Science.gov

Sample records for energy efficient refurbishment

  1. A Guide to Energy Efficient Refurbishment. Maintenance and Renewal in Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    With little or relatively modest investment, schools being refurbished or undergoing maintenance can make disproportionately large gains in energy efficiency that can also result in large financial savings. This document offers guidance on the selection of appropriate measures that can improve a facility's energy efficiency, depending on the type…

  2. Visual documentation process of historic building refurbishment "Improving energy efficiency by insulating wall cavity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennadji, A.

    2013-07-01

    The North East of Scotland's construction method is similar to most popular building typologies in the UK. This typology can vary in term of external material (Granite, brick or stone) but with a secondary, usually timber sub frame with a lining on its interior. Insulation was seldom a consideration when such buildings were completed. Statistics shows that 80% of existing buildings in the UK will need to be upgraded. The lack of knowledge in dealing with old building fabric's manipulation has a negative impact on buildings' integrity. The documentation of such process seems to be an important step that buildings' actors should undertake to communicate a practical knowledge that is still at incubation stage. We wanted for this documentation to be visual, as descriptions might mislead none specialised and specialised in the field due to the innovative approach our method was conducted with. For the Scottish context this research/experiment will concentrate on existing granite wall buildings with plastered lath internal wall. It is unfortunate to see the commonly beautiful interiors of Scottish buildings disappearing, when the internal linings are removed. Skips are filled with old Plaster and Lath and new linings have to be supplied and fitted. Excessive waste is created in this change. This paper is based on a historic building energy improvement case study financed by the European commission and the Scottish Government. The pilot study consists of insulating an 18th century house using an innovative product and method. The project was a response to a call by the CIC start (Construction Innovation Club), aiming to establish a link between SMEs and the Universities. The project saw the day in collaboration with Icynene Canada, KDL Kishorn (see full list in the acknowledgment). This paper describes the process through which the team went through to improve the building envelope without damaging the buildings original features (Loveday et all). The energy efficiency

  3. Indoor PM2.5 exposure in London's domestic stock: Modelling current and future exposures following energy efficient refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrubsole, C.; Ridley, I.; Biddulph, P.; Milner, J.; Vardoulakis, S.; Ucci, M.; Wilkinson, P.; Chalabi, Z.; Davies, M.

    2012-12-01

    Simulations using CONTAM (a validated multi-zone indoor air quality (IAQ) model) are employed to predict indoor exposure to PM2.5 in London dwellings in both the present day housing stock and the same stock following energy efficient refurbishments to meet greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets for 2050. We modelled interventions that would contribute to the achievement of these targets by reducing the permeability of the dwellings to 3 m3 m-2 h-1 at 50 Pa, combined with the introduction of mechanical ventilation and heat recovery (MVHR) systems. It is assumed that the current mean outdoor PM2.5 concentration of 13 μg m-3 decreased to 9 μg m-3 by 2050 due to emission control policies. Our primary finding was that installation of (assumed perfectly functioning) MVHR systems with permeability reduction are associated with appreciable reductions in PM2.5 exposure in both smoking and non-smoking dwellings. Modelling of the future scenario for non-smoking dwellings show a reduction in annual average indoor exposure to PM2.5 of 18.8 μg m-3 (from 28.4 to 9.6 μg m-3) for a typical household member. Also of interest is that a larger reduction of 42.6 μg m-3 (from 60.5 to 17.9 μg m-3) was shown for members exposed primarily to cooking-related particle emissions in the kitchen (cooks). Reductions in envelope permeability without mechanical ventilation produced increases in indoor PM2.5 concentrations; 5.4 μg m-3 for typical household members and 9.8 μg m-3 for cooks. These estimates of changes in PM2.5 exposure are sensitive to assumptions about occupant behaviour, ventilation system usage and the distributions of input variables (±72% for non-smoking and ±107% in smoking residences). However, if realised, they would result in significant health benefits.

  4. Suggestions for the refurbishment of a Greek lignite-fired power plant -- Efficiency, costs, and operation aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Stamatelopoulos, G.N.; Kakaras, E.K.; Bergeles, G.; Georgoulis, L.

    1998-07-01

    The present paper outlines measures for the refurbishment of the Greek lignite-fired power plant Kardia and discusses their impact on the efficiency, the electricity generation costs and the operation of the plant. The power plants Kardia III and IV with an installed capacity of 300 NW{sub el} each were constructed in the late 70's in Northern Greece and still operate as base load units for the Public Power Corporation (PPC) of Greece. Several problems are detected during the operation of these two units concerning high flue gas outlet temperature--and consequently low boiler efficiency, poor electrostatic precipitator performance, high slagging tendency, fluctuating temperature field resulting unstable steam temperatures and a high percentage of leakage air. To improve the current situation PPC in collaboration with the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) conducted a feasibility study to set the priorities and to select the most suitable measures for the refurbishment of these two units. Taking advantage of the international experience, the possible measures applicable in the case of brown coal fired units upgrade were collected, categorized and presented to PPC's management. The proposed measures were evaluated for the specific case of Kardia and then it was decided to further examine the following actions: Sealing of the boiler in order to minimize the amount of the leakage air, extension of the economizer followed by the replacement of one bled steam feed water preheater aiming at the decrease of the flue gas outlet temperature and optimization of the soot blowers operation. For these actions and using the process simulation program ENBIPRO, the expected benefits in terms of efficiency as well as the dimensions of the necessary additional heating surface and the influence of the rearrangement of the heating surfaces in the boiler on the water/steam cycle were calculated. The costs of the suggested actions were estimated together with the time frame

  5. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Islip Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Islip, New York

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dentz, F. Conlin, D. Podorson, and K. Alaigh

    2014-08-01

    In this project, Building America team ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHA) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  6. Container Refurbishment Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, t.; anthony, p; blair, t; forester, c; hall, k; hawk, t; gordon, b; johnsen, s; keck, g; clifford, m; reichert, d; rogers, p; richards, w; smallen, p; tilley, e

    2000-05-15

    In mid-1999, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the overall efficiency of the Container Refurbishment process. A cross-functional team was formed by the Industrial Engineering Services group within Product Certification Organization to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. The CTR team efforts have resulted in increased productivity equaling approximately $450K per year. The effort also significantly reduced the wait time required necessary to start assembly work on the shop floor. Increasing daily production time and identifying delays were key team goals. Following is a brief summary of accomplishments: (A) Productivity Improvements: (1) Reduced Radcon survey time for empty containers: (i) 50% at 9720-3 (ii) 67% at 9204-2 and (iii) 100% at 9212; (2) Eliminated container inspections at 9720-3; (3) Reduced charged time (includes hands-on labor and support functions) per empty container by 25%; (4) Reduced cycle time to refurbish a container by 25%. (Dramatic wait time reduction -Assembly); (5) Reduced the time for 9212 to receive empty, refurbished containers by 67-80%; (6) Reduced the time for 9204-2E to receive empty, refurbished containers from 1 day to immediate; (7) Implemented software to track time charged per container for continuous improvement; (8) Initiated continuous improvement efforts between Workstream experts and Refurbishment personnel, reworded complex Workstream prompts to allow worker data corrections, and reduces time of support groups, Workstream personnel, and Refurbishment personnel; (9) Consolidated refurbished, container warehousing areas, eliminated long travel times to areas outside the protected area portals to an area in the vicinity of the refurbishment area and a process area, benefits are improved container flow and better housekeeping; and (10) improved overall communication of team by flowcharting entire process. B. Annual Cost Savings: $453K

  7. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  8. LANDSAT-D refurbishment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for refurbishing the LANDSAT-D spacecraft after its recovery from orbit at the end of a 3-year mission in order to reuse the spacecraft on a second 3-year mission were studied. A schedule of the time required for the refurbishment including the procurement cycle for long lead-time items is developed. The costs of refurbishing and of procuring an entirely new LANDSAT-D spacecraft are compared.

