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Sample records for energy magnitude determinations

  1. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Saul, J.; Grosser, H.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of the most used parameters to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, many magnitude scales developed over the past years have different meanings. Among the non-saturating magnitude scales, the energy magnitude Me is related to a well defined physical parameter of the seismic source, that is the radiated seismic energy ES (e.g. Bormann et al., 2002): Me = 2/3(log10 ES - 4.4). Me is more suitable than the moment magnitude Mw in describing an earthquake's shaking potential (Choy and Kirby, 2004). Indeed, Me is calculated over a wide frequency range of the source spectrum and represents a better measure of the shaking potential, whereas Mw is related to the low-frequency asymptote of the source spectrum and is a good measure of the fault size and hence of the static (tectonic) effect of an earthquake. The calculation of ES requires the integration over frequency of the squared P-waves velocity spectrum corrected for the energy loss experienced by the seismic waves along the path from the source to the receivers. To accout for the frequency-dependent energy loss, we computed spectral amplitude decay functions for different frequenciesby using synthetic Green's functions (Wang, 1999) based on the reference Earth model AK135Q (Kennett et al., 1995; Montagner and Kennett, 1996). By means of these functions the correction for the various propagation effects of the recorded P-wave velocity spectra is performed in a rapid and robust way, and the calculation of ES, and hence of Me, can be computed at the single station. We analyse teleseismic broadband P-waves signals in the distance range 20°-98°. We show that our procedure is suitable for implementation in rapid response systems since it could provide stable Me determinations within 10-15 minutes after the earthquake's origin time. Indeed, we use time variable cumulative energy windows starting 4 s after the first P-wave arrival in order to include the earthquake rupture

  2. Rapid determination of the energy magnitude Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giacomo, D.; Parolai, S.; Bormann, P.; Grosser, H.; Saul, J.; Wang, R.; Zschau, J.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of the most used parameters to evaluate the earthquake’s damage potential. Among the non-saturating magnitude scales, the energy magnitude Me is related to a well defined physical parameter of the seismic source, that is the radiated seismic energy Es (e.g. Bormann et al., 2002): Me = 2/3(log10 Es - 4.4). Me is more suitable than the moment magnitude Mw in describing an earthquake's shaking potential (Choy and Kirby, 2004). Indeed, Me is calculated over a wide frequency range of the source spectrum and represents a better measure of the shaking potential, whereas Mw is related to the low-frequency asymptote of the source spectrum and is a good measure of the fault size and hence of the static (tectonic) effect of an earthquake. We analyse teleseismic broadband P-waves signals in the distance range 20°-98° to calculate Es. To correct the frequency-dependent energy loss experienced by the P-waves during the propagation path, we use pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions for different frequencies obtained from numerical simulations of Green’s functions (Wang, 1999) given the reference Earth model AK135Q (Kennett et al., 1995; Montagner and Kennett, 1996). By means of these functions the correction for the various propagation effects of the recorded P-wave velocity spectra is performed in a rapid and robust way, and the calculation of ES, and hence of Me, can be computed at the single station. We show that our procedure is suitable for implementation in rapid response systems since it could provide stable Me determinations within 10-15 minutes after the earthquake’s origin time, even in case of great earthquakes. We tested our procedure for a large dataset composed by about 770 earthquakes globally distributed in the Mw range 5.5-9.3 recorded at the broadband stations managed by the IRIS, GEOFON, and GEOSCOPE global networks, as well as other regional seismic networks. Me and Mw express two different aspects of

  3. Fast Regional Magnitude Determination at INGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.; Bono, A.; Amato, A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent, very large earthquakes in the Indian Ocean and Indonesia have shown the importance of rapid magnitude determination for tsunami warning. In the Mediterranean region, destructive tsunamis have occurred repeatedly in the past; however, because of the proximity of the tsunami sources to populated coasts, very rapid analysis is necessary for effective warning. Reliable estimates of the earthquake location and size should be available within tens of seconds after the first arriving P-waves are recorded at local and regional distances. Currently in Europe there is no centralized agency such as the PTWC for the Pacific Ocean dedicated to issue tsunami warnings, though, recent initiatives, such as the NEAMTWS (North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System), aim toward the establishment of such an agency. Thus established seismic monitoring centers, such as INGV, Rome, are currently relied upon for rapid earthquake analysis and information dissemination. In this study, we describe the recent, experimental implementation at the INGV seismic center of a procedure for rapid magnitude determination at regional distances based on the Mwp methodology (Tsuboi et al., 1995), which exploits information in the P-wave train. For our Mwp determinations, we have implemented an automatic procedure that windows the relevant part of the seismograms and picks the amplitudes of the first two largest peaks, providing within seconds after each P arrival an estimate of earthquake size. Manual revision is completed using interactive software that presents an analysis with the seismograms, amplitude picks and magnitude estimates. We have compared our Mwp magnitudes for recent earthquakes within the Mediterranean region with Mw determined through the Harvard CMT procedure. For the majority of the events, the Mwp and Mw magnitudes agree closely, indicating that the rapid Mwp estimates forms a useful tool for effective tsunami warning on a regional scale.

  4. An Energy Rate Magnitude for Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. V.; Convers, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The ability to rapidly assess the approximate size of very large and destructive earthquakes is important for early hazard mitigation from both strong shaking and potential tsunami generation. Using a methodology to rapidly determine earthquake energy and duration using teleseismic high-frequency energy, we develop an adaptation to approximate the magnitude of a very large earthquake before the full duration of rupture can be measured at available teleseismic stations. We utilize available vertical component data to analyze the high-frequency energy growth between 0.5 and 2 Hz, minimizing the effect of later arrivals that are mostly attenuated in this range. Because events smaller than M~6.5 occur rapidly, this method is most adequate for larger events, whose rupture duration exceeds ~20 seconds. Using a catalog of about 200 large and great earthquakes we compare the high-frequency energy rate (· Ehf) to the total broad- band energy (· Ebb) to find a relationship for: Log(· Ehf)/Log(Ebb)≍ 0.85. Hence, combining this relation to the broad-band energy magnitude (Me) [Choy and Boatwright, 1995], yields a new high-frequency energy rate magnitude: M· E=⅔ log10(· Ehf)/0.85-2.9. Such an empirical approach can thus be used to obtain a reasonable assessment of an event magnitude from the initial estimate of energy growth, even before the arrival of the full direct-P rupture signal. For large shallow events thus far examined, the M· E predicts the ultimate Me to within ±0.2 units of M. For fast rupturing deep earthquakes M· E overpredicts, while for slow-rupturing tsunami earthquakes M· E underpredicts Me likely due to material strength changes at the source rupture. We will report on the utility of this method in both research mode, and in real-time scenarios when data availability is limited. Because the high-frequency energy is clearly discernable in real-time, this result suggests that the growth of energy can be used as a good initial indicator of the

  5. The Magnitude and Energy of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcaru, G.

    2003-12-01

    Several magnitudes were introduced to quantify large earthquakes better and more comprehensive than Ms: Mw (moment magnitude; Kanamori, 1977), ME (strain energy magnitude; Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), Mt (tsunami magnitude; Abe, 1979), Mm (mantle magnitude; Okal and Talandier, 1985), Me (seismic energy magnitude; Choy and Boatwright, 1995). Although these magnitudes are still subject to different uncertainties, various kinds of earthquakes can now be better understood in terms or combinations of them. They can also be viewd as mappings of basic source parameters: seismic moment, strain energy, seismic energy, stress drop, under certain assumptions or constraints. We studied a set of about 90 large earthquakes (shallow and deeper) occurred in different tectonic regimes, with more reliable source parameters, and compared them in terms of the above magnitudes. We found large differences between the strain energy (mapped to ME) and seismic energy (mapped to Me), and between ME of events with about the same Mw. This confirms that no 1-to-1 correspondence exists between these magnitudes (Purcaru, 2002). One major cause of differences for "normal" earthquakes is the level of the stress drop over asperities which release and partition the strain energy. We quantify the energetic balance of earthquakes in terms of strain energy Est and its components (fracture (Eg), friction (Ef) and seismic (Es) energy) using an extended Hamilton's principle. The earthquakes are thrust-interplate, strike slip, shallow in-slab, slow/tsunami, deep and continental. The (scaled) strain energy equation we derived is: Est/M0 = (1+e(g,s))(Es/M_0), e(g,s) = Eg/E_s, assuming complete stress drop, using the (static) stress drop variability, and that Est and Es are not in a 1-to-1 correspondence. With all uncertainties, our analysis reveal, for a given seismic moment, a large variation of earthquakes in terms of energies, even in the same seismic region. In view of these, for further understanding

  6. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  7. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  8. The Strain Energy, Seismic Moment and Magnitudes of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcaru, G.

    2004-12-01

    The strain energy Est, as potential energy, released by an earthquake and the seismic moment Mo are two fundamental physical earthquake parameters. The earthquake rupture process ``represents'' the release of the accumulated Est. The moment Mo, first obtained in 1966 by Aki, revolutioned the quantification of earthquake size and led to the elimination of the limitations of the conventional magnitudes (originally ML, Richter, 1930) mb, Ms, m, MGR. Both Mo and Est, not in a 1-to-1 correspondence, are uniform measures of the size, although Est is presently less accurate than Mo. Est is partitioned in seismic- (Es), fracture- (Eg) and frictional-energy Ef, and Ef is lost as frictional heat energy. The available Est = Es + Eg (Aki and Richards (1980), Kostrov and Das, (1988) for fundamentals on Mo and Est). Related to Mo, Est and Es, several modern magnitudes were defined under various assumptions: the moment magnitude Mw (Kanamori, 1977), strain energy magnitude ME (Purcaru and Berckhemer, 1978), tsunami magnitude Mt (Abe, 1979), mantle magnitude Mm (Okal and Talandier, 1987), seismic energy magnitude Me (Choy and Boatright, 1995, Yanovskaya et al, 1996), body-wave magnitude Mpw (Tsuboi et al, 1998). The available Est = (1/2μ )Δ σ Mo, Δ σ ~=~average stress drop, and ME is % \\[M_E = 2/3(\\log M_o + \\log(\\Delta\\sigma/\\mu)-12.1) ,\\] % and log Est = 11.8 + 1.5 ME. The estimation of Est was modified to include Mo, Δ and μ of predominant high slip zones (asperities) to account for multiple events (Purcaru, 1997): % \\[E_{st} = \\frac{1}{2} \\sum_i {\\frac{1}{\\mu_i} M_{o,i} \\Delta\\sigma_i} , \\sum_i M_{o,i} = M_o \\] % We derived the energy balance of Est, Es and Eg as: % \\[ E_{st}/M_o = (1+e(g,s)) E_s/M_o , e(g,s) = E_g/E_s \\] % We analyzed a set of about 90 large earthquakes and found that, depending on the goal these magnitudes quantify differently the rupture process, thus providing complementary means of earthquake characterization. Results for some

  9. Metal-Organic Coordination Number Determined Charge Transfer Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I.; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-03-01

    By the appropriate choice of head groups and molecular ligands, various metal-organic coordination geometries can be engineered. Such metal-organic structures provide different chemical environments for molecules and give us templates to study the charge redistribution within the metal-organic interface. We created various metal-organic bonding environment by growing self-assembly nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) chains and networks on a Au(111) surface. Bonding environment dependent frontier molecular orbital energies are acquired by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. H.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Chu, C.-I Lu, T.-H. Yang, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Kaun, G. Hoffmann, and M.-T. Lin, ACS Nano 7, 2814 (2013).

  10. Determining the Inception and Magnitude of Subsurface Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deol, P. K.; Heitman, J.; Amoozegar, A.; Clayton Field Study Team

    2011-12-01

    Evaporation from an initially wet soil occurs at the soil surface but further drying of surface soil with time results in the formation of a dry surface layer. At this stage, the evaporation front moves from the surface to the subsurface. This phenomenon occurs in a highly dynamic near-surface zone making it very challenging to know the location/depth of the evaporation front and to quantify the subsurface evaporation rate. Recent studies show that subsurface evaporation can be measured using a sensible heat balance approach by accounting for the latent heat flux originating below soil surface which is not taken into account in the traditional surface energy balance equation. The soil sensible energy balance approach has been successfully tested against mass balance for estimating evaporation under steady-state controlled lab conditions, as well as to a limited extent in the field. Limitations of the approach for field conditions include inability of instrumentation to quantify evaporation during the initial shift between surface and subsurface evaporation (i.e. when evaporation occurs at depths shallower than approximately 3 mm). The objectives of this study are to 1) find indicators of the change in the location of the evaporation front from surface to subsurface, and 2) test the sensible heat balance approach for quantifying evaporation from the inception of the subsurface evaporation zone. Recently introduced multi-needle heat pulse probes were used to make continuous soil temperature and thermal property measurements in the near-surface zone at the mm scale in a bare surface soil. Preliminary results from this investigation will be presented.

  11. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  12. Joint Determination of Event Location and Magnitude from Historical Seismic Damage Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Hong, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes have long recurrence intervals. It is crucial to consider long-time seismicity for a proper assessment of potential seismic hazards. It is required to use historical earthquake records to complement the long-time seismicity records. Historical earthquake records remain as in seismic damage description with limited accuracy in source parameters including event location and its size. It is important to determine epicenters and magnitudes of historical earthquakes accurately. A noble method to determine the event location and magnitude from historical seismic damage records is introduced. Seismic damage is typically proportional to the event magnitude, and is inversely proportional to the distance. This feature allows us to deduce the event magnitude and location from spatial distribution of seismic intensities. However, the magnitude and distance trade off each other, inhibiting unique determination of event magnitude and location. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is additionally considered to constrain the source parameters. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is assumed to be consistent between instrumental and historical seismicity. A set of event location and magnitude that satisfy the chance of event occurrence according to the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is selected. The accuracy of the method is tested for synthetic data sets, and the validity of the method is examined. The synthetic tests present high accuracy of the method. The method is applied to historical seismic damage records, which allows us to calibrate the source parameters of historical earthquakes.

  13. Determination of earthquake magnitude using GPS displacement waveforms from real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Rongxin; Shi, Chuang; Song, Weiwei; Wang, Guangxing; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    For earthquake and tsunami early warning and emergency response, earthquake magnitude is the crucial parameter to be determined rapidly and correctly. However, a reliable and rapid measurement of the magnitude of an earthquake is a challenging problem, especially for large earthquakes (M > 8). Here, the magnitude is determined based on the GPS displacement waveform derived from real-time precise point positioning (RTPPP). RTPPP results are evaluated with an accuracy of 1 cm in the horizontal components and 2-3 cm in the vertical components, indicating that the RTPPP is capable of detecting seismic waves with amplitude of 1 cm horizontally and 2-3 cm vertically with a confidence level of 95 per cent. In order to estimate the magnitude, the unique information provided by the GPS displacement waveform is the horizontal peak displacement amplitude. We show that the empirical relation of Gutenberg (1945) between peak displacement and magnitude holds up to nearly magnitude 9.0 when displacements are measured with GPS. We tested the proposed method for three large earthquakes. For the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, our method provides a magnitude of M7.18 ± 0.18. For the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake the estimated magnitude is M8.74 ± 0.06, and for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake the value is M8.7 ± 0.1 after excluding some near-field stations. We, therefore, conclude that depending on the availability of high-rate GPS observations, a robust value of magnitude up to 9.0 for a point source earthquake can be estimated within tens of seconds or a few minutes after an event using a few GPS stations close to the epicentre. The rapid magnitude could be as a pre-requisite for tsunami early warning, fast source inversion and emergency response is feasible.

  14. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover. CPRE Research Report # RR-66

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of the departures of mathematics and science teachers from public schools. The data are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey. Our analyses show that…

  15. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. The data are from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey. Over the past two decades, rates of mathematics and science teacher turnover have increased but, contrary to conventional…

  16. Determination of magnitude and epicenter of historical earthquakes on the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Jiménez, G.

    2013-12-01

    Two large earthquakes occurred in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) in the XXth century. A Mw 6.9 earthquake took place near the town of Acambay in 1912 and in 1920 an event near the city of Jalapa had a magnitude of Mw 6.4. Both events took place in the crust and reflect the tectonic deformation of the TMVB. In addition to these two instrumental earthquakes, the historical record in Mexico, which spans approximately the past 450 years, has a large volume of macroseismic information suggesting the presence crustal earthquakes similar to those that took place in 1912 and 1920. The catalog of macroseismic data in Mexico was carefully reviewed, searching for the presence of crustal events in the TMVB. In total, twelve potential earthquakes were identified. The data was geo-referenced, a magnitude was assigned in the Modified Mercalli Scale (MMS) and events were collated based on the dates reported by the references. The method developed by Bakun and Wentworth (1997) was used to estimate the magnitude and epicentral location of these historical earthquakes. Considering that only two instrumental earthquakes of similar magnitudes exist, it was not possible to construct an attenuation calibration curve of magnitude versus distance. Instead, several published attenuation curves were used. The calibration curve determined for California yielded the best results for both magnitude and epicentral location for the XXth century events. Using this calibration curve, the magnitude and location of several historical events was determined. Our results indicate that over the past 450 years, at least six earthquakes larger than magnitude M 6 have occurred on the TMVB. Three of these, the earthquakes of 1568, 1858 and 1875, appear to have a magnitude larger than M 7. Furthermore, the distribution of these historical earthquakes spans the TMVB in its entirety, and is not restricted to specific areas. The presence of these relatively large, crustal events that take place near the

  17. Doing more with short period data: Determining magnitudes from clipped and over-run seismic data at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellik, John J., II

    How can we calculate earthquake magnitudes when the signal is clipped and over-run? When a volcano is very active, the seismic record may saturate (i.e., the full amplitude of the signal is not recorded) or be over-run (i.e., the end of one event is covered by the start of a new event). The duration, and sometimes the amplitude, of an earthquake signal are necessary for determining event magnitudes; thus, it may be impossible to calculate earthquake magnitudes when a volcano is very active. This problem is most likely to occur at volcanoes with limited networks of short period seismometers. This study outlines two methods for calculating earthquake magnitudes when events are clipped and over-run. The first method entails modeling the shape of earthquake codas as a power law function and extrapolating duration from the decay of the function. The second method draws relations between clipped duration (i.e., the length of time a signal is clipped) and the full duration. These methods allow for magnitudes to be determined within 0.2 to 0.4 units of magnitude. This error is within the range of analyst hand-picks and is within the acceptable limits of uncertainty when quickly quantifying volcanic energy release during volcanic crises. Most importantly, these estimates can be made when data are clipped or over-run. These methods were developed with data from the initial stages of the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is a well-studied volcano with many instruments placed at varying distances from the vent. This fact makes the 2004-2008 eruption a good place to calibrate and refine methodologies that can be applied to volcanoes with limited networks.

  18. Fast determination of earthquake magnitude and fault extent from real-time P-wave recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2015-08-01

    This work is aimed at the automatic and fast characterization of the extended earthquake source, through the progressive measurement of the P-wave displacement amplitude along the recorded seismograms. We propose a straightforward methodology to quickly characterize the earthquake magnitude and the expected length of the rupture, and to provide an approximate estimate of the average stress drop to be used for Earthquake Early Warning and rapid response purposes. We test the methodology over a wide distance and magnitude range using a massive Japan earthquake, accelerogram data set. Our estimates of moment magnitude, source duration/length and stress drop are consistent with the ones obtained by using other techniques and analysing the whole seismic waveform. In particular, the retrieved source parameters follow a self-similar, constant stress-drop scaling (median value of stress drop = 0.71 MPa). For the M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki event, both magnitude and length are underestimated, due to limited, available P-wave time window (PTWs) and to the low-frequency cut-off of analysed data. We show that, in a simulated real-time mode, about 1-2 seconds would be required for the source parameter determination of M 4-5 events, 3-10 seconds for M 6-7 and 30-40 s for M 8-8.5. The proposed method can also provide a rapid evaluation of the average slip on the fault plane, which can be used as an additional discriminant for tsunami potential, associated to large magnitude earthquakes occurring offshore.

  19. Sources and magnitude of bias associated with determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Gossett, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently complled data on the composition of commercial Aroclor mixtures and ECD (electron capture detector) response factors for all 209 PCB congeners are used to develop estimates of the bias associated with determination of polychlorinated blphenyis. During quantitation of multlcomponent peaks by congener-specific procedures error is introduced because of variable ECD response to isomeric PCBs. Under worst case conditions, the magnitude of this bias can range from less than 2% to as much as 600%. Multicomponent peaks containing the more highly and the lower chlorinated congeners experience the most bias. For this reason, quantitation of ??PCB in Aroclor mixtures dominated by these species (e.g. 1016) are potentially subject to the greatest error. Comparison of response factor data for ECDs from two laboratories shows that the sign and magnitude of calibration bias for a given multicomponent peak is variable and depends, in part, on the response characteristics of individual detectors. By using the most abundant congener (of each multicomponent peak) for purposes of calibration, one can reduce the maximum bias to less than 55%. Moreover, due to cancellation of errors, the bias resulting from summation of all peak concentrations (i.e. ??PCB) becomes vanishingly small (200%) and highly variable in sign and magnitude. In this case, bias originates not only from the incomplete chromatographic resolution of PCB congeners but also the overlapping patterns of the Aroclor mixtures. Together these results illustrate the advantages of the congener-specific method of PCB quantitation over the traditional Aroclor Method and the extreme difficulty of estimating bias incurred by the latter procedure on a post hoc basis.

  20. Digitized charge transfer magnitude determined by metal-organic coordination number.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2013-03-26

    Well-ordered metal-organic nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride) chains and networks are grown on a Au(111) surface. These structures are investigated by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. Digitized frontier orbital shifts are followed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. A basic model is derived, which captures the essential underlying physics and correlates the observed energetic shift of the frontier orbital with the charge transfer. PMID:23451803

  1. HYPOELLIPSE; a computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides Fortran source code and program manuals for HYPOELLIPSE, a computer program for determining hypocenters and magnitudes of near regional earthquakes and the ellipsoids that enclose the 68-percent confidence volumes of the computed hypocenters. HYPOELLIPSE was developed to meet the needs of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studying crustal and sub-crustal earthquakes recorded by a sparse regional seismograph network. The program was extended to locate hypocenters of volcanic earthquakes recorded by seismographs distributed on and around the volcanic edifice, at elevations above and below the hypocenter. HYPOELLIPSE was used to locate events recorded by the USGS southern Alaska seismograph network from October 1971 to the early 1990s. Both UNIX and PC/DOS versions of the source code of the program are provided along with sample runs.

  2. Mwpd: a duration-amplitude procedure for rapid determination of earthquake magnitude and tsunamigenic potential from P waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We present a duration-amplitude procedure for rapid determination of a moment magnitude, Mwpd, for large earthquakes using P-wave recordings at teleseismic distances. Mwpd can be obtained within 20 min or less after the event origin time as the required data are currently available in near real time. The procedure determines apparent source durations, T0, from high-frequency, P-wave records, and estimates moments through integration of broad-band displacement waveforms over the interval tP to tP + T0, where tP is the P-arrival time. We apply the duration-amplitude methodology to 79 recent, large earthquakes (global centroid-moment-tensor magnitude, MCMTw, 6.6-9.3) with diverse source types. The results show that a scaling of the moment estimates for interplate thrust and possibly tsunami earthquakes is necessary to best match MCMTw. With this scaling, Mwpd matches MCMTw typically within +/-0.2 magnitude units, with a standard deviation of σ = 0.11, equaling or outperforming other approaches to rapid magnitude determination. Furthermore, Mwpd does not exhibit saturation; that is, for the largest events, Mwpd does not systematically underestimate MCMTw. The obtained durations and duration-amplitude moments allow rapid estimation of an energy-to-moment parameter Θ* used for identification of tsunami earthquakes. Our results show that Θ* <= -5.7 is an appropriate cut-off for this identification, but also show that neither Θ* nor Mw is a good indicator for tsunamigenic events in general. For these events, we find that a reliable indicator is simply that the duration T0 is greater than about 50 s. The explicit use of the source duration for integration of displacement seismograms, the moment scaling and other characteristics of the duration-amplitude methodology make it an extension of the widely used, Mwp, rapid magnitude procedure. The need for a moment scaling for interplate thrust and possibly tsunami earthquakes may have important implications for the source

  3. Role of transparency of platinum-ferromagnet interface in determining intrinsic magnitude of spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) converts charge current to pure spin currents in orthogonal directions in materials that have significant spin-orbit coupling. The efficiency of the conversion is described by the spin Hall Angle (SHA). The SHA can most readily be inferred by using the generated spin currents to excite or rotate the magnetization of ferromagnetic films or nano-elements via spin-transfer torques. Some of the largest spin torque derived spin Hall angles (ST-SHA) have been reported in platinum. In this talk, I will discuss that the transparency of the Pt-ferromagnet interface to the spin current plays a central role in determining the magnitude of the ST-SHA. Using spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements, we measure a much larger ST-SHA in Pt/cobalt (0.11) compared to Pt/permalloy (0.05) bilayers when the interfaces are assumed to be completely transparent. Taking into account the transparency of these interfaces, as derived from spin-mixing conductances, we find that the intrinsic SHA in platinum has a much higher value of 0.19 +/-0.04 as compared to the ST-SHA. The importance of the interface transparency is further exemplified by the insertion of atomically thin magnetic layers at the Pt/permalloy interface that we show strongly modulates the magnitude of the ST-SHA. Improving the interface transparency can make the SHE more effective for spintronic applications and is critical to understanding the fundamental origin of the SHE.

  4. Determining the magnitude, frequency and source of prehistoric events - Is there a Holy Grail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Strotz, Luke; Anning, David; Bird, Deanne; Calgaro, Emma; Courtney, Claire

    2010-05-01

    palaeotsunami sources, we need to be able to compare and contrast between national databases. This can only happen if databases exist and are compatible - for example, are the criteria used for palaeotsunami interpretations consistent? Similarly, to be able to start commenting on the magnitude and frequency of palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources there need to be regional and national databases to refer to. Surprisingly, this is rarely the case. We highlight this issue with reference to palaeotsunami data from the Pacific Ocean. Palaeotsunami magnitude, frequency and source (PMFS) modelling can be and has been achieved albeit with some caution. While it is acknowledged that any single palaeotsunami database will never be entirely complete and we may therefore never be fully able to determine the PMFS for any one region, this does not mean that is has no value. Far from it, after all every single historical database is also incomplete and they are regularly used for probabilistic tsunami hazard modelling. Is there a Holy Grail? In many ways it largely depends upon whether you think the cup is half full or half empty.

  5. Multiple determinants of the effects of reinforcement magnitude on free-operant response rates

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Phil

    1991-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of increasing the number of food pellets given to hungry rats for a lever-press response. On a simple variable-interval 60-s schedule, increased number of pellets depressed response rates (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, the decrease in response rate as a function of increased reinforcement magnitude was demonstrated on a variable-interval 30-s schedule, but enhanced rates of response were obtained with the same increase in reinforcement magnitude on a variable-ratio 30 schedule. In Experiment 3, higher rates of responding were maintained by the component of a concurrent variable-interval 60-s variable-interval 60-s schedule associated with a higher reinforcement magnitude. In Experiment 4, higher rates of response were produced in the component of a multiple variable-interval 60-s variable-interval 60-s schedule associated with the higher reinforcement magnitude. It is suggested that on simple schedules greater reinforcer magnitudes shape the reinforced pattern of responding more effectively than do smaller reinforcement magnitudes. This effect is, however, overridden by another process, such a contrast, when two magnitudes are presented within a single session on two-component schedules. PMID:16812628

  6. Prefusion F–specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuta, Joan O.; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M. Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M.; Moin, Syed M.; Killikelly, April M.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Rundlet, Emily J.; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C.; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; McLellan, Jason S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Graham, Barney S.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø–specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F–specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø. PMID:26468324

  7. A framework for accurate determination of the T2 distribution from multiple echo magnitude MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Koay, Cheng Guan; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Basser, Peter J.

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of the T2 distribution in tissues provides biologically relevant information about normal and abnormal microstructure and organization. Typically, the T2 distribution is obtained by fitting the magnitude MR images acquired by a multi-echo MRI pulse sequence using an inverse Laplace transform (ILT) algorithm. It is well known that the ideal magnitude MR signal follows a Rician distribution. Unfortunately, studies attempting to establish the validity and efficacy of the ILT algorithm assume that these input signals are Gaussian distributed. Violation of the normality (or Gaussian) assumption introduces unexpected artifacts, including spurious cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-like long T2 components; bias of the true geometric mean T2 values and in the relative fractions of various components; and blurring of nearby T2 peaks in the T2 distribution. Here we apply and extend our previously proposed magnitude signal transformation framework to map noisy Rician-distributed magnitude multi-echo MRI signals into Gaussian-distributed signals with high accuracy and precision. We then perform an ILT on the transformed data to obtain an accurate T2 distribution. Additionally, we demonstrate, by simulations and experiments, that this approach corrects the aforementioned artifacts in magnitude multi-echo MR images over a large range of signal-to-noise ratios.

  8. The calculation of an equation of magnitude for determining the proper motions of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, N. V.

    A method is proposed for correcting errors in magnitude equations for the proper motion of stars using only catalog data. An independent catalog of proper motion is obtained by calculating the local motion of stars within individual areas. The method can be applied to any catalog of stellar proper motions, including the AGK-3 catalog. Estimates of error are obtained for stellar magnitudes in the Goloseyev catalog of stellar proper motions relative to galaxies. The method is also applied to equations of proper motion obtained from photographs taken by the double long-focusing astrograph of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences in the interval of stellar magnitudes between 10 and 15 mag. Values are obtained for the large degree of difference observed between temperature and type of plate.

  9. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: Application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Soumagnac, M.T.; et al.

    2013-06-21

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the Gravitational Weak Lensing and Large Scale Structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by Point Spread Function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use Principal Component Analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multi-parameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SExtractor), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20% for stars and by up to 12% for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  10. Star/galaxy separation at faint magnitudes: application to a simulated Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumagnac, M. T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Kirk, D.; Sevilla, I.; Bertin, E.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Annis, J.; Busha, M. T.; Da Costa, L. N.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Jarvis, M.; Lin, H.; Percival, W. J.; Santiago, B. X.; Sabiu, C. G.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wolz, L.; Yanny, B.

    2015-06-01

    We address the problem of separating stars from galaxies in future large photometric surveys. We focus our analysis on simulations of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). In the first part of the paper, we derive the science requirements on star/galaxy separation, for measurement of the cosmological parameters with the gravitational weak lensing and large-scale structure probes. These requirements are dictated by the need to control both the statistical and systematic errors on the cosmological parameters, and by point spread function calibration. We formulate the requirements in terms of the completeness and purity provided by a given star/galaxy classifier. In order to achieve these requirements at faint magnitudes, we propose a new method for star/galaxy separation in the second part of the paper. We first use principal component analysis to outline the correlations between the objects parameters and extract from it the most relevant information. We then use the reduced set of parameters as input to an Artificial Neural Network. This multiparameter approach improves upon purely morphometric classifiers (such as the classifier implemented in SEXTRACTOR), especially at faint magnitudes: it increases the purity by up to 20 per cent for stars and by up to 12 per cent for galaxies, at i-magnitude fainter than 23.

  11. The energy-magnitude scaling law for M s ≤ 5.5 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    The scaling law of seismic radiation energy, E s , versus surface-wave magnitude, M s , proposed by Gutenberg and Richter (1956) was originally based on earthquakes with M s > 5.5. In this review study, we examine if this law is valid for 0 < M s ≤ 5.5 from earthquakes occurring in different regions. A comparison of the data points of log( E s ) versus M s with Gutenberg and Richter's law leads to a conclusion that the law is still valid for earthquakes with 0 < M s ≤ 5.5.

