce a photocurrent. When the semiconductor is immersed in water, the photocurrent can break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, before the GaInP2 can produce hydrogen and oxygen, the conduction band and the Fermi level of the semiconductor must overlap the water redox potentials. In an unmodified system, the conduction band and Fermi level of GaInP2 do not overlap the water redox potentials. When light shines on the semiconductor, electrons build up on the surface, shifting the bandedges and Fermi level further away from overlap of the water redox potentials. We report on surface treatments with metallated porphyrins and transition metals that suppress bandedge migration and allow bandedge overlap to occur. Coating ruthenium octaethylporphyrin carbonyl (RuOEP CO) on the GaInP2 surface shifted bandedges in the positive direction by 270 mV on average, allowing the bandedges to frequently overlap the water redox potentials. Coating the GaInP2 surface with RuCl3 catalyzed charge transfer from the semiconductor to the water, lessening bandedge migration under light irradiation. Future work will focus on the long-term surface stability of these new treatments and quantitative applications of porphyrins.

  9. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  10. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  11. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  12. NREL Improves System Efficiency and Increases Energy Transfer with Wind2H2 Project, Enabling Reduced Cost Electrolysis Production (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in improving energy transfer within a wind turbine-based hydrogen production system. Work was performed by the Wind2H2 Project team at the National Wind Technology Center in partnership with Xcel Energy.

  13. Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Evans

    2012-04-11

    The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has

  14. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  15. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  16. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  17. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  18. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    ScienceCinema

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-09-01

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  19. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-05-20

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  20. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    PubMed

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented. PMID:25850743

  1. BOREAS TE-17 Production Efficiency Model Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Goetz, Scott J.; Goward, Samual N.; Prince, Stephen D.; Czajkowski, Kevin; Dubayah, Ralph O.

    2000-01-01

    A Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) version of the Global Production Efficiency Model (http://www.inform.umd.edu/glopem/) was developed by TE-17 (Terrestrial Ecology) to generate maps of gross and net primary production, autotrophic respiration, and light use efficiency for the BOREAS region. This document provides basic information on the model and how the maps were generated. The data generated by the model are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. How to buy energy-efficient residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The General Services Administration (GSA) will soon include residential windows in its Federal Supply Schedule 56-IV(A), ``Construction and Building Materials.`` When contracting for residential windows, specify NFRC-rated SHGC and U-factor values that meet this Efficiency Recommendation for your geographic region. When buying commercially, look for windows with the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label, all of which meet this Recommendation.

  3. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  4. RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Dave Wall; Jamal Zughbi

    2007-06-30

    This is the final technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project (REEP). The report summarizes, in a comprehensive manner, all the work performed during the award period extending between July 12, 2002 and June 30, 2007. This report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines and summarizes all of the activities that occurred during the award period. The RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project, under development by the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA), is comprised of a series of full-scale demonstration projects that will showcase innovative combinations of primary and secondary generation systems using methane gas derived from local processing of biosolids, dairy manure and other organic material. The goal of the project is to create renewable energy-based generation systems with energy efficiencies 65% or more. The project was constructed at the 15 MGD Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 5 located in the City of Chino in California where the Agency has constructed its new energy-efficient (platinum-LEED rating) headquarters building. Technologies that were featured in the project include internal combustion engines (ICE), absorption chillers, treatment plant secondary effluent cooling systems, heat recovery systems, thermal energy storage (TES), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) secondary power generation system, the integration of a future fuel cell system, gas cleaning requirements, and other state-of-the-art design combinations. The RP-5 REEP biogas source is coming from three manure digesters which are located within the RP-5 Complex and are joined with the RP-5 REEP through gas conveyance pipelines. Food waste is being injected into the manure digesters for digester gas production enhancement. The RP-5 REEP clearly demonstrates the biogas production and power generation viability, specifically when dealing with renewable and variable heating value (Btu) fuel. The RP-5 REEP was challenged with meeting

  5. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  6. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  7. Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, S.

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.

  8. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  9. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  10. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...