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  10. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  11. Energy Efficiency in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Shows how libraries can save money and energy with energy-efficient technologies, improving maintenance, and encouraging staff efforts to conserve energy. Specific techniques such as life-cycle cost analysis and energy audits focusing on lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and water efficiency are described. Funding options and…

  12. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  13. Efficient Use of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains efficiency in terms of thermodynamics, and states specific ways in which energy efficiency can be increased in the following areas: automobiles, industrial processes, and indoor use in the home. (MLH)

  14. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  16. Energy Efficient Supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Anypas, Katie

    2014-10-17

    Katie Anypas, Head of NERSC's Services Department discusses the Lab's research into developing increasingly powerful and energy efficient supercomputers at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  17. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  18. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet on energy efficiency of LEDs, characterizing the current state of the market and discussing package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  19. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  20. Energy Efficiency Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Roby Williams

    2012-03-29

    The energy efficiency upgrades project at Hardin County General Hospital did not include research nor was it a demonstration project. The project enabled the hospital to replace outdated systems with modern efficient models. Hardin County General Hospital is a 501c3, nonprofit hospital and the sole community provider for Hardin and Pope Counties of Illinois. This project provided much needed equipment and facility upgrades that would not have been possible through locally generated funding. Task 1 was a reroofing of the hospital. The hospital architect designed the replacement to increase the energy efficiency of the hospital roof/ceiling structure. Task 2 was replacement and installation of a new more efficient CT scanner for the hospital. Included in the project was replacement of HVAC equipment for the entire radiological suite. Task 5 was a replacement and installation of a new higher capacity diesel-fueled emergency generator for the hospital replacing a 50+ year old gas-fired generator. Task 7 was the replacement of 50+ year-old walk-in cooler/freezer with a newer, energy efficient model. Task 8 was the replacement of 10+ year-old washing machines in the hospital laundry with higher capacity, energy efficient models. Task 9 was replacement of 50-year old single pane curtain window system with double-pane insulated windows. Additionally, insulation was added around ventilation systems and the curtain wall system.

  1. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  2. Energy Efficiency I: Automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-11-15

    Most of us probably are not aware of all that's going on to improve the efficiency of energy usage in vehicles, residential climate control, manufacturing, and power management. The bulk of the energy consumption in the US during 2000 was apportioned as 34% for residential and commercial uses, 36.5% for industrial uses, and 26% for transportation. Automobiles in particular are the focus of intense energy conservation efforts. Only a surprising 25% of the fuel consumed by an automobile is converted to useful shalf work. The rest goes to the exhaust gases, coolant, friction and wear.

  3. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  4. Refurbishing steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-12-01

    Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

  5. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  6. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  7. Energy efficiency buildings program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    Progress is reported in developing techniques for auditing the energy performance of buildings. The ventilation of buildings and indoor air quality is discussed from the viewpoint of (1) combustion generated pollutants; (2) organic contaminants; (3) radon emanation, measurements, and control; (4) strategies for the field monitoring of indoor air quality; and (5) mechanical ventilation systems using air-to-air heat exchanges. The development of energy efficient windows to provide optimum daylight with minimal thermal losses in cold weather and minimum thermal gain in hot weather is considered as well as the production of high frequency solid state ballasts for fluorescent lights to provide more efficient lighting at a 25% savings over conventional core ballasts. Data compilation, analysis, and demonstration activities are summarized.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is an overview of electric energy efficiency programs. It takes a concise look at what states are doing to encourage energy efficiency and how it impacts electric utilities. Energy efficiency programs began to be offered by utilities as a response to the energy crises of the 1970s. These regulatory-driven programs peaked in the early-1990s and then tapered off as deregulation took hold. Today, rising electricity prices, environmental concerns, and national security issues have renewed interest in increasing energy efficiency as an alternative to additional supply. In response, new methods for administering, managing, and delivering energy efficiency programs are being implemented. Topics covered in the report include: Analysis of the benefits of energy efficiency and key methods for achieving energy efficiency; evaluation of the business drivers spurring increased energy efficiency; Discussion of the major barriers to expanding energy efficiency programs; evaluation of the economic impacts of energy efficiency; discussion of the history of electric utility energy efficiency efforts; analysis of the impact of energy efficiency on utility profits and methods for protecting profitability; Discussion of non-utility management of energy efficiency programs; evaluation of major methods to spur energy efficiency - systems benefit charges, resource planning, and resource standards; and, analysis of the alternatives for encouraging customer participation in energy efficiency programs.

  9. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload...

  10. Energy efficient engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Sabla, P. E.; Bahr, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of meeting or closely approaching the emissions goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Project with an advanced design, single annular combustor was determined. A total of nine sector combustor configurations and one full-annular-combustor configuration were evaluated. Acceptable levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were obtained with several of the sector combustor configurations tested, and several of the configurations tested demonstrated reduced levels of nitrogen oxides compared to conventional, single annular designs. None of the configurations tested demonstrated nitrogen oxide emission levels that meet the goal of the E3 Project.

  11. Innovative Solutions for Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Burinskienė, Marija; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and market follows these changes by construction of new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends of European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after this decade more than half of construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to the less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized—mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in the historical buildings—the specific measures like inside insulation which is allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  12. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings: Problems and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Paliulis, Gražvydas Mykolas; Burinskienė, Marija; Venckauskaitė, Jūratė

    2013-12-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in building retrofit works. It can be predicted that after the end of this decade, more than half of the construction works in European cities will be taking place in existing buildings, pushing the construction of new buildings to a less important role. Such a growth in building refurbishment works is creating a demand for suitable materials, retrofitting techniques and research. The differences between refurbishment of new-build projects and historical or valuable buildings are insufficiently recognized - mostly the buildings without further cultural preservation requirements are studied. This article covers the theme of refurbishment measures in historical buildings - the specific measures like inside insulation which are allowed due to the valuable façade or other heritage preservation requirements. An overview of other innovative methods for energy saving in existing buildings and their potential is given.

  13. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  14. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  15. Islip Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Islip, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    More than 1 million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  16. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  17. Field refurbishment of recoverable sounding rocket payloads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needleman, H. C.; Tackett, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Sounding rocket payload field refurbishment has been shown to be an effective means for obtaining additional scientific data with substantial time and monetary savings. In a recent campaign three successful missions were flown using two payloads. Field refurbished hardware from two previously flown and recovered payloads were field integrated to form a third payload. Although this operational method may result in compromises in the refurbished system, it allows for quick turn around when the mission requires it. This paper describes the recent success of this approach with the Dudley Observatory Nike-Apache micrometeorite collection experiments launched from Kiruna, Sweden, in October 1972.

  18. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  19. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  20. BIM applied in historical building documentation and refurbishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.-M.; Yang, W.-B.; Yen, Y.-N.

    2015-08-01

    Historical building conservation raises two important issues which are documentation and refurbishing. For the recording and documentation, we already have developed 3d laser scanner and such photogrammetry technology those represent a freeze object of virtual reality by digital documentation. On the other hand, the refurbished engineering of historic building is a challenge for conservation heritage which are not only reconstructing the damage part but also restoring tangible cultural heritage. 3D digital cultural heritage models has become a topic of great interest in recent years. One reason for this is the more widespread use of laser scanning and photogrammetry for recording cultural heritage sites. These technologies have made it possible to efficiently and accurately record complex structures remotely that would not have been possible with previous survey methods. In addition to these developments, digital information systems are evolving for the presentation, analysis and archival of heritage documentation.