  12. Effects of the 1993 flood on the determination of flood magnitude and frequency in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Several factors, which included recurrence intervals for the 1993 peak discharges and the effective record lengths for 1993, were investigated for the 62 selected streamflow-gaging stations to evaluate their possible effect on the computed flood-frequency discharges. The combined effect of these two factors on the computed 100-year recurrence-interval discharges was significant. Gaging stations were grouped into four discrete categories on the basis ofrecurrence intervals for the 1993 peak discharges and the effective record lengths for 1993 . Of the 28 gaging stations that had small flood magnitudes in 1993 and long record lengths, the difference between the 1992 and the 1993 flood-frequency analyses for 100- year recurrence-interval discharges at 22 gaging stations was less than 5 percent. Of the 10 gaging stations that had large flood magnitudes in 1993 and short record lengths, the increase in 100-year recurrence-interval discharges at 9 gaging stations was greater than 15 percent.

  13. RES-TOCSY: A facile approach for accurate determination of magnitudes, and relative signs of nJHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokesh; Chaudhari, Sachin R.; Suryaprakash, N.

    2014-05-01

    The RES-TOCSY experiment for accurate determination of heteronuclear nJHF is reported. The main feature of the proposed technique is the accurate measurement of magnitudes of heteronuclear couplings from the displacement of cross sections of the 2D spectrum and their relative signs from the slopes of their displacement vectors. The experiment is highly advantageous as the couplings of smaller magnitudes hidden within line widths could also be accurately determined, and also in situations when the spectrum does not display any coupling fine structures. The efficient utility of the developed pulse sequence is unambiguously established on fluorine containing aromatic and aliphatic molecules.

  14. CODA-DERIVED SOURCE SPECTRA, MOMENT MAGNITUDES, AND ENERGY-MOMENT SCALING IN THE WESTERN ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Walter, W

    2004-02-03

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. (2003) for events ranging between M{sub W} {approx} 1.0 to {approx}5.0. We calibrated path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.2 and 25.0-Hz using a simple 1-D model for 5 three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0-Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne-cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modeling for 3 moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0-Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to f{sub max}, as well as those related to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data-set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (1) We derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M{sub 0}, (and hence M{sub W}) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (E{sub S}), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modeled (i.e., events less than M{sub W} {approx}3.5); (2) The source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, M{sub L(coda)}, that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S-waves; (3) Scaled energy, {tilde e} = E{sub R}/M{sub 0}, where E{sub R}, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from other

  15. Mycorrhizal type determines the magnitude and direction of root-induced changes in decomposition in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Brown, Zachary A; Phillips, Richard P

    2015-06-01

    Although it is increasingly being recognized that roots play a key role in soil carbon (C) dynamics, the magnitude and direction of these effects are unknown. Roots can accelerate soil C losses by provisioning microbes with energy to decompose organic matter or impede soil C losses by enhancing microbial competition for nutrients. We experimentally reduced belowground C supply to soils via tree girdling, and contrasted responses in control and girdled plots for three consecutive growing seasons. We hypothesized that decreases in belowground C supply would have stronger effects in plots dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees rather than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees. In ECM-dominated plots, girdling decreased the activity of enzymes that break down soil organic matter (SOM) by c. 40%, indicating that, in control plots, C supply from ECM roots primes microbial decomposition. In AM-dominated plots, girdling had little effect on SOM-degrading enzymes, but increased the decomposition of AM leaf litter by c. 43%, suggesting that, in control plots, AM roots may intensify microbial competition for nutrients. Our findings indicate that root-induced changes in soil processes depend on forest composition, and that shifts in the distribution of AM and ECM trees owing to climate change may determine soil C gains and losses. PMID:25627914

  16. Determining Distances for Active Galactic Nuclei using an Optical and Near-Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gorjian, V.; Richter, K. L.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN, are extremely luminous bodies that emit large quantities of light via accretion onto supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. This project investigated the relationship between color (ratio of dust emission to accretion disk emission) and magnitude of AGN in order to establish a predictive correlation between the two, similar to the relationship between the color and magnitude of stars seen in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This relationship will prove beneficial in creating a standard candle for determining interstellar distances between AGN bodies. Photometry data surrounding Type 1 Seyferts and quasars from the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) were studied. Using this data, color-magnitude diagrams comparing the ratio of two wavelengths to the absolute magnitude of another were created. Overall, many of the diagrams created indicated a clear correlation between color and luminosity of AGN. Several of the diagrams, focused on portions of the visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelength bands, showed the strongest correlations. When the z-k bands were plotted against the absolute magnitude of the k band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.15, a strong predictive relationship was seen, with a high slope (0.75) and R2 close to 1 (0.69). Additionally, the diagram comparing the i-j bands to the absolute magnitude of the j band, specifically surrounding the bodies with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.1, also demonstrated a strong predictive relationship with a high slope (0.64) and R2 close to 1 (0.58). These correlations have several real-world applications, as they help determine cosmic distances, and, resultantly, age of the bodies in the universe.

  17. Anthropogenic Disturbance Can Determine the Magnitude of Opportunistic Species Responses on Marine Urban Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Methodology/Principal Findings Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies

  18. Determining the Location and Magnitude of Basin and Range and Laramide Faulting, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundrett, C. E.; Lamb, M. A.; Beard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Nevada records two recent periods of deformation; the Laramide orogeny and Basin and Range extension. Our research focuses on these events to understand the history of faulting in this area and the resulting landscape. First, we have advanced an on-going research project in the Lake Mead region of Nevada, which was deformed by extension that began around 17 Ma. We are currently working in the White Basin, near Lake Mead. The White Basin is comprised of the Lovell Wash Member, ~14-12 Ma, of the Horse Spring Formation. The Lovell Wash Member contains siliciclastic and carbonate units that vary laterally and vertically throughout this area. This is a change from the fairly homogenous Bitter Ridge Limestone Member below and suggests a change in the style of faulting. To determine the faulting history, we mapped out marker beds, focusing on tuffs and limestone beds that form continuous, well-exposed outcrops in the area. We found abrupt stratigraphic thickening of ~50% across faults, documenting syndepositional faulting. We used dated tuffs to determine that this faulting developed from ~13.7-13.2 Ma. Secondly, we are working on a Laramide uplift project. We are testing the hypothesis that an area in the Kingman Uplift region was deformed by a Laramide age fault, prior to Miocene extensional deformation. We are using U-Th/He Apatite and K-Spar Multiple Diffusion Domain thermochronology, to determine the cooling histories of rocks on either side of the proposed fault. Both of these on-going research projects highlight the complex geology that is found in the Basin and Range province in the United States. Understanding this complex geology will help answer questions about the timing, driving forces, and processes associated with extensional and compressional events.

  19. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm. PMID:26968495

  20. Method and apparatus for determining the magnitude of components of measurements made from inside a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Wiggins, R.

    1989-02-28

    A method is described for determining values of the slowness of an earth formation as a function of depth from time measurements, comprising the steps of: detecting first motions in the waveforms related to a desired depth range to produce time measurements representative of the total travel time of an acoustic wave from the transmitter to a sonic receiver: defining for each time measurement a plurality of factors that make up the time measurement and include the travel time of the acoustic wave, through the borehole at the transmitter through successive preselectively sized depth intervals of the earth formation located between the transmitter, and the sonic receiver, and through the borehole at the sonic receiver; and defining coefficients for representative of the relative contributions of the different factors that make up each time measurement so as to define a first matrix of coefficients, one dimension of which is a function of the intervals extending along the depth range and another dimension of which is a function of the measurements as made along the depth range.

  1. Determination of Magnitude and Direction of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Terkos Water Basin, Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Goksel, C.

    2012-08-01

    Remotely sensed data have huge importance to determine land use/cover changes for sustainable region planning and management. Variety of techniques in order to detect land cover dynamics using remote sensing imagery have been developed, tested and assessed with the results varying according to the change scenario, the information required and the imagery applied. In this study, the modified Change Vector Analysis (mCVA) technique was implemented on SPOT 4 and SPOT 5 multispectral (MS) data to monitor the dynamics of land use/land cover (LULC) change in Terkos Water Basin, İstanbul. mCVA was applied to multi-temporal data to compare the differences in the time-trajectory of the Tasseled Cap (TC) brightness, greenness and wetness for two successive time periods - 2003 and 2007. Gram Schmidt Orthogonalization Technique was used to derive the related TC coefficients for SPOT data. The efficiency of the technique was assessed based on error matrix. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic was 84.32 % and 0.81, respectively. The results indicated that it is possible to produce accurate change detection maps with the help of mCVA and SPOT 4 &SPOT 5 satellite data.

  2. Surface brightness, standard candles and q/0/. [universe deceleration parameter determination by redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The most direct way to determine the deceleration parameter, q(0), of the universe is through the study of the redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources. Progress has been slow because the necessary sources for this study must be standard candles, which have identical absolute total luminosity (balometric or monochromatic). The present paper shows, first of all, that, although necessary, this is not a sufficient condition for nonpoint-like (or resolved) sources. A modification of the redshift-magnitude relation is then described for a certain class of nonstandard candles using measurements of isophotal surface brightness. It is noted that such measurements can be used to standardize the central surface brightness of galaxies, but the standardization of the scale parameter remains beyond observations.

  3. Current progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in California and Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.

    2010-12-01

    showed similar increases in 30 minute averaged energy excursions, but the 30 minute averages had a disadvantage in that they reduced the signal to noise ratio over the individual pulse counting method. In other electromagnetic monitoring methods, air conductivity instrumentation showed major changes in positive air-borne ions observed near the Alum Rock and Tacna sites, peaking during the 24 hours prior to the earthquake. The use of GOES (geosynchronous) satellite infra red (IR) data showed that an unusual apparent “night time heating” occurred in an extended area within 40+ km. of the Alum Rock site, and this IR signature peaked around the time of the magnetic pulse count peak. The combination of these 3 indicators (magnetic pulse counts, air conductivity, and IR night time heating) may be the start in determining the time (within 1-2 weeks), location (within 20-40km) and magnitude (within +/- 1 increment of Richter magnitude) of earthquake greater than M5.4

  4. Small intestinal glucose exposure determines the magnitude of the incretin effect in health and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Chinmay S; Rayner, Christopher K; Bound, Michelle; Checklin, Helen; Standfield, Scott; Wishart, Judith; Lange, Kylie; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The potential influence of gastric emptying on the "incretin effect," mediated by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusions at 2 (ID2) and 4 (ID4) kcal/min (equating to two rates of gastric emptying within the physiological range) on the size of the incretin effect, gastrointestinal glucose disposal (GIGD), plasma GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon secretion in health and type 2 diabetes. We studied 10 male BMI-matched controls and 11 male type 2 patients managed by diet or metformin only. In both groups, GIP, GLP-1, and the magnitude of incretin effect were greater with ID4 than ID2, as was GIGD; plasma glucagon was suppressed by ID2, but not ID4. There was no difference in the incretin effect between the two groups. Based on these data, we conclude that the rate of small intestinal glucose exposure (i.e., glucose load) is a major determinant of the comparative secretion of GIP and GLP-1, as well as the magnitude of the incretin effect and GIGD in health and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24696447

  5. Role of transparency of platinum-ferromagnet interfaces in determining the intrinsic magnitude of the spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Han, Wei; Jiang, Xin; Yang, See-Hun; S. P. Parkin, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    The spin Hall effect converts charge current to pure spin currents in orthogonal directions in materials that have significant spin-orbit coupling. The efficiency of the conversion is described by the spin Hall angle (SHA). The SHA can most readily be inferred by using the generated spin currents to excite or rotate the magnetization of ferromagnetic films or nano-elements via spin-transfer torques. Some of the largest spin-torque-derived spin Hall angles (ST-SHA) have been reported in platinum. Here we show, using spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements, that the transparency of the Pt-ferromagnet interface to the spin current plays a central role in determining the magnitude of the ST-SHA. We measure a much larger ST-SHA in Pt/cobalt (~0.11) compared to Pt/permalloy (~0.05) bilayers when the interfaces are assumed to be completely transparent. Taking into account the transparency of these interfaces, as derived from spin-mixing conductances, we find that the intrinsic SHA in platinum has a much higher value of 0.19 +/- 0.04 as compared to the ST-SHA. The importance of the interface transparency is further exemplified by the insertion of atomically thin magnetic layers at the Pt/permalloy interface that we show strongly modulates the magnitude of the ST-SHA.

  6. Timescale and magnitude of plasma thermal energy loss before and during disruptions in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardo, V.; Loarte, A.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we analyse and discuss the thermal energy loss dynamics before and during JET disruptions that occurred between 2002 and 2004 in discharges which reached >4.5 MJ of thermal energy. We observe the slow thermal energy transients with diamagnetic loops and the fast ones with electron cyclotron emission and soft x-ray diagnostics. For most disruption types in JET, the plasma thermal energy at the time of the thermal quench is substantially less than that of the full performance plasma, typically in the range of 10-50% depending on plasma conditions and disruption type. The exceptions to this observation are disruptions in plasmas with a strong internal transport barrier (ITB) and in discharges terminating in a pure vertical displacement event, in which the plasma conserves a very high energy content up to the thermal quench. These disruption types are very sudden, leaving little scope for the combined action of soft plasma landing strategies and intrinsic performance degradation, both requiring >500 ms to be effective, to decrease the available thermal energy. The characteristic time for the loss of energy from the main plasma towards the PFCs in the thermal quench of JET disruptions is in the range 0.05-3.0 ms. The shortest timescales are typical of disruptions caused by excessive pressure peaking in ITB discharges. The available thermal energy fraction and thermal quench duration observed in JET can be processed (with due caution) into estimates for the projected PFC lifetime of the ITER target.

  7. Magnitude of daily energy deficit predicts frequency but not severity of menstrual disturbances associated with exercise and caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Heather J.; Hill, Brenna R.; Lieberman, Jay L.; Legro, Richard S.; Souza, Mary Jane De

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impact of energy deficiency on menstrual function using controlled feeding and supervised exercise over four menstrual cycles (1 baseline and 3 intervention cycles) in untrained, eumenorrheic women aged 18–30 yr. Subjects were randomized to either an exercising control (EXCON) or one of three exercising energy deficit (ED) groups, i.e., mild (ED1; −8 ± 2%), moderate (ED2; −22 ± 3%), or severe (ED3; −42 ± 3%). Menstrual cycle length and changes in urinary concentrations of estrone-1-glucuronide, pregnanediol glucuronide, and midcycle luteinizing hormone were assessed. Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Weight loss occurred in ED1 (−3.8 ± 0.2 kg), ED2 (−2.8 ± 0.6 kg), and ED3 (−2.6 ± 1.1 kg) but was minimal in EXCON (−0.9 ± 0.7 kg). The overall sum of disturbances (luteal phase defects, anovulation, and oligomenorrhea) was greater in ED2 compared with EXCON and greater in ED3 compared with EXCON AND ED1. The average percent energy deficit was the main predictor of the frequency of menstrual disturbances (f = 10.1, β = −0.48, r2 = 0.23, P = 0.003) even when weight loss was included in the model. The estimates of the magnitude of energy deficiency associated with menstrual disturbances ranged from −22 (ED2) to −42% (ED3), reflecting an energy deficit of −470 to −810 kcal/day, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of energy deficiency and the frequency of exercise-related menstrual disturbances; however, the severity of menstrual disturbances was not dependent on the magnitude of energy deficiency. PMID:25352438

  8. Magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia: evidence from rural, community-based setting.

    PubMed

    Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting a high proportion of pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and determinants of malnutrition among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1731 pregnant women selected by a cluster random sampling method. Data on maternal anthropometry and other factors were gathered by trained data collectors. Mid-upper arm circumference < 22 cm defined malnutrition. Mixed-effect, multilevel logistic regression was used to control clustering effect. On average, 19.06% of subjects were malnourished, while 23.3% study participants were underweight (body mass index < 19.8 kg m(-2)). In the final adjusted analysis, the risk of malnutrition was more than twofold higher in pregnant women with low (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-4.34) and medium (adjusted odds ratio = 2.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-5.35) autonomy of household decision-making than those who had high level of autonomy in household decision-making. Husband illiteracy and not owning livestock were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Women in the second and third trimester had a 66% and nearly twofold increased risk of malnutrition compared with their counterparts in the first trimester, respectively. Women who improved their eating habits had a 53% lower risk of malnutrition than those who did not. The risk of malnutrition was 39% lower in respondents who received prenatal dietary advice than in those who did not. Malnutrition affects at least one of every five pregnant women studied, calling for priority attention. Interventions that improve maternal involvement in household decision-making autonomy and provision of prenatal dietary advice are recommended. PMID:24985910

  9. Fuzzy Discrimination Analysis Method for Earthquake Energy K-Class Estimation with respect to Local Magnitude Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Gachechiladze, J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to establish relation between earthquake energy K-class (the relative energy characteristic) defined as logarithm of seismic waves energy E in joules obtained from analog stations data and local (Richter) magnitude ML obtained from digital seismograms. As for these data contain uncertainties the effective tools of fuzzy discrimination analysis are suggested for subjective estimates. Application of fuzzy analysis methods is an innovative approach to solving a complicated problem of constracting a uniform energy scale through the whole earthquake catalogue, also it avoids many of the data collection problems associated with probabilistic approaches; and it can handle incomplete information, partial inconsistency and fuzzy descriptions of data in a natural way. Another important task is to obtain frequency-magnitude relation based on K parameter, calculation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters (a, b) and examining seismic activity in Georgia. Earthquake data files are using for periods: from 1985 to 1990 and from 2004 to 2009 for area j=410 - 430.5, l=410 - 470.

  10. Magnitude and determinants of glaucoma in type II diabetics: A hospital based cross-sectional study in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, Sheetal; Lohiya, Kavita; Chelkar, Vidya; Kalyani, V. K. S.; Dole, Kuldeep; Deshpande, Madan; Khandekar, Rajiv; Kulkarni, Sucheta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glaucoma and diabetes have a common pathogenesis. We estimated the magnitude and determinants of glaucoma in adults with type II diabetes who presented to a tertiary level eye center in 2010. Study Type: A cross-sectional survey. Methods: Diabetes was diagnosed by history and measurement of blood sugar levels. Glaucoma was diagnosed by assessing optic disc morphology, visual fields, and intraocular pressure. Data were collected on patient demographics, clinical characteristics of diabetes and ocular status through interviews and measurements. The prevalence of glaucoma in diabetics was estimated, and variables were analyzed for an association to glaucoma. The 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: The study cohort was comprised of 841 diabetics. The mean age of the cohort was 53.8 ± 10.7 years. There were 320 (38%) females. The prevalence of glaucoma was 15.6% (95% CI: 13.1-18.1). More than 75% of the diabetics had no evidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Half of the diabetics with glaucoma had primary open angle glaucoma. The presence of glaucoma was significantly associated to the duration of diabetes (Chi-square = 10.1, degree of freedom = 3, P = 0.001). The presence of DR was not significantly associated to the presence of glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.88-1.2]). The duration of diabetes (adjusted OR = 1.03) was an independent predictor of glaucoma in at least one eye. Conclusions: More than one-sixth of diabetics in this study had glaucoma. Opportunistic screening for glaucoma during DR screening results in an acceptable yield of glaucoma cases. PMID:25709269

  11. Perinatal Mortality Magnitude, Determinants and Causes in West Gojam: Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yirgu, Robel; Molla, Mitike; Sibley, Lynn; Gebremariam, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, even if a significant reduction in child mortality is recorded recently, perinatal mortality rate is still very high. This study assessed the magnitude, determinants and causes of perinatal death in West Gojam zone, Ethiopia. Methods and materials A nested case control study was conducted on 102 cases (mothers who lost their newborns for perinatal death) and 204 controls (mothers who had live infants in the same year) among a cohort of 4097 pregnant mothers in three districts of the West Gojam zone, from Feb 2011 to Mar 2012. Logistic regression models were used to identify the independent determinant factors for perinatal mortality. The World Health Organization verbal autopsy instrument for neonatal death was used to collect mortality data and cause of death was assigned by a pediatrician and a neonatologist. Result Perinatal mortality rate was 25.1(95% CI 20.3, 29.9) per 1000 live and stillbirths. Primiparous mothers had a higher risk of losing their newborn babies for perinatal death than mothers who gave birth to five or more children (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.03–9.60). Babies who were born to women who had a previous history of losing their baby to perinatal death during their last pregnancy showed higher odds of perinatal death than their counterparts (AOR = 9.55, 95% CI 4.67–19.54). Preterm newborns were more at risk for perinatal death (AOR = 9.44, 95%CI 1.81–49.22) than term babies. Newborns who were born among a household of more than two had a lesser risk of dying during the perinatal period as compared to those who were born among a member of only two. Paradoxically, home delivery was found to protect against perinatal death (AOR = 0.07 95% CI, 0.02–0.24) in comparison to institutional delivery. Bacterial sepsis, birth asphyxia and obstructed labour were among the leading causes of perinatal death. Conclusion Perinatal mortality rate remains considerably high, but proper maternal and child health care services can

  12. Apparent mass of seated men—Determination with single- and multi-axis excitations at different magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Barbara; Blüthner, Ralph; Menzel, Gerhard; Rützel, Sebastian; Seidel, Helmut; Wölfel, Horst Peter

    2006-12-01

    Apparent mass data describing the biodynamic responses of the human body during whole-body vibration in vertical direction using rigid seats has often been published and standardized. Such data has been used as a target function for developing models. At present there is no adequate database for the apparent mass during whole-body vibration in horizontal direction and in more than one vibration axis. Experiments and subsequent data analysis can be used to improve the database for modelling. An experimental study was performed with 13 male subjects sitting on a rigid seat without backrest, and with a hand resting on a support. They were exposed to random whole-body vibration with root-mean square (rms) values of about 0.25, 1.0 and 2.0 m s -2 in vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral direction, and additionally in two horizontal vibration axes and all three vibration axes simultaneously. The forces and accelerations were measured in x-, y-, and z-directions for each condition tested. With an increase of the vibration magnitude in the three directions measured, the apparent mass functions shifted to lower frequencies. At the same vibration magnitude, the apparent mass functions shifted to the lower frequencies with an increasing number of vibration axes. The effects of the factors vibration magnitude and number of axes on the apparent mass curves were tested. The method of the modal description was applied to all individual apparent mass functions in order to obtain representative target functions. Recommendations for the revision of ISO 5982 were summarized.

  13. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  14. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores. PMID:26620189

  15. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores. PMID:26620189

  16. How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

  17. Methods for determining magnitude and frequency of floods in California, based on data through water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Parrett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in California that are not substantially affected by regulation or diversions have been updated. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2006 were analyzed for 771 streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in California having 10 or more years of data. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for the streamgages by using the expected moments algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to logarithms of annual peak flows for each streamgage. Low-outlier and historic information were incorporated into the flood-frequency analysis, and a generalized Grubbs-Beck test was used to detect multiple potentially influential low outliers. Special methods for fitting the distribution were developed for streamgages in the desert region in southeastern California. Additionally, basin characteristics for the streamgages were computed by using a geographical information system. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least squares regression, was used to develop a set of equations for estimating flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities for ungaged basins in California that are outside of the southeastern desert region. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 630 streamgages were combined to form the final database used in the regional regression analysis. Five hydrologic regions were developed for the area of California outside of the desert region. The final regional regression equations are functions of drainage area and mean annual precipitation for four of the five regions. In one region, the Sierra Nevada region, the final equations are functions of drainage area, mean basin elevation, and mean annual precipitation. Average standard errors of prediction for the regression equations in all five regions range from 42.7 to 161.9 percent. For the desert region of California, an analysis of 33 streamgages was used to develop regional estimates

  18. Focal mechanism determination using high-frequency waveform matching and its application to small magnitude induced earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junlun; Zhang, Haijiang; Sadi Kuleli, H.; Nafi Toksoz, M.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new method using high-frequency full waveform information to determine the focal mechanisms of small, local earthquakes monitored by a sparse surface network. During the waveform inversion, we maximize both the phase and amplitude matching between the observed and modelled waveforms. In addition, we use the polarities of the first P-wave arrivals and the average S/P amplitude ratios to better constrain the matching. An objective function is constructed to include all four criteria. An optimized grid search method is used to search over all possible ranges of source parameters (strike, dip and rake). To speed up the algorithm, a library of Green's functions is pre-calculated for each of the moment tensor components and possible earthquake locations. Optimizations in filtering and cross correlation are performed to further speed the grid search algorithm. The new method is tested on a five-station surface network used for monitoring induced seismicity at a petroleum field. The synthetic test showed that our method is robust and efficient to determine the focal mechanism when using only the vertical component of seismograms in the frequency range of 3-9 Hz. The application to dozens of induced seismic events showed satisfactory waveform matching between modelled and observed seismograms. The majority of the events have a strike direction parallel with the major NE-SW faults in the region. The normal faulting mechanism is dominant, which suggests the vertical stress is larger than the horizontal stress.

  19. Moments, magnitudes, and radiated energies of non-volcanic tremor near Cholame, CA, from ground motion spectra at UPSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Joe B.; McGarr, A.

    2011-01-01

    By averaging the spectra of events within two episodes of tremor (on Jan. 21 and 24, 2005) across the 12 stations of UPSAR, we improved the S/N sufficiently to define source spectra. Analysis of eleven impulsive events revealed attenuation-corrected spectra of displacement similar to those of earthquakes, with a low-frequency plateau, a corner frequency, and a high frequency decay proportional to f−2. Seismic moments, M0, estimated from these spectra range from about 3 to 10 × 1011 N-m or moment magnitudes in the range 1.6 to 1.9. The corner frequencies range from 2.6 to 7.2 Hz and, if interpreted in the same way as for earthquakes, indicate low stress drops that vary from 0.001 to 0.04 MPa. Seismic energies, estimated from the ground motion spectra, vary from 0.2 × 105 to 4.4 × 105 J, or apparent stresses in the range 0.002 to 0.02 MPa. The low stress parameters are consistent with a weak fault zone in the lower crust at the depth of tremor. In contrast, the same analysis on a micro-earthquake, located near Cholame (depth = 10.3 km), revealed a stress drop of 0.5 MPa and an apparent stress of 0.02 MPa. Residual spectra from ω−2 model fits to the displacement spectra of the non-volcanic tremor events show peaks near 4 Hz that are not apparent in the spectra for the microearthquake nor for the spectrum of earth noise. These spectral peaks may indicate that tremor entails more than shear failure reminiscent of mechanisms, possibly entailing fluid flow, associated with volcanic tremor or deep volcanic earthquakes.

  20. Heterogeneity in the Energy Cost of Posture Maintenance during Standing Relative to Sitting: Phenotyping According to Magnitude and Time-Course

    PubMed Central

    Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.; Sarafian, Delphine; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background Reducing sitting-time may decrease risk of disease and increase life-span. In the search for approaches to reduce sitting-time, research often compares sitting to standing and ambulation, but the energetic cost of standing alone versus sitting is equivocal, with large variation in reported mean values (0% to >20% increase in energy expenditure (EE) during standing). Objective To determine the magnitude and time-course of changes in EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state standing versus sitting. Design Min-by-min monitoring using a posture-adapted ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry system was conducted in 22 young adults with normal BMI during 10 min of steady-state standing versus sitting comfortably. Results This study reveals three distinct phenotypes based on the magnitude and time-course of the EE response to steady-state standing. One-third of participants (8/22) showed little or no change in EE during standing relative to sitting (ΔEE <5%; below first quartile). Of the 14 responders (ΔEE 7–21%), 4 showed sustained, elevated EE during standing, while 10 decreased their EE to baseline sitting values during the second half of the standing period. These EE phenotypes were systematically mirrored by alterations in RQ (a proxy of substrate oxidation), with ΔEE inversely correlated with ΔRQ (r = 0.6–0.8, p<0.01). Conclusion This study reveals different phenotypes pertaining to both energy cost and fuel utilization during standing, raising questions regarding standing as a strategy to increase EE and thermogenesis for weight control, and opening new avenues of research towards understanding the metabolic and psychomotor basis of variability in the energetics of standing and posture maintenance. PMID:23741514

  1. SCARDEC: a new technique for the rapid determination of seismic moment magnitude, focal mechanism and source time functions for large earthquakes using body-wave deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that

  2. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Methyl Chloride: Determination and Order of Magnitude of the Sextic Centrifugal Distortion Constants in Symmetrical Tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.; Bocquet, R.; Chen, W. D.; Papousek, D.; Boucher, D.; Burger, H.

    1994-07-01

    The submillimeter-wave spectra of the ground state rotational transitions of CH335Cl and CH337Cl were measured up to 1.9 THz. The far-infrared spectrum of CH335Cl was also measured in the region 35-50 cm-1 using an interferometric spectrometer (Bruker IFS 120 HR). Rotational and centrifugal distortion (up to sixth order) constants were determined for both isotopic species. The accuracy of the sextic centrifugal distortion constants is discussed. It is shown that it is possible to predict the sign and order of magnitude of the sextic constants of a symmetric-top molecule.

  3. Current Status of a Near-Real Time High Rate (1Hz) GPS Processing applied to a Network located in Spain and surrounding for Quick Earthquake Magnitude Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Leonor; Garate, Jorge; Davila, Jose Martin; Becker, Matthias; Drescher, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The earthquake true size and tsunami potential can be determined using GPS data up to only 15 minutes after earthquake initiation, by tracking the mean displacement of Earth's surface associated with the arrival of seismic waves (Blewitt, 2006). We are using this approach to get quick assessments of earthquakes' magnitudes. Data files with 1 Hz data sample, of Continuous GPS (CGPS) networks, located in Spain and surrounding, are analyzed with Bernese 5.0 software. Relative movements are computed to detect horizontal, but also vertical, surface's deformations due to large magnitude earthquakes. Accuracy is expected at millimetres level. Moreover, CGPS 1 Hz data is less sensitive to noise contamination than seismic data (Larson et al, 2003). Some UNIX scripts built in Perl, make Bernese to run batch processes every 15 minutes: CGPS network stations' data files are downloaded, in order to be analyzed automatically. The process output is a new set of coordinates for each station, which is compared with those we have got before, looking for deformations in near real time. The poster shows the implementation and the present status of the analysis. We present the chosen network results, and some time series examples in the three components are also shown.

  4. Efficient Virus Assembly, but Not Infectivity, Determines the Magnitude of Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Interferon Alpha Responses of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabski, Elena; Wappler, Ilka; Pfaender, Stephanie; Steinmann, Eike; Haid, Sibylle; Dzionek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    nonstructural genes of Japanese fulminant hepatitis C virus (JFH1) induced massive type I interferon responses, whereas the original genotype 2a JFH1 strain did not. Our detailed analyses revealed that, not the virus infectivity, but rather, the efficiency of virus assembly and core protein envelopment critically determined the magnitude of interferon responses. To our knowledge, this is the first example of hepatitis C virus-associated genetic variations that determine the magnitude of innate host responses. PMID:25552725

  5. Magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy among persons with diabetes registered at employee health department of a tertiary Eye Hospital of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Hassan, Arif; Al Dhibi, Hassan; Al Bahlal, Abdullah; Al-Futais, Muneera

    2015-01-01

    Background: To estimate the magnitude and determinants of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes registered at the employee health department of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH). Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted in 2013–14 at KKESH. The case record review extracted demographic, profile of diabetes, diabetic complications, and different blood indices to determine the status of potential risk factors. Ocular profile, especially DR was also noted. Results: Our cohort had 94 staff with diabetes. Eye examination was carried out in 51 (54.8%) of them. The rate of DR was 52% (95% confidence interval (CI) 28–66). Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (proliferative DR and/or diabetic macular edema) was present in 40% of those examined. Good glycemic control was noted in 42% of participants. Duration of diabetes was associated with DR (P = 0.04). Good glycemic control was negatively associated to DR (odds ratio = 0.2 [95% CI 0.04–0.6]). The coverage of eye screening was 55% only. Laser treatment was given to 80% of STDR cases. The lens opacity and glaucoma rate was 15% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Low coverage for eye screening and laser treatment to diabetics among the staff of an eye hospital is a matter of concern. The underlying causes of low coverage of screening, digital fundus photography as a screening tool and management should be addressed. PMID:26903721

  6. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng

    2015-04-01

    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  7. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  8. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  9. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L. PMID:26550718

  10. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $\\bf V_{tb}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σst. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  11. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element Vt b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D'Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kiselevich, I.; Knoepfel, K.; Kohli, J. M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurata, M.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lammers, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Limosani, A.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipeles, E.; Lipton, R.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lungu, G.; Lyon, A. L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansour, J.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Mesropian, C.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miao, T.; Miconi, F.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Mulhearn, M.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nagy, E.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Nunnemann, T.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Orduna, J.; Ortolan, L.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pagliarone, C.; Pal, A.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parker, W.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pondrom, L.; Popov, A. V.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Ristori, L.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Rominsky, M.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sajot, G.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santi, L.; Santos, A. S.; Sato, K.; Savage, G.; Saveliev, V.; Savitskyi, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwarz, T.; Schwienhorst, R.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Sekaric, J.; Semenov, A.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Shabalina, E.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simak, V.; Simonenko, A.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Song, H.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sorin, V.; Soustruznik, K.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stark, J.; Stentz, D.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Titov, M.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vernieri, C.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vidal, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wallny, R.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Wang, S. M.; Warchol, J.; Waters, D.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wobisch, M.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wood, D. R.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, J. M.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t -channel cross section is measured to be σt=2.2 5-0.31+0.29 pb . We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s - vs t -channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s +t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs +t=3.3 0-0.40+0.52 pb , without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt . The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vt b|=1.0 2-0.05+0.06 , corresponding to |Vt b|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  12. Tevatron combination of single-top-quark cross sections and determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $$\\bf V_{tb}$$

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt= 2.25-0.31+0.29 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t= 3.30-0.40+0.52 pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt. The resulting valuemore » of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|= 1.02-0.05+0.06, corresponding to |Vtb| > 0.92 at the 95% C.L.« less

  13. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  14. Dramatic role of fragility in determining the magnitude of Tg perturbations to ultrathin film layers and near-infinitely dilute blend components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Christopher; Torkelson, John; Northwestern University Team

    2013-03-01

    Using fluorescence, we measure the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ultrathin (11-14 nm) polystyrene (PS, bulk Tg = 103 °C) layers which can be tuned over ~ 80 °C when sandwiched between two bulk neighboring layers of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP), polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate). Between P4VP, an ultrathin PS layer has its dynamics slaved and reports the Tg of bulk P4VP. In contrast, an ultrathin PS layer is weakly perturbed (Tg = 97 °C) when placed between PVC. These perturbations to the PS Tg become evident even for layers 10s of nanometers in thickness. Additionally, binary blends were prepared with 0.1 wt% PS components surrounded by the same neighboring polymers as in the trilayers. The Tg reported by an ultrathin PS layer and a 0.1 wt% PS blend component are the same for a given polymer pair indicating that the Tg perturbations in these two systems arise from a common physical origin. The strength of perturbations to PS correlate with the fragility of the neighboring domain in both blends and multilayers indicating that it is a key variable in determining the strength of Tg-confinement effects. Fragility also tracks with the magnitude of Tg-confinement effects observed in single layer polymer films supported on silicon wafers.

  15. The Magnitude of Local Immunity in the Lungs of Mice Induced by Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines Is Determined by Local Viral Replication and Induction of Cytokines▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yuk-Fai; Santos, Celia; Torres-Vélez, Fernando J.; Subbarao, Kanta

    2011-01-01

    While live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have been shown to be efficacious and have been licensed for human use, the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) have to be updated for optimal protective efficacy. Little is known about the effect of different HA and NA proteins on the immunogenicity of LAIVs developed using the same backbone. A panel of LAIVs that share the internal protein genes, with unique HA and NA gene segments from different influenza subtypes, was rescued by reverse genetics, and a comparative study of immune responses induced by these vaccines was conducted in mice. The results suggest that the magnitude of lung immunity, including pulmonary IgA antibody and memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, induced by the vaccines depends on the replication efficiency of the LAIVs, as well as the induction of cytokines/chemokines in the lungs. However, these factors are not important in determining systemic immunity such as serum antibody titers and memory CD8+ T cells in the spleen. A qualitative analysis of immune responses induced by a single dose of an H5N1 LAIV revealed that the vaccine induced robust systemic and mucosal immunity in mice. In addition, antibodies and memory lymphocytes established in the lungs following vaccination were required for protection against lethal challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 viruses. Our results highlight the different requirements for inducing systemic and lung immunity that can be explored for the development of pulmonary immunity for protection against respiratory pathogens. PMID:20962087

  16. Determination of focal mechanisms of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in Mexico, based on Greens functions calculated for a 3D Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2015-04-01

    One important ingredient in the study of the complex active tectonics in Mexico is the analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms, or the seismic moment tensor. They can be determined trough the calculation of Green functions and subsequent inversion for moment-tensor parameters. However, this calculation is gets progressively more difficult as the magnitude of the earthquakes decreases. Large earthquakes excite waves of longer periods that interact weakly with laterally heterogeneities in the crust. For these earthquakes, using 1D velocity models to compute the Greens fucntions works well. The opposite occurs for smaller and intermediate sized events, where the relatively shorter periods excited interact strongly with lateral heterogeneities in the crust and upper mantle and requires more specific or regional 3D models. In this study, we calculate Greens functions for earthquakes in Mexico using a laterally heterogeneous seismic wave speed model, comprised of mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al 2008) and crustal model CRUST 2.0 (Bassin et al 1990). Subsequently, we invert the observed seismograms for the seismic moment tensor using a method developed by Liu et al (2004) an implemented by Óscar de La Vega (2014) for earthquakes in Mexico. By following a brute force approach, in which we include all observed Rayleigh and Love waves of the Mexican National Seismic Network (Servicio Sismológico Naciona, SSN), we obtain reliable focal mechanisms for events that excite a considerable amount of low frequency waves (Mw > 4.8). However, we are not able to consistently estimate focal mechanisms for smaller events using this method, due to high noise levels in many of the records. Excluding the noisy records, or noisy parts of the records manually, requires interactive edition of the data, using an efficient tool for the editing. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI), based on python and the python library ObsPy, that allows the edition of observed and

  17. Scaling relations of moment magnitude, local magnitude, and duration magnitude for earthquakes originated in northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aim to improve the scaling between the moment magnitude ( M W), local magnitude ( M L), and the duration magnitude ( M D) for 162 earthquakes in Shillong-Mikir plateau and its adjoining region of northeast India by extending the M W estimates to lower magnitude earthquakes using spectral analysis of P-waves from vertical component seismograms. The M W- M L and M W- M D relationships are determined by linear regression analysis. It is found that, M W values can be considered consistent with M L and M D, within 0.1 and 0.2 magnitude units respectively, in 90 % of the cases. The scaling relationships investigated comply well with similar relationships in other regions in the world and in other seismogenic areas in the northeast India region.

  18. Determination of earthquake energy release in the Eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Shapira, A.

    2000-12-01

    Seismic energy radiated by earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean region is estimated using the short-period (50 samples per second) seismic recordings made by the Israel Seismic Network during 1990-1997. Our data set is the whole S-wave window (from Sn until Lg falls to less than twice the noise level) from 133 earthquakes with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We obtained the attenuation function (1.850+/-0.005)logR+(0.00460+0.00005)Rloge+0.05, where the distance range is 50<=R<=1500km. We tested the dependence of the attenuation function on the azimuth and the distance. Despite the different propagation paths of the waves travelling through the continental crust of the Arabian Shield to the east or the intermediate crust of the Mediterranean Sea to the west, we show that from a statistical point of view the attenuation functions are similar. The energy estimation involves time-domain integration of the squared ground-motion velocity, assuming that the attenuation is known, following the method of Kanamori et al. (1993). For the magnitude range 3.0<=mB<=6.2 (magnitude determined by the National Earthquake Information Service, NEIS), we obtained the magnitude-energy relationship logE0=(2.09+/-0.10)mB+ (8.86+/-0.42). Comparison of the seismic energy and the seismic moment suggests that E~M00.19 and that Orowan's stress drop increases as M00.19. A refinement of the results is expected with the application of the method of Mayeda & Walter (1996) for energy estimation from coda envelopes using a large data set of broad-band observations.

  19. Experimental determination of ice sublimation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, R.; Canto, J.; Satorre, M. A.; Domingo, M.

    2011-11-01

    In Astrophysics, the study of ices is important due to the wide range of scenarios in which they are present. Their physical and chemical characteristics play an important role in the study of the interstellar medium (ISM). The assessment of the energy of sublimation allows us to improve our understanding of physical and/or chemical processes that take place where ices are present. The energy of sublimation E_sub is defined as the change of energy between solid and gas phase of certain molecule. This value is important to determinate other thermodynamical parameters such as the reticular energy of ionic compounds, the energy of formation in gas phase from the energy of formation in condensed phase, or to estimate the sublimation rate, which is very important in determining the evolution of surfaces of astrophysical objects.

  20. Associations between Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Adjustment: Using a Genetically Controlled Design to Determine the Direction and Magnitude of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Laursen, Brett; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study used a genetically controlled design to examine the direction and the magnitude of effects in the over-time associations between perceived relationship quality with mothers and adolescent maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency). A total of 163 monozygotic (MZ) twins pairs (85 female pairs, 78 male pairs) completed…

  1. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  2. Misconceptions about astronomical magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Eric; Cox, Caroline V.

    1997-10-01

    The present system of astronomical magnitudes was created as an inverse scale by Claudius Ptolemy in about 140 A.D. and was defined to be logarithmic in 1856 by Norman Pogson, who believed that human eyes respond logarithmically to the intensity of light. Although scientists have known for some time that the response is instead a power law, astronomers continue to use the Pogson magnitude scale. The peculiarities of this system make it easy for students to develop numerous misconceptions about how and why to use magnitudes. We present a useful exercise in the use of magnitudes to derive a cosmologically interesting quantity (the mass-to-light ratio for spiral galaxies), with potential pitfalls pointed out and explained.

  3. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  4. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  5. Aspects of energy transitions: History and determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Peter A.

    Energy intensity in the U.S. from 1780 to 2010 shows a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the "inverted U-curve" seen when only commercial energy is considered. The analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Historical prices are provided for many energy resources. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. A population-weighted series of heating degree days and cooling degree days partially explains differences in energy intensity. Series are developed for 231 countries and territories with multiple reference temperatures, with a "wet-bulb" series accounting for the effects of humidity. Other variables considered include energy prices, income per capita, and governance indices. A panel regression of thirty-two countries from 1995 to 2010 establishes GDP per capita and share of primary energy as determinants of energy intensity, but fails to establish statistical significance of the climate variables. A group mean regression finds average heating and cooling degree days to be significant predictors of average energy intensity over the study period, increasing energy intensity by roughly 1.5 kJ per 2005 international dollar for each annual degree day. Group mean regression results explain differences in countries' average energy intensity, but not changes within a country over time. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) influences the economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of an energy resource and is one driver of energy transitions. The EROI of U.S. petroleum production has declined since 1972

  6. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  7. Should Astronomy Abolish Magnitudes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomy is riddled with a number of anachronistic and counterintuitive practices. Among these are: plotting increasing stellar temperature from right to left in the H-R diagram; giving the distances to remote astronomical objects in parsecs; and reporting the brightness of astronomical objects in magnitudes. Historical accident and observational technique, respectively, are the bases for the first two practices, and they will undoubtedly persist in the future. However, the use of magnitudes is especially egregious when essentially linear optical detectors like CCDs are used for measuring brightness, which are then reported in a logarithmic (base 2.512 deg!) scale. The use of magnitudes has its origin in three historical artifacts: Ptolemy's method of reporting the brightness of stars in the "Almagest"; the 19th century need for a photographic photometry scale; and the 19th century studies by psychophysicists E. H. Weber and G. T. Fechner on the response of the human eye to light. The latter work sought to uncover the relationship between the subjective response of the human eye and brain to the objective brightness of external optical stimuli. The resulting Fechner-Weber law states that this response is logarithmic: that is, that the eye essentially takes the logarithm of the incoming optical signal. However, after more than a century of perceptual studies, most intensively by S. S. Stevens, it is now well established that this relation is not logarithmic. For naked eye detection of stars from the first to sixth magnitudes, it can be reasonably well fit by a power law with index of about 0.3. Therefore, the modern experimental studies undermine the physiological basis for the use of magnitudes in astronomy. Should the historical origins of magnitudes alone be reason enough for their continued use? Probably not, since astronomical magnitudes are based on outdated studies of human perception; make little sense in an era of linear optical detection; and provide a

  8. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  9. Determining groundwater Ra end-member values for the estimation of the magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge using Ra isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-04-01

    Radium isotopes (228Ra and 226Ra) are excellent tracers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). To estimate SGD magnitudes, information on the end-member values of Ra concentrations in groundwater is critical; however, the distribution characteristics of Ra in coastal aquifers are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Ra concentrations in coastal groundwater are primarily dependent on salinity based on the data (n > 500) obtained from global coastal aquifers, although previous end-member calculations averaged all Ra concentrations without considering salinity. If we assume that SGD is composed mainly of seawater infiltrating the aquifer, previous estimates of SGD for the Atlantic Ocean and the global ocean were overestimated twofold to threefold. This may be similar for other applications using different Ra isotopes. Our study highlights that the end-members of Ra isotopes in groundwater should be carefully considered when estimating SGD using Ra isotope mass balances in the ocean.

  10. Magnitude And Distance Determination From The First Few Seconds Of One Three Components Seismological Station Signal Using Support Vector Machine Regression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Vargas Jimenez, C. A.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The "Sabana de Bogota" (Bogota Savannah) is the most important social and economical center of Colombia. Almost the third of population is concentrated in this region and generates about the 40% of Colombia's Internal Brute Product (IBP). According to this, the zone presents an elevated vulnerability in case that a high destructive seismic event occurs. Historical evidences show that high magnitude events took place in the past with a huge damage caused to the city and indicate that is probable that such events can occur in the next years. This is the reason why we are working in an early warning generation system, using the first few seconds of a seismic signal registered by three components and wide band seismometers. Such system can be implemented using Computational Intelligence tools, designed and calibrated to the particular Geological, Structural and environmental conditions present in the region. The methods developed are expected to work on real time, thus suitable software and electronic tools need to be developed. We used Support Vector Machines Regression (SVMR) methods trained and tested with historic seismic events registered by "EL ROSAL" Station, located near Bogotá, calculating descriptors or attributes as the input of the model, from the first 6 seconds of signal. With this algorithm, we obtained less than 10% of mean absolute error and correlation coefficients greater than 85% in hypocentral distance and Magnitude estimation. With this results we consider that we can improve the method trying to have better accuracy with less signal time and that this can be a very useful model to be implemented directly in the seismological stations to generate a fast characterization of the event, broadcasting not only raw signal but pre-processed information that can be very useful for accurate Early Warning Generation.

  11. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  12. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  13. Magnitude correlations in global seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlis, N. V.

    2011-08-15

    By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

  14. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1 The Design... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  15. Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, William Z.; Hines, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic (flow through) enclosure measurements with sulfur-free air used as sweep gas. This latter technique has been used to acquire the majority of available data on the exchange of S gases between the atmosphere and the continental surfaces and has been criticized because it is thought to overestimate the true flux of gases by disrupting natural S gas gradients. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were not statistically different between 4 and greater than 400 nmol/sq m/h, indicating that previous data on emissions of at least DMS are probably valid. However, the increase in DMS in static enclosures was not linear, indicating the potential for a negative feedback of enlosure DMS concentrations on efflux. The dynamic enclosure method measured positive OCS flux rates (emission) at all sites, while data using static enclosures indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere at these same sites at rates of 3.7 to 55 nmol/sq m/h. Measurements using both enclosure techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat was a source of both DMS and OCS. However, the rate of OCS efflux from decomposing peat was more than counterbalanced by OCS consumption by vegetation, including Sphagnum mosses, and net OCS uptake occurred at all sites. We propose that all wetlands are net sinks for OCS.

  16. A statistical measure of financial crises magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Bogdan

    2014-03-01

    This paper postulates the concept of financial market energy and provides a statistical measure of the financial market crisis magnitude based on an analogy between earthquakes and market crises. The financial energy released by the market is expressed in terms of trading volume and stock market index returns. A financial “earthquake” occurs if the financial energy released by the market exceeds the estimated threshold of market energy called critical energy. Similar to the Richter scale which is used in seismology in order to measure the magnitude of an earthquake, we propose a financial Gutenberg-Richter relation in order to capture the crisis magnitude and we show that the statistical pattern of the financial market crash is given by two statistical regimes, namely Pareto and Wakeby distributions.

  17. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  18. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  19. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. Link to an amendment... such equipment in commerce unless the manufacturer has determined the energy efficiency of the...

  20. 10 CFR 429.70 - Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or....70 Alternative methods for determining energy efficiency or energy use. (a) General. A manufacturer... determined the energy efficiency of the basic model, either from testing the basic model or from applying...

  1. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  2. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  3. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  5. Cosmic ray spectral deformation caused by energy determination errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Per; Wannemark, Conny

    2005-08-01

    Using simulation methods, distortion effects on energy spectra caused by errors in the energy determination have been investigated. For cosmic ray proton spectra falling steeply with kinetic energy E as E-2.7, significant effects appear. When magnetic spectrometers are used to determine the energy, the relative error increases linearly with the energy and distortions with a sinusoidal form appear starting at an energy that depends significantly on the error distribution but at an energy lower than that corresponding to the maximum detectable rigidity of the spectrometer. The effect should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different experiments, often having different error distributions.

  6. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  7. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  8. The free energy of DNA supercoiling is enthalpy-determined.

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, A; Hinz, H J

    1984-01-01

    The thermodynamics of superhelix formation was determined by combining superhelix density data with enthalpy values obtained from microcalorimetric measurements of the relaxation of supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA in the presence of topoisomerase I from Escherichia coli (omega protein). The thermodynamic quantities for superhelix formation at 37 degrees C in 10 mM Tris/2 mM MgCl2/1 mM EDTA pH 8, are: delta G = 921 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; delta H 2260 kJ X (mol of plasmid)-1; deltaS = 4.3 kJ X (mol of plasmid X K)-1. These data clearly demonstrate that the unfavorable Gibbs free energy associated with supercoiling of DNA results exclusively from the positive enthalpy involved in formation of superhelical turns. A positive overall entropy change accompanies superhelix formation, which overcompensates the expected decrease of configurational entropy. By neglecting contributions from bending, an estimate of the torsional rigidity C = 1.79 X 10(-19) erg X cm (1 erg = 0.1 microJ) of the supercoiled ColE1 amp plasmid DNA was made on the basis of the enthalpy value. This value is in excellent agreement with values of C derived from subnanosecond time-resolved fluorescence depolarization measurements for pBR322 DNA [Millar, D. P., Robbins, R. J. & Zewai, A.H. (1982) J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2080-2094]. The magnitude of C is larger than for linear DNAs, indicating that supercoiled DNA is more rigid than linear DNA. PMID:6369324

  9. Statistical models for seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersson, Anders

    1980-02-01

    In this paper some statistical models in connection with seismic magnitude are presented. Two main situations are treated. The first deals with the estimation of magnitude for an event, using a fixed network of stations and taking into account the detection and bias properties of the individual stations. The second treats the problem of estimating seismicity, and detection and bias properties of individual stations. The models are applied to analyze the magnitude bias effects for an earthquake aftershock sequence from Japan, as recorded by a hypothetical network of 15 stations. It is found that network magnitudes computed by the conventional averaging technique are considerably biased, and that a maximum likelihood approach using instantaneous noise-level estimates for non-detecting stations gives the most consistent magnitude estimates. Finally, the models are applied to evaluate the detection characteristics and associated seismicity as recorded by three VELA arrays: UBO (Uinta Basin), TFO (Tonto Forest) and WMO (Wichita Mountains).

  10. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  11. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  12. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  13. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  14. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  15. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. PMID:27317136

  16. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R E; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2016-05-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

  17. Bidirectional Modulation of Numerical Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Nigmatullin, Ramil; Asavarut, Paladd; Goga, Usman; Khan, Sarah; Sander, Kaija; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Roberts, R. E.; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Malhotra, Paresh A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition is critical for modern life; however, the precise neural mechanisms underpinning numerical magnitude allocation in humans remain obscure. Based upon previous reports demonstrating the close behavioral and neuro-anatomical relationship between number allocation and spatial attention, we hypothesized that these systems would be subject to similar control mechanisms, namely dynamic interhemispheric competition. We employed a physiological paradigm, combining visual and vestibular stimulation, to induce interhemispheric conflict and subsequent unihemispheric inhibition, as confirmed by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This allowed us to demonstrate the first systematic bidirectional modulation of numerical magnitude toward either higher or lower numbers, independently of either eye movements or spatial attention mediated biases. We incorporated both our findings and those from the most widely accepted theoretical framework for numerical cognition to present a novel unifying computational model that describes how numerical magnitude allocation is subject to dynamic interhemispheric competition. That is, numerical allocation is continually updated in a contextual manner based upon relative magnitude, with the right hemisphere responsible for smaller magnitudes and the left hemisphere for larger magnitudes. PMID:26879093

  18. Final rotational state distributions from NO(vi = 11) in collisions with Au(111): the magnitude of vibrational energy transfer depends on orientation in molecule-surface collisions.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Bastian C; Bartels, Nils; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-06-01

    When NO molecules collide at a Au(111) surface, their interaction is controlled by several factors; especially important are the molecules' orientation with respect to the surface (N-first vs. O-first) and their distance of closest approach. In fact, the former may control the latter as N-first orientations are attractive and O-first orientations are repulsive. In this work, we employ electric fields to control the molecules' incidence orientation in combination with rotational rainbow scattering detection. Specifically, we report final rotational state distributions of oriented NO(vi = 11) molecules scattered from Au(111) for final vibrational states between vf = 4 and 11. For O-first collisions, the interaction potential is highly repulsive preventing the close approach and scattering results in high-J rainbows. By contrast, these rainbows are not seen for the more intimate collisions possible for attractive N-first orientations. In this way, we reveal the influence of orientation and the distance of closest approach on vibrational relaxation of NO(vi = 11) in collisions with a Au(111) surface. We also elucidate the influence of steering forces which cause the O-first oriented molecules to rotate to an N-first orientation during their approach to the surface. The experiments show that when NO collides at the surface with the N-atom first, on average more than half of the initial vibrational energy is lost; whereas O-first oriented collisions lose much less vibrational energy. These observations qualitatively confirm theoretical predictions of electronically non-adiabatic NO interactions at Au(111). PMID:27193070

  19. Transport energy: determinants and policy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkerley, J.; Hoch, I.; Bouhdili, C.

    1985-09-01

    Expanding oil consumption by the transportation sector, already a major oil consumer, poses an economic threat to many developing countries. The report presents an overview of past trends in transport energy consumption and analyzes these trends systematically via regression analyses based on data from 80 developing and industrial countries (including new data on total and sectoral fuel consumption, numbers of trucks and buses, GDP, gasoline and diesel prices, and demographic and geographic features). Results of these analyses are supplemented by case studies of India and Ecuador. Results reveal high-income and low-price elasticities for fuel consumption and suggest that, despite rising fuel prices, increases in fuel consumption and vehicle ownership will outstrip increases in economic activity. This situation will require adapted fuel-price policies, which are critical in explaining fuel consumption. However, given the low price elasticities, price policies should be supplemented by improving vehicle efficiency and truck load factors, providing attractive alternative forms of public transportation, and reducing road congestion.

  20. Determination of Multidimensional Intermolecular Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ronald Carl

    High resolution spectroscopy of the low frequency van der Waals vibrations (also referred to as Vibration -Rotation-Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy) in weakly bound complexes provides the means to probe intermolecular forces with unprecedented detail and precision. We present an overview of the experimental information on intermolecular forces and intermolecular dynamics which has been obtained by far infrared VRT spectroscopy of 18 complexes. We then turn to a detailed examination of the Ar-H_2O complex, a simple prototype for the study of intermolecular forces. The measurement and analysis of 9 VRT bands is described. These data are first used to obtain a qualitative description of the intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS). A new simple and efficient method for calculating the eigenvalues of the multidimensional intermolecular dynamics on the IPS has been developed. This algorithm (an adaptation of the Collocation Method) was then used in a direct fit to obtain an accurate and detailed description of the intermolecular forces acting within the Ar-H_2O complex.

  1. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  2. The intensities and magnitudes of volcanic eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1991-01-01

    Ever since 1935, when C.F Richter devised the earthquake magnitude scale that bears his name, seismologists have been able to view energy release from earthquakes in a systematic and quantitative manner. The benefits have been obvious in terms of assessing seismic gaps and the spatial and temporal trends of earthquake energy release. A similar quantitative treatment of volcanic activity is of course equally desirable, both for gaining a further understanding of the physical principles of volcanic eruptions and for volcanic-hazard assessment. A systematic volcanologic data base would be of great value in evaluating such features as volcanic gaps, and regional and temporal trends in energy release.  

  3. An electrostatic suspension method for determining photoionization energies of solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.

    1973-01-01

    A sample is suspended on a quartz fibre in an electrostatic condenser and the onset of ionization with photon energy is determined through the potential required to restore zero deflection. Results for a few organic semiconductors are given.

  4. Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments with lightsticks in which the activation energy for the light-producing reaction is determined. Involves monitoring the light intensity of the lightstick as a function of temperature. Gives students the opportunity to explore the concepts of kinetics and activation energies and the world of computer-interfaced experimentation…

  5. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  6. Accurate Mass Determinations in Decay Chains with Missing Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C; Gunion, John F.; Han Zhenyu; Engelhardt, Dalit; McElrath, Bob

    2008-06-27

    Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error.

  7. Accurate mass determinations in decay chains with missing energy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Engelhardt, Dalit; Gunion, John F; Han, Zhenyu; McElrath, Bob

    2008-06-27

    Many beyond the standard model theories include a stable dark matter candidate that yields missing or invisible energy in collider detectors. If observed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we must determine if its mass and other properties (and those of its partners) predict the correct dark matter relic density. We give a new procedure for determining its mass with small error. PMID:18643654

  8. Roles for Treg Expansion and HMGB1 Signaling through the TLR1-2-6 Axis in Determining the Magnitude of the Antigen-Specific Immune Response to MVA85A

    PubMed Central

    Matsumiya, Magali; Stylianou, Elena; Griffiths, Kristin; Lang, Zoe; Meyer, Joel; Harris, Stephanie A.; Rowland, Rosalind; Minassian, Angela M.; Pathan, Ansar A.; Fletcher, Helen; McShane, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the relationships between vaccine, immunogenicity and protection from disease would greatly facilitate vaccine development. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a novel tuberculosis vaccine candidate designed to enhance responses induced by BCG. Antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production is greatly enhanced by MVA85A, however the variability between healthy individuals is extensive. In this study we have sought to characterize the early changes in gene expression in humans following vaccination with MVA85A and relate these to long-term immunogenicity. Two days post-vaccination, MVA85A induces a strong interferon and inflammatory response. Separating volunteers into high and low responders on the basis of T cell responses to 85A peptides measured during the trial, an expansion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ cells is seen in low but not high responders. Additionally, high levels of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 1 on day of vaccination are associated with an increased response to antigen 85A. In a classification model, combined expression levels of TLR1, TICAM2 and CD14 on day of vaccination and CTLA4 and IL2Rα two days post-vaccination can classify high and low responders with over 80% accuracy. Furthermore, administering MVA85A in mice with anti-TLR2 antibodies may abrogate high responses, and neutralising antibodies to TLRs 1, 2 or 6 or HMGB1 decrease CXCL2 production during in vitro stimulation with MVA85A. HMGB1 is released into the supernatant following atimulation with MVA85A and we propose this signal may be the trigger activating the TLR pathway. This study suggests an important role for an endogenous ligand in innate sensing of MVA and demonstrates the importance of pattern recognition receptors and regulatory T cell responses in determining the magnitude of the antigen specific immune response to vaccination with MVA85A in humans. PMID:23844129

  9. Using Polarimetry to Determine the CEBAF Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2014-06-01

    As Jefferson Lab begins operations with its upgraded CEBAF a ccelerator, the lab once again needs to experimentally determine the absolute beam energy of the machine. Previously, the CE- BAF beam energy was determined using precision measurement s of the bending magnet integral fields along with beam position information. The result obta ined from this technique was cross- checked with elastic scattering from hydrogen where knowle dge of the scattering angles of the electron and proton allow the beam energy to be determined. Wh ile the field integral method will still work with the upgraded machine, the elastic cross sect ion becomes too small to make preci- sion measurements at angles that are large enough to be easil y accessible; thus a new technique for energy determination has been sought. It will be shown th at by making use of polarimetry, one can use CEBAF’s polarized electrons’ g-2 spin precessio n to determine the absolute beam energy. This can be done in a single hall if the parameters of t he machine, such as the injector energy and linac imbalance, are known or with two halls witho ut any knowledge of the machine parameters

  10. Determination of equilibrium free energy from nonequilibrium work measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L. Y.; Bastien, D. A.; Espejel, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    The fluctuation–dissipation theorem (FDT) of Brownian dynamics (BD) is applied to extract the equilibrium free-energy profile from the nonequilibrium, irreversible work measured in single-molecule pulling experiments. Two sets of in silico experiments are performed to explore the free-energy landscape of deca-alanine peptide as a function of its end-to-end distance and to determine the free-energy profile of water permeation through the channels of aquaglyceroporin GlpF. With a small number of pulling paths sampled, the BD-FDT is shown to produce accurate estimates of the free-energy profiles for both systems. PMID:20463999

  11. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431524

  12. Development of an Empirical Local Magnitude Formula for Northern Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spriggs, N.; Karimi, S.; Moores, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we focus on determining a local magnitude formula for northern Oklahoma that is unbiased with distance by empirically constraining the attenuation properties within the region of interest based on the amplitude of observed seismograms. For regional networks detecting events over several hundred kilometres, distance correction terms play an important role in determining the magnitude of an event. Standard distance correction terms such as Hutton and Boore (1987) may have a significant bias with distance if applied in a region with different attenuation properties, resulting in an incorrect magnitude. We have presented data from a regional network of broadband seismometers installed in bedrock in northern Oklahoma. The events with magnitude in the range of 2.0 and 4.5, distributed evenly across this network are considered. We find that existing models show a bias with respect to hypocentral distance. Observed amplitude measurements demonstrate that there is a significant Moho bounce effect that mandates the use of a trilinear attenuation model in order to avoid bias in the distance correction terms. We present two different approaches of local magnitude calibration. The first maintains the classic definition of local magnitude as proposed by Richter. The second method calibrates local magnitude so that it agrees with moment magnitude where a regional moment tensor can be computed. To this end, regional moment tensor solutions and moment magnitudes are computed for events with magnitude larger than 3.5 to allow calibration of local magnitude to moment magnitude. For both methods the new formula results in magnitudes systematically lower than previous values computed with Eaton's (1992) model. We compare the resulting magnitudes and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Our results highlight the importance of correct calibration of the distance correction terms for accurate local magnitude assessment in regional networks.