  1. Source Recertification, Refurbishment, and Transfer Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Duckworth, Leesa L.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Doll, Stephanie R.

    2013-09-01

    The 2012 Gap Analysis of Department of Energy Radiological Sealed Sources, Standards, and Materials for Safeguards Technology Development [1] report, and the subsequent Reconciliation of Source Needs and Surpluses across the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Complex [2] report, resulted in the identification of 33 requests for nuclear or radiological sealed sources for which there was potentially available, suitable material from within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to fill the source need. Available, suitable material was defined by DOE laboratories as material slated for excess, or that required recertification or refurbishment before being used for safeguards technology development. This report begins by outlining the logistical considerations required for the shipment of nuclear and radiological materials between DOE laboratories. Then, because of the limited need for transfer of matching sources, the report also offers considerations for an alternative approach – the shipment of safeguards equipment between DOE laboratories or technology testing centers. Finally, this report addresses repackaging needs for the two source requests for which there was available, suitable material within the DOE complex.

  2. Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2013-04-11

    06/25/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-70. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. The refurbished Z facility : capabilities and recent experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, Ramon Joe; Long, Finis W.; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Hall, Clint Allen; Atherton, Briggs W.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Donovan, Guy Louis; McKee, G. Randall; Weinbrecht, Edward A.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; Kiefer, Mark Linden; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Schneider, Larry X.

    2008-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment Project was completed in September 2007. Prior to the shutdown of the Z facility in July 2006 to install the new hardware, it provided currents of {le} 20 MA to produce energetic, intense X-ray sources ({approx} 1.6 MJ, > 200 TW) for performing high energy density science experiments and to produce high magnetic fields and pressures for performing dynamic material property experiments. The refurbishment project doubled the stored energy within the existing tank structure and replaced older components with modern, conventional technology and systems that were designed to drive both short-pulse Z-pinch implosions and long-pulse dynamic material property experiments. The project goals were to increase the delivered current for additional performance capability, improve overall precision and pulse shape flexibility for better reproducibility and data quality, and provide the capacity to perform more shots. Experiments over the past year have been devoted to bringing the facility up to full operating capabilities and implementing a refurbished suite of diagnostics. In addition, we have enhanced our X-ray backlighting diagnostics through the addition of a two-frame capability to the Z-Beamlet system and the addition of a high power laser (Z-Petawatt). In this paper, we will summarize the changes made to the Z facility, highlight the new capabilities, and discuss the results of some of the early experiments.

  4. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  5. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  6. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  7. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  8. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components—up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  9. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Data Centers

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    Data centers provide mission-critical computing functions vital to the daily operation of top U.S. economic, scientific, and technological organizations. These data centers consume large amounts of energy to run and maintain their computer systems, servers, and associated high-performance components?up to 3% of all U.S. electricity powers data centers. And as more information comes online, data centers will consume even more energy. Data centers can become more energy efficient by incorporating features like power-saving "stand-by" modes, energy monitoring software, and efficient cooling systems instead of energy-intensive air conditioners. These and other efficiency improvements to data centers can produce significant energy savings, reduce the load on the electric grid, and help protect the nation by increasing the reliability of critical computer operations.

  10. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  11. Energy Efficiency for Electrical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in electrical technology. The following topics are examined: where to look for energy waste; conservation methods for electrical consumers, for…

  12. New Orleans and Energy Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenburg, Zachary

    2013-05-29

    The Saint Bernard Project works tirelessly with volunteers, veterans and homeowners to continue the rebuilding. With the help of the Department of Energy and the Department of Housing and Urban Development they will be able to apply a greater energy efficiency strategy to help New Orleans and the country reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

  13. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  14. Implementing energy efficient embedded multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silven, Olli; Rintaluoma, Tero; Jyrkkä, Kari

    2006-02-01

    Multimedia processing in battery powered mobile communication devices is pushing their computing power requirements to the level of desktop computers. At the same time the energy dissipation limit stays at 3W that is the practical maximum to prevent the devices from becoming too hot to handle. In addition, several hours of active usage time should be provided on battery power. During the last ten years the active usage times of mobile communication devices have remained essentially the same regardless of big energy efficiency improvements at silicon level. The reasons can be traced to the design paradigms that are not explicitly targeted to creating energy efficient systems, but to facilitate implementing complex software solutions by large teams. Consequently, the hardware and software architectures, including the operating system principles, are the same for both mainframe computer system and current mobile phones. In this paper, we consider the observed developments against the needs of video processing in mobile communication devices and consider means of implementing energy efficient video codecs both in hardware and software. Although inflexible, monolithic video acceleration hardware is an attractive solution, while software based codecs are becoming increasingly difficult to implement in an energy efficient manner due to increasing system complexity. Approaches that combine both the flexibility of software and energy efficiency of hardware remain to be seen.

  15. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  16. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  17. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  18. Surface purity control during XMASS detector refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi

    2015-08-17

    The XMASS project aims at detecting dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrino less double beta decay using large volume of pure liquid xenon. The first physics target of the XMASS project is to detect dark matter with 835 kg liquid xenon. After the commissioning runs, XMASS detector was refurbished to minimize the background contribution mainly from PMT sealing material and we restarted data taking in November 2013. We report how we control surface purity, especially how we prevent radon daughter accumulation on the detector copper surface, during XMASS detector refurbishment. The result and future plan of XMASS are also reported.

  19. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Andersson, B.

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such ``market barriers`` suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  20. Market barriers to energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B. ); Andersson, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Discussions of energy policy in an environmentally constrained world often focus on the use of tax instruments to internalize the external effects of energy utilization or achieve specified reductions in energy use in the most cost-effective manner. A substantial literature suggests, however, that significant opportunities exist to reduce energy utilization by implementing technologies that are cost-effective under prevailing economic conditions but that are not fully implemented by existing market institutions. This paper examines the theory of the market for energy-using equipment, showing that problems of imperfect information and transaction costs may bias rational consumers to purchase devices that use more energy than those that would be selected by a well-informed social planner guided by the criterion of economic efficiency. Consumers must base their purchase decisions on observed prices and expectations of postpurchase equipment performance. If it is difficult or costly for individuals to form accurate and precise expectations, the level of energy efficiency achieved by competitive markets will vary from the socially efficient outcome. Such market barriers'' suggest a role for regulatory intervention to improve market performance at prevailing energy prices.

  1. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  2. Energy efficient drivepower: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    Energy efficiency is a major concern to industry for a variety of reasons. Operating expenses and public relations are just two of these. While a lot of effort has been expended in the area of electrical energy efficiency, the area of concern in the report, most papers use a limited approach when examining the opportunities for efficiency improvement. However, use of a systems approach--examining the entire power train system from when electrical power first enters a facility to the final output is presented. This type of approach to electrical energy efficiency can improve the overall efficiency by a significant amount. There are many methods of driving mechanical loads such as waste steam (steam turbine), centralized hydraulic systems, and compressed air. Only electric-drive systems were analyzed. Depending on the application and facilities, these other methods may be a viable alternative to electric drivepower systems. The document assumes that the reader has an understanding of the basic concepts, practices, and terminology used in electrical and mechanical engineering. The reader should be familiar with terms such as voltage, current, dc power, ac power, power factor, horse power, torque, angular velocity, kilowatt-hours, efficiency, harmonics, and gear ratio.

  3. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  4. Efficient energy use in manufacturing.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improved industrial efficiency is great and a substantial part of that potential is being realized in the course of events. With new technology and increasing affluence, the composition of production is changing such that energy and materials consumption is growing more slowly than the economy. Through new technologies and appropriate public policies, the energy intensities of all production processes should also continue to decline. Potential difficulties facing this relatively rosy scenario are also discussed. PMID:11607261

  5. Refurbishment program of HANARO control computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H. K.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Doo, S. K.; Jung, H. S.