  13. Maximum magnitude in the Lower Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Kris; Merino, Miguel; Stein, Seth; Vleminckx, Bart; Brooks, Eddie; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Estimating Mmax, the assumed magnitude of the largest future earthquakes expected on a fault or in an area, involves large uncertainties. No theoretical basis exists to infer Mmax because even where we know the long-term rate of motion across a plate boundary fault, or the deformation rate across an intraplate zone, neither predict how strain will be released. As a result, quite different estimates can be made based on the assumptions used. All one can say with certainty is that Mmax is at least as large as the largest earthquake in the available record. However, because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, larger earthquakes than anticipated often occur. Estimating Mmax is especially challenging within plates, where deformation rates are poorly constrained, large earthquakes are rarer and variable in space and time, and often occur on previously unrecognized faults. We explore this issue for the Lower Rhine Graben seismic zone where the largest known earthquake, the 1756 Düren earthquake, has magnitude 5.7 and should occur on average about every 400 years. However, paleoseismic studies suggest that earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.7 occurred during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. What to assume for Mmax is crucial for critical facilities like nuclear power plants that should be designed to withstand the maximum shaking in 10,000 years. Using the observed earthquake frequency-magnitude data, we generate synthetic earthquake histories, and sample them over shorter intervals corresponding to the real catalog's completeness. The maximum magnitudes appearing most often in the simulations tend to be those of earthquakes with mean recurrence time equal to the catalog length. Because catalogs are often short relative to the average recurrence time of large earthquakes, we expect larger earthquakes than observed to date to occur. In a next step, we will compute hazard maps for different return periods based on the

  14. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  15. Precise determination of neutron binding energy of 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telezhnikov, S. A.; Granja, C.; Honzatko, J.; Pospisil, S.; Tomandl, I.

    2016-05-01

    The neutron binding energy in 64Cu has been accurately measured in thermal neutron capture. A composite target of natural Cu and NaCl was used on a high flux neutron beam using a large measuring time. The γ-ray spectrum emitted in the ( n, γ) reaction was measured with a HPGe detector in large statistics (up to 106 events per channel). Intrinsic limitations of HPGe detectors, which restrict the accuracy of energy calibration, were determined. The value B n of 64Cu was determined as 7915.867(24) keV.

  16. The representation of numerical magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    The combined efforts of many fields are advancing our understanding of how number is represented. Researchers studying numerical reasoning in adult humans, developing humans and non-human animals are using a suite of behavioral and neurobiological methods to uncover similarities and differences in how each population enumerates and compares quantities to identify the neural substrates of numerical cognition. An important picture emerging from this research is that adult humans share with non-human animals a system for representing number as language-independent mental magnitudes and that this system emerges early in development. PMID:16546373

  17. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1 Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  18. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  19. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  20. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  1. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  2. Determining aerodynamic conductance of spar chambers from energy balance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerodynamic conductance (gA) of SPAR chambers was determined from measurements of energy balance and canopy temperature over a peanut canopy. gA was calculated from the slope of sensible heat flux (H) versus canopy-to-air temperature difference. H and the canopy-to-air temperature were varied by...

  3. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  4. Determining characteristics of melting cheese by activation energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C was measured from temperature sweeps of various cheeses to determine its usefulness in predicting rheological behavior upon heating. Seven cheese varieties were heated in a rheometer from 22 to 70 deg C, and Ea was calculated from the resulting ...

  5. Experiments to Determine the Efficiency of Various Energy Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, D.; Goodwin, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Described are experiments used in the "Physical Science and Man" course at Hartley CAE which enable determinations of efficiencies of two energy conversion processes, namely, electricity into heat and burning gas to produce heat. Activities for comparing the processes are suggested. (DS)

  6. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-12-01

    Barriers of activation within the photocycle of a photoactive protein were extracted from comprehensive time courses of time resolved crystallographic data collected at multiple temperature settings. Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev.101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol.305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallography, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallographic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes.

  7. Protein energy landscapes determined by five-dimensional crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marius; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    Free-energy landscapes decisively determine the progress of enzymatically catalyzed reactions [Cornish-Bowden (2012 ▶), Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics, 4th ed.]. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies transient-state kinetics with structure determination [Moffat (2001 ▶), Chem. Rev. 101, 1569–1581; Schmidt et al. (2005 ▶), Methods Mol. Biol. 305, 115–154; Schmidt (2008 ▶), Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Medicine and Biology] because both can be determined from the same set of X-ray data. Here, it is demonstrated how barriers of activation can be determined solely from five-dimensional crystallo­graphy, where in addition to space and time, temperature is a variable as well [Schmidt et al. (2010 ▶), Acta Cryst. A66, 198–206]. Directly linking molecular structures with barriers of activation between them allows insight into the structural nature of the barrier to be gained. Comprehensive time series of crystallo­graphic data at 14 different temperature settings were analyzed and the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the barriers of activation were determined. One hundred years after the discovery of X-ray scattering, these results advance X-ray structure determination to a new frontier: the determination of energy landscapes. PMID:24311594

  8. Experimentally Determined Binding Energies of Astrophysically Relevant Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmard, Aida; Graninger, Dawn; Oberg, Karin I.

    2016-06-01

    Small hydrocarbons represent an important organic reservoir in a variety of interstellar environments. Constraints on desorption temperatures and binding energies of hydrocarbons are thus necessary for accurate predictions of where and in which phase these molecules exist. Through a series of temperature programmed desorption experiments, we determined the desorption temperatures and binding energies of 1, 2, and 3-carbon interstellar hydrocarbons (CH4, H3CCH3, H2CCH2, C3H8, HCCCH3, and C3H6). These empirically determined values can be used to inform observations and models of the molecular spatial distribution in protoplanetary disks, thus providing insight into planetesimal composition. In addition, knowledge of hydrocarbon binding energies will refine simulations of grain surface chemistry, allowing for better predictions of the chemical conditions that lead to the production of complex organic molecules vital for life.

  9. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  10. Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Esther F.; Mordasini, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is a smaller version of Uranus and Neptune. Aims: We modeled the temporal evolution of the radius, temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and the blackbody spectrum of distant ice giant planets. The aim is also to provide estimates of the magnitudes in different bands to assess whether the object might be detectable. Methods: Simulations of the cooling and contraction were conducted for ice giants with masses of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ that are located at 280, 700, and 1120 AU from the Sun. The core composition, the fraction of H/He, the efficiency of energy transport, and the initial luminosity were varied. The atmospheric opacity was set to 1, 50, and 100 times solar metallicity. Results: We find for a nominal 10 M⊕ planet at 700 AU at the current age of the solar system an effective temperature of 47 K, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of about 10 K, a radius of 3.7 R⊕, and an intrinsic luminosity of 0.006 L♃. It has estimated apparent magnitudes of Johnson V, R, I, L, N, Q of 21.7, 21.4, 21.0, 20.1, 19.9, and 10.7, and WISE W1-W4 magnitudes of 20.1, 20.1, 18.6, and 10.2. The Q and W4 band and other observations longward of about 13 μm pick up the intrinsic flux. Conclusions: If candidate Planet 9 has a significant H/He layer and an efficient energy transport in the interior, then its luminosity is dominated by the intrinsic contribution, making it a self-luminous planet. At a likely position on its orbit near aphelion, we estimate for a mass of 5, 10, 20, and 50 M⊕ a V magnitude from the reflected light of 24.3, 23.7, 23.3, and 22.6 and a Q magnitude from the intrinsic radiation of 14.6, 11.7, 9.2, and 5.8. The latter would probably have been detected by past surveys.

  11. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummans, J.E.; Collings, Michael R.; Nasser, Edmund George

    1975-01-01

    Relations are provided to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods on Washington streams. Annual-peak-flow data from stream gaging stations on unregulated streams having 1 years or more of record were used to determine a log-Pearson Type III frequency curve for each station. Flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, i0, 25, 50, and 10years were then related to physical and climatic indices of the drainage basins by multiple-regression analysis using the Biomedical Computer Program BMDO2R. These regression relations are useful for estimating flood magnitudes of the specified recurrence intervals at ungaged or short-record sites. Separate sets of regression equations were defined for western and eastern parts of the State, and the State was further subdivided into 12 regions in which the annual floods exhibit similar flood characteristics. Peak flows are related most significantly in western Washington to drainage-area size and mean annual precipitation. In eastern Washington-they are related most significantly to drainage-area size, mean annual precipitation, and percentage of forest cover. Standard errors of estimate of the estimating relations range from 25 to 129 percent, and the smallest errors are generally associated with the more humid regions.

  12. Determination of energy distribution for photon and neutron microdosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, A. S.

    This work was undertaken to provide basic physical data for use in both microdosimetry and dosimetry of high energy photons and also in the neutron radiation field. Described is the formalism to determine the initial electron energy spectra in water irradiated by photons with energies up to 1 GeV. Calculations were performed with a Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is also described. The code treats explicitly the production of electron-positron pairs, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, and the emission of Auger electrons following the occurrence of K-shell vacancies in oxygen. The tables give directly the information needed to specify the absolute single-collision kerma in water, which approximates tissue, at each photon energy. Results for continuous photon energy spectra can be obtained by using linear interpolation with the tables. The conditions under which first-collision kerma approximate absorbed dose are discussed. A formula is given for estimating bremsstrahlung energy loss, one of the principal differences between kerma and absorbed dose in practical cases. A study has been carried out, on the use of cylindrical, energy-proportional pulse-height detector for determining microdosimetric quantities, as neutron fractional dose spectra, D (L), in the function of linear energy transfer (LET). In the present study the Hurst detector was used; this device satisfies the requirement of the Bragg-Gray principle. A Monte Carlo Method was developed to obtain the D(L) spectrum from a measured pulse-height spectrum H(h), and the knowledge of the distribution of recoil-particle track lenght, P(T) in the sensitive volume of the detector. These developed programs to find P(T) and D(L) are presented. The distribution of D(L) in LET were obtained using a known distribution of P(T) and the measured H(h) spectrum fromthe Cf-2 52 neutron source. All the results are discussed and the conclusions are presented.

  13. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  14. Surface diffusion activation energy determination using ion beam microtexturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.; Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The activation energy for impurity atom (adatom) surface diffusion can be determined from the temperature dependence of the spacing of sputter cones. These cones are formed on the surface during sputtering while simultaneously adding impurities. The impurities form clusters by means of surface diffusion, and these clusters in turn initiate cone formation. Values are given for the surface diffusion activation energies for various materials on polycrystalline Cu, Al, Pb, Au, and Ni. The values for different impurity species on each of these substrates are approximately independent of impurity species within the experimental uncertainty, suggesting the absence of strong chemical bonding effects on the diffusion.

  15. A determination of Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations employing large basis sets and including correlation are carried out for Mg(+) with methanol, water, and formaldehyde. For Mg(+) with ethanol and acetaldehyde, the trends in the binding energies are studied at the self-consistent-field level. The predictions for the binding energy of Mg(+) to methanol and water of 41 + or - 5 and 36 + or - 5 kcal/mol, respectively, are much less than the experimental upper bounds, of 61 + or - 5 and 60 + or - 5 kcal mol, determined by using photodissociation techniques. The theoretical results are inconsistent with the onset of Mg(+) production observed in the photodissociation experiments, as the smallest absorptions are calculated at about 80 kcal/mol for both Mg(+)-CH3OH and Mg(+)-H2O, and these transitions are to bound excited states. The binding energy for Mg(+) with formaldehyde is predicted to be similar to Mg(+)-H2O. The relative binding energies are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The binding energy of a second water molecule to Mg(+) is predicted to be similar to the first. This suggests that the reduced reaction rate observed for the second ligand is not a consequence of a significantly smaller binding energy, at least for the smaller ligards such as those considered in this work.

  16. Determination of selenium in biological samples with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhaoshui

    2016-05-01

    Selenium is both a nutrient and a toxin. Selenium-especially organic selenium-is a core component of human nutrition. Thus, it is very important to measure selenium in biological samples. The limited sensitivity of conventional XRF hampers its widespread use in biological samples. Here, we describe the use of high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) in tandem with a three-dimensional optics design to determine 0.1-5.1μgg(-1) levels of selenium in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters such as applied voltage, acquisition time, secondary target and various filters were thoroughly investigated. The detection limit of selenium in biological samples via high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was decreased by one order of magnitude versus conventional XRF (Paltridge et al., 2012) and found to be 0.1μg/g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe EDXRF measurements of Se in biological samples with important implications for the nutrition and analytical chemistry communities. PMID:26922394

  17. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  18. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1 Each floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  19. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  20. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  1. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  2. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eustes, A. W., III; Bridgford, E.; Tischler, A.; Wilcox, B. H.

    2000-01-01

    An in-depth look at percussive drilling shows that the transmission efficiency is very important; however, data for percussive drilling in hard rock or permafrost is rarely available or the existing data are very old. Transmission efficiency can be used as a measurement of the transmission of the energy in the piston to the drill steel or bit and from the bit to the rock. Having a plane and centralized impact of the piston on the drill steel can optimize the transmission efficiency from the piston to the drill steel. A transmission efficiency of near 100% between piston and drill steel is possible. The transmission efficiency between bit and rock is dependent upon the interaction within the entire system. The main factors influencing this transmission efficiency are the contact area between cutting structure and surrounding rock (energy loss due to friction heat), damping characteristics of the surrounding rock (energy dampening), and cuttings transport. Some of these parameters are not controllable. To solve the existing void regarding available drilling data, an experiment for gathering energy data in permafrost for percussive drilling was designed. Fifteen artificial permafrost samples were prepared. The samples differed in the grain size distribution to observe a possible influence of the grain size distribution on the drilling performance. The samples were then manually penetrated (with a sledge-hammer) with two different spikes.

  3. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the 2007 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007, (Standard 90.1-2007) would achieve greater......

  4. 76 FR 43298 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) has preliminarily determined that the 2010 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low- Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010, (Standard 90.1-2010 or the......

  5. 76 FR 64904 - Building Energy Standards Program: Final Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2010 edition of the Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low- Rise Residential Buildings, American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010, (Standard 90.1-2010 or the......

  6. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with (137)Cs and (60)Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  7. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  8. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory†

    PubMed Central

    Vilseck, Jonah Z.; Tirado-Rives, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood–Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm3 mol−1. The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  9. Determination of partial molar volumes from free energy perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Vilseck, Jonah Z; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-04-01

    Partial molar volume is an important thermodynamic property that gives insights into molecular size and intermolecular interactions in solution. Theoretical frameworks for determining the partial molar volume (V°) of a solvated molecule generally apply Scaled Particle Theory or Kirkwood-Buff theory. With the current abilities to perform long molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, more direct methods are gaining popularity, such as computing V° directly as the difference in computed volume from two simulations, one with a solute present and another without. Thermodynamically, V° can also be determined as the pressure derivative of the free energy of solvation in the limit of infinite dilution. Both approaches are considered herein with the use of free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to compute the necessary free energies of solvation at elevated pressures. Absolute and relative partial molar volumes are computed for benzene and benzene derivatives using the OPLS-AA force field. The mean unsigned error for all molecules is 2.8 cm(3) mol(-1). The present methodology should find use in many contexts such as the development and testing of force fields for use in computer simulations of organic and biomolecular systems, as a complement to related experimental studies, and to develop a deeper understanding of solute-solvent interactions. PMID:25589343

  10. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  11. Molecular distances determined with resonant vibrational energy transfers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hailong; Wen, Xiewen; Li, Jiebo; Zheng, Junrong

    2014-04-01

    In general, intermolecular distances in condensed phases at the angstrom scale are difficult to measure. We were able to do so by using the vibrational energy transfer method, an ultrafast vibrational analogue of Förster resonance energy transfer. The distances among SCN(-) anions in KSCN crystals and ion clusters of KSCN aqueous solutions were determined with the method. In the crystalline samples, the closest anion distance was determined to be 3.9 ± 0.3 Å, consistent with the XRD result. In the 1.8 and 1 M KSCN aqueous solutions, the anion distances in the ion clusters were determined to be 4.4 ± 0.4 Å. The clustered anion distances in aqueous solutions are very similar to the closest anion distance in the KSCN crystal but significantly shorter than the average anion distance (0.94-1.17 nm) in the aqueous solutions if ion clustering did not occur. The result suggests that ions in the strong electrolyte aqueous solutions can form clusters inside of which they have direct contact with each other. PMID:24641170

  12. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    PubMed

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  13. Photodisintegration of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: A New Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Salamon, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new calculation of the photodisintegration of ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for energy loss and photodisintegration of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the 2.73 K cosmic background radiation (CBR) and with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, consistent with direct measurements and upper limits from TeV gamma-ray observations. We have also improved the calculation by including the specific threshold energies for the various photodisintegration interactions in our Monte Carlo calculation. With the new smaller IBR flux, the steepness of the Wien side of the now relatively more important CBR makes their inclusion essential for more accurate results. Our results indicate a significant increase in the propagation time of UHCR nuclei of a given energy over previous results. We discuss the possible significance of this for UHCR origin theory.

  14. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system.

    PubMed

    Calero, C; Knorowski, C; Travesset, A

    2016-03-28

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available general software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Several implications of the method are discussed. PMID:27036422

  15. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calero, C.; Knorowski, C.; Travesset, A.

    2016-03-22

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available generalmore » software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Furthermore, several implications of the method are discussed.« less

  16. Determination of anharmonic free energy contributions: Low temperature phases of the Lennard-Jones system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calero, C.; Knorowski, C.; Travesset, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a general method to calculate the free energy of crystalline solids by considering the harmonic approximation and quasistatically switching the anharmonic contribution. The advantage of this method is that the harmonic approximation provides an already very accurate estimate of the free energy, and therefore the anharmonic term is numerically very small and can be determined to high accuracy. We further show that the anharmonic contribution to the free energy satisfies a number of exact inequalities that place constraints on its magnitude and allows approximate but fast and accurate estimates. The method is implemented into a readily available general software by combining the code HOODLT (Highly Optimized Object Oriented Dynamic Lattice Theory) for the harmonic part and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package HOOMD-blue for the anharmonic part. We use the method to calculate the low temperature phase diagram for Lennard-Jones particles. We demonstrate that hcp is the equilibrium phase at low temperature and pressure and obtain the coexistence curve with the fcc phase, which exhibits reentrant behavior. Several implications of the method are discussed.

  17. A thermal approach to waveform-independent energy determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Tobias; Spiegel, Thomas; Funck, Torsten

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a new device for power and rms value measurement is presented. Unlike the commercially available measurement equipment, this device is not limited to special waveforms. As a reaction to the increasing use of energy harvesters, which gather energy from the ambience to power low-power electronics, it is necessary to develop new measurement equipment that is not limited to sinusoidal signals (harvesters generally deliver nonsinusoidal signals). Therefore, a new device is presented based on an isothermal operating mode of a planar multijunction thermal converter (PMJTC). Unlike previous PMJTCs, this one is equipped with an additional gold heater and is operated by a regulating circuit, which is electrically isolated from the input. The output signal of the regulator is recorded and analyzed to determine the power and rms value of the input signal.

  18. Fast self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Kh

    2016-09-01

    Linear correlation between self-attenuation factor of 46.5keV ((210)Pb) and the 1764keV, 46.5 counts ratio has been developed in this work using triple superphosphate fertilizer samples. Similar correlation has been also developed for 63.3keV ((238)U). This correlation offers simple, fast, and accurate technique for self-attenuation determination of low energy gamma lines. Utilization of 46.5keV in the ratio has remarkably improved the technique sensitivity in comparison with other work, which used similar concept. The obtained results were used to assess the validity of transmission technique. PMID:27337648

  19. Common Enzymological Experiments Allow Free Energy Profile Determination

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of a complete set of rate constants (free energy profiles; FEPs) for a complex kinetic mechanism is challenging. Enzymologists have devised a variety of informative steady-state kinetic experiments (e.g., Michaelis-Menten kinetics, viscosity dependence of kinetic parameters, KIEs, etc.) that each provide distinct information regarding a particular kinetic system. A simple method for combining steady-state experiments in a single analysis is presented here, which allows microscopic rate constants and intrinsic kinetic isotope effects to be determined. It is first shown that Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters (kcat and KM values), kinetic isotope efffets, solvent viscosity effects, and intermediate partitioning measurements are sufficient to define the rate constants for a reversible uni-uni mechanism with an intermediate, EZ, between the ES and EP complexes. Global optimization provides the framework to combine the independent experimental measurements, and the search for rate constants is performed using algorithms implemented in the biochemical software COPASI. This method is applied to the determination of FEPs for both alanine racemase and triosephosphate isomerase. The FEPs obtained from global optimization agree with those in the literature, with important exceptions. The method opens the door to routine and large-scale determination of FEPs for enzymes. PMID:23906433

  20. Magnitude correlations and dynamical scaling for seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Godano, Cataldo; Lippiello, Eugenio; De Arcangelis, Lucilla

    2007-12-06

    We analyze the experimental seismic catalog of Southern California and we show the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We propose a dynamical scaling hypothesis relating time and magnitude as the physical mechanism responsible of the observed magnitude correlations. We show that experimental distributions in size and time naturally originate solely from this scaling hypothesis. Furthermore we generate a synthetic catalog reproducing the organization in time and magnitude of experimental data.

  1. The Effects Of Reinforcement Magnitude On Functional Analysis Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The duration or magnitude of reinforcement has varied and often appears to have been selected arbitrarily in functional analysis research. Few studies have evaluated the effects of reinforcement magnitude on problem behavior, even though basic findings indicate that this parameter may affect response rates during functional analyses. In the current study, 6 children with autism or developmental disabilities who engaged in severe problem behavior were exposed to three separate functional analyses, each of which varied in reinforcement magnitude. Results of these functional analyses were compared to determine if a particular reinforcement magnitude was associated with the most conclusive outcomes. In most cases, the same conclusion about the functions of problem behavior was drawn regardless of the reinforcement magnitude. PMID:16033163

  2. Determination of turbulent energy dissipation rate directly from MF-radar determined velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C. M.; Nozawa, S.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    2000-02-01

    MF radar systems are able to determine horizontal neutral winds in the mesosphere and, to some extent in the lower thermosphere by cross-correlations of signals received at spaced antennas. Essentially, by also computing auto-correlations, signal fading may be measured which in turn is thought to be largely attributable to turbulence. Hitherto, estimates of upper limits for the turbulent energy dissipation rate have been derived from the characteristic fading times. In this paper, we propose that power spectra of the velocity components themselves may be used to yield estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rate. 2-minute resolution velocities from the Universities of Saskatchewan, Tromsø and Nagoya joint MF radar at 69°N, 19°E are used in a pilot analysis to illustrate and ratify the method.

  3. Interaction Determined Electron Energy Levels in One-Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, Kalarikad; Smith, Luke; Creeth, Graham; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Jones, Geraint; Jonathan, Griffiths; UCL Collaboration; Cavendish Laboratory Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated electron transport in a quasi-one dimensional electron gas in the GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure designed so that the confinement potential can be progressively weakened. This causes the energy levels to decrease in energy relative to each other, however this decrease occurs at different rates, a feature attributed to the energy being determined by both confinement and the electron-electron repulsion which varies with the shape of the wavefunction. It is found that the initial ground state crosses the higher levels so resulting in missing plateaux of quantised conductance. A change in the nature of the ground state to a more extended form causes an increase in the capacitance between the confining gates and the electrons. Both crossings and anti-crossings of the levels are found and these will be discussed along with other consequences of the form of the level interactions. The effects of level crossing on the spin dependent 0.7 structure will be presented. Supported by EPSRC (UK).

  4. Magnitude and sign correlations in heartbeat fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    We propose an approach for analyzing signals with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that signals with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We find that the magnitude series relates to the nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. We apply our approach to the heartbeat interval series and find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications.

  5. The discovery and comparison of symbolic magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawn; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-06-01

    Humans and other primates are able to make relative magnitude comparisons, both with perceptual stimuli and with symbolic inputs that convey magnitude information. Although numerous models of magnitude comparison have been proposed, the basic question of how symbolic magnitudes (e.g., size or intelligence of animals) are derived and represented in memory has received little attention. We argue that symbolic magnitudes often will not correspond directly to elementary features of individual concepts. Rather, magnitudes may be formed in working memory based on computations over more basic features stored in long-term memory. We present a model of how magnitudes can be acquired and compared based on BARTlet, a representationally simpler version of Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations (BART; Lu, Chen, & Holyoak, 2012). BARTlet operates on distributions of magnitude variables created by applying dimension-specific weights (learned with the aid of empirical priors derived from pre-categorical comparisons) to more primitive features of objects. The resulting magnitude distributions, formed and maintained in working memory, are sensitive to contextual influences such as the range of stimuli and polarity of the question. By incorporating psychological reference points that control the precision of magnitudes in working memory and applying the tools of signal detection theory, BARTlet is able to account for a wide range of empirical phenomena involving magnitude comparisons, including the symbolic distance effect and the semantic congruity effect. We discuss the role of reference points in cognitive and social decision-making, and implications for the evolution of relational representations. PMID:24531498

  6. Magnitude systems in old star catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2005-06-01

    The current system of stellar magnitudes originally introduced by Hipparchus was strictly defined by Norman Pogson in 1856. He based his system on Ptolemy's star catalogue, the Almagest, recorded in about AD137, and defined the magnitude-intensity relationship on a logarithmic scale. Stellar magnitudes observed with the naked eye recorded in seven old star catalogues were analyzed in order to examine the visual magnitude systems. Although psychophysicists have proposed that human visual sensitivity follows a power-law scale, it is shown here that the degree of agreement is far better for a logarithmic scale than for a power-law scale. It is also found that light ratios in each star catalogue are nearly equal to 2.512, if the brightest (1st magnitude) and the faintest (6th magnitude and dimmer) stars are excluded from the study. This means that the visual magnitudes in the old star catalogues agree fully with Pogson's logarithmic scale.

  7. A reevaluation of the 20-micron magnitude system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    The 20-micron infrared magnitude system is reexamined by observing primary infrared standards and seven A V stars. The purpose is to determine whether Alpha Lyr has colors consistent with the average of A0 stars and to determine the relative magnitude of the primary standards to that of Alpha Lyr. The data presented are consistent with the interpretation that the spectrum of Alpha Lyr is a blackbody and that it is a viable flux standard at 10 and 20 microns. The absolute flux density scale, the physical quantity of interest, is found to be consistent with an extrapolation of the Alpha Lyr spectrum from the near infrared on the basis of the comparison of stars to Mars and asteroids. Adoption of a 0.0 magnitude for Alpha Lyr requires that the magnitudes given by Morrison and Simon (1973) and by Simon et al. (1972) be revised downward by 0.14 mag.

  8. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  9. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  10. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  11. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  12. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  13. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  14. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  15. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  16. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  17. 10 CFR 434.602 - Determination of the annual energy budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy budget. 434.602 Section 434.602 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative §...

  18. Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling

    PubMed Central

    de Geus, B; De Smet, S; Nijs, J; Meeusen, R

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling, and to investigate whether cycling to work at a self‐chosen intensity corresponds to recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for health improvement and ACSM recommendations for fitness improvement. Methods 18 healthy, untrained middle‐aged people, who did not cycle to work, underwent two maximal exercise tests (MT and MT2) in order to measure their maximal heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2). MT2 was performed 24 weeks after MT. Participants were asked to cycle at least three times a week to their workplace over a one‐way minimum distance of 2 km. Data on cycling were recorded in a diary. 12 weeks after MT, a field test was conducted, where participants had to cycle to or from their workplace. The same measurements were taken as during MT as markers of exercise intensity. Metabolic equivalents (METs) and energy expenditure were calculated. Results The intensity during the field test was >75% of their maximal aerobic capacity. The mean (SD) MET value was 6.8 (1.9). The energy expenditure during the field test was 220 (115) kcal or 540 (139) kcal/h and 1539 (892) kcal/week. Men consumed significantly (p<0.01) more energy per hour than women. Conclusion Commuter cycling at a self‐selected intensity meets the CDC and ACSM recommendations for health improvement and the ACSM recommendations for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. However, as the participants cycled faster during the field test than during daily cycling, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:17021003

  19. THE AGES OF 55 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS DETERMINED USING AN IMPROVED ΔV{sup HB}{sub TO} METHOD ALONG WITH COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM CONSTRAINTS, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR BROADER ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L. E-mail: kfb@phys.au.dk E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the 'fitting' of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ∼ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼< – 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼> –1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ∼ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R{sub G}) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13

  20. The Ages of 55 Globular Clusters as Determined Using an Improved \\Delta V^HB_TO Method along with Color-Magnitude Diagram Constraints, and Their Implications for Broader Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R.; Casagrande, L.

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the "fitting" of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ~ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] <~ - 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] >~ -1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ~ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R G) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and M13, subtle variations have

  1. First experimentally determined thermodynamic values of francium: hydration energy, energy of partitioning, and thermodynamic radius.

    PubMed

    Delmau, Lætitia H; Moine, Jérôme; Mirzadeh, Saed; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-08-01

    The Gibbs energy of partitioning of Fr(+) ion between water and nitrobenzene has been determined to be 14.5 ± 0.6 kJ/mol at 25 °C, the first ever Gibbs energy of partitioning for francium in particular and the first ever solution thermodynamic quantity for francium in general. This value enabled the ionic radius and standard Gibbs energy of hydration for Fr(+) to be estimated as 173 pm and -251 kJ/mol, respectively, the former value being significantly smaller than previously thought. A new experimental method was established using a cesium dicarbollide as a cation-exchange agent, overcoming problems inherent to the trace-level concentrations of francium. The methodology opens the door to the study of the partitioning behavior of francium to other water-immiscible solvents and the determination of complexation constants for francium binding by receptor molecules. PMID:23848436

  2. Determination of Dark Matter Properties at High-Energy Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Edward A.; Battaglia, Marco; Peskin, Michael E.; Wizansky, Tommer

    2006-11-05

    If the cosmic dark matter consists of weakly-interacting massive particles, these particles should be produced in reactions at the nextgeneration of high-energy accelerators. Measurements at these accelerators can then be used to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. From this, we can predict the cosmic density, the annihilation cross sections, and the cross sections relevant to direct detection. In this paper, we present studies in supersymmetry models with neutralino dark matter that give quantitative estimates of the accuracy that can be expected. We show that these are well matched to the requirements of anticipated astrophysical observations of dark matter. The capabilities of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) are expected to play a particularly important role in this study.

  3. Energy determination in industrial X-ray processing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Gregoire, O.; Stichelbaut, F.; Gomola, I.; Galloway, R. A.; Schlecht, J.

    2005-12-01

    In industrial irradiation facilities, the determination of maximum photon or electron energy is important for regulated processes, such as food irradiation, and for assurance of treatment reproducibility. With electron beam irradiators, this has been done by measuring the depth-dose distribution in a homogeneous material. For X-ray irradiators, an analogous method has not yet been recommended. This paper describes a procedure suitable for typical industrial irradiation processes, which is based on common practice in the field of therapeutic X-ray treatment. It utilizes a measurement of the slope of the exponential attenuation curve of X-rays in a thick stack of polyethylene plates. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental tests have been performed to verify the suitability and accuracy of the method between 3 MeV and 8 MeV.

  4. Quantitative determination of activation energies in mechanochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Franziska; Wenzel, Klaus-Jürgen; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska

    2016-08-17

    Mechanochemical reactions often result in 100% yields of single products, making purifying procedures obsolete. Mechanochemistry is also a sustainable and eco-friendly method. The ever increasing interest in this method is contrasted by a lack in mechanistic understanding of the mechanochemical reactivity and selectivity. Recent in situ investigations provided direct insight into formation pathways. However, the currently available theories do not predict temperature T as an influential factor. Here, we report the first determination of an apparent activation energy for a mechanochemical reaction. In a temperature-dependent in situ study the cocrystallisation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide was investigated as a model system. These experiments provide a pivotal step towards a comprehensive understanding of milling reaction mechanisms. PMID:27498986

  5. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  6. Determination of the nuclear level density at high excitation energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chbihi, A.; Sobotka, L.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z. ); Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Evaporation simulations are presented to illustrate the problems associated with the determination of the nuclear level density constant at high excitation energy from evaporation spectra. The methods of using either the total (whole chain) spectra or the difference (from two different initial excitation energies) spectra are discussed. Data from the study of the reaction 701 MeV {sup 28}Si+{sup 100}Mo are presented and both methods are used to extract the level density constant. We find that in order to reproduce the slopes of the light particle spectra the level density constant must have a value near 1/10{ital A}-- 1 / 11 {ital A} for excited nuclei with statistical temperatures in the range of 3.5 to 5.5 MeV. This presumes that the only parameter adjustment required to treat the decay of highly exited nuclei is the level density constant. If this is so, the shapes of the evaporation spectra imply a reduction in the level density constant from the value required to explain the decay of less highly excited nuclei, a conclusion reached by others. However, the reduced level density constant leads to an overproduction of deuterons and tritons. This suggests that a more complicated set of parameter adjustments may be required to treat the decay of highly excited nuclei.

  7. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  8. Sequential quadratic programming method for determining the minimum energy path.

    PubMed

    Burger, Steven K; Yang, Weitao

    2007-10-28

    A new method, referred to as the sequential quadratic programming method, is presented for determining minimum energy paths. The method is based on minimizing the points representing the path in the subspace perpendicular to the tangent of the path while using a penalty term to prevent kinks from forming. Rather than taking one full step, the minimization is divided into a number of sequential steps on an approximate quadratic surface. The resulting method can efficiently determine the reaction mechanism, from which transition state can be easily identified and refined with other methods. To improve the resolution of the path close to the transition state, points are clustered close to this region with a reparametrization scheme. The usefulness of the algorithm is demonstrated for the Muller-Brown potential, amide hydrolysis, and an 89 atom cluster taken from the active site of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase for the reaction which catalyzes 2-oxo-4-hexenedioate to the intermediate 2-hydroxy-2,4-hexadienedioate. PMID:17979319

  9. Multiscale mapping of completeness magnitude of earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobieva, Inessa; Narteau, Clement; Shebalin, Peter; Beauducel, François; Nercessian, Alexandre; Clouard, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Paule

    2013-04-01

    We propose a multiscale method to map spatial variations in completeness magnitude Mc of earthquake catalogs. The Mc value may significantly vary in space due to the change of the seismic network density. Here we suggest a way to use only earthquake catalogs to separate small areas of higher network density (lower Mc) and larger areas of smaller network density (higher Mc). We reduce the analysis of the FMDs to the limited magnitude ranges, thus allowing deviation of the FMD from the log-linearity outside the range. We associate ranges of larger magnitudes with increasing areas for data selection based on constant in average number of completely recorded earthquakes. Then, for each point in space, we document the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution at all length scales within the corresponding earthquake magnitude ranges. High resolution of the Mc-value is achieved through the determination of the smallest space-magnitude scale in which the Gutenberg-Richter law (i. e. an exponential decay) is verified. The multiscale procedure isolates the magnitude range that meets the best local seismicity and local record capacity. Using artificial catalogs and earthquake catalogs of the Lesser Antilles arc, this Mc mapping method is shown to be efficient in regions with mixed types of seismicity, a variable density of epicenters and various levels of registration.

  10. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas H. W.; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  11. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  12. Density-based Energy Decomposition Analysis for Intermolecular Interactions with Variationally Determined Intermediate State Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Ayers, P.W.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-10-28

    The first purely density-based energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for intermolecular binding is developed within the density functional theory. The most important feature of this scheme is to variationally determine the frozen density energy, based on a constrained search formalism and implemented with the Wu-Yang algorithm [Q. Wu and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2498 (2003) ]. This variational process dispenses with the Heitler-London antisymmetrization of wave functions used in most previous methods and calculates the electrostatic and Pauli repulsion energies together without any distortion of the frozen density, an important fact that enables a clean separation of these two terms from the relaxation (i.e., polarization and charge transfer) terms. The new EDA also employs the constrained density functional theory approach [Q. Wu and T. Van Voorhis, Phys. Rev. A 72, 24502 (2005)] to separate out charge transfer effects. Because the charge transfer energy is based on the density flow in real space, it has a small basis set dependence. Applications of this decomposition to hydrogen bonding in the water dimer and the formamide dimer show that the frozen density energy dominates the binding in these systems, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the interactions. A more detailed examination reveals how the interplay of electrostatics and the Pauli repulsion determines the distance and angular dependence of these hydrogen bonds.

  13. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution. PMID:18058321

  14. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Timing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ludvig, Elliot A; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The relation between reinforcer magnitude and timing behavior was studied using a peak procedure. Four rats received multiple consecutive sessions with both low and high levels of brain stimulation reward (BSR). Rats paused longer and had later start times during sessions when their responses were reinforced with low-magnitude BSR. When estimated by a symmetric Gaussian function, peak times also were earlier; when estimated by a better-fitting asymmetric Gaussian function or by analyzing individual trials, however, these peak-time changes were determined to reflect a mixture of large effects of BSR on start times and no effect on stop times. These results pose a significant dilemma for three major theories of timing (SET, MTS, and BeT), which all predict no effects for chronic manipulations of reinforcer magnitude. We conclude that increased reinforcer magnitude influences timing in two ways: through larger immediate after-effects that delay responding and through anticipatory effects that elicit earlier responding. PMID:17465312

  15. Estimation of the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Maria Leonila P.; Oike, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine earthquakes from 1589 to 1895 are estimated based on the review, evaluation and interpretation of historical accounts and descriptions. The first step involves the determination of magnitude-felt area relations for the Philippines for use in the magnitude estimation. Data used were the earthquake reports of 86, recent, shallow events with well-described effects and known magnitude values. Intensities are assigned according to the modified Mercalli intensity scale of I to XII. The areas enclosed by Intensities III to IX [ A(III) to A(IX)] are measured and related to magnitude values. The most robust relations are found for magnitudes relating to A(VI), A(VII), A(VIII) and A(IX). Historical earthquake data are obtained from primary sources in libraries in the Philippines and Spain. Most of these accounts were made by Spanish priests and officials stationed in the Philippines during the 15th to 19th centuries. More than 3000 events are catalogued, interpreted and their intensities determined by considering the possible effects of local site conditions, type of construction and the number and locations of existing towns to assess completeness of reporting. Of these events, 485 earthquakes with the largest number of accounts or with at least a minimum report of damage are selected. The historical epicenters are estimated based on the resulting generalized isoseismal maps augmented by information on recent seismicity and location of known tectonic structures. Their magnitudes are estimated by using the previously determined magnitude-felt area equations for recent events. Although historical epicenters are mostly found to lie on known tectonic structures, a few, however, are found to lie along structures that show not much activity during the instrumented period. A comparison of the magnitude distributions of historical and recent events showed that only the period 1850 to 1900 may be considered well-reported in terms of

  16. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  17. Reward Magnitude Effects on Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment…

  18. Representations of the Magnitudes of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether adults can use integrated, analog, magnitude representations to compare the values of fractions. The only previous study on this question concluded that even college students cannot form such representations and instead compare fraction magnitudes by representing numerators and denominators as separate whole numbers. However,…

  19. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Methods and Alternative Rating Methods: Public Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed modifications to the regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products...

  20. Determination of Endpoint Energy and Bremsstrahlung Spectra for High-Energy Radiation-Therapy Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Danny Joe

    Few attempts have been made to experimentally determine thick-target bremsstrahlung spectra of megavoltage therapy beams. For spectral studies using the Compton scattering technique, sodium iodine (NaI) detectors with relatively poor energy resolution have been used. Other experimental techniques for determining spectra are generally not suited for a clinical environment with the inherent time and space constraints. To gather more spectral information than previously obtained in the region near the endpoint energy, the use of a high-resolution intrinsic-germanium (Ge) detector was proposed. A response function matrix was determined from experimentally obtained pulse height distributions on the multichannel analyzer. The distributions were for nine various monoenergetic sources between 280 adn 1525 keV. The response function was used to convert the measured pulse height distributions to photon flux spectra using an iterative approximation technique with a computer. Photon flux spectra from the Sagittaire Linear Accelerator were obtained at average-electron endpoint energies of 15, 20, and 25 MeV. Two spectra were measured at the 25 MeV setting; one spectrum was measured along the central axis and one spectrum at 4(DEGREES) off axis. Photon spectra were also obtained for a Van de Graaff generator at the nominal endpoint energies of 2.2, 2.35, and 2.5 MeV. The results for both the linac and the Van de Graaff generator were compared with theoretical spectra and previously measured spectra where available. Also, photon spectra from a Theratron-80 (('60)Co) unit were determined for three field sizes and for a 10 x 10 cm. field with a lucite tray or a 45(DEGREES) wedge in the beam. The resulting spectra were compared to previously measured ('60)Co spectra.

  1. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  2. Reward magnitude effects on temporal discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate a short (2 s) vs. a long (8 s) signal followed by testing with intermediate durations. Then, the reward on short or long trials was increased from 1 to 4 pellets in separate groups. Experiment 2 measured the effect of different reward magnitudes associated with the short vs. long signals throughout training. Finally, Experiment 3 controlled for satiety effects during the reward magnitude manipulation phase. A general flattening of the psychophysical function was evident in all three experiments, suggesting that unequal reward magnitudes may disrupt attention to duration. PMID:24965705

  3. Reward magnitude effects on temporal discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Galtress, Tiffany; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Changes in reward magnitude or value have been reported to produce effects on timing behavior, which have been attributed to changes in the speed of an internal pacemaker in some instances and to attentional factors in other cases. The present experiments therefore aimed to clarify the effects of reward magnitude on timing processes. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate a short (2 s) vs. a long (8 s) signal followed by testing with intermediate durations. Then, the reward on short or long trials was increased from 1 to 4 pellets in separate groups. Experiment 2 measured the effect of different reward magnitudes associated with the short vs. long signals throughout training. Finally, Experiment 3 controlled for satiety effects during the reward magnitude manipulation phase. A general flattening of the psychophysical function was evident in all three experiments, suggesting that unequal reward magnitudes may disrupt attention to duration.

  4. Comparison of magnetic probe calibration at nano and millitesla magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahl, Ryan A.; Rovey, Joshua L.; Pommerenke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field probes are invaluable diagnostics for pulsed inductive plasma devices where field magnitudes on the order of tenths of tesla or larger are common. Typical methods of providing a broadband calibration of dot{{B}} probes involve either a Helmholtz coil driven by a function generator or a network analyzer. Both calibration methods typically produce field magnitudes of tens of microtesla or less, at least three and as many as six orders of magnitude lower than their intended use. This calibration factor is then assumed constant regardless of magnetic field magnitude and the effects of experimental setup are ignored. This work quantifies the variation in calibration factor observed when calibrating magnetic field probes in low field magnitudes. Calibration of two dot{{B}} probe designs as functions of frequency and field magnitude are presented. The first dot{{B}} probe design is the most commonly used design and is constructed from two hand-wound inductors in a differential configuration. The second probe uses surface mounted inductors in a differential configuration with balanced shielding to further reduce common mode noise. Calibration factors are determined experimentally using an 80.4 mm radius Helmholtz coil in two separate configurations over a frequency range of 100-1000 kHz. A conventional low magnitude calibration using a vector network analyzer produced a field magnitude of 158 nT and yielded calibration factors of 15 663 ± 1.7% and 4920 ± 0.6% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted and hand-wound probes, respectively. A relevant magnitude calibration using a pulsed-power setup with field magnitudes of 8.7-354 mT yielded calibration factors of 14 615 ± 0.3% and 4507 ± 0.4% {T}/{V {s}} at 457 kHz for the surface mounted inductor and hand-wound probe, respectively. Low-magnitude calibration resulted in a larger calibration factor, with an average difference of 9.7% for the surface mounted probe and 12.0% for the hand-wound probe. The

  5. A probabilistic neural network for earthquake magnitude prediction.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Hojjat; Panakkat, Ashif

    2009-09-01

    A probabilistic neural network (PNN) is presented for predicting the magnitude of the largest earthquake in a pre-defined future time period in a seismic region using eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators considered are the time elapsed during a particular number (n) of significant seismic events before the month in question, the slope of the Gutenberg-Richter inverse power law curve for the n events, the mean square deviation about the regression line based on the Gutenberg-Richter inverse power law for the n events, the average magnitude of the last n events, the difference between the observed maximum magnitude among the last n events and that expected through the Gutenberg-Richter relationship known as the magnitude deficit, the rate of square root of seismic energy released during the n events, the mean time or period between characteristic events, and the coefficient of variation of the mean time. Prediction accuracies of the model are evaluated using three different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, and the true skill score or R score. The PNN model is trained and tested using data for the Southern California region. The model yields good prediction accuracies for earthquakes of magnitude between 4.5 and 6.0. The PNN model presented in this paper complements the recurrent neural network model developed by the authors previously, where good results were reported for predicting earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0. PMID:19502005

  6. Determination of the 154Sm ionization energy by high-precision laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A.; Bushaw, B. A.; Wendt, K.

    2004-04-01

    High-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been used to determine the ionization energy of 154Sm. Three-step resonant excitation with single-frequency lasers populates a series of ell = 3, J = 4 Rydberg levels in the range of n = 60-160, covering the range of 30 cm-1 to 4 cm-1 below the first ionization limit. Although samarium has a complex electronic structure with eight valence electrons, series of nearly unperturbed levels could be observed. Analysis includes shifts caused by a single perturbing state, an extended Ritz term for quantum defect variation at lower n, and corrections for residual electric fields. The resulting series convergence limit has an uncertainty of 4 × 10-5 cm-1, while the final value EI (154Sm) = 45 519.307 93(43) cm-1 also accounts for the uncertainty in absolute laser frequencies coupling the Rydberg spectrum to the J = 0 ground state and other systematic errors. Precision is improved by nearly four orders of magnitude over previous values.

  7. What Is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude "Work"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude "work" is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, "work" is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is…

  8. Determining Energy Saving Behavior and Energy Awareness of Secondary School Students According to Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktamis, Hilal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine energy saving behavior and energy awareness of secondary school students and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics (gender, residential area and grade level) on energy saving and energy awareness. The research is a survey model with an approach that aims to describe the current status. A total of…

  9. Pitch-angle Scattering of Energetic Charged Particles in Nearly Constant Magnitude Magnetic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, P.; Jokipii, J. R.; Giacalone, J.

    2016-08-01

    We use a method developed by Roberts that optimizes the phase angles of an ensemble of plane waves with amplitudes determined from a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum, to construct magnetic field vector fluctuations having nearly constant magnitude and large variances in its components. This is a representation of the turbulent magnetic field consistent with that observed in the solar wind. Charged-particle pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are determined by integrating the equations of motion for a large number of charged particles moving under the influence of forces from our predefined magnetic field. We tested different cases by varying the kinetic energy of the particles (E p) and the turbulent magnetic field variance ({σ }B2). For each combination of E p and {σ }B2, we tested three different models: (1) the so-called “slab” model, where the turbulent magnetic field depends on only one spatial coordinate and has significant fluctuations in its magnitude (b=\\sqrt{δ {B}x2(z)+δ {B}y2(z)+{B}02}) (2) the slab model optimized with nearly constant magnitude b; and (3) the slab model turbulent magnetic field with nearly constant magnitude plus a “variance-conserving” adjustment. In the last case, this model attempts to conserve the variance of the turbulent components ({σ }{Bx}2+{σ }{By}2), which is found to decrease during the optimization with nearly constant magnitude. We found that there is little or no effect on the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient {D}μ μ between models 1 and 2. However, the result from model 3 is significantly different. We also introduce a new method to accurately determine the pitch-angle diffusion coefficients as a function of μ.

  10. Determination of the jet energy scale at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canelli, Florencia; Heinemann, B.; Adelman, J.; Ambrose, D.; Arguin, J.-F.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.S.; Chung, K.; Cooper, B.; Currat, C.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, T.; Erbacher, R.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Gibson, A.; Hatakeyama, K.; Happacher, F.; Hoffman, D.; /Argonne /UCLA /Carnegie Mellon U. /Chicago U., EFI /Fermilab /Florida U. /Frascati /Geneva U. /LBL, Berkeley /Liverpool U. /University Coll. London /Michigan State U. /Toronto U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2005-10-01

    A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter. The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. For jets with transverse momenta above 50 GeV the jet energy scale is determined with a 3% systematic uncertainty.

  11. Local magnitude calibration of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scordilis, E. M.; Kementzetzidou, D.; Papazachos, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    A new relation is proposed for accurate determination of local magnitudes in Greece. This relation is based on a large number of synthetic Wood-Anderson (SWA) seismograms corresponding to 782 regional shallow earthquakes which occurred during the period 2007-2013 and recorded by 98 digital broad-band stations. These stations are installed and operated by the following: (a) the National Observatory of Athens (HL), (b) the Department of Geophysics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (HT), (c) the Seismological Laboratory of the University of Athens (HA), and (d) the Seismological Laboratory of the Patras University (HP). The seismological networks of the above institutions constitute the recently (2004) established Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). These records are used to calculate a refined geometrical spreading factor and an anelastic attenuation coefficient, representative for Greece and surrounding areas, proper for accurate calculation of local magnitudes in this region. Individual station corrections depending on the crustal structure variations in their vicinity and possible inconsistencies in instruments responses are also considered in order to further ameliorate magnitude estimation accuracy. Comparison of such calculated local magnitudes with corresponding original moment magnitudes, based on an independent dataset, revealed that these magnitude scales are equivalent for a wide range of values.

  12. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.; Silva, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are extremely difficult to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, HV, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, but only few are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of TNOs, many of which have been observed and modeled within the program "TNOs are cool", which is one of the Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V-band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering a magnitude variability that is due to the rotational light-curve. Results: We obtained 237 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, six of which were without previously reported measurements. Including the data from the literature, we report a total of 110 absolute magnitudes with their respective phase coefficients. The average value of HV is 6.39, bracketed by a minimum of 14.60 and a maximum of -1.12. For the phase coefficients we report a median value of 0.10 mag per degree and a very large dispersion, ranging from -0.88 up to 1.35 mag per degree.

  13. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P < 0.01), respectively, during the first 11 weeks after surgery, although food consumption was constant both pre- and post-surgery. The mean MER after obtaining a BCS of 5 was 313.6 (SEM 23.6) kJ/BW(0.67), which is 25 % lower than the current National Research Council recommendation and lower than the cat's requirement before surgery (P < 0.05). In conclusion, spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  14. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1/sup -1/ h/sup -1/. Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon.

  15. Nonlinear Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R2 = 0.99, CNR = 84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R2 > 0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI. PMID:25505816

  16. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  17. Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tardy, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer of highly excited polyatomic molecules plays an important role in many complex chemical systems: combustion, high temperature and atmospheric chemistry. By monitoring the relaxation of internal energy we have observed trends in the collisional efficiency ({beta}) for energy transfer as a function of the substrate's excitation energy and the complexities of substrate and deactivator. For a given substrate {beta} increases as the deactivator's mass increase to {approximately}30 amu and then exhibits a nearly constant value; this is due to a mass mismatch between the atoms of the colliders. In a homologous series of substrate molecules (C{sub 3}{minus}C{sub 8}) {beta} decreases as the number of atoms in the substrate increases; replacing F with H increases {beta}. All substrates, except for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 2}HCl below 10,000 cm{sup {minus}1}, exhibited that {beta} is independent of energy, i.e. <{Delta}E>{sub all} is linear with energy. The results are interpreted with a simple model which considers that {beta} is a function of the ocillators energy and its vibrational frequency. Limitations of current approximations used in high temperature unimolecular reactions were evaluated and better approximations were developed. The importance of energy transfer in product yields was observed for the photoactivation of perfluorocyclopropene and the photoproduction of difluoroethyne. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  19. Zero Magnitude Effect for the Productivity of Triggered Tsunami Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model is applied to tsunami events to explain previously observed temporal clustering of tsunami sources. Tsunami events are defined by National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) tsunami database. For the ETAS analysis, the earthquake magnitude associated with each tsunami event in the NGDC database is replaced by the primary magnitude listed in the Centennial catalog up until 1976 and in the Global CMT catalog from 1976 through 2010. Tsunamis with a submarine landslide or volcanic component are included if they are accompanied by an earthquake, which is most often the case. Tsunami size is used as a mark for determining a tsunami-generating event, according to a minimum completeness level. The tsunami catalog is estimated to be complete for tsunami sizes greater than 1 m since 1900 and greater than 0.1 m since 1960. Of the five parameters in the temporal ETAS model (Ogata, 1988), the parameter that scales the magnitude dependence in the productivity of triggered events is the one that is most different from ETAS parameters derived from similar earthquake catalogs. Maximum likelihood estimates of this magnitude effect parameter is essentially zero, within 95% confidence, for both the 0.1 m and 1.0 m tsunami completeness levels. To explain this result, parameter estimates are determined for the Global CMT catalog under three tsunamigenic conditions: (1) M≥7 and focal depth ≤50 km, (2) submarine location, and (3) dominant component of dip slip. Successive subcatalogs are formed from the Global CMT catalog according to each of these conditions. The high magnitude threshold for tsunamigenesis alone (subcatalog 1) does not explain the zero magnitude effect. The zero magnitude effect also does not appear to be caused the smaller number of tsunamigenic events analyzed in comparison to earthquake catalogs with a similar magnitude threshold. ETAS parameter estimates from the subcatalog (3) with all three tsunamigenic conditions

  20. Determination of the polar and total surface energy distributions of particulates by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal C; Larson, Ian; Morton, David A V; Stewart, Peter J

    2011-01-18

    This Letter reports a technique of measuring polar surface energy distributions of lactose using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The significance of this study is that the total surface energy distributions can now be characterized by combining the already known dispersive surface energy distribution with polar surface energy distribution determined in this study. The polar surface energy was calculated from the specific free energies for surface interactions with a monopolar basic probe, ethyl acetate, and a monopolar acidic probe, dichloromethane. PMID:21174410

  1. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  2. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  3. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  4. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  5. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  6. Deep photometry and integral magnitudes of 8 nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Ts. B.

    2016-02-01

    We estimated integral magnitudes of galaxies trying to include the contribution of the brightest part of their halos. We performed surface photometry based on (i) concentric elliptical rims, corresponding to the peripheral ellipticity of the image, (ii) median estimation of the mean value of the rim pixels, (iii) apparent radial brightness profiles, corresponding to the rim medians, and (iv) magnitude curves of growth, derived by numerical integrations of the apparent rim profiles, without preliminary background estimation and removal. Furthermore, we used the magnitude curves of growth to determine the integral magnitudes (limited by size and deepness of our frames) and compared them with the total magnitudes in the data base HyperLeda. Also, we used the rim-profiles to estimate the background level far enough from the galaxy center and we build (here—only for trial) the intrinsic radial profiles (with background removal). We apply this photometry on 8 nearby galaxies, observed with CCD in the system BVRC IC by the 50 cm Schmidt telescope of the Rozhen NAO in 2003-2004. We build radial profiles which occur to be as average 1.8 times (1.2-2.5 times) larger than in data base NED and of integral brightness that occurs to be about 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 times) higher than in data base HyperLeda. The relative brightness additions, found here, correlate with the color index and anti-correlate with the luminosity of the galaxy.

  7. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, Erik

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market of allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  8. Using Economics to Determine the Efficient Curtailment of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential societal benefits to the energy market by allowing the dispatch of wind generation in times when it may enhance reliability and be economically advantageous to do so.

  9. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, J. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Methods of estimating flood magnitudes for recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years are described for rural streams in Alabama that are not affected by regulation or urbanization. Flood-frequency characteristics are presented for 198 gaging stations in Alabama having 10 or more years of record through September 1991, that are used in the regional analysis. Regression relations were developed using generalized least-squares regression techniques to estimate flood magnitude and frequency on ungaged streams as a function of the drainage area of a basin. Sites on gaged streams should be weighted with gaging station data that are presented in the report. Graphical relations of peak discharges to drainage areas are also presented for sites along the Alabama, Black Warrior, Cahaba, Choctawhatchee, Conecub, and Tombigbee Rivers. Equations for estimating flood magnitudes on ungaged urban streams (taken from a previous report) that use drainage area and percentage of impervious cover as independent variables also are given.

  10. Neutron energy determination with a high-purity germanium detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gene A.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas that are related to planetary gamma-ray spectrometry are investigated. The first task was the investigation of gamma rays produced by high-energy charged particles and their secondaries in planetary surfaces by means of thick target bombardments. The second task was the investigation of the effects of high-energy neutrons on gamma-ray spectral features obtained with high-purity Ge-detectors. For both tasks, as a function of the funding level, the experimental work was predominantly tied to that of other researchers, whenever there was an opportunity to participate in bombardment experiments at large or small accelerators for charged particles.

  11. Energy yield determination of concentrator solar cells using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisz, John F.; García, Iván; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  12. Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

    2013-12-01

    Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected

  13. Delta Scorpii unusual brightening to first magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-01-01

    The Be star delta Scorpii with a range of variability between 2.35 and 1.65 in visible light is having an unusual brightening to magnitude mV=0.8, as measured on 31 Jan 2016 at 3:56 UT and 5:36 UT from Lanciano, Italy.

  14. On the statistical analysis of maximal magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, M.; Zöller, G.; Hainzl, S.

    2012-04-01

    We show how the maximum expected magnitude within a time horizon [0,T] may be estimated from earthquake catalog data within the context of truncated Gutenberg-Richter statistics. We present the results in a frequentist and in a Bayesian setting. Instead of deriving point estimations of this parameter and reporting its performance in terms of expectation value and variance, we focus on the calculation of confidence intervals based on an imposed level of confidence α. We present an estimate of the maximum magnitude within an observational time interval T in the future, given a complete earthquake catalog for a time period Tc in the past and optionally some paleoseismic events. We argue that from a statistical point of view the maximum magnitude in a time window is a reasonable parameter for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, while the commonly used maximum possible magnitude for all times does almost certainly not allow the calculation of useful (i.e. non-trivial) confidence intervals. In the context of an unbounded GR law we show, that Jeffreys invariant prior distribtution yields normalizable posteriors. The predictive distribution based on this prior is explicitely computed.

  15. Lamp modulator provides signal magnitude indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Lamp modulator provides visible indication of presence and magnitude of an audio signal carrying voice or data. It can be made to reflect signal variations of up to 32 decibels. Lamp life is increased by use of a bypass resistor to prevent filament failure.

  16. Determinants of the pace of global innovation in energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Trancik, Jessika E; Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970-2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  17. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  18. Determinants of the Pace of Global Innovation in Energy Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors driving innovation in energy technologies is of critical importance to mitigating climate change and addressing other energy-related global challenges. Low levels of innovation, measured in terms of energy patent filings, were noted in the 1980s and 90s as an issue of concern and were attributed to limited investment in public and private research and development (R&D). Here we build a comprehensive global database of energy patents covering the period 1970–2009, which is unique in its temporal and geographical scope. Analysis of the data reveals a recent, marked departure from historical trends. A sharp increase in rates of patenting has occurred over the last decade, particularly in renewable technologies, despite continued low levels of R&D funding. To solve the puzzle of fast innovation despite modest R&D increases, we develop a model that explains the nonlinear response observed in the empirical data of technological innovation to various types of investment. The model reveals a regular relationship between patents, R&D funding, and growing markets across technologies, and accurately predicts patenting rates at different stages of technological maturity and market development. We show quantitatively how growing markets have formed a vital complement to public R&D in driving innovative activity. These two forms of investment have each leveraged the effect of the other in driving patenting trends over long periods of time. PMID:24155867

  19. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to test a series of hypotheses regarding the influences of household characteristics (such as education, age, sex, race, income, and size of household), building characteristics (such as age, ownership, and type), and electricity prices on the use of ENERGY STAR appliances.

  20. Experimental determination of fragment excitation energies in multifragmentation events

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Cibor, J.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Chbihi, A.; Le Fevre, A.; Salou, S.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Gingras, L.; Auger, G.; Laville, J.L.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Tirel, O.; Assenard, M.; Eudes, P.; Germain, M.; Rahmani, A.; Reposeur, T.; Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B.; Frankland, J.D.; Plagnol, E.; Rivet, M.F.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genouin-Duhamel, E.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Peter, J.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Buchet, P.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Dore, D.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Parlog, M.; Tabacaru, G.; Rosato, E.; Gourio, D.; Majka, Z.

    1998-07-01

    For 50 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn multifragmentation events, we deduced, by means of correlation techniques, the multiplicities of the hydrogen and helium isotopes which were emitted by the hot primary excited fragments produced at the stage of the disassembly of an equilibrated hot source. We also derived the relative kinetic energy distributions between the primary clusters and the light charged particles that they evaporate. From the comparison between the secondary multiplicities observed experimentally and the multiplicities predicted by the GEMINI model, we concluded that the source breaks into primary fragments which are characterized by the same N/Z ratio as the combined system. Knowing the secondary light charged particle multiplicities and kinetic energies, we reconstructed the average charges of the hot fragments and we estimated their mean excitation energies. The fragment excitation energies are equal to 3.0 MeV/nucleon for the full range of intermediate mass fragment atomic number. This global constancy indicates that, on the average, thermodynamical equilibrium was achieved at the disassembly stage of the source. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Energy costs of catfish space use as determined by biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  2. Determining neutrino absorption spectra at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, O; Van Vliet, A R E-mail: A.R.van.Vliet@student.rug.nl

    2008-06-15

    A very efficient method for measuring the flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is through the detection of radio waves which are emitted by the particle shower in the lunar regolith. The highest acceptance is reached for radio waves in the frequency band of 100-200 MHz which can be measured with modern radio telescopes. In this work we investigate the sensitivity of this detection method to structures in the UHE neutrino spectrum caused by their absorption on the low energy relic anti-neutrino background through the Z boson resonance. The position of the absorption peak is sensitive to the neutrino mass and the redshift of the source. A new generation of low frequency digital radio telescopes will provide excellent detection capabilities for measuring these radio pulses, thus making our consideration here very timely.

  3. Energy Costs of Catfish Space Use as Determined by Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Závorka, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Animals use dispersed resources within their home range (HR) during regular day-to-day activities. The high-quality area intensively used by an individual, where critical resources are concentrated, has been designated as the core area (CA). This study aimed to describe how animals utilize energy in the HR and CA assuming that changes would occur according to the size of the used areas. We observed energetic costs of space use in the largest European freshwater predator catfish, Silurus glanis, using physiological sensors. Catfish consumed significantly more energy within the CA compared to the rest of the HR area. In addition, energetic costs of space use within a large area were lower. These results generally indicate that utilization of larger areas is related to less demanding activities, such as patrolling and searching for new resources and mates. In contrast, fish occurrence in small areas appears to be related to energetically demanding use of spatially limited resources. PMID:24896256

  4. The determination of the stacking fault energy in copper-nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for determining the stacking fault energies of a series of nickel-copper alloys to gain an insight into the embrittling effect of hydrogen are evaluated. Plans for employing weak beam dark field electron microscopy to determine stacking fault energies are outlined.

  5. Re-determination of bound state resonance energies in He/graphite scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S.; Kara, A.; Frankl, D. R.

    1986-05-01

    Binding energies of 4He atoms physisorbed on graphite (0001) surfaces were re-determined with improved resolution and precision. Energies are several tenths of an meV deeper than found in previous determinations, and an additional high-lying level is resolved. These results are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations.

  6. Subitizing, Magnitude Representation, and Magnitude Retrieval in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Rebecca; Blatto-Vallee, Gary; Fabich, Megan

    2006-01-01

    This study examines basic number processing (subitizing, automaticity, and magnitude representation) as the possible underpinning of mathematical difficulties often evidenced in deaf adults. Hearing and deaf participants completed tasks to assess the automaticity with which magnitude information was activated and retrieved from long-term memory…

  7. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  8. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  9. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  10. The secular variation of cometary magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.; Daniels, P. A.

    1983-03-01

    This paper calculates the mean variation in absolute magnitude per perihelion passage, ΔH10, for short-period comets from the data of Vsekhsvyatskii and finds a value of 0.30 ± 0.06. Other mechanisms used for estimating cometary decay are reviewed an it is concluded that a more probable value for ΔH10 is about 0.002. Reasons for the discrepancy between these two values are given.