    2012-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with 30 MW thermal power, achieved its first criticality in 1995. The programmable controller system MLC (Multi Loop Controller) manufactured by MOORE has been used to control and regulate HANARO since 1995. We made a plan to replace the control computer because the system supplier no longer provided technical support and thus no spare parts were available. Aged and obsolete equipment and the shortage of spare parts supply could have caused great problems. The first consideration for a replacement of the control computer dates back to 2007. The supplier did not produce the components of MLC so that this system would no longer be guaranteed. We established the upgrade and refurbishment program in 2009 so as to keep HANARO up to date in terms of safety. We designed the new control computer system that would replace MLC. The new computer system is HCCS (HANARO Control Computer System). The refurbishing activity is in progress and will finish in 2013. The goal of the refurbishment program is a functional replacement of the reactor control system in consideration of suitable interfaces, compliance with no special outage for installation and commissioning, and no change of the well-proved operation philosophy. HCCS is a DCS (Discrete Control System) using PLC manufactured by RTP. To enhance the reliability, we adapt a triple processor system, double I/O system and hot swapping function. This paper describes the refurbishment program of the HANARO control system including the design requirements of HCCS. (authors)

  6. Energy Efficiency for Automotive Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.; Lay, Gary, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains six units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in automobile mechanics. The following topics are examined: drivers and public awareness (relationship between driving and fuel consumption); ignition…

  7. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  8. 7 CFR 1710.255 - Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency work plans-energy efficiency... efficiency work plans—energy efficiency borrowers. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a..., replacements, and retirements of energy efficiency related equipment and activities; (b) An energy......

  9. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  10. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K. H.

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of the bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; and continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  11. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  12. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting to..., Office of Energy and Environmental Technologies Industries (OEEI), International Trade Administration,...

  13. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a...: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  14. No maintenance -- no energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Schliesing, J.S.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1994-12-01

    Field investigations illustrate that it is not realistic to expect new high-tech equipment to function for a full life expectancy at high efficiency without significant operations and maintenance (O&M). A simple walk through inspection of most buildings reveals extensive equipment that is being operated on manual override, is incorrectly adjusted and operating inefficiently, or is simply inoperative. This point is illustrated with two examples at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. The first describes development of a comprehensive, base-wide, steam trap maintenance program. The second describes a measured evaluation from a typical office building. The objective of both examples was to assess the importance of proper O&M. The proposed ``O&M First`` philosophy will result in more efficient building HVAC operation, provide improved services to the building occupants, and reduce energy consumption and unscheduled equipment repair/replacement. Implementation of a comprehensive O&M program will result in a 15--25% energy savings. The O&M foundation that is established will allow other energy conservation activities such is demand side management or energy management and control systems, to achieve and maintain their expected energy savings.

  15. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  16. Lighting quality and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Benya, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ten design actions result in good lighting quality if applied intelligently. These actions are to: conceal the light source; provide enough light; relate to the architecture; relate to the human mood; utilize and manage the color of light; utilize and manage contrast; relate to the human being; solve technical problems created by other light sources; relate to the quality of the space; and realize the creative potential of the space. The starting characteristics for energy-efficient lighting include dimming capability, color capabilities, and optical capabilities. The most efficacious light source for the job should be used. This includes daylight, although it is not always reliable. Energy-efficient quality lighting is evident, but to make it persistent, to give it staying power, there must be some changes, such as: minor product improvements; two to a few major product breakthroughs; better education for the designers and specifiers; lower prices for key components and systems; higher value placed on environmental quality; ongoing applications research; doing it right; more industry awards and recoginition for energy-efficient designs; continuation of utility efforts in rebates, education programs, and technology centers; unification of the industry and avoidance of duplication; more positive governmental response and less arbitrary product-oriented legislation until this issue is better understood.

  17. Water electrolysis system refurbishment and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenough, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The electrolytic oxygen generator for the back-up water electrolysis system in a 90-day manned test was refurbished, improved and subjected to a 182-day bench test. The performance of the system during the test demonstrated the soundness of the basic electrolysis concept, the high development status of the automatic controls which allowed completely hands-off operation, and the capability for orbital operation. Some design improvements are indicated.

  18. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Berst, Kara; Howeth, Maria

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  19. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  20. Standard Energy Efficiency Data Platform

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-15

    The SEED platform is expected to be a building energy performance data management tool that provides federal, state and local governments, building owners and operators with an easy, flexible and cost-effective method to collect information about groups of buildings, oversee compliance with energy disclosure laws and demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of energy efficiency. It will allow users to leverage a local application to manage data disclosure and large data sets without the ITmore » investment of developing custom applications. The first users of SEED will be agencies that need to collect, store, and report/share large data sets generated by benchmarking, energy auditing, retro-commissioning or retrofitting of many buildings. Similarly, building owners and operators will use SEED to manage their own energy data in a common format and centralized location. SEED users will also control the disclosure of their information for compliance requirements, recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR, or data sharing with the Buildings Performance Database and/or other third parties at their discretion.« less

  1. Status of the LANSCE refurbishment project

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, John L; Jones, Kevin W; Prince, Peter P

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator is an 800-MeV proton linac that drives user facilities for isotope production, proton radiography, ultra-cold neutrons, weapons neutron research and various sciences using neutron scattering. The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is an ambitious project to refurbish key elements of the LANSCE accelerator that are becoming obsolete or nearing end-of-life. The preliminary design phase for the project is funded and underway. The 6 year, $150M (US) project will enable future decades of reliable, high-performance operation. It will replace a substantial fraction of the radio-frequency power systems (gridded tubes and klystrons) with modern systems, completely refurbish the original accelerator control and timing systems, replace obsolete diagnostic devices, and modernize other ancillary systems. An overview of the LANSCE-R project will be presented. The project requirements will be discussed, the preliminary technical solutions presented, and the plan for successful project execution while meeting annual customer expectations for beam delivery will be reviewed.

  2. The energy efficient engine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macioce, L. E.; Schaefer, J. W.; Saunders, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine Project is directed at providing, by 1984, the advanced technologies which could be used for a generation of fuel conservative turbofan engines. The project is conducted through contracts with the General Electric Company and Pratt and Whitney Aircraft. The scope of the entire project and the current status of these efforts are summarized. A description of the preliminary designs of the fully developed engines is included and the potential benefits of these advanced engines, as well as highlights of some of the component technology efforts conducted to date, are discussed.

  3. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette R; Raby, Eric Y; Brennan, Sean M; Kulathumani, Vinod; Rosten, Ed; Wolinski, Christophe; Wagner, Charles; Charot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  4. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  5. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on January... renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services. DATES: January 23, 2014, from 2:00...

  6. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call to... expand the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries,...

  7. Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review. Part 1: Pathways.

    PubMed

    Willand, Nicola; Ridley, Ian; Maller, Cecily

    2015-05-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a realist review that tries to explain the impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs) on householder health. According to recent systematic reviews residential energy efficiency interventions may benefit health. It is argued that home energy improvement are complex interventions and that a better understanding of the latent mechanisms and contextual issues that may shape the outcome of interventions is needed for effective intervention design. This realist review synthesises the results of 28 energy efficiency improvement programmes. This first part provides a review of the explanatory factors of the three key pathways, namely warmth in the home, affordability of fuel and psycho-social factors, and the pitfall of inadequate indoor air quality. The review revealed that REEIs improved winter warmth and lowered relative humidity with benefits for cardiovascular and respiratory health. In addition, residential energy efficiency improvements consolidated the meaning of the home as a safe haven, strengthened the householder's perceived autonomy and enhanced social status. Although satisfaction with the home proved to be an important explanation for positive mental health outcomes, financial considerations seemed to have played a secondary role. Evidence for negative impacts was rare but the risk should not be dismissed. Comprehensive refurbishments were not necessarily more effective than thermal retrofits or upgrades. A common protocol for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of interventions would facilitate the synthesis of future studies. Householder and contextual influences are addressed in Part 2. PMID:25687402

  8. Evaluation of three refurbished Guralp CMG-3TB seismometers.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion J.