  11. Theoretical determination of the alkali-metal superoxide bond energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies for the alkali-metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional level. Our computed D0 values are 61.4, 37.2, 40.6, and 38.4 kcal/mol for LiO2, NaO2, KO2, and RbO2, respectively. These values, which are expected to be lower bounds and accurate to 2 kcal/mol, agree well with some of the older flame data, but rule out several recent experimental measurements.

  12. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  13. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  14. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  15. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  16. 18 CFR 11.15 - Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for determining charges by energy gains investigation. 11.15 Section 11.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER...

  17. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, water use rate, and other required disclosure content. 305.5 Section 305.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS ENERGY...

  18. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  19. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  20. The determinants and trends in household energy consumption in United States during 2001-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppusamy, Sadasivan

    Objective: The focus of this study is a broad examination of household energy consumption for appliance use, space heating, space cooling, and water heating in United States over the period 2001-2009 using Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) from the years 2001 and 2009. Methods: Linear Regression Analysis is used to identfy determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Regression based decomposition analysis is used to identify trends in residential energy consumption for each of the end uses. Results: The study identified current determinants of household energy consumption for each of the end uses. These determinants are employed in the study to predict trends in household energy consumption for each of the end uses. Based on the results policy interventions at local and federal level for energy conservation are suggested.

  1. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  2. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  3. Electrochemical determination of activation energies for methanol oxidation on polycrystalline platinum in acidic and alkaline electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jamie L; Volpe, David J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation pathways of methanol (MeOH) have been the subject of intense research due to its possible application as a liquid fuel in polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The design of improved catalysts for MeOH oxidation requires a deep understanding of these complex oxidation pathways. This paper will provide a discussion of the literature concerning the extensive research carried out in acidic and alkaline electrolytes. It will highlight techniques that have proven useful in the determination of product ratios, analysis of surface poisoning, anion adsorption, and oxide formation processes, in addition to the effects of temperature on the MeOH oxidation pathways at bulk polycrystalline platinum (Pt(poly)) electrodes. This discussion will provide a framework with which to begin the analysis of activation energy (E(a)) values. This kinetic parameter may prove useful in characterizing the rate-limiting step of the MeOH oxidation at an electrode surface. This paper will present a procedure for the determination of E(a) values for MeOH oxidation at a Pt(poly) electrode in acidic and alkaline media. Values from 24-76 kJ mol(-1) in acidic media and from 36-86 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media were calculated and found to be a function of applied potential and direction of the potential sweep in a voltammetric experiment. Factors that influence the magnitude of the calculated E(a) include surface poisoning from MeOH oxidation intermediates, anion adsorption from the electrolyte, pH effects, and oxide formation processes. These factors are all potential, and temperature, dependent and must clearly be addressed when citing E(a) values in the literature. Comparison of E(a) values must be between systems of comparable electrochemical environment and at the same potential. E(a) values obtained on bulk Pt(poly), compared with other catalysts, may give insight into the superiority of other Pt-based catalysts for MeOH oxidation and lead to the development of new catalysts

  4. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data: A New Approach for Predicting Earthquake Magnitudes from Fault Segment Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, N. S.; Payne, S. J.; Schafer, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range faults in the Intermountain Seismic Belt, U.S.A. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths, Lseg, where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements, D, along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M ~ Lseg, should equal M ~ D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating Lseg with surface rupture length, SRL. Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M ~ SRL relationship using Lseg as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M ~ Lseg and M ~ D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude, Mw, and length, where length is Lseg instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw ~ Lseg results are strikingly consistent with Mw ~ D calculations using paleoearthquake data for

  5. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at KAMINI shielding experiment location.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sujoy; Bagchi, Subhrojit; Prasad, R R; Venkatasubramanian, D; Mohanakrishnan, P; Keshavamurty, R S; Haridas, Adish; Arul, A John; Puthiyavinayagam, P

    2016-09-01

    The neutron spectrum at KAMINI reactor south beam tube end has been determined using multifoil activation method. This beam tube is being used for characterizing neutron attenuation of novel shield materials. Starting from a computed guess spectrum, the spectrum adjustment/unfolding procedure makes use of minimization of a modified constraint function representing (a) least squared deviations between the measured and calculated reaction rates, (b) a measure of sharp fluctuations in the adjusted spectrum and (c) the square of the deviation of adjusted spectrum from the guess spectrum. The adjusted/unfolded spectrum predicts the reaction rates accurately. The results of this new procedure are compared with those of widely used SAND-II code. PMID:27389881

  6. Apparent magnitude of earthshine: a simple calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The Sun illuminates both the Moon and the Earth with practically the same luminous fluxes which are in turn reflected by them. The Moon provides a dim light to the Earth whereas the Earth illuminates the Moon with somewhat brighter light which can be seen from the Earth and is called earthshine. As the amount of light reflected from the Earth depends on part of the Earth and the cloud cover, the strength of earthshine varies throughout the year. The measure of the earthshine light is luminance, which is defined in photometry as the total luminous flux of light hitting or passing through a surface. The expression for the earthshine light in terms of the apparent magnitude has been derived for the first time and evaluated for two extreme cases; firstly, when the Sun’s rays are reflected by the water of the oceans and secondly when the reflector is either thick clouds or snow. The corresponding values are -1.30 and -3.69, respectively. The earthshine value -3.22 reported by Jackson lies within these apparent magnitudes. This paper will motivate the students and teachers of physics to look for the illuminated Moon by earthlight during the waning or waxing crescent phase of the Moon and to reproduce the expressions derived here by making use of the inverse-square law of radiation, Planck’s expression for the power in electromagnetic radiation, photopic spectral luminous efficiency function and expression for the apparent magnitude of a body in terms of luminous fluxes.

  7. Orientation and Magnitude of Mars' Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field measured by the MGS magnetometer as it sped over the surface of Mars during an early aerobraking pass (Day of the year, 264; 'P6' periapsis pass). At each point along the spacecraft trajectory we've drawn vectors in the direction of the magnetic field measured at that instant; the length of the line is scaled to show the relative magnitude of the field. Imagine traveling along with the MGS spacecraft, holding a string with a magnetized needle on one end: this essentially a compass with a needle that is free to spin in all directions. As you pass over the surface the needle would swing rapidly, first pointing towards the planet and then rotating quickly towards 'up' and back down again. All in a relatively short span of time, say a minute or two, during which time the spacecraft has traveled a couple of hundred miles. You've just passed over one of many 'magnetic anomalies' thus far detected near the surface of Mars. A second major anomaly appears a little later along the spacecraft track, about 1/4 the magnitude of the first - can you find it? The short scale length of the magnetic field signature locates the source near the surface of Mars, perhaps in the crust, a 10 to 75 kilometer thick outer shell of the planet (radius 3397 km).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Precise Relative Earthquake Magnitudes from Cross Correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-04-21

    We present a method to estimate precise relative magnitudes using cross correlation of seismic waveforms. Our method incorporates the intercorrelation of all events in a group of earthquakes, as opposed to individual event pairings relative to a reference event. This method works well when a reliable reference event does not exist. We illustrate the method using vertical strike-slip earthquakes located in the northeast Pacific and Panama fracture zone regions. Our results are generally consistent with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, which we use to establish a baseline for the relative event sizes.

  9. Acylation Type Determines Ghrelin's Effects on Energy Homeostasis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D.; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M.; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L.; DiMarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T.; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin. PMID:22865372

  10. Determination of the mean solid-liquid interface energy of pivalic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Gliksman, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A high-confidence solid-liquid interfacial energy is determined for an anisotropic material. A coaxial composite having a cylindrical specimen chamber geometry provides a thermal gradient with an axial heating wire. The surface energy is derived from measurements of grain boundary groove shapes. Applying this method to pivalic acid, a surface energy of 2.84 erg/sq cm was determined with a total systematic and random error less than 10 percent. The value of interfacial energy corresponds to 24 percent of the latent heat of fusion per molecule.

  11. Extreme Magnitude Earthquakes and their Economical Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Ashworth, M.; Perea, N.; Emerson, D.; Salazar, A.; Moulinec, C.

    2011-12-01

    The frequency of occurrence of extreme magnitude earthquakes varies from tens to thousands of years, depending on the considered seismotectonic region of the world. However, the human and economic losses when their hypocenters are located in the neighborhood of heavily populated and/or industrialized regions, can be very large, as recently observed for the 1985 Mw 8.01 Michoacan, Mexico and the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes. Herewith, a methodology is proposed in order to estimate the probability of exceedance of: the intensities of extreme magnitude earthquakes, PEI and of their direct economical consequences PEDEC. The PEI are obtained by using supercomputing facilities to generate samples of the 3D propagation of extreme earthquake plausible scenarios, and enlarge those samples by Monte Carlo simulation. The PEDEC are computed by using appropriate vulnerability functions combined with the scenario intensity samples, and Monte Carlo simulation. An example of the application of the methodology due to the potential occurrence of extreme Mw 8.5 subduction earthquakes on Mexico City is presented.

  12. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  13. Determination of the interatomic potential from elastic differential cross sections at fixed energy: Functional sensitivity analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-02-01

    Elastic differential cross sections in atomic crossed beam experiments contain detailed information about the underlying interatomic potentials. The functional sensitivity density of the cross sections with respect to the potential deltasigma(theta)/deltaV(R) reveals such information and has been implemented in an iterative inversion procedure, analogous to that of the Newton--Raphson technique. The stability of the inversion is achieved with the use of the regularization method of Tikhonov and Miller. It is shown that given a set of well resolved and noise-free differential cross section data within a limited angular range and given a reasonable starting reference potential, the recovered potential accurately resembles the desired one in the important region, i.e., the region to which the scattering data are sensitive. The region of importance depends upon the collision energy relative to the well depth of the potential under study; usually a higher collision energy penetrates deeper into the repulsive part of the potential and thus accordingly yields a more accurate potential in that part. The inversion procedure produces also a quality function indicating the well determined radial region. Moreover, the extracted potential is quite independent of the functional form of the reference potential in contrast to curve fitting approaches. As illustrations, the model inert gas systems He--Ne and Ne--Ar have been considered. For collision energies within an order of magnitude of the associated potential well depth, the attractive part of the potential can be determined to high precision provided that scattering data at small enough angles are available.

  14. Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to weeks, changing photospheric magnetic activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle shows variations of comparable magnitude with irradiances peaking near solar maximum. Secular variations are more difficult to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Historical reconstructions of the Sun's irradiance based on indicators of solar-surface magnetic activity, such as sunspots, faculae, and cosmogenic isotope records, suggest solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitudes of these variations have high uncertainties due to the indirect historical records on which they rely. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities. In this manuscript I summarize the Sun's variability magnitudes over different temporal regimes and discuss the irradiance record's relevance for solar and climate studies as well as for detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  15. Regional moment: Magnitude relations for earthquakes and explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.; Walter, W.R. )

    1993-02-19

    The authors present M[sub o]:m[sub b] relations using m[sub b](P[sub n]) and m[sub b](L[sub g]) for earthquakes and explosions occurring in tectonic and stable areas. The observations for m[sub b](P[sub n]) range from about 3 to 6 and show excellent separation between earthquakes and explosions on M[sub o]:m[sub b] plots, independent of the magnitude. The scatter in M[sub o]:M[sub b] observations for NTS explosions is small compared to the earthquake data. The M[sub o]:m[sub b](L[sub g]) data for Soviet explosions overlay the observations for US explosions. These results, and the small scatter for NTS explosions, suggest weak dependence of M[sub o]:m[sub b] relations on emplacement media. A simple theoretical model is developed which matches all these observations. The model uses scaling similarity and conservation of energy to provide a physical link between seismic moment and a broadband seismic magnitude. Three factors, radiation pattern, material property, and apparent stress, contribute to the separation between earthquakes and explosions. This theoretical separation is independent of broadband magnitude. For US explosions in different media, the material property and apparent stress contributions are shown to compensate for one another, supporting the observations that M[sub o]:M[sub b] is nearly independent of source geology. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Extracting parameters from colour-magnitude diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.; Bica, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M 67, NGC 6791 and NGC 2635, which are characterized by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  17. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-01

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences. PMID:11955557

  18. A low-energy determination of αs at three loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairo, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We review one of the most accurate low-energy determinations of αs. Comparing at short distances the QCD static energy at three loops and resummation of the next-to-next-to leading logarithms with its determination in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD, we obtain αs (1.5 GeV) = 0.336+0.012-0.008, which corresponds to αs (MZ) = 0.1166+0.012-0.008. We discuss future perspectives.

  19. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  20. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element Vtb

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Avila, C.; Azfar, F.; Badaud, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bartos, P.; Bassler, U.; Bauce, M.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Begalli, M.; Behari, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Borysova, M.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brigliadori, L.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brucken, E.; Bu, X. B.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Chokheli, D.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Clutter, J.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corbo, M.; Corcoran, M.; Cordelli, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, G.; de Barbaro, P.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; D’Errico, M.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dominguez, A.; Donati, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elagin, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Farrington, S.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Fiedler, F.; Field, R.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, S.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Ginther, G.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gogota, O.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Golovanov, G.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hahn, S. R.; Haley, J.; Han, J. Y.; Han, L.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Harder, K.; Hare, M.; Harel, A.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinrich, J.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herndon, M.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hocker, A.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ito, A. S.; Ivanov, A.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Jindariani, S.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, J.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, A. W.; Junk, T. R.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Katsanos, I.

    2015-10-01

    Here, we present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb-1 per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σt=2.25+0.29-0.31 pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σs+t=3.30+0.52-0.40 pb , without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σs/σt. Moreover, the resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |Vtb|=1.02+0.06-0.05, corresponding to |Vtb|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  1. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  2. Determination of Rest Mass Energy of the Electron by a Compton Scattering Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasannakumar, S.; Krishnaveni, S.; Umesh, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We report here a simple Compton scattering experiment which may be carried out in graduate and undergraduate laboratories to determine the rest mass energy of the electron. In the present experiment, we have measured the energies of the Compton scattered gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer coupled to a 1 K multichannel analyzer at…

  3. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  4. 76 FR 142 - Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy... Petitions for Review of a Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit issued to Russell City Energy Center, LLC by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (``BAAQMD''). DATES:...

  5. Determining the electron energy distribution near the plasma potential in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Hays, P. B.; Cutler, J. R.; Dobbs, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A determination of the plasma potential using an electrostatic analyzer is described in which the potential difference between the instrument slit system and surrounding plasma is minimized. Data obtained from rocket-borne instrumentation demonstrate the viability of this technique for electron fluxes between thermal energies (about 0.5 V) and suprathermal energies (many volts).

  6. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1{sub rc} covering {approx}2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u {approx} 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 {approx}2000-2400 A). The uvw1{sub rc} - b colors show a scatter of {approx}0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, {approx}1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  7. Interferometric technique for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow nuclear-pumped lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A

    2001-06-30

    An interference technique is developed for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow lasers pumped by uranium fission fragments. It is shown that four types of interference patterns may be formed. Algorithms are presented for determining the type of interference and for enumerating the maxima in interference pattern. (lasers, active media)

  8. Factors affecting the polarity and magnitude of photoresponse of transient photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Reissig, L; Mori, K; Treadwell, R; Dalgleish, S; Awaga, K

    2016-03-01

    The addition of an insulating layer (I) between one of the metal electrodes (M) and the photoactive semiconducting layer (S) in a standard organic MSM solar cell architecture changes the DC photocurrent response into a strong transient signal. Such a device can, in simple terms, be thought of as a charging voltage source (S) in contact with a charging capacitor (I). The magnitude of the photocurrent signal can be strongly enhanced through the intimate contact of the active layer with the insulating layer, if the various pre-polarizations within the device act synergically. In this study, the effect of the built-in potentials within the device on the polarity and magnitude of the photocurrent response is studied using the well-characterized bulk heterojunction blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophenone):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as the semiconductor layer, and an ionic liquid as the insulating layer. This study shows that the polarity of the response is not simply determined by the energy level difference of the outer electrodes, but through a delicate interplay of all the energy levels in the device. Furthermore, these observations could be reproduced for devices with a solid-state insulator layer, where possible side-effects of the ionic liquid, such as swelling and doping, could be considered absent. PMID:26878352

  9. Homogeneous magnitude system of the Eurasian continent: S and L waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoskov, L.; Kondorskaya, N. V.; Vanek, J.

    1983-07-01

    A research project was started by the Commission of Academies of Socialist Countries on Planetary Geophysics (KAPG) to establish a system of seismic reference stations of the Eurasian continent for determining reliable earthquake magnitudes. This system was called the Homogeneous Magnitude System (HMS), and seismologist of 13 institutions from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Poland, and the U.S.S.R. participated. The project was sponsored by the Commission on Practice of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior, which created a special working group for homogeneous magnitude system within its Subcommission on Magnitude.

  10. Dodging the dark matter degeneracy while determining the dynamics of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busti, Vinicius C.; Clarkson, Chris

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in cosmology is to establish the nature of dark energy, and to determine whether the equation of state evolves with time. When estimating this from distance measurements there is a degeneracy with the matter density. We show that there exists a simple function of the dark energy equation of state and its first derivative which is independent of this degeneracy at all redshifts, and so is a much more robust determinant of the evolution of dark energy than just its derivative. We show that this function can be well determined at low redshift from supernovae using Gaussian Processes, and that this method is far superior to a variety of parameterisations which are also subject to priors on the matter density. This shows that parametrised models give very biased constraints on the evolution of dark energy.

  11. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. PMID:26965669

  12. Precise Determination of the Lyman-1 Transition Energy in Hydrogen-like Gold Ions with Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Grabitz, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Kiselev, O.; McCammon, D.; Scholz, P.

    2014-09-01

    The precise determination of the transition energy of the Lyman-1 line in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. We report the determination of the Lyman-1 transition energy of gold ions (Au) with microcalorimeters at the experimental storage ring at GSI. X-rays produced by the interaction of 125 MeV/u Au ions with an internal argon gas-jet target were detected. The detector array consisted of 14 pixels with silicon thermistors and Sn absorbers, for which an energy resolution of 50 eV for an X-ray energy of 59.5 keV was obtained in the laboratory. The Lyman-1 transition energy was determined for each pixel in the laboratory frame, then transformed into the emitter frame and averaged. A Dy-159 source was used for energy calibration. The absolute positions of the detector pixels, which are needed for an accurate correction of the Doppler shift, were determined by topographic measurements and by scanning a collimated Am-241 source across the cryostat window. The energy of the Lyman-1 line in the emitter frame is eV, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the position of the cryostat relative to the interaction region of beam and target.

  13. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  14. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  15. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  16. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  17. Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-10-01

    This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2>0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044

  18. Demographic factors predict magnitude of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Blake L; Bui, Eric; Marin, Marie-France; Holt, Daphne J; Lasko, Natasha B; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-10-01

    There is substantial variability across individuals in the magnitudes of their skin conductance (SC) responses during the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. To manage this variability, subjects may be matched for demographic variables, such as age, gender and education. However, limited data exist addressing how much variability in conditioned SC responses is actually explained by these variables. The present study assessed the influence of age, gender and education on the SC responses of 222 subjects who underwent the same differential conditioning paradigm. The demographic variables were found to predict a small but significant amount of variability in conditioned responding during fear acquisition, but not fear extinction learning or extinction recall. A larger differential change in SC during acquisition was associated with more education. Older participants and women showed smaller differential SC during acquisition. Our findings support the need to consider age, gender and education when studying fear acquisition but not necessarily when examining fear extinction learning and recall. Variability in demographic factors across studies may partially explain the difficulty in reproducing some SC findings. PMID:26151498

  19. Coastal erosion: Processes, timing and magnitudes at the bluff toe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, C.H.; Guy, D.E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Five Lake Erie bluffs (one interlaminated clay and silt, three clay-rich diamicts and one shale) were surveyed at about 2-week intervals and after wind storms for up to 5 years. Erosion of the bluff toes along this low-energy coast occurred during northeast wind storms, which produced surges of up to 1 m and surf-zone waves of up to 1.2 m. Wave impact and/or uprush caused quarrying, which removed most of the toe material, and abrasion. There were from 1 to 23 erosion events/sites, with maximum magnitudes of erosion ranging from 12 to 55 cm/event. Timing and magnitude were linked to erodibility, maximum water level, storm surge, storm duration and beach width. A threshold maximum water level and a threshold surge were necessary for erosion. At these thresholds, the beach was submerged and wave energy was directly expended on the toe. Erosion did not take place when there was shorefast ice or when debris slopes shielded the toe from waves. The originally cohesive toe materials are easily eroded when they weather to an essentially noncohesive state. Wave erosion is the crucial erosion process; removal of material from the toe prevents the development of a stable slope. ?? 1988.

  20. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber.

    PubMed Central

    Ravussin, E; Lillioja, S; Anderson, T E; Christin, L; Bogardus, C

    1986-01-01

    Daily human energy requirements calculated from separate components of energy expenditure are inaccurate and usually in poor agreement with measured energy intakes. Measurement of energy expenditure over periods of 24 h or longer is needed to determine more accurately rates of daily energy expenditure in humans. We provide a detailed description of a human respiratory chamber and methods used to determine rates of energy expenditure over 24-h periods in 177 subjects. The results show that: fat-free mass (FFM) as estimated by densitometry is the best available determinant of 24-h energy expenditures (24EE) and explains 81% of the variance observed between individuals (24EE [kcal/d] = 597 + 26.5 FFM); 24EE in an individual is very reproducible (coefficient of variation = 2.4%); and even when adjusted for differences in FFM, there is still considerable interperson variability of the daily energy expenditure. A large portion of the variability of 24EE among individuals, independent of differences in body size, was due to variability in the degree of spontaneous physical activity, i.e., "fidgeting," which accounted for 100-800 kcal/d in these subjects. Images PMID:3782471

  1. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy Using Photothermal and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzałkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, experimental photoluminescence (PL) and piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) spectra of selected II-VI binary crystals are presented and analyzed. The quantitative analysis of the photothermal spectra was performed using a modified and extended Jackson-Amer model. The values of the bandgap energies of investigated semiconductors were computed from the PT amplitude and phase spectra. From the temperature dependence of the exciton emission so-called "excitonic energy gaps" have been determined. It follows from the theory that the exciton binding energy is the difference of these two values of energy gaps derived from PPT and PL spectroscopy.

  2. Understanding high magnitude flood risk: evidence from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, N.

    2009-04-01

    The average length of gauged river flow records in the UK is ~25 years, which presents a problem in determining flood risk for high-magnitude flood events. Severe floods have been recorded in many UK catchments during the past 10 years, increasing the uncertainty in conventional flood risk estimates based on river flow records. Current uncertainty in flood risk has implications for society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and water resource managers (flood/drought risk). An alternative approach is required which can improve current understanding of the flood frequency/magnitude relationship. Historical documentary accounts are now recognised as a valuable resource when considering the flood frequency/magnitude relationship, but little consideration has been given to the temporal and spatial distribution of these records. Building on previous research based on British rivers (urban centre): Ouse (York), Trent (Nottingham), Tay (Perth), Severn (Shrewsbury), Dee (Chester), Great Ouse (Cambridge), Sussex Ouse (Lewes), Thames (Oxford), Tweed (Kelso) and Tyne (Hexham), this work considers the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flooding. The selected sites provide a network covering many of the largest river catchments in Britain, based on urban centres with long detailed documentary flood histories. The chronologies offer an opportunity to assess long-term patterns of flooding, indirectly determining periods of climatic variability and potentially increased geomorphic activity. This research represents the first coherent large scale analysis undertaken of historical multi-catchment flood chronologies, providing an unparalleled network of sites, permitting analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of historical flood patterns on a national scale.

  3. Does low magnitude earthquake ground shaking cause landslides?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, Matthew; Rosser, Nick; Vann Jones, Emma; Tunstall, Neil

    2015-04-01

    displayed ductile behaviour under standard strain-controlled monotonic shear tests. We applied dynamic stresses of varying amplitude, frequency and sequence, and monitored the resultant strain response to determine which factors, when combined, create significant deviations from standard monotonic shear behaviour. Critically, we demonstrate that multiple dynamic stress/shaking events that are largely insufficient to cause permanent strain accumulation (and hence are conventionally deemed geomorphologically ineffective) can, under favourable though limited conditions, affect material stiffness such that the future behaviour of the sediment/landslide differs considerably from that observed in standard monotonic shear tests. In other words, low-magnitude ground shaking events can be effective precursory geomorphic processes. Our results have important implications for studies of long-term landscape evolution, in which modelled hillslopes are repeatedly subjected to multiple earthquake events but that currently lack appropriate empirically-constrained strength parameters.

  4. Membership probability via control-field colour-magnitude decontamination†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Maia, Francisco F. S.; Santos, João F. C.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental physical parameters of open clusters are important tools to understand the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk and to test star-formation and evolution models. However, only a small fraction of the known open clusters in the Milky Way have precise determinations of distance, reddening, age, metallicity, radial velocity and proper motion. One of the major problems in determining these parameters lies in the difficulty to separate cluster members from field stars and to assign membership. We propose a decontamination method by employing 2mass data in the regions around the clusters NGC 1981, NGC 2516, NGC 6494 and M11. We present decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams of these objects showing the membership probabilities and structural parameters as derived from King-profile fitting.

  5. Simultaneous determination of interfacial energy and growth activation energy from induction time measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiau, Lie-Ding; Wang, Hsu-Pei

    2016-05-01

    A model is developed in this work to calculate the interfacial energy and growth activation energy of a crystallized substance from induction time data without the knowledge of the actual growth rate. Induction time data for αL-glutamic acid measured with a turbidity probe for various supersaturations at temperatures from 293 to 313 K are employed to verify the developed model. In the model a simple empirical growth rate with growth order 2 is assumed because experiments are conducted at low supersaturation. The results indicate for αL-glutamic acid that the growth activation energy is 39 kJ/mol, which suggests that the growth rate of small nuclei in the agitated induction time experiments is integration controlled. The interfacial energy obtained from the current model is in the range of 5.2-7.4 mJ/m2, which is slightly greater than that obtained from the traditional method (ti-1∝ J) for which the value is in the range 4.1-5.7 mJ/m2.

  6. AN ACCURATE NEW METHOD OF CALCULATING ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES AND K-CORRECTIONS APPLIED TO THE SLOAN FILTER SET

    SciTech Connect

    Beare, Richard; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin

    2014-12-20

    We describe an accurate new method for determining absolute magnitudes, and hence also K-corrections, that is simpler than most previous methods, being based on a quadratic function of just one suitably chosen observed color. The method relies on the extensive and accurate new set of 129 empirical galaxy template spectral energy distributions from Brown et al. A key advantage of our method is that we can reliably estimate random errors in computed absolute magnitudes due to galaxy diversity, photometric error and redshift error. We derive K-corrections for the five Sloan Digital Sky Survey filters and provide parameter tables for use by the astronomical community. Using the New York Value-Added Galaxy Catalog, we compare our K-corrections with those from kcorrect. Our K-corrections produce absolute magnitudes that are generally in good agreement with kcorrect. Absolute griz magnitudes differ by less than 0.02 mag and those in the u band by ∼0.04 mag. The evolution of rest-frame colors as a function of redshift is better behaved using our method, with relatively few galaxies being assigned anomalously red colors and a tight red sequence being observed across the whole 0.0 < z < 0.5 redshift range.

  7. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  8. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  9. Influence of source composition and particle energy on the determination of gross alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A Martín

    2013-12-01

    The influence of different source compositions and α-particle energies on the detection efficiency of a gas-flow proportional counter was examined using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Efficiency variation with alpha-particle energy was very marked, being less significant with the substrate composition. These results show that the determination of gross alpha activity in an unknown sample must be carried out very carefully in order to give a correct estimation of its activity. PMID:24184741

  10. Size effect on fracture energy of concrete determined by three-point bending

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Jueshi; Luo Hui

    1997-07-01

    The three-point bending test of a notched specimen is a common method of determining the fracture energy of concrete. Because there exist size effects on the test results, its validity is in doubt. Theoretical analysis shows that the size effect is mainly caused by inaccuracy in the formula used to calculate the fracture energy, but not due to shortcoming of the test method. The theoretical analysis has been verified with some experimental results on mortar.

  11. Automatic computation of moment magnitudes for small earthquakes and the scaling of local to moment magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Allmann, Bettina; Fäh, Donat; Clinton, John

    2010-10-01

    Moment magnitudes (MW) are computed for small and moderate earthquakes using a spectral fitting method. 40 of the resulting values are compared with those from broadband moment tensor solutions and found to match with negligible offset and scatter for available MW values of between 2.8 and 5.0. Using the presented method, MW are computed for 679 earthquakes in Switzerland with a minimum ML = 1.3. A combined bootstrap and orthogonal L1 minimization is then used to produce a scaling relation between ML and MW. The scaling relation has a polynomial form and is shown to reduce the dependence of the predicted MW residual on magnitude relative to an existing linear scaling relation. The computation of MW using the presented spectral technique is fully automated at the Swiss Seismological Service, providing real-time solutions within 10 minutes of an event through a web-based XML database. The scaling between ML and MW is explored using synthetic data computed with a stochastic simulation method. It is shown that the scaling relation can be explained by the interaction of attenuation, the stress-drop and the Wood-Anderson filter. For instance, it is shown that the stress-drop controls the saturation of the ML scale, with low-stress drops (e.g. 0.1-1.0 MPa) leading to saturation at magnitudes as low as ML = 4.

  12. Two-Screen Method for Determining Electron Beam Energy and Deflection from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Tynan, G R; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; Leurent, V; Palastro, J P; Ralph, J E; Froula, D H; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Wang, T L; Joshi, C

    2009-04-24

    Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) experiments have been performed at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to unambiguously determine the output electron beam energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit, we have implemented a two-screen electron spectrometer. This system is comprised of a dipole magnet followed by two image plates. By measuring the electron beam deviation from the laser axis on each plate, both the energy and deflection angle at the plasma exit are determined through the relativistic equation of motion.

  13. Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, P. L.; Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS ; Vos, M.; Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G.; Nandi, S. K.; Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611; Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

  14. Lower-bound magnitude for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W. and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA )

    1989-10-01

    This report provides technical information to determine the lower-bound earthquake magnitude (LBM) for use in probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) computations that are applied to nuclear plant applications. The evaluations consider the seismologic characteristics of earthquake experience at similar facilities and insights from probabilistic risk analysis. The recommendations for LBM satisfy the two basic precepts: (1) there is a reasonable engineering assurance that the likelihood of damage due to earthquakes smaller than the LBM is negligible, and (2) any small risk due to earthquakes smaller than the LBM is compensated by conservatisms in PSH results for larger earthquakes. Theoretical and empirical ground motion studies demonstrate that ground shaking duration and spectral shape are a strong function of earthquake magnitude. Small earthquakes have short duration and spectral shapes centered at high frequencies as compared to nuclear power plant design spectra which are typical of moderate and large earthquakes. Analysis of earthquake experience data shows damage to heavy industrial facilities, taken as analogs to nuclear plant structures and components, occurs for earthquakes having moment magnitude M larger than 5.1. Probabilistic seismic risk and margins studies show nuclear plant structures and adequately anchored ductile components to be rugged for moderate-size earthquakes with broad design-type spectral shapes. They may, therefore, be considered rugged for small earthquakes. Finally, nonlinear analysis of the damage effectiveness of strong-motion recordings shows that potential damage does not occur for earthquakes smaller than about M5.6. These results support a conservative LBM of M5.0 for application to nuclear power plant PSH assessments. 144 refs., 78 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Free-energy determinants of alpha-helix insertion into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, N; Ben-Shaul, A; Nicholls, A; Honig, B

    1996-01-01

    A detailed treatment is provided of the various free-energy terms that contribute to the transfer of a polyalanine alpha-helix from the aqueous phase into lipid bilayers. In agreement with previous work, the hydrophobic effect is found to provide the major driving force for helix insertion. However, an opposing effect of comparable magnitude is also identified and is attributed to the large free-energy penalty associated with the desolvation of peptide hydrogen bonds on transfer to the low dielectric environment of the bilayer. Lipid perturbation effects as well as the entropy loss associated with helix immobilization in the bilayer are also evaluated. Two configurations of a membrane-bound 25mer polyalanine helix were found to be lower in free energy than the isolated helix in the aqueous phase. The first corresponds to the case of vertical insertion, in which a helix terminus protrudes from each side of the bilayer. The second minimum is for the case of horizontal insertion, for which the helix is adsorbed upon the surface of the bilayer. The calculated free-energy minima are found to be in good agreement with recent measurements of related systems. Large free-energy barriers resulting from desolvation of unsatisfied hydrogen-bonding groups at the helix termini are obtained for both insertion processes. The barriers for insertion are significantly reduced if the helix termini are assumed to be "capped" through the formation of hydrogen bonds with polar sidechains. For uncapped helices, our results support recently proposed models in which helices are inserted by first adsorbing on the membrane surface and then having one terminus "swing around" so as to penetrate the bilayer. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8785340

  16. An Experimental Study in Determining Energy Expenditure from Treadmill Walking using Hip-Worn Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vathsangam, Harshvardhan; Emken, Adar; Schroeder, E. Todd; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study in estimating energy expenditure from treadmill walking using a single hip-mounted triaxial inertial sensor comprised of a triaxial accelerometer and a triaxial gyroscope. Typical physical activity characterization using accelerometer generated counts suffers from two drawbacks - imprecison (due to proprietary counts) and incompleteness (due to incomplete movement description). We address these problems in the context of steady state walking by directly estimating energy expenditure with data from a hip-mounted inertial sensor. We represent the cyclic nature of walking with a Fourier transform of sensor streams and show how one can map this representation to energy expenditure (as measured by V O2 consumption, mL/min) using three regression techniques - Least Squares Regression (LSR), Bayesian Linear Regression (BLR) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). We perform a comparative analysis of the accuracy of sensor streams in predicting energy expenditure (measured by RMS prediction accuracy). Triaxial information is more accurate than uniaxial information. LSR based approaches are prone to outlier sensitivity and overfitting. Gyroscopic information showed equivalent if not better prediction accuracy as compared to accelerometers. Combining accelerometer and gyroscopic information provided better accuracy than using either sensor alone. We also analyze the best algorithmic approach among linear and nonlinear methods as measured by RMS prediction accuracy and run time. Nonlinear regression methods showed better prediction accuracy but required an order of magnitude of run time. This paper emphasizes the role of probabilistic techniques in conjunction with joint modeling of triaxial accelerations and rotational rates to improve energy expenditure prediction for steady-state treadmill walking. PMID:21690001

  17. Regional moment - Magnitude relations for earthquakes and explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Howard J.; Walter, William R.

    1993-02-01

    We present M sub o:m sub b relations using m sub b (P sub n) and m sub b (L sub g) for earthquakes and explosions occurring in tectonic and stable areas. The observations for m sub b (P sub n) range from about 3 to 6 and show excellent separation between earthquakes and explosions on M sub o:m sub b plots, independent of the magnitude. The scatter in M sub o:m sub b observations for NTS explosions is small compared to the earthquake data. The M sub o:m sub b (L sub g) data for Soviet explosions overlay the observations for U.S. explosions. These results, and the small scatter for NTS explosions, suggest weak dependence of M sub o:m sub b relations on emplacement media. A simple theoretical model is developed which matches all these observations. The model uses scaling similarity and conservation of energy to provide a physical link between seismic moment and a broadband seismic magnitude. For U.S. explosions in different media, the material property and apparent stress contributions are shown to compensate for one another, supporting the observations that M sub o:m sub b is nearly independent of source geology.

  18. Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

    2013-04-01

    Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

  19. Quantum coherence enabled determination of the energy landscape in light-harvesting complex II.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Tessa R; Ginsberg, Naomi S; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R

    2009-12-24

    The near-unity efficiency of energy transfer in photosynthesis makes photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes a promising avenue for developing new renewable energy technologies. Knowledge of the energy landscape of these complexes is essential in understanding their function, but its experimental determination has proven elusive. Here, the observation of quantum coherence using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is employed to directly measure the 14 lowest electronic energy levels in light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the most abundant antenna complex in plants containing approximately 50% of the world's chlorophyll. We observe that the electronically excited states are relatively evenly distributed, highlighting an important design principle of photosynthetic complexes that explains the observed ultrafast intracomplex energy transfer in LHCII. PMID:20014871

  20. Millennial scale variability in high magnitude flooding across Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, N.

    2014-09-01

    The last decade has witnessed severe flooding across much of the globe, but have these floods really been exceptional? Globally, relatively few instrumental river flow series extend beyond 50 years, with short records presenting significant challenges in determining flood risk from high-magnitude floods. A perceived increase in extreme floods in recent years has decreased public confidence in conventional flood risk estimates; the results affect society (insurance costs), individuals (personal vulnerability) and companies (e.g. water resource managers - flood/drought risk). Here we show how historical records from Britain have improved understanding of high magnitude floods, by examining past spatial and temporal variability. The findings identify that whilst recent floods are notable, several comparable periods of increased flooding are identifiable historically, with periods of greater frequency (flood-rich periods) or/and larger floods. The use of historical records identifies that the largest floods often transcend single catchments affecting regions and that the current flood rich period is not exceptional.

  1. What is the Meaning of the Physical Magnitude `Work'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos

    2014-06-01

    Usually, in physics textbooks, the physical magnitude `work' is introduced as the product of a force multiplied by its displacement, in relation to the transfer of energy. In other words, `work' is presented as an internal affair of physics theory, while its relation to the world of experience, that is its empirical meaning, is missing. On the other hand, in the history of its creation, `work' was a concept that had empirical meaning from the start. It was constructed by engineers to measure the work (labor) of motor engines, men, and animals. Very soon however this initial meaning seems to vanish. In this article, it will be looked at how `work' is presented in physics textbooks, what was its initial meaning in the history of its formulation, under what circumstances this initial meaning faded, and how elements from the history of its creation can be used in the classroom to teach it.

  2. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy in CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R; Lee, J; Wolcott, A; Zhang, J; Terminello, L; van Buuren, T

    2009-10-27

    The exciton binding energy (EBE) in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been determined using x-ray spectroscopy. Using x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy, the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edge shifts as a function of particle size have been determined and combined to obtain the true band gap of the QDs (i.e. without and exciton). These values can be compared to the excitonic gap obtained using optical spectroscopy to determine the EBE. The experimental EBE results are compared with theoretical calculations on the EBE and show excellent agreement.

  3. Influence of Time and Space Correlations on Earthquake Magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Lippiello, E.; Arcangelis, L. de; Godano, C.

    2008-01-25

    A crucial point in the debate on the feasibility of earthquake predictions is the dependence of an earthquake magnitude from past seismicity. Indeed, while clustering in time and space is widely accepted, much more questionable is the existence of magnitude correlations. The standard approach generally assumes that magnitudes are independent and therefore in principle unpredictable. Here we show the existence of clustering in magnitude: earthquakes occur with higher probability close in time, space, and magnitude to previous events. More precisely, the next earthquake tends to have a magnitude similar but smaller than the previous one. A dynamical scaling relation between magnitude, time, and space distances reproduces the complex pattern of magnitude, spatial, and temporal correlations observed in experimental seismic catalogs.

  4. Exploring the relationship between the magnitudes of seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spassiani, Ilaria; Sebastiani, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of the magnitudes of seismic events is generally assumed to be independent on past seismicity. However, by considering events in causal relation, for example, mother-daughter, it seems natural to assume that the magnitude of a daughter event is conditionally dependent on one of the corresponding mother events. In order to find experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis, we analyze different catalogs, both real and simulated, in two different ways. From each catalog, we obtain the law of the magnitude of the triggered events by kernel density. The results obtained show that the distribution density of the magnitude of the triggered events varies with the magnitude of their corresponding mother events. As the intuition suggests, an increase of the magnitude of the mother events induces an increase of the probability of having "high" values of the magnitude of the triggered events. In addition, we see a statistically significant increasing linear dependence of the magnitude means.

  5. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 to make this determination. The fuel selection life cycle cost... conversion factors in Table 602.2 yields the Design Energy Use for the proposed design: ER06oc00.030 Where f1, f2, * * * fi are the fuel conversion factors in Table 602.2. 603.2 Required Life Cycle Cost...

  6. 10 CFR 434.603 - Determination of the design energy use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in subpart A of 10 CFR part 436 to make this determination. The fuel selection life cycle cost... conversion factors in Table 602.2 yields the Design Energy Use for the proposed design: ER06oc00.030 Where f1, f2, * * * fi are the fuel conversion factors in Table 602.2. 603.2 Required Life Cycle Cost...

  7. Determination of nuclear symmetry energy in the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long

    2008-05-15

    Within the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) approach a general formalism is established for the study of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) described by the four-nucleon interactions. Restricting ourselves to the double-bubble approximation (DBA), we determine the bulk properties of ANM, in particular, the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy, which is in good agreement with data of recent analyses.

  8. 77 FR 32038 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... the Federal Register on April 18, 2011. 76 FR 21673. The RFI requested suggestions, comments, and... ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR%252BPS;rpp=25;po=0;D=EER E-2011-BT-TP-0024. Table II.1--Stakeholders... Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  9. 75 FR 27170 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Determination Concerning the Potential for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... interested parties to provide information about any such applications. 74 FR 56933. CEA, however, identified... FR 56928) and the accompanying technical support document (TSD), available from the Office of Energy... 2009 notice of proposed determination (NOPD). 74 FR 56928. This notice was accompanied by a...

  10. Functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution and completeness magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the functional shape of the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) to identify its dependence on the completeness magnitude Mc. The FMD takes the form N(m) ∝ exp(-βm)q(m) where N(m) is the event number, m the magnitude, exp(-βm) the Gutenberg-Richter law and q(m) a detection function. q(m) is commonly defined as the cumulative Normal distribution to describe the gradual curvature of bulk FMDs. Recent results however suggest that this gradual curvature is due to Mc heterogeneities, meaning that the functional shape of the elemental FMD has yet to be described. We propose a detection function of the form q(m) = exp(κ(m - Mc)) for m < Mc and q(m) = 1 for m ≥ Mc, which leads to an FMD of angular shape. The two FMD models are compared in earthquake catalogs from Southern California and Nevada and in synthetic catalogs. We show that the angular FMD model better describes the elemental FMD and that the sum of elemental angular FMDs leads to the gradually curved bulk FMD. We propose an FMD shape ontology consisting of 5 categories depending on the Mc spatial distribution, from Mc constant to Mc highly heterogeneous: (I) Angular FMD, (II) Intermediary FMD, (III) Intermediary FMD with multiple maxima, (IV) Gradually curved FMD and (V) Gradually curved FMD with multiple maxima. We also demonstrate that the gradually curved FMD model overestimates Mc. This study provides new insights into earthquake detectability properties by using seismicity as a proxy and the means to accurately estimate Mc in any given volume.

  11. Ab Initio determination of Cu 3d orbital energies in layered copper oxides

    PubMed Central

    Hozoi, Liviu; Siurakshina, Liudmila; Fulde, Peter; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    It has long been argued that the minimal model to describe the low-energy physics of the high Tc superconducting cuprates must include copper states of other symmetries besides the canonical one, in particular the orbital. Experimental and theoretical estimates of the energy splitting of these states vary widely. With a novel ab initio quantum chemical computational scheme we determine these energies for a range of copper-oxides and -oxychlorides, determine trends with the apical Cu–ligand distances and find excellent agreement with recent Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering measurements, available for La2CuO4, Sr2CuO2Cl2, and CaCuO2. PMID:22355584

  12. A numerical method for determining highly precise electron energy distribution functions from Langmuir probe characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Jin-Young; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-12-15

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) were determined from probe characteristics using a numerical ac superimposed method with a distortion correction of high derivative terms by varying amplitude of a sinusoidal perturbation voltage superimposed onto the dc sweep voltage, depending on the related electron energy. Low amplitude perturbation applied around the plasma potential represented the low energy peak of the EEDF exactly, and high amplitude perturbation applied around the floating potential was effective to suppress noise or distortion of the probe characteristic, which is fatal to the tail electron distribution. When a small random noise was imposed over the stabilized prove characteristic, the numerical differentiation method was not suitable to determine the EEDF, while the numerical ac superimposed method was able to obtain a highly precise EEDF.

  13. Maximum Magnitude and Recurrence Interval for the Large Earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Hu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes are key parameters for seismic hazard assessment in the central and eastern United States. Determination of these two parameters is quite difficult in the region, however. For example, the estimated maximum magnitudes of the 1811-12 New Madrid sequence are in the range of M6.6 to M8.2, whereas the estimated recurrence intervals are in the range of about 500 to several thousand years. These large variations of maximum magnitude and recurrence interval for the large earthquakes lead to significant variation of estimated seismic hazards in the central and eastern United States. There are several approaches being used to estimate the magnitudes and recurrence intervals, such as historical intensity analysis, geodetic data analysis, and paleo-seismic investigation. We will discuss the approaches that are currently being used to estimate maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes in the central United States.

  14. Determination of energy density threshold for laser ablation of bacteria. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, D W; Cobb, C M; MacNeill, S; Rapley, J W; Killoy, W J

    1997-01-01

    The Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers have been shown to be bactericidal at relative low energy densities. However, at energy densities exceeding 120 J/cm2 (CO2) and 200 J/cm2 (Nd:YAG), laser irradiation also causes irreparable root surface damage. The purpose of this study was to determine, in vitro, the energy density threshold at which microbial ablation could be achieved while inflicting the least amount of damage to the root surfaces of human teeth. Pairs of Escherichia coli colonies cultured on broth agar were treated with a CO2 laser using a pulsed waveform at approximate energy densities ranging from 3 to 110 J/cm2. One of each colony-pair was then examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the other subcultured for viable microbes. Roots of extracted teeth were lightly scaled and treated by CO2 laser, again with pulsed beam using approximate energy densities of 3 to 110 J/cm2: and examined by SEM. Regardless of the level of energy density, residual bacteria could be subcultured from all laser treated microbial colonies. The inability of the laser to completely obliterate microbial colonies was likely due to: depth of energy penetration, difficulty in precisely overlapping beam focal spots, irregular beam profile, and presence of microbes at the periphery of the beam focal spot. The threshold energy density for bacterial obliteration was determined to be 11 J/cm2 and that for root damage was 41 J/cm2. Root damage was evident by charring, crater formation, melt-down and resolidification surface mineral, and increasing surface porosity. The results of this in vitro study indicate that when used at an energy density between 11 and 41 J/cm2 the CO2 laser may destroy microbial colonies without inflicting undue damage to the tooth root surface. PMID:9049791

  15. Contracted Schrödinger equation: Determining quantum energies and two-particle density matrices without wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    1998-06-01

    The contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) technique through its direct determination of the two-particle reduced density matrix (2RDM) without the wave function may offer a fresh alternative to traditional many-body quantum calculations. Without additional information the CSE, also known as the density equation, cannot be solved for the 2RDM because it also requires a knowledge of the 4RDM. We provide theoretical foundations through a reconstruction theorem for recent attempts at generating higher RDMs from the 2RDM to remove the indeterminacy of the CSE. With Grassmann algebra a more concise representation for Valdemoro's reconstruction functionals [F. Colmenero, C. Perez del Valle, and C. Valdemoro, Phys. Rev. A 47, 971 (1993)] is presented. From the perspective of the particle-hole equivalence we obtain Nakatsuji and Yasuda's correction for the 4RDM formula [H. Nakatsuji and K. Yasuda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1039 (1996)] as well as a corrective approach for the 3RDM functional. A different reconstruction strategy, the ensemble representability method (ERM), is introduced to build the 3- and 4-RDMs by enforcing four-ensemble representability and contraction conditions. We derive the CSE in second quantization without Valdemoro's matrix contraction mapping and offer the first proof of Nakatsuji's theorem for the second-quantized CSE. Both the functional and ERM reconstruction strategies are employed with the CSE to solve for the energies and the 2RDMs of a quasispin model without wave functions. We elucidate the iterative solution of the CSE through an analogy with the power method for eigenvalue equations. Resulting energies of the CSE methods are comparable to single-double configuration-interaction (SDCI) energies, and the 2RDMs are more accurate by an order of magnitude than those from SDCI. While the CSE has been applied to systems with 14 electrons, we present results for as many as 40 particles. Results indicate that the 2RDM remains accurate as the number

  16. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  18. Numerical Magnitude Processing in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquiere, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated numerical magnitude processing in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and examined whether these children have difficulties in the ability to represent numerical magnitudes and/or difficulties in the ability to access numerical magnitudes from formal symbols. We compared the performance of 26 children…

  19. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.236-74 - Magnitude of requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magnitude of requirement... 1852.236-74 Magnitude of requirement. As prescribed in 1836.570(d), insert the following provision: Magnitude of Requirement (DEC 1988) The Government estimated price range of this project is...

  2. Symbolic Magnitude Modulates Perceptual Strength in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Plukaard, Sarah; Kanai, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of magnitude (such as luminance contrast) are directly represented by sensory representations in early visual areas. However, it is unclear how symbolic magnitudes (such as Arabic numerals) are represented in the brain. Here we show that symbolic magnitude affects binocular rivalry: perceptual dominance of numbers and objects of…

  3. Sign-And-Magnitude Up/Down Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Magnitude-and-sign counter includes conventional up/down counter for magnitude part and special additional circuitry for sign part. Negative numbers indicated more directly. Counter implemented by programming erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) or programmable logic array (PLA). Used in place of conventional up/down counter to provide sign and magnitude values directly to other circuits.

  4. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune, as determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Voyager infrared spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) investigation are used in determining the albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune. From broadband radiometric observations made at phase angles of 14 deg and 134 deg, together with measurements at intermediate phase angles from the literature, an orbital mean value of 0.290 +/-0.067 is obtained for the bolometric Bond albedo. This yields an equilibrium temperature Teq = 46.6 +/-1.1 K. From thermal spectra obtained over latitudes from pole to pole an effective temperature Teff = 59.3 +/-0.8 K is derived. This represents a substantial improvement over previously determined values. The energy balance of Neptune is therefore E = 2.61 +/-0.28, which is in agreement with previous results. The reduced uncertainty in this value is due to the improved determination of the effective temperature.

  5. Determination of the Solar Energy Microclimate of the United States Using Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderharr, T. H.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of total solar energy reaching the ground over the United States using measurements from meteorological satellites as the basic data set is examined. The methods of satellite data processing are described. Uncertainty analysis and comparison of results with well calibrated surface pyranometers are used to estimate the probable error in the satellite-based determination of ground insolation. It is 10 to 15 percent for daily information, and about 5 percent for monthly values. However, the natural space and time variability of insolation is much greater than the uncertainty in the method. The most important aspect of the satellite-based technique is the ability to determine the solar energy reaching the ground over small areas where no other measurements are available. Thus, it complements the widely spaced solar radiation measurement network of ground stations.

  6. Department of Energy's first waste determinations under section 3116: how did the process work?

    SciTech Connect

    Picha Jr, K.G.; Kaltreider, R.; Suttora, L.; Letourneau, M.; Clark, W.D.; Ross, S.; Lockie, K.

    2007-07-01

    Congress passed the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005 on October 9, 2004, and the President signed it into law on October 28, 2004. Section 3116(a) of the NDAA allows the Department of Energy (DOE) to, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), determine whether certain radioactive waste resulting from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at two DOE sites is not high-level radioactive waste, and dispose of that waste in compliance with the performance objectives set out in subpart C of 10 CFR part 61 for low-level waste. On January 17, 2006, the Department issued its first waste determination under the NDAA for salt waste disposal at the Savannah River Site. On November 19, 2006, the Department issued its second waste determination for closure of tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility. These two determinations and a third draft determination illustrate the range of issues that may be encountered in preparing a waste determination in accordance with NDAA Section 3116. This paper discusses the experiences associated with these first two completed waste determinations and an in-progress third waste determination, and discusses lessons learned from the projects that can be applied to future waste determinations. (authors)

  7. Binocular disparity magnitude affects perceived depth magnitude despite inversion of depth order.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Harold; Hill, Harold; Palmisano, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The hollow-face illusion involves a misperception of depth order: our perception follows our top-down knowledge that faces are convex, even though bottom-up depth information reflects the actual concave surface structure. While pictorial cues can be ambiguous, stereopsis should unambiguously indicate the actual depth order. We used computer-generated stereo images to investigate how, if at all, the sign and magnitude of binocular disparities affect the perceived depth of the illusory convex face. In experiment 1 participants adjusted the disparity of a convex comparison face until it matched a reference face. The reference face was either convex or hollow and had binocular disparities consistent with an average face or had disparities exaggerated, consistent with a face stretched in depth. We observed that apparent depth increased with disparity magnitude, even when the hollow faces were seen as convex (ie when perceived depth order was inconsistent with disparity sign). As expected, concave faces appeared flatter than convex faces, suggesting that disparity sign also affects perceived depth. In experiment 2, participants were presented with pairs of real and illusory convex faces. In each case, their task was to judge which of the two stimuli appeared to have the greater depth. Hollow faces with exaggerated disparities were again perceived as deeper. PMID:22132512

  8. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaill, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Regionalized flood-frequency relations need to be updated on a regular basis (about every 10 years). The latest study on regionalized flood-frequency equations for Colorado used data collected through water year 1981. A study was begun in 1994 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation and the Bureau of Land Management, to include streamflow data collected since water year 1981 in the regionalized flood-frequency relations for Colorado. Longer periods of streamflow data and improved statistical analysis methods were used to define regression relations for estimating peak discharges having recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years for unregulated streams in Colorado. The regression relations can be applied to sites of interest on gaged and ungaged streams. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to determine the best explanatory basin or climatic characteristic variables for each peak-discharge characteristic, and generalized least-squares regression was used to determine the best regression relation. Drainage-basin area, mean annual precipitation, and mean basin slope were determined to be statistically significant explanatory variables in the regression relations. Separate regression relations were developed for each of five distinct hydrologic regions in the State. The mean standard errors of estimate and average standard error of prediction associated with the regression relations generally ranged from 40 to 80 percent, except for one hydrologic region where the errors ranged from about 200 to 300 percent. Methods are presented for determining the magnitude of peak discharges for sites located at gaging stations, for sites located near gaging stations on the same stream when the ratio of drainage-basin areas is between about 0.5 and 1.5, and for sites where the drainage basin crosses a flood-region boundary or a State boundary. Methods are presented for determining the magnitude of peak

  9. Five Planets Transiting a Ninth Magnitude Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Kristiansen, Martti H.; Bieryla, Allyson; Duev, Dmitry A.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Morton, Timothy D.; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred C.; Baranec, Christoph; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Schmitt, Allan R.

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed a great diversity of planetary systems and architectures, but most of the planets discovered by Kepler orbit faint stars. Using new data from the K2 mission, we present the discovery of a five-planet system transiting a bright (V = 8.9, K = 7.7) star called HIP 41378. HIP 41378 is a slightly metal-poor late F-type star with moderate rotation (v sin i ≃ 7 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and lies at a distance of 116 ± 18 pc from Earth. We find that HIP 41378 hosts two sub-Neptune-sized planets orbiting 3.5% outside a 2:1 period commensurability in 15.6 and 31.7 day orbits. In addition, we detect three planets that each transit once during the 75 days spanned by K2 observations. One planet is Neptune-sized in a likely ∼160 day orbit, one is sub-Saturn-sized, likely in a ∼130 day orbit, and one is a Jupiter-sized planet in a likely ∼1 year orbit. We show that these estimates for the orbital periods can be made more precise by taking into account dynamical stability considerations. We also calculate the distribution of stellar reflex velocities expected for this system, and show that it provides a good target for future radial velocity observations. If a precise orbital period can be determined for the outer Jovian planets through future observations, this system will be an excellent candidate for follow-up transit observations to study its atmosphere and measure its oblateness.

  10. Five Planets Transiting a Ninth Magnitude Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Kristiansen, Martti H.; Bieryla, Allyson; Duev, Dmitry A.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Morton, Timothy D.; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred C.; Baranec, Christoph; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Schmitt, Allan R.

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed a great diversity of planetary systems and architectures, but most of the planets discovered by Kepler orbit faint stars. Using new data from the K2 mission, we present the discovery of a five-planet system transiting a bright (V = 8.9, K = 7.7) star called HIP 41378. HIP 41378 is a slightly metal-poor late F-type star with moderate rotation (v sin i ≃ 7 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and lies at a distance of 116 ± 18 pc from Earth. We find that HIP 41378 hosts two sub-Neptune-sized planets orbiting 3.5% outside a 2:1 period commensurability in 15.6 and 31.7 day orbits. In addition, we detect three planets that each transit once during the 75 days spanned by K2 observations. One planet is Neptune-sized in a likely ˜160 day orbit, one is sub-Saturn-sized, likely in a ˜130 day orbit, and one is a Jupiter-sized planet in a likely ˜1 year orbit. We show that these estimates for the orbital periods can be made more precise by taking into account dynamical stability considerations. We also calculate the distribution of stellar reflex velocities expected for this system, and show that it provides a good target for future radial velocity observations. If a precise orbital period can be determined for the outer Jovian planets through future observations, this system will be an excellent candidate for follow-up transit observations to study its atmosphere and measure its oblateness.

  11. Silicon threshold displacement energy determined by photoluminescence in electron-irradiated cubic silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Jeremie; Esnouf, Stephane; Petite, Guillaume; Costantini, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-15

    In view of the potential use of silicon carbide (SiC) in the nuclear industry, it is of major interest to understand point defect formation in this material. This work is a contribution to the determination of the silicon threshold displacement energy in the cubic polytype of SiC using electron irradiations with increasing energies from 275 to 680 keV. The photoluminescence signal of the silicon vacancy was related to the number of displacements per atom in the silicon sublattice. This quantity was calculated taking into account the energy loss and angular dispersion of electrons in the target. A best fit of experimental data was obtained for a displacement cross section using a threshold displacement energy of 25 eV along the [100] lattice direction. We checked the relevance of this result by comparing the experimental concentration of silicon single vacancies measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with the theoretical number of displaced silicon atoms.

  12. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  13. Stress drop in the sources of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in northern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sycheva, N. A.; Bogomolov, L. M.

    2014-05-01

    The paper is devoted to estimating the dynamical parameters of 14 earthquakes with intermediate magnitudes (energy class 11 to 14), which occurred in the Northern Tien Shan. For obtaining the estimates of these parameters, including the stress drop, which could be then applied in crustal stress reconstruction by the technique suggested by Yu.L. Rebetsky (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences), we have improved the algorithms and programs for calculating the spectra of the seismograms. The updated products allow for the site responses and spectral transformations during the propagation of seismic waves through the medium (the effect of finite Q-factor). By applying the new approach to the analysis of seismograms recorded by the seismic KNET network, we calculated the radii of the sources (Brune radius), scalar seismic moment, and stress drop (release) for the studied 14 earthquakes. The analysis revealed a scatter in the source radii and stress drop even among the earthquakes that have almost identical energy classes. The stress drop by different earthquakes ranges from one to 75 bar. We have also determined the focal mechanisms and stress regime of the Earth's crust. It is worth noting that during the considered period, strong seismic events with energy class above 14 were absent within the segment covered by the KNET stations.

  14. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Alaska south of the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berwick, Vernon Kenneth; Childers, Joseph M.; Kuentzel, M.A.

    1964-01-01

    This report presents a method for evaluating the magnitude and frequency of floods on the basis of the analysis of flood records. One composite frequency curve is applied to the entire study region. This curve relates floods of various magnitudes at any site within the region to probable recurrence intervals (from 1.1 to 50 years) for those floods. Flood magnitudes are reduced to dimensionless form by expressing them as a ratio to mean annual flood. Magnitudes of mean annual floods vary with the flood-producing characteristics of stream basins. On the basis of the limited data available, drainage-area size is found to be the only significant factor affecting the magnitude of the mean annual flood. Trial and error groupings of gaging-station records show that the region can be split into three hydrologic areas: one curve defines the relation within each area between mean annual flood and drainage area. These three curves in combination with the composite flood-frequency curve permit, for natural-flow conditions at any site, the determination of flood magnitude for a given recurrence interval, or the determination of recurrence interval for a flood of known magnitude.

  15. Evaporation determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Buso, D.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Likens, G.E.; Sturrock, A.M., Jr.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation was determined by the energy-budget method for Mirror Lake during the open water periods of 1982-1987. For all years, evaporation rates were low in spring and fall and highest during the summer. However, the times of highest evaporation rates varied during the 6 yr. Evaporation reached maximum rates in July for three of the years, in June for two of the years, and in August for one of the years. The highest evaporation rate during the 6-yr study was 0.46 cm d-1 during 27 May-4 June 1986 and 15-21 July 1987. Solar radiation and atmospheric radiation input to the lake and long-wave radiation emitted from the lake were by far the largest energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had little effect on evaporation rates. In the energy-budget method, average evaporation rates are determined for energy-budget periods, which are bounded by the dates of thermal surveys of the lake. Our study compared evaporation rates calculated for short periods, usually ???1 week, with evaporation rates calculated for longer periods, usually ???2 weeks. The results indicated that the shorter periods showed more variability in evaporation rates, but seasonal patterns, with few exceptions, were similar.

  16. A precise ionization method for determination of the energy deposited in small sites of irradiated objects

    SciTech Connect

    Bigildeev, E.A.; Lappa, A.V.

    1994-09-01

    The ionization method for determination of the energy deposited in sensitive sites of irradiated objects is usually used with the assumption that deposited energy is directly proportional to the number of ionization in a site. This assumption fails in two cases important for nanometer-sized sites: (1) when the fluctuation characteristics of deposited energy such as higher moments, probability distributions, etc. are determined instead of the mean value; (2) when the radiation field in a site is spatially non-uniform. In this paper both cases are investigated. Exact formulae connecting energy and ionization quantities (moments, cumulants, probability distributions) are established as well as practical procedures to obtain energy quantities from those of ionization. The validity of the direct proportionality principle is analyzed and approximate methods to correct it are propose. Some microdosimetric results are presented. The solution of these problems required that we refine some known notions and introduce new terms. In particular, in the paper the necessity of distinguishing two distinct types of events and correspondingly two sets of microdosimetric quantities is noted; new radiation parameters such as the fluctuation W value and non-equivalence factor for the events are defined and investigated numerically. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Tactical approach for determining impact of energy development on wildlife in Wyoming: special report number 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keenlyne, Kent D.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, within the Department of Interior, is responsible for providing national leadership in the management and protection of the nation's fish and wildlife resources, their habitat, and environment. Specifically, the Office of Biological Services obtains and assimilates biological and environmental data and identifies additional informational needs and means necessary to provide biological input into major natural resource decisions. The Wyoming Coal Coordinator for the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service is assigned the duty of becoming attuned to the ramifications of energy development within the State and its potential impact upon wildlife. In order for the Coal Coordinator to fulfill his obligations in becoming an "energy expert" for the Fish and Wildlife Service in Wyoming, it will be necessary for him to develop a means of obtaining an overview of the energy development situation. Similarly, in order for him to identify those area of critical concern to wildlife resources, it will be necessary that he determine or predict where energy development will occur, the nature of this development, and the cumulative effects of energy development upon wildlife. Likewise, in order to identify where wildlife data gaps occur and to determine future wildlife information needs, it will be necessary for him to compile and synthesize relevant existing data resources. It therefore becomes apparent that a need exists for him to gather and interpret pertinent information in a systematic way to meet these ends. The following is an account of the tactical number in which the Wyoming Coal Coordinator intends to approach the duties outlined above the rationale to be followed in meeting these needs. First, a general discussion on assessing impacts on wildlife is provided to form a basis for obtaining an overview. Secondly, a series of reports which will be generated to summarize existing information and to help identify potential problem areas is outlined

  18. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  19. Stress magnitudes in the crust: constraints from stress orientation and relative magnitude data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Magee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The World Stress Map Project is a global cooperative effort to compile and interpret data on the orientation and relative magnitudes of the contemporary in situ tectonic stress field in the Earth's lithosphere. The intraplate stress field in both the oceans and continents is largely compressional with one or both of the horizontal stresses greater than the vertical stress. The regionally uniform horizontal intraplate stress orientations are generally consistent with either relative or absolute plate motions indicating that plate-boundary forces dominate the stress distribution within the plates. Current models of stresses due to whole mantle flow inferred from seismic topography models predict a general compressional stress state within continents but do not match the broad-scale horizontal stress orientations. The broad regionally uniform intraplate stress orientations are best correlated with compressional plate-boundary forces and the geometry of the plate boundaries. -from Authors

  20. Proposed Molecular Beam Determination of Energy Partition in the Photodissociation of Polyatomic Molecules

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zare, P. N.; Herschbach, D. R.