    2014-05-01

    The overall objective of testing the Guralp CMG-3TB refurbished seismometers is to determine whether or not the refurbished sensors exhibit better data quality and require less maintenance when deployed than the original Guralp CMG-3TBs. SNL will test these 3 refurbished Guralps to verify performance specifications. The specifications that will be evaluated are sensitivity, bandwidth, self-noise, output impedance, clip-level, dynamic range over application passband, verify mathematical response and calibration response parameters for amplitude and phase.

  9. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  10. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  11. Assessment of Selected Energy Efficiency Policies

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan, asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to undertake a quantitative analysis of a variety of energy efficiency policies using assumptions provided by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE).

  12. SST-1 Refurbishment Progress: an Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrata, Pradhan; SST-1 Mission Team

    2013-02-01

    Refurbishment of steady state tokamak (SST-1) primarily focused at addressing the issues and bottle-necks involving various subsystems of SST-1 as observed during earlier commissioning attempts, have progressed significantly. Under the refurbishment spectrum, all joints in the superconducting magnet system have been re-fabricated as low DC leak tight joint resistances, all toroidal field (TF) magnets have been equipped with 5 K radiation shields on the inner side and successfully tested for their rated parameters in cold under nominal currents, all vessel sectors and modules have been baked and tested under representative conditions, supporting helium and nitrogen cryogenic facilities have been made > 99% reliable in various envisaged operating scenarios of SST-1. The reassemblies of the critical subsystems of the SST-1 machine shell have progressed aggressively and are nearing completion. Auxiliaries such as the baking facility for the vacuum vessel and first wall components, current leads assembly distributions, synchronized timing system, reliable data acquisition and plasma control systems as well as essential diagnostics have also been readied towards the first plasma. A detailed engineering validation of the assembled SST-1 machine shell including field error measurements has been planned prior to first plasma attempts.

  13. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  14. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  15. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    ScienceCinema

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-09-01

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  16. Energy Efficiency in India: Challenges and Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ajay Mathur

    2010-05-20

    May 13, 2010 EETD Distinguished Lecture: Ajay Mathur is Director General of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, and a member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. As Director General of BEE, Dr. Mathur coordinates the national energy efficiency programme, including the standards and labeling programme for equipment and appliances; the energy conservation building code; the industrial energy efficiency programme, and the DSM programmes in the buildings, lighting, and municipal sectors.

  17. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Gary L; Taylor, Robin D

    2009-08-01

    In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and

  18. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  19. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  20. Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, S.

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED) developed in collaboration by the United States Department of Energy and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. IREEED provides succinct summaries of India's central and state government policies and incentives related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The online, public database was developed under the U.S.- India Energy Dialogue and the Clean Energy Solution Center.

  1. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver a letter... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  2. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet via conference call on May 2... Trade Subcommittees that address issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy...

  3. 76 FR 26695 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will meet to hear briefings on the state of renewable energy finance and to discuss the development of recommendations on increasing...

  4. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and...

  5. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear presentations from the Departments of Energy and Commerce on how their programs support the competitiveness of...

  6. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  7. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting on May 1, 2013. The... NW., Washington, DC 20230. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy...

  8. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to deliver 11... administration of programs and policies to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and...

  9. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  10. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  11. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  12. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  13. Brandon RHA recognized for energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kent; Neal, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    In a recent national competition recognizing leadership in energy efficiency and greenhouse gas education, Brandon Regional Health Authority was recognized for conscientious use of resources. PMID:12357581

  14. Life analysis of restored and refurbished bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Cowgill, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the potential life of refurbished and restored bearings was performed. The sensitivity of 10-percent life and mean-time-between-failure to the effects of cumulative fatigue damage and the amount of stressed volume removed in the restoration process were examined. A modified Lundberg-Palmgren theory was used to predict that the expected 10-percent life of a restored bearing, which is dependent on the previous service time and the volume of material removed from the race surfaces, can be between 74 and 100 percent of the new bearing life. Using renewal theory, it is found that the mean time between failure ranged from 90 to 100 percent of that for a new bearing.

  15. System for refurbishing and processing parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, Russell T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system and method for refurbishing and processing parachutes is disclosed including an overhead monorail conveyor system on which the parachute is suspended for horizontal conveyance. The parachute is first suspended in partially open tented configuration wherein open inspection of the canopy is permitted to remove debris and inspect all areas. Following inspection, the parachute is transported by the monorail conveyor to a washing and drying station with the parachute canopy mounted on the conveyor in a systematic arrangement which permits water and air to pass through the ribbon-like material of the canopy. Following drying of the parachute, the parachute is conveyed into an interior space where it is finally inspected and removed from the monorail conveyor and laid upon a table for folding. Following folding operations, the parachute is once again mounted on the conveyor in an elongated horizontal configuration and conveyed to a packing area for stowing the parachute in a deployment bag.

  16. Method for refurbishing and processing parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, R. T. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for refurbishing and processing parachutes is discussed including an overhead monorail conveyor system on which the parachute is suspended for horizontal conveyance. The parachute is first suspended in partially open tented configuration wherein open inspection of the canopy is permitted to remove debris and inspect all areas. Following inspection, the parachute is transported by the monorail conveyor to a washing and drying station with the parachute canopy mounted on the conveyor ina systematic arrangement which permits water and air to pass through the ribbonlike material of the canopy. Following drying of the parachute, the parachute is conveyed into an interior space where it is finally inspected and removed from the monorail conveyor and laid upon a table for folding.

  17. Modeling new approaches for electric energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Munns, Diane

    2008-03-15

    To align utilities and consumers' interests, three incentive methods have emerged to foster efficiency: shared savings, bonus return on equity, and energy service company. A fourth incentive method, virtual power plant, is being proposed by Duke Energy. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  19. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  20. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-26

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  1. Energy 101: Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-14

    Learn how commercial buildings can incorporate whole-building design to save energy and money while enhancing performance and comfort. This video highlights several energy-saving features of the Research Support Facility at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory-a model for high-performance office building design.

  2. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  3. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear... of Commerce on efforts to address issues that affect the competitiveness of U.S. renewable ]...

  4. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  5. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

  6. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  7. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  8. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  9. 1986 Governor's energy efficiency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Wisconsin is an energy-poor state which must import petroleum, natural gas and coal for its home, business, farm, and transportation needs. Because 95% of its energy is imported, the state is vulnerable to price hikes and supply disruptions. The Governor has formulated five overall goals plus specific goals for each economic sector to reduce Wisconsin's vulnerability to supply disruptions and to reduce the economic drain on the state caused by the price of imported fuel. The goals also seek to increase the use of in-state resources and to improve the quality of the environment. The recommendations in the plan are designed to help meet the Governor's goals by removing the barriers to increased energy conservation caused by lack of capital and information. Timely and effective implementation of the recommendations will determine how close Wisconsin can come to reducing its energy consumption 20% by the year 2000.

  10. Jcpenney Buying into Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Jcpenney partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  11. 77 FR 6122 - Providing Refurbishment Services to Federal Agencies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... process for disposing and recycling of failed equipment. Have all facilities in your recycling and... refurbishment services, including those developed specifically for recycling facilities (e.g., R2 and...

  12. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  13. Energy-Efficient Renovation of Educational Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhorn-Kluttig, Heike; Morck, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Case studies demonstrating energy-efficient renovation of educational buildings collected by the International Energy Agency (IEA) provide information on retrofit technologies, energy-saving approaches and ventilation strategies. Some general findings are presented here along with one case study, Egebjerg School in Denmark, which shows how natural…

  14. Financial Planning for Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Financing options for energy efficiency investments by colleges are outlined by the Energy Task Force of three higher education associations. It is suggested that alternative financing techniques generate a positive cash flow and allow campuses to implement conservation despite fiscal constraints. Since energy conservation saves money, the savings…

  15. Energy Efficiency for Architectural Drafting Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in architectural drafting. The following topics are examined: energy conservation awareness (residential energy use and audit procedures); residential…

  16. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  17. Solid radioactive waste management facility design for managing CANDU{sup R} 600 MW nuclear generating station re-tube/refurbishment Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pontikakis, N.; Hopkins, J.; Scott, D.; Bajaj, V.; Nosella, L.

    2007-07-01

    The main design features of the re-tube canisters, waste handling equipment and waste containers designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL{sup R}) and implemented in support of the re-tube/refurbishment activities for Candu 600 MW nuclear generating stations are described in this paper. The re-tube/refurbishment waste characterization and the waste management principles, which form the basis of the design activities, are also briefly outlined. (authors)

  18. Toward an energy efficient community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current oil policy of the OPEC countries means that a substantial oil shortage may be expected in the future. Conservative estimates indicate an oil shortage of 65 billion tons in the year 2000. The results of numerous new studies show that (from the technological point of view) the savings potential is high enough to achieve an absolute decrease in total energy consumption by the year 2000, provided better use is made of secondary energy sources in the form of electric power, gas, and solar heat.

  19. RSRM Case Acceptance and Refurbishment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkerhoff, Gary Z.

    2003-01-01

    The RSRM (Reuseable Solid Rocket Motor) Program has been developed and implemented to support manned flight space travel. The Space Shuttle Vehicle utilizes two SRBs (Solid Rocket Boosters) to assist during the launch sequence and achieve the predefined orbit and mission objectives. A critical feature of this program involves post- flight SRB retrieval, disassembly and reuse of case structural components to manufacture future RSRM motors. To ensure these components can be safely reused, inspection criteria based on dimensional, structural and fracture requirements, has been established in the form of Engineering specifications and drawings. These criteria originated from actual hardware testing (both subscale and full scale) coupled with conventional Engineering hand calculations and computerized Finite Element Analyses (FEA). The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the RSRM Case component refurbishment requirements and the associated case hardware inspection and evaluation processes that has been established to satisfy these requirements. Many of these processes have been recently upgraded to comply with environmental regulations, obsolescence concerns and technological advancements. Qualification of these process changes has been closely monitored and documented through test plans and reports.

  20. Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings,…

  1. Something Special from SEED: Energy Efficiency for Educators and Students. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

    The goal of the Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration (SEED) was to assist schools in reducing the impact of the rising cost of energy by defining good energy management programs and by implementing quick-fix, low-cost energy efficiency improvements. Twenty schools in 15 states participated in the demonstration program. This report covers…

  2. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  3. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  4. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the mode ling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  5. Junior High Gets Energy Efficient VAV System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Minnesota's Isanti Junior High, designed with an energy efficient variable air volume system, is an innovative school selected for display at the 1977 Exhibition of School Architecture in Las Vegas. (Author/MLF)

  6. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  7. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  8. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  9. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  10. INFORMATION: Audit Report on The Office of Secure Transportation DC-9 Aircraft Refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Secure Transportation (OST) maintains a fleet of seven aircraft to transport sensitive items, equipment and security personnel. Based on increasing requirements for transporting components and security personnel, OST decided to add a heavy transport aircraft to meet the Department's weapons surety and emergency response missions. In 2004, as a replacement following the sale of a portion of its fleet, OST acquired a DC-9 cargo aircraft that had been excessed by the U.S. military. Prior to integrating the DC-9 into its fleet, NNSA ordered a refurbishment of the aircraft. This refurbishment project was to permit the aircraft to be certified to civil air standards so that it could transport passengers for site visits, training and other travel. The NNSA Service Center (Service Center) awarded a contract for the refurbishment of the aircraft in December 2004. In recent years, the Office of Inspector General has addressed a number of issues relating to the Department's aircraft management activities and services. As part of our ongoing review process and because of the national security importance of its fleet of aircraft, we conducted this review to determine whether OST had an effective and efficient aviation management program.

  11. Energy efficient perlite expansion process

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, K.L.

    1982-08-31

    A thermally efficient process for the expansion of perlite ore is described. The inlet port and burner of a perlite expansion chamber (Preferably a vertical expander) are enclosed such that no ambient air can enter the chamber. Air and fuel are metered to the burner with the amount of air being controlled such that the fuel/air premix contains at least enough air to start and maintain minimum combustion, but not enough to provide stoichiometric combustion. At a point immediately above the burner, additional air is metered into an insulated enclosure surrounding the expansion chamber where it is preheated by the heat passing through the chamber walls. This preheated additional air is then circulated back to the burner where it provides the remainder of the air needed for combustion, normally full combustion. Flow of the burner fuel/air premix and the preheated additional air is controlled so as to maintain a long luminous flame throughout a substantial portion of the expansion chamber and also to form a moving laminar layer of air on the inner surface of the expansion chamber. Preferably the burner is a delayed mixing gas burner which materially aids in the generation of the long luminous flame. The long luminous flame and the laminar layer of air at the chamber wall eliminate hot spots in the expansion chamber, result in relatively low and uniform temperature gradients across the chamber, significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed per unit of perlite expanded, increase the yield of expanded perlite and prevent the formation of a layer of perlite sinter on the walls of the chamber.

  12. Four rigs refurbished for West Africa drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    In April and May 1990, Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria Ltd. awarded Noble Drilling West Africa Inc. four separate contracts to drill oil and gas wells in the inland waterways of Nigeria. The contracted rigs included a shallow water jack up, the NN-1, and three posted barges, the Gene Rosser, the Chuck Syring, and the Lewis Dugger. The jack up was built in 1978, and the three posted barges are 1980s vintage. Three of the rigs have been idle for a number of years. The Shell Nigeria contracts required major modifications to the rigs before putting them into international service. Noble replaced or refurbished all major pieces of equipment in the drilling, power, and service systems on the rigs. Rig crews serviced all other equipment. A significant amount of general service piping and electrical wiring was replaced. Each rig also required additional motor control centers to support the new drilling and mud processing equipment. Alfa-Laval waste-heat water desalination plants and new sewage treatment units were installed on all four rigs. Because of the tidal variances and high silt conditions expected in the African waterways, all engine cooling systems were converted from heat exchangers to radiators. Rotary tables were made common on all rigs at 37 1/2 in. Noble had all traveling equipment completely inspected and modified as necessary. Strict attention was paid to certification and documentation of all equipment. Safety upgrades conformed to both Shell and Noble standards. Fire and gas detection systems were installed throughout each rig. Water and foam deluge systems were installed in the wellhead areas, and new foam systems and monitors were installed on the helldecks.

  13. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  14. Energy efficient laboratory fume hood

    DOEpatents

    Feustel, Helmut E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a low energy consumption fume hood that provides an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A low-flow fume hood in accordance with the present invention works on the principal of providing an air supply, preferably with low turbulence intensity, in the face of the hood. The air flow supplied displaces the volume currently present in the hood's face without significant mixing between the two volumes and with minimum injection of air from either side of the flow. This air flow provides a protective layer of clean air between the contaminated low-flow fume hood work chamber and the laboratory room. Because this protective layer of air will be free of contaminants, even temporary mixing between the air in the face of the fume hood and room air, which may result from short term pressure fluctuations or turbulence in the laboratory, will keep contaminants contained within the hood. Protection of the face of the hood by an air flow with low turbulence intensity in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 75% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance.

  15. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low. PMID:19564072

  16. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    SciTech Connect

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  18. Energy Efficiency for Building Construction Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units of materials on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in building construction. The following topics are examined: conservation measures (residential energy use and methods for reducing…

  19. Alcoa Lafayette Operations Energy Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    The energy efficiency assessment performed at Alcoa's Lafayette Operations aluminum extrusion plant identified potential annual savings of $1,974,300 in eight high-energy-use areas with an estimated initial capital requirement of $2,308,500.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-12-03

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  2. Energy Efficient America Act of 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A draft of the Energy Efficient America Act of 1984 was prepared by the Energy Conservation Coalition as a way to promote energy conservation and eliminate waste. The Act is divided into four titles dealing with low-income weatherization, a solar and conservation bank, applicance efficiency, and automobile fuel economy. The sponsors of this initiative describe specific provisions, the background, and the program they would include under the Act. The report includes a form for comment and an opportunity to contribute financial support to the effort.

  3. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  4. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  5. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency,...

  6. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency,...

  7. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency,...

  8. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency,...

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  10. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and

  11. Financing energy efficiency via the Mortgage Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, M.L.

    1980-07-01

    Residential housing in the United States consumes more than 20% of all the energy used nationally each year. Home-mortgage lenders are in a position to assist homeowners in reducing this high level of energy consumption by taking advantage of a variety of financing methods now available to them. The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation has taken several innovative steps to help support lenders' efforts to aid the homeowners of America in their quest to make their properties more energy-efficient.

  12. How energy efficient is your car?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, Pere; Oliu, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    A detailed energy balance indicating how fuel energy is transferred from the engine to the wheels of a commercial car is obtained using non-specialized experiments that can be readily understood using elementary mechanics. These experiments allow us to determine the engine's thermal efficiency, its mechanical losses, and the rolling (friction) and aerodynamic (drag) coefficients. We find that approximately 28% of the fuel energy is transferred to the wheels.

  13. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  14. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  15. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  16. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  17. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  18. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  19. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  20. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  1. 48 CFR 23.203 - Energy-efficient products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Energy and Water Efficiency and Renewable Energy 23.203 Energy-efficient... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy-efficient...

  2. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  3. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  4. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  5. Energy-efficiency testing activities of the Mobile Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year 1990 applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities. Four MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for energy testing and program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities.

  6. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  7. Energy efficiency: Perspectives on individual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, W.; Neiman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of research papers on the personal behavior and attitudes that affect residential energy use. Articles in the first section address the factors that affect decision-making by consumers; convenience and personal opinions often override rational economic choices. The research in the second section uses aggregate survey data to gain insight into energy behavior. Papers in the third section use detailed monitoring of individual households to analyze personal behavior and home energy management, and the fourth section includes papers on the interaction of building systems with occupants. These papers demonstrate that, to be successful, energy conservation programs must consider the ''human factor'' in addition to the conventional energy parameters (e.g. weather, insulation, and appliance efficiencies). Main emphasis was given to: energy conservation; consumers; personal behavior; economic decision-making; buildings; energy policy; hot water use; thermostats; attitudes; applied anthropology.

  8. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The status of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Project, a comparative government-industry effort aimed at advancing the technology base for the next generation of large turbofan engines for civil aircraft transports is summarized. Results of recently completed studies are reviewed. These studies involved selection of engine cycles and configurations that offer potential for at least 12% lower fuel consumption than current engines and also are economically attractive and environmentally acceptable. Emphasis is on the advancements required in component technologies and systems design concepts to permit future development of these more energy efficient engines.

  9. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  10. 75 FR 35450 - Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Establishment of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and Request for Member Nominations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Renewable Energy Advisory Committee and request member nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section...

  11. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    The SEAD initiative aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD is a government initiative whose activities and projects engage the private sector to realize the large global energy savings potential from improved appliance and equipment efficiency. SEAD seeks to enable high-level global action by informing the Clean Energy Ministerial dialogue as one of the initiatives in the Global Energy Efficiency Challenge. In keeping with its goal of achieving global energy savings through efficiency, SEAD was approved as a task within the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) in January 2010. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) ?raise the efficiency ceiling? by pulling super-efficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) ?raise the efficiency floor? by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) ?strengthen the efficiency foundations? of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities. Although not all SEAD partners may decide to participate in every SEAD activity, SEAD partners have agreed to engage actively in their particular areas of interest through commitment of financing, staff, consultant experts, and other resources. In addition, all SEAD partners are committed to share information, e.g., on implementation schedules for and the technical detail of minimum efficiency standards and other efficiency programs. Information collected and created through SEAD activities will be shared among all SEAD partners and, to the extent appropriate, with the global public.As of April 2011, the governments participating in SEAD are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Sweden

  12. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  13. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  14. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  15. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  16. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle...

  17. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The U.... Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  18. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  19. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy efficiency performance...

  20. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  1. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  2. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle...

  3. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  4. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  5. Refurbishment of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Space Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, J.; Johnson, K.

    1993-01-01

    The JPL large space simulator has recently undergone a major refurbishment to restore and enhance its capabilities to provide high fidelity space simulation. The nearly completed refurbishment has included upgrading the vacuum pumping system by replacing old oil diffusion pumps with new cryogenic and turbomolecular pumps; modernizing the entire control system to utilize computerized, distributed control technology; replacing the Xenon arc lamp power supplies with new upgraded units; refinishing the primary collimating mirror; and replacing the existing integrating lens unit and the fused quartz penetration window.

  6. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  7. Industrial energy efficiency opportunities in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Parker, S.; Evans, M.; Brown, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the energy assistance program to help Ukraine shut down the Chornobyl nuclear reactors, The US Department of Energy (DOE) asked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to identify and appraise industrial energy efficiency projects in Ukraine. The industrial sector currently accounts for over 60% of Ukraine's energy consumption. Most industrial enterprises in Ukraine use energy very inefficiently because the former Communist system provided few incentives to conserve energy or even account for its cost. Since 1994, however, the country's energy prices have risen close to world levels, and Ukraine finds itself saddled with very high energy costs. The Ukrainian Government is also under pressure to lower natural gas imports and reduce the country's trade imbalance with Russia. As a result, incentives to save energy in Ukraine are now great, and the market for energy efficiency products is growing. The Ukrainian Government estimates that this market will generate from $700 million to $1 billion worth of new product sales by the year 2000. However, few industrial enterprises have the money necessary for large-scale energy efficiency improvements. Therefore, one of the main goals of this project is to help the most promising enterprises obtain financing for energy efficiency projects form a variety of financial institutions, or through new, creative financing mechanisms. The project has involved several site visits to different industrial plants in Ukraine to gather preliminary data on the facilities. Most of these plants are in the process of being privatized or have been recently privatized and are financially sound. Among the plants visited have been a glass manufacturing plant, a coke-chemical plant, a paper mill, an alumina plant, a tire factory, a food processing plant, an iron mine, a metallurgical firm, and a steel cable factory. Following a preliminary analysis of the site-specific data obtained during the first visit, a limited number of

  8. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  9. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  10. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  11. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Kazakevicius, E.

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A journal article by: Ernst Worrell1, John A. Laitner, Michael Ruth, and Hodayah Finman Abstract: We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published dat...

  13. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  14. Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

    These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

  15. Who should administer energy efficiency programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen

    2003-08-01

    The restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry created a crisis for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities-utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations-that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: Compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved.We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition.

  16. Teaching the Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Alan

    2010-02-01

    A course on energy efficiency is a surprisingly valuable complement to a student's education in physics and many other disciplines. The Univ. of California, Davis, offers a 1-quarter course on ``understanding the other side of the meter.'' Lectures begin by giving students a demand-side perspective on how, where, and why energy is used. Students measure energy use of appliances in their homes and then report results. This gives students a practical sense of the difference between energy and power and learn how appliances transform energy into useful services. Lectures introduce the types of direct conservation measures--reducing demand, reducing fixed consumptions, and increasing efficiency. Practical examples draw upon simple concepts in heat transfer, thermodynamics, and mechanics. Graphical techniques, strengthened through problem sets, explain the interdependence of conservation measures. Lectures then examine indirect energy savings from measures and consider questions like ``where can one achieve the greatest fuel savings in a car by removing one gram of mass?'' Finally, students learn about conservation measures that circumvent physical limits by adopting new processes. By the end of the course, students have a gained a new perspective on energy consumption and the opportunities to reduce it. )

  17. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  18. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  19. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  20. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  1. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  2. 76 FR 6605 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of... of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law......

  3. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, G. B.; Currie, J. W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at Federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and other Federal agencies.

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the first and second quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semiannual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semiannually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  5. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G B; Currie, J W

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  6. RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

    2003-07-28

    This is the fourth quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. However, IEUA is preparing a Supplemental report that will be mailed to the Department of Energy (DOE) by August 1, 2003, that provides additional information regarding IEUA's plan to expedite certain project activities. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings, discussions, and engineering and design activities that took place to finalize the project scope of work and complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project. IEUA has decided to invite three more consulting engineering firms besides CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, to submit proposals for the design of the energy efficiency project. The proposals are currently in the evaluation phase and a decision is expected by the end of July. IEUA moved to its new headquarters building on June 13, 2003. The central plant is the system that supplies cooling and heating water to the headquarters building, and it primarily consists of equipment listed in the cooperative agreement under ''Chiller and Heater''. The central plant equipment was successfully installed and started. Other activities include gas analysis of three sources of low quality digester gas and foul air which could be used as fuel for an innovative flex microturbine. IEUA is also working with Stirling Energy Systems to determine if the Agency should be a host site for their equipment for testing the engine's operation on digester and natural gas. A matching funds update is also included in the Results and Discussion section, which presents the work effort performed by the PIER Consultant and the associated costs that serve as matching funds for the RP-5 Project during

  7. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  8. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  9. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  10. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  11. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems. PMID:15819254

  12. The Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Victoria

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency. The report covers critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  14. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M.; Li, T.; Hassan, M.; Han, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in

  15. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  16. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  17. New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Wooley, J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Riley, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    Two new radon mitigation techniques are introduced and their evaluation in a field study complemented by numerical model predictions is described. Based on numerical predictions, installation of a sub gravel membrane at the study site resulted in a factor of two reduction in indoor radon concentrations. Experimental data indicated that installation of 'short-circuit' pipes extending between the subslab gravel and outdoors, caused an additional factor of two decrease in the radon concentration. Consequently, the combination of these two passive radon mitigation features, called the membrane and short-circuit (MASC) technique, was associated with a factor of four reduction in indoor radon concentration. The energy-efficient active radon mitigation method, called efficient active subslab pressurization (EASP), required only 20% of the fan energy of conventional active subslab depressurization and reduced the indoor radon concentration by approximately a factor of 15, including the numerically-predicted impact of the sub-gravel membrane.

  18. Energy Efficient Engine acoustic supporting technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, S. P.; Ho, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic development of the Energy Efficient Engine combined testing and analysis using scale model rigs and an integrated Core/Low Spool demonstration engine. The scale model tests show that a cut-on blade/vane ratio fan with a large spacing (S/C = 2.3) is as quiet as a cut-off blade/vane ratio with a tighter spacing (S/C = 1.27). Scale model mixer tests show that separate flow nozzles are the noisiest, conic nozzles the quietest, with forced mixers in between. Based on projections of ICLS data the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) has FAR 36 margins of 3.7 EPNdB at approach, 4.5 EPNdB at full power takeoff, and 7.2 EPNdB at sideline conditions.

  19. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  20. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  1. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  2. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  3. Advanced Energy Efficiency and Distributed Renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovins, Amory

    2007-04-01

    The US now wrings twice the GDP from each unit of energy that it did in 1975. Reduced energy intensity since then now provides more than twice as much service as burning oil does. Yet still more efficient end-use of energy -- explained more fully in a companion workshop offered at 1245 -- is the largest, fastest, cheapest, most benign, least understood, and least harnessed energy resource available. For example, existing technologies could save half of 2000 US oil and gas and three-fourths of US electricity, at lower cost than producing and delivering that energy from existing facilities. Saving half the oil through efficiency and replacing the other half with saved natural gas and advanced biofuels would cost an average of only 15/barrel and could eliminate US oil use by the 2040s, led by business for profit. Efficiency techniques and ways to combine and apply them continue to improve faster than they're applied, so the ``efficiency resource'' is becoming ever larger and cheaper. As for electricity, ``micropower'' (distributed renewables plus low-carbon cogeneration) is growing so quickly that by 2005 it provided a sixth of the world's electricity and a third of its new electricity, and was adding annually 4x the capacity and 11x the capacity added by nuclear power, which it surpassed in capacity in 2002 and in output in 2006. Together, micropower and ``negawatts'' (saved electricity) now provide upwards half the world's new electrical services, due to their far lower cost and lower financial risk than the central thermal power stations that still dominate policy discussions. For oil and electricity, each of which adds about two-fifths of the world's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, efficiency plus competitive alternative supplies can stabilize the earth's climate at a profit, as well as solving the oil and (largely) the nuclear proliferation problems. Conversely, costlier and slower options, notably nuclear power, would displace less carbon emission per

  4. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... 1904-AC17 Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of proposed determination. SUMMARY: The... the 2006 version of the IECC would achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2003 IECC. Finally,...

  5. 75 FR 25121 - Revisions to Energy Efficiency Enforcement Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Parts 430 and 431 RIN 1904-AC23 Revisions to Energy Efficiency Enforcement Regulations AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION... ``Department'') intends to expand and revise its existing energy efficiency enforcement regulations for...

  6. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  7. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    PubMed

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented. PMID:25850743

  8. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  9. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  10. RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Dave Wall; Jamal Zughbi

    2007-06-30

    This is the final technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project (REEP). The report summarizes, in a comprehensive manner, all the work performed during the award period extending between July 12, 2002 and June 30, 2007. This report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines and summarizes all of the activities that occurred during the award period. The RP-5 Renewable Energy Efficiency Project, under development by the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA), is comprised of a series of full-scale demonstration projects that will showcase innovative combinations of primary and secondary generation systems using methane gas derived from local processing of biosolids, dairy manure and other organic material. The goal of the project is to create renewable energy-based generation systems with energy efficiencies 65% or more. The project was constructed at the 15 MGD Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 5 located in the City of Chino in California where the Agency has constructed its new energy-efficient (platinum-LEED rating) headquarters building. Technologies that were featured in the project include internal combustion engines (ICE), absorption chillers, treatment plant secondary effluent cooling systems, heat recovery systems, thermal energy storage (TES), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) secondary power generation system, the integration of a future fuel cell system, gas cleaning requirements, and other state-of-the-art design combinations. The RP-5 REEP biogas source is coming from three manure digesters which are located within the RP-5 Complex and are joined with the RP-5 REEP through gas conveyance pipelines. Food waste is being injected into the manure digesters for digester gas production enhancement. The RP-5 REEP clearly demonstrates the biogas production and power generation viability, specifically when dealing with renewable and variable heating value (Btu) fuel. The RP-5 REEP was challenged with meeting