    1964-01-29

    Conventional photochemical experiments give no information about the partitioning of energy between translational recoil and internal excitation of the fragment molecules formed in photodissociation of a polyatomic molecule. In a molecular beam experiment, it becomes possible to determine the energy partition from the form of the laboratory angular distribution of one of the photodissociation products. A general kinematic analysis is worked out in detail, and the uncertainty introduced by the finite angular resolution of the apparatus and the velocity spread in the parent beam is examined. The experimental requirements are evaluated for he photolysis of methyl iodide by the 2537 angstrom Hg line.

  1. Households' pro-environmental habits and investments in water and energy consumption: determinants and relationships.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; García-Valiñas, María A; Nauges, Céline

    2014-01-15

    Economic instruments have received a lot of attention in the literature dealing with water and energy demand management. However factors driving households' behaviour/habits and investment in water-saving and energy-saving equipment have been seldom studied. The main purpose of this article is to contribute to this literature by analysing the main determinants of a set of households' conservation habits and pro-environmental investment decisions. Using household-level data from Spain, we show that conservation habits and the purchase of resource-efficient appliances are not independent. PMID:24374466

  2. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Third Photometric Magnitude Difference Catalog (Mason, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C. E.; Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Photometric Magnitude Difference Catalog is a collection of all double star photometric data which does not contain astrometric information and is therefore inappropriate for the Washington Double Star Catalog. Magnitude difference information can be useful in estimating mass ratios, determining photocentric positions which are color dependent, or into investigations of variability in close binary systems. Due to uncertainties in bandpass characteristics or variability, no summary line is presented, rather a complete listing of all data. This version supersedes the (5 data files).

  4. Method for measuring surface shear stress magnitude and direction using liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for determining surface shear magnitude and direction at every point on a surface. The surface is covered with a shear stress sensitive liquid crystal coating and illuminated by white light from a normal direction. A video camera is positioned at an oblique angle above the surface to observe the color of the liquid crystal at that angle. The shear magnitude and direction are derived from the color information. A method of calibrating the device is also provided.

  5. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  6. Determining the performance of energy wheels: Part 1 -- Experimental and numerical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, C.J.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Measuring and modeling the performance of energy recovery devices is difficult and, in some cases, may result in unacceptably high uncertainties. In this paper, controlled laboratory experiments and a detailed numerical model are presented, which, together with uncertainty analysis, can quantify the performance of energy wheels. A numerical model that has been developed from physical principles and an experimental method for determining the performance of energy wheels with acceptable uncertainties are detailed. Included is a pre-test, during-test, and post-test uncertainty analysis that allows the experimenter to estimate accurately precision (random) and bias (fixed) errors a priori, during, and a posteriori each experiment using energy and mass balances on the air-to-air energy recovery device as well as the characteristics of each instrument and the data acquisition system. A comprehensive set of measured data for the sensible, latent, and total effectiveness of an energy wheel is compared with the corresponding simulation results in Part 2 of this paper.

  7. Determining the Importance of Energy Transfer between Magnetospheric Regions via MHD Waves using Constellations of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    This grant was focused on research in two specific areas: (1) development of new techniques and software for assimilation, analysis and visualization of data from multiple satellites making in-situ measurements; and (2) determination of the role of MHD waves in energy transport during storms and substorms. Results were obtained in both areas and presented at national meetings and in publications. The talks and papers that were supported in part or fully by this grant are listed in this paper.

  8. Functional determinants and Casimir energy in higher dimensional spherically symmetric background potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucci, Guglielmo; Kirsten, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the spectral zeta function associated with a Laplace operator acting on scalar functions on an N-dimensional Euclidean space in the presence of a spherically symmetric background potential. The obtained analytic continuation of the spectral zeta function is then used to derive very simple results for the functional determinant of the operator and the Casimir energy of the scalar field.

  9. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Vicente; López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  10. Decoding Group Vocalizations: The Acoustic Energy Distribution of Chorus Howls Is Useful to Determine Wolf Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    López-Bao, José Vicente; Llaneza, Luis; Fernández, Carlos; Font, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations. However, the acoustic structure of chorus howls is complex and discriminating the presence of pups in a chorus is sometimes difficult, even for experienced observers. In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of analyses of the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls to identify the presence of pups in a chorus. We analysed 110 Iberian wolf chorus howls with known pack composition and found that the acoustic energy distribution is concentrated at higher frequencies when there are pups vocalizing. We built predictive models using acoustic energy distribution features to determine the presence of pups in a chorus, concluding that the acoustic energy distribution in chorus howls can be used to determine the presence of wolf pups in a pack. The method we outline here is objective, accurate, easily implemented, and independent of the observer's experience. These advantages are especially relevant in the case of broad scale surveys or when many observers are involved. Furthermore, the analysis of the acoustic energy distribution can be implemented for monitoring other social canids that emit chorus howls such as jackals or coyotes, provides an easy way to obtain information on ecological parameters such as reproductive success, and could be useful to study other group vocalizations. PMID:27144887

  11. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  12. Determination of Wetting Behavior, Spread Activation Energy, and Quench Severity of Bioquenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K. Narayan; Fernandes, Peter

    2007-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils such as sunflower, coconut, groundnut, castor, cashewnut shell (CNS), and palm oils as quench media (bioquenchants) for industrial heat treatment by assessing their wetting behavior and severity of quenching. The relaxation of contact angle was sharp during the initial stages, and it became gradual as the system approached equilibrium. The equilibrium contact angle decreased with increase in the temperature of the substrate and decrease in the viscosity of the quench medium. A comparison of the relaxation of the contact angle at various temperatures indicated the significant difference in spreading of oils having varying viscosity. The spread activation energy was determined using the Arrhenius type of equation. Oils with higher viscosity resulted in lower cooling rates. The quench severity of various oil media was determined by estimating heat-transfer coefficients using the lumped capacitance method. Activation energy for spreading determined using the wetting behavior of oils at various temperatures was in good agreement with the severity of quenching assessed by cooling curve analysis. A high quench severity is associated with oils having low spread activation energy.

  13. Determining the performance of energy wheels: Part 2 -- Experimental data and numerical validation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, C.J.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Experimentally measured and numerically simulated performance data are presented for an energy wheel operating in a wide range of conditions for mass flux, temperature, and humidity. Typically, the agreement between simulated and measured results is well within the experimental uncertainty. Both the simulated and numerical results show that the three effectiveness values (i.e., sensible, latent, and total) are unequal and each has its own unique sensitivity to operating conditions. Also, total effectiveness is shown to be a poor measurement of performance when the supply and exhaust inlet air enthalpies are nearly equal. Simulated results with the numerical model show that experimental results measured using half of the energy wheel, to reduce equipment sizes, underpredict the measured sensible effectiveness by up to 7%. The proposed method of determining energy wheel performance is to validate a detailed numerical model with a range of accurate experimental data and then use the model to predict performance for other operating conditions.

  14. Determination of energy level alignment at metal/molecule interfaces by in-device electrical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, M.; Pietrobon, L.; Atxabal, A.; Bedoya-Pinto, A.; Sun, X.; Golmar, F.; Llopis, R.; Casanova, F.; Hueso, L. E.

    2014-06-01

    The energetics of metal/molecular semiconductor interfaces plays a fundamental role in organic electronics, determining the performance of very diverse devices. So far, information about the energy level alignment has been most commonly gained by spectroscopy techniques that typically require experimental conditions far from the real device operation. Here we demonstrate that a simple three-terminal device allows the acquisition of spectroscopic information about the metal/molecule energy alignment in real operative condition. As a proof of principle, we employ the proposed device to measure the energy barrier height between different clean metals and C60 molecules and we recover typical results from photoemission spectroscopy. The device is designed to inject a hot electron current directly into the molecular level devoted to charge transport, disentangling the contributions of both the interface and the bulk to the device total resistance, with important implications for spintronics and low-temperature physics.

  15. LDEF (Postflight), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in periph eral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The brown discoloration appears to be much lighter in this photograph than in the flight photograph, however, the postflight photograph of the individual experiment verifies the darker discoloration in the flight photograph. The light ing angle and intensity appear to have washed out the colors in the upper half of the integrated tray. The sub experiments appear to be intact and secure.

  16. Determination of energy level alignment at metal/molecule interfaces by in-device electrical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, M; Pietrobon, L; Atxabal, A; Bedoya-Pinto, A; Sun, X; Golmar, F; Llopis, R; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E

    2014-01-01

    The energetics of metal/molecular semiconductor interfaces plays a fundamental role in organic electronics, determining the performance of very diverse devices. So far, information about the energy level alignment has been most commonly gained by spectroscopy techniques that typically require experimental conditions far from the real device operation. Here we demonstrate that a simple three-terminal device allows the acquisition of spectroscopic information about the metal/molecule energy alignment in real operative condition. As a proof of principle, we employ the proposed device to measure the energy barrier height between different clean metals and C60 molecules and we recover typical results from photoemission spectroscopy. The device is designed to inject a hot electron current directly into the molecular level devoted to charge transport, disentangling the contributions of both the interface and the bulk to the device total resistance, with important implications for spintronics and low-temperature physics. PMID:24946715

  17. How to assess magnitudes of paleo-earthquakes from multiple observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    An important aspect of fault characterisation regarding seismic hazard assessment are paleo-earthquake magnitudes. Especially in regions with low or moderate seismicity, paleo-magnitudes are normally much larger than those of historical earthquakes and therefore provide essential information about seismic potential and expected maximum magnitudes of a certain region. In general, these paleo-earthquake magnitudes are based either on surface rupture length or on surface displacement observed at trenching sites. Several well-established correlations provide the possibility to link the observed surface displacement to a certain magnitude. However, the combination of more than one observation is still rare and not well established. We present here a method based on a probabilistic approach proposed by Biasi and Weldon (2006) to combine several observations to better constrain the possible magnitude range of a paleo-earthquake. Extrapolating the approach of Biasi and Weldon (2006), the single-observation probability density functions (PDF) are assumed to be independent of each other. Following this line, the common PDF for all observed surface displacements generated by one earthquake is the product of all single-displacement PDFs. In order to test our method, we use surface displacement data for modern earthquakes, where magnitudes have been determined by instrumental records. For randomly selected "observations", we calculated the associated PDFs for each "observation point". We then combined the PDFs into one common PDF for an increasing number of "observations". Plotting the most probable magnitudes against the number of combined "observations", the resultant range of most probable magnitudes is very close to the magnitude derived by instrumental methods. Testing our method with real trenching observations, we used the results of a paleoseismological investigation within the Vienna Pull-Apart Basin (Austria), where three trenches were opened along the normal

  18. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  19. Kharkiv Asteroid Magnitude-Phase Relations V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. G.; Belskaya, I. N.; Lupishko, D. F.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Velichko, F. P.

    2010-08-01

    A database of asteroid magnitude-phase relations compiled at the Institute of Astronomy of Kharkiv Kharazin University by Shevchenko et al., including observations from 1978 through 2008. Mainly the observations were performed at the Institute of Astronomy (Kharkiv, Ukraine) and at the Astrophysics Institute (Dushanbe, Tadjikistan). For most asteroids the magnitude-phase relations were obtained down to phase angles less than 1 deg. For some asteroids the magnitudes are presented in three (UBV) or four (BVRI) standard spectral bands.

  20. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum.

  1. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum. PMID:27176287

  2. Microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy to determine mitochondrial malfunction in human myotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwend, Michael H.; Strauss, Wolfgang S. L.; Brinkmeier, H.; Ruedel, R.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1996-12-01

    A microscopic equipment is reported for examination of cellular autofluorescence and determination of energy transfer in vitro, which is proposed to be an appropriate tool to investigate mitochondrial malfunction. The method includes fluorescence microscopy combined with time-gated (nanosecond) fluorescence emission spectroscopy and is presently used to study mitochondrial metabolism of human myotube primary cultures Enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain, located at the inner mitochondrial membrane, were inhibited by various drugs, and fluorescence of the mitochondrial coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as well as of the mitochondrial marker rhodamine 123 (R123) was examined. After inhibition of enzyme complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) by rotenone or enzyme complex III (coenzyme QH2-cytochrome c reductase) by antimycin a similar or increased NADH fluorescence was observed. In addition, energy transfer from excited states of NADH (energy donor) to R123 (energy acceptor) was deduced from a decrease of NADH fluorescence after coincubation with these inhibitors and R123. Application of microscopic energy transfer spectroscopy for diagnosis of congenital mitochondrial deficiencies is currently in preparation.

  3. SEP distribution function and probability of the maximum magnitudes of events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nymmik, Rikho

    Based on the current knowledge the magnitude of specific anticipated SEP event is a random variable taken from large array of expected values. This set of expected values can be determined in terms of the distribution function. Form of the distribution function of SЕР events is usually determined from the data of continuous satellite measurement. Sometimes but without much effect indirect evidences, such as isotopes of samples of lunar rocks, data on the density of radioactive isotopes in the annual rings of ancient trees are used to determine the SEPE distribution function. The most successful was the attempt to describe the distribution function for 21-23 solar cycles by power-low function with exponential cutoff in the area of large events. Significant addition to the available information are relatively new data (McCracken et al., JGR 106(A10), 21585-21498, 2001) on the radioactive isotopes in the Greenland ice, which gives the additional information about the extreme SEP events since 1561. However, the lack of information about full set of events (mainly on small events) does not allow to use these data directly to determine the distribution function. However, using correlation between the number of sunspots and the corresponding mean number of SEP events, one can determine the distribution function since 1561 based on Greenland data. Surprisingly, the parameter values of this function coincide with those calculated from satellite data. Analysis of the obtained parameters of the distribution function shows that the maximum fluence of protons with energies above 30 MeV does not exceed 1011 cm-2 protons with about 10-11 midget probability.

  4. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE OF RRc VARIABLES FROM STATISTICAL PARALLAX

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Burns, Christopher R.; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Madore, Barry F.; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, José L.; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D.; Villanueva, Edward; Szczygieł, Dorota M.; Gould, Andrew; Sneden, Christopher; Dong, Subo

    2013-09-20

    We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 242 RRc variables selected from the All Sky Automated Survey for which high-quality light curves, photometry, and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey. We find that M{sub V,RRc} = 0.59 ± 0.10 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M{sub V,RRab} = 0.76 ± 0.12) and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M{sub V,RRc} = 0.27 ± 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo relative to the Sun to be (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (12.0, –209.9, 3.0) km s{sup –1} in the radial, rotational, and vertical directions with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (150.4, 106.1, 96.0) km s{sup -1}. For the disk, we find (W{sub π}, W{sub θ}, W{sub z} ) = (13.0, –42.0, –27.3) km s{sup –1} relative to the Sun with dispersions (σ{sub W{sub π}},σ{sub W{sub θ}},σ{sub W{sub z}}) = (67.7,59.2,54.9) km s{sup -1}. Finally, as a byproduct of our statistical framework, we are able to demonstrate that UCAC2 proper-motion errors are significantly overestimated as verified by UCAC4.

  5. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  6. Mathematical methods for restricted domain ternary liquid mixture free energy determination using light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

    2013-09-01

    We extend methods of solution of a light scattering partial differential equation for the free energy of mixing to apply to connected, isotropic ternary liquid composition domains that do not touch all three binary axes. To do so we mathematically analyze the problem of inferring needed Dirichlet boundary data, and solving for the free energy, with use of hypothetical static light scattering measurements that correspond to dielectric composition gradient vectors that have distinct directions. The physical idea behind the technique is that contrasting absorption properties of mixture components can result in such distinctly directed dielectric composition gradient vectors, due to their differing wavelength dependences of dielectric response. At suitably chosen wavelengths, contrasting light scattering efficiency patterns in the ternary composition triangle can then correspond to the same underlying free energy, and enlarge the scope of available information about the free energy, as shown here. We show how to use distinctly directed dielectric gradients to measure the free energy on both straight lines and curves within the ternary composition triangle, so as to provide needed Dirichlet conditions for light scattering partial differential equation solution. With use of Monte Carlo simulations of noisy light scattering data, we provide estimates of the overall system measurement time and sample spacing needed to determine the free energy to a desired degree of accuracy, for various angles between the assumed dielectric gradient vectors, and indicate how the measurement time depends on instrumental throughput parameters. The present analysis methods provide a way to use static light scattering to measure, directly, mixing free energies of many systems that contain such restricted liquid domains, including aqueous solutions of biological macromolecules, micellar mixtures and microemulsions, and many small molecule systems that are important in separation technology.

  7. Magnitude Problems in Historical Earthquake Catalogs and Their Impact on Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Shabestari, K.; Guin, J.

    2010-12-01

    A reliable historical earthquake catalog is a critical component for any regional seismic hazard analysis. In Europe, a number of historical earthquake catalogs have been compiled and used in constructing national or regional seismic hazard maps, for instance, Switzerland ECOS catalog by Swiss Seismological Service (2002), Italy CPTI catalog by CPTI Working Group (2004), Greece catalog by Papazachos et al. (2007), and CENEC (central, northern and northwestern Europe) catalog by Grünthal et al. (2009), Turkey catalog by Kalafat et al. (2007), and GSHAP catalog by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (1999). These catalogs spatially overlap with each other to a large extent and employed a uniform magnitude scale (Mw). A careful review of these catalogs has revealed significant magnitude problems which can substantially impact regional seismic hazard assessment: 1) Magnitudes for the same earthquakes in different catalogs are discrepant. Such discrepancies are mainly driven by different regression relationships used to convert other magnitude scales or intensity into Mw. One of the consequences is magnitudes of many events in one catalog are systematically biased higher or lower with respect to those in another catalog. For example, the magnitudes of large historical earthquakes in the Italy CPTI catalog are systematically higher than those in Switzerland ECOS catalog. 2) Abnormally high frequency of large magnitude events is observed for some time period that intensities are the main available data. This phenomenon is observed in Italy CPTI catalog for the time period of 1870 to 1930. This may be due to biased conversion from intensity to magnitude. 3) A systematic bias in magnitude resulted in biased estimations for a- and b-values of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude frequency relationships. It also affected the determination of upper bound magnitudes for various seismic source zones. All of these issues can lead to skewed seismic hazard results, or inconsistent

  8. An empirical evolutionary magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Chen, Da-Yi

    2016-04-01

    For earthquake early warning (EEW) system, it is a difficult mission to accurately estimate earthquake magnitude in the early nucleation stage of an earthquake occurrence because only few stations are triggered and the recorded seismic waveforms are short. One of the feasible methods to measure the size of earthquakes is to extract amplitude parameters within the initial portion of waveform after P-wave arrival. However, a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw > 7.0) may take longer time to complete the whole ruptures of the causative fault. Instead of adopting amplitude contents in fixed-length time window, that may underestimate magnitude for large-magnitude events, we suppose a fast, robust and unsaturated approach to estimate earthquake magnitudes. In this new method, the EEW system can initially give a bottom-bund magnitude in a few second time window and then update magnitude without saturation by extending the time window. Here we compared two kinds of time windows for adopting amplitudes. One is pure P-wave time widow (PTW); the other is whole-wave time window after P-wave arrival (WTW). The peak displacement amplitude in vertical component were adopted from 1- to 10-s length PTW and WTW, respectively. Linear regression analysis were implemented to find the empirical relationships between peak displacement, hypocentral distances, and magnitudes using the earthquake records from 1993 to 2012 with magnitude greater than 5.5 and focal depth less than 30 km. The result shows that using WTW to estimate magnitudes accompanies with smaller standard deviation. In addition, large uncertainties exist in the 1-second time widow. Therefore, for magnitude estimations we suggest the EEW system need to progressively adopt peak displacement amplitudes form 2- to 10-s WTW.

  9. Earthquake magnitude calculation without saturation from the scaling of peak ground displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, Diego; Crowell, Brendan W.; Geng, Jianghui; Allen, Richard M.; Bock, Yehuda; Riquelme, Sebastian; Hill, Emma M.; Protti, Marino; Ganas, Athanassios

    2015-07-01

    GPS instruments are noninertial and directly measure displacements with respect to a global reference frame, while inertial sensors are affected by systematic offsets—primarily tilting—that adversely impact integration to displacement. We study the magnitude scaling properties of peak ground displacement (PGD) from high-rate GPS networks at near-source to regional distances (~10-1000 km), from earthquakes between Mw6 and 9. We conclude that real-time GPS seismic waveforms can be used to rapidly determine magnitude, typically within the first minute of rupture initiation and in many cases before the rupture is complete. While slower than earthquake early warning methods that rely on the first few seconds of P wave arrival, our approach does not suffer from the saturation effects experienced with seismic sensors at large magnitudes. Rapid magnitude estimation is useful for generating rapid earthquake source models, tsunami prediction, and ground motion studies that require accurate information on long-period displacements.

  10. Sensible heat measurements indicating depth and magnitude of subsurface soil water evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitman, J. L.; Xiao, X.; Horton, R.; Sauer, T. J.

    2008-04-01

    Most measurement approaches for determining evaporation assume that the latent heat flux originates from the soil surface. Here, a new method is described for determining in situ soil water evaporation dynamics from fine-scale measurements of soil temperature and thermal properties with heat pulse sensors. A sensible heat balance is computed using soil heat flux density at two depths and change in sensible heat storage in between; the sensible heat balance residual is attributed to latent heat from evaporation of soil water. Comparisons between near-surface soil heat flux density and Bowen ratio energy balance measurements suggest that evaporation originates below the soil surface several days after rainfall. The sensible heat balance accounts for this evaporation dynamic in millimeter-scale depth increments within the soil. Comparisons of sensible heat balance daily evaporation estimates to Bowen ratio and mass balance estimates indicate strong agreement (r2 = 0.96, root-mean-square error = 0.20 mm). Potential applications of this technique include location of the depth and magnitude of subsurface evaporation fluxes and estimation of stage 2-3 daily evaporation without requirements for large fetch. These applications represent new contributions to vadose zone hydrology.

  11. Precision Determination of Electron Scattering Angle by Differential Nuclear Recoil Energy Method

    SciTech Connect

    Liyanage, Nilanga; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak

    2015-09-01

    The accurate determination of the scattered electron angle is crucial to electron scattering experiments, both with open-geometry large-acceptance spectrometers and ones with dipole-type magnetic spectrometers for electron detection. In particular, for small central-angle experiments using dipole-type magnetic spectrometers, in which surveys are used to measure the spectrometer angle with respect to the primary electron beam, the importance of the scattering angle determination is emphasized. However, given the complexities of large experiments and spectrometers, the accuracy of such surveys is limited and insufficient to meet demands of some experiments. In this article, we present a new technique for determination of the electron scattering angle based on an accurate measurement of the primary beam energy and the principle of differential nuclear recoil. This technique was used to determine the scattering angle for several experiments carried out at the Experimental Hall A, Jefferson Lab. Results have shown that the new technique greatly improved the accuracy of the angle determination compared to surveys.

  12. Precision determination of electron scattering angle by differential nuclear recoil energy method

    SciTech Connect

    Liyanage, N.; Saenboonruang, K.

    2015-12-01

    The accurate determination of the scattered electron angle is crucial to electron scattering experiments, both with open-geometry large-acceptance spectrometers and ones with dipole-type magnetic spectrometers for electron detection. In particular, for small central-angle experiments using dipole-type magnetic spectrometers, in which surveys are used to measure the spectrometer angle with respect to the primary electron beam, the importance of the scattering angle determination is emphasized. However, given the complexities of large experiments and spectrometers, the accuracy of such surveys is limited and insufficient to meet demands of some experiments. In this article, we present a new technique for determination of the electron scattering angle based on an accurate measurement of the primary beam energy and the principle of differential nuclear recoil. This technique was used to determine the scattering angle for several experiments carried out at the Experimental Hall A, Jefferson Lab. Results have shown that the new technique greatly improved the accuracy of the angle determination compared to surveys.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of flux determination in heart by H₂ ¹⁸O -provided labeling using a dynamic Isotopologue model of energy transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Schryer, David W; Peterson, Pearu; Illaste, Ardo; Vendelin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    To characterize intracellular energy transfer in the heart, two organ-level methods have frequently been employed: ³¹P − NMR inversion and saturation transfer, and dynamic ¹⁸O labeling. Creatine kinase (CK) fluxes obtained by following oxygen labeling have been considerably smaller than the fluxes determined by ³¹P − NMR saturation transfer. It has been proposed that dynamic ¹⁸O labeling determines net flux through CK shuttle, whereas ³¹P − NMR saturation transfer measures total unidirectional flux. However, to our knowledge, no sensitivity analysis of flux determination by oxygen labeling has been performed, limiting our ability to compare flux distributions predicted by different methods. Here we analyze oxygen labeling in a physiological heart phosphotransfer network with active CK and adenylate kinase (AdK) shuttles and establish which fluxes determine the labeling state. A mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations was composed describing ¹⁸O enrichment in each phosphoryl group and inorganic phosphate. By varying flux distributions in the model and calculating the labeling, we analyzed labeling sensitivity to different fluxes in the heart. We observed that the labeling state is predominantly sensitive to total unidirectional CK and AdK fluxes and not to net fluxes. We conclude that measuring dynamic incorporation of ¹⁸O into the high-energy phosphotransfer network in heart does not permit unambiguous determination of energetic fluxes with a higher magnitude than the ATP synthase rate when the bidirectionality of fluxes is taken into account. Our analysis suggests that the flux distributions obtained using dynamic ¹⁸O labeling, after removing the net flux assumption, are comparable with those from ³¹P − NMR inversion and saturation transfer. PMID:23236266

  14. Quantum Mechanical Determination of Potential Energy Surfaces for TiO and H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss current ab initio methods for determining potential energy surfaces, in relation to the TiO and H2O molecules, both of which make important contributions to the opacity of oxygen-rich stars. For the TiO molecule we discuss the determination of the radiative lifetimes of the excited states and band oscillator strengths for both the triplet and singlet band systems. While the theoretical radiative lifetimes for TiO agree well with recent measurements, the band oscillator strengths differ significantly from those currently employed in opacity calculations. For the H2O molecule we discuss the current results for the potential energy and dipole moment ground state surfaces generated at NASA Ames. We show that it is necessary to account for such effects as core-valence Correlation energy to generate a PES of near spectroscopic accuracy. We also describe how we solve the ro-vibrational problem to obtain the line positions and intensities that are needed for opacity sampling.

  15. Experimental determination of the deuterium binding energy with vacancies in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Ryabtsev, S.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) interaction with vacancies in tungsten (W) was studied using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In order to obtain a TDS spectrum with a prominent peak corresponding to D release from vacancies, a special procedure comprising damaging of a recrystallized W sample by low fluences of 10 keV/D ions, its annealing, and subsequent low-energy ion implantation, was utilized. This experimental sequence was performed several times in series; the only difference was the TDS heating rate that varied in the range of 0.15-4 K/s. The sum of the D binding energy (Eb) with vacancies and the activation energy for D diffusion (ED) in W was then directly determined from the slope of the Arrhenius-like plot ln(β / Tm2) versus 1/Tm, where β - heating rate and Tm - position of the respective peak in the TDS spectrum. The determined value of Eb + ED was 1.56 ± 0.06 eV.

  16. The Construction of a Magnitude Estimation Scale of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Adrian

    The psychophysical technique of magnitude estimation was used to develop a ratio scale of subjective estimations of adult learning in various adult education activities. A rank order of 26 learning activities and the magnitude estimations in "units of learning" that are expected to occur in each activity were obtained from 146 adult education…

  17. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: 1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  18. Congruency Effects between Number Magnitude and Response Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierck, Esther; Kiesel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Numbers are thought to be represented in space along a mental left-right oriented number line. Number magnitude has also been associated with the size of grip aperture, which might suggest a connection between number magnitude and intensity. The present experiment aimed to confirm this possibility more directly by using force as a response…

  19. Some Effects of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Persistence of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie C.; Jimenez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The influence of magnitude of reinforcement was examined on both response rate and behavioral persistence. During Phase 1, a multiple schedule of concurrent reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcement for one response option was held constant at VI 30 s across both components, while magnitude of reinforcement for the other response option…

  20. Magnitude Knowledge: The Common Core of Numerical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic…

  1. The Effects of Reinforcer Magnitude on Timing in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludvig, Elliot A.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The relation between reinforcer magnitude and timing behavior was studied using a peak procedure. Four rats received multiple consecutive sessions with both low and high levels of brain stimulation reward (BSR). Rats paused longer and had later start times during sessions when their responses were reinforced with low-magnitude BSR. When estimated…

  2. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  3. The Weight of Time: Affordances for an Integrated Magnitude System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Mo, Lei; Hodges, Bert H.

    2011-01-01

    In five experiments we explored the effects of weight on time in different action contexts to test the hypothesis that an integrated magnitude system is tuned to affordances. Larger magnitudes generally seem longer; however, Lu and colleagues (2009) found that if numbers were presented as weights in a range heavy enough to affect lifting, the…

  4. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  5. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy from electron disappearance at a low energy neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Rupak; Sinha, Nita; Raut, Sushant K.

    2014-04-01

    Recent measurements of large θ13 by the reactor experiments have opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy, i.e., the sign of the mass squared splitting Δm312, the CP-violating phase δCP, and the octant of θ23. In light of this result, we study the performance of a low energy neutrino factory (LENF) for determination of the mass hierarchy. In particular, we explore the potential of the νe and ν¯e disappearance channels at LENF to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, that is free from the uncertainties arising from the unknown δCP phase and the θ23 octant. We find that using these electron neutrino (antineutrino) disappearance channels with a standard LENF, it is possible to exclude the wrong hierarchy at 5σ with only 2 years of running, with a muon beam energy above ˜3.5(5.0-10.0) GeV and baseline longer than ˜1400(1900-2400) km for an optimistic (conservative) systematic error of 2% (5%).

  6. Determination of reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste.

    PubMed

    Uma, R N; Manjula, G; Meenambal, T

    2007-04-01

    The reaction rates and activation energy in aerobic composting processes for yard waste were determined using specifically designed reactors. Different mixture ratios were fixed before the commencement of the process. The C/N ratio was found to be optimum for a mixture ratio of 1:6 containing one part of coir pith to six parts of other waste which included yard waste, yeast sludge, poultry yard waste and decomposing culture (Pleurotosis). The path of stabilization of the wastes was continuously monitored by observing various parameters such as temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, C.O.D, VS at regular time intervals. Kinetic analysis was done to determine the reaction rates and activation energy for the optimum mixture ratio under forced aeration condition. The results of the analysis clearly indicated that the temperature dependence of the reaction rates followed the Arrhenius equation. The temperature coefficients were also determined. The degradation of the organic fraction of the yard waste could be predicted using first order reaction model. PMID:18476403

  7. Selective Determination of Trinitrotoluene Based on Energy Transfer between Carbon Dots and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mosaei Oskoei, Yones; Fattahi, Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Mousavi Azar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between carbon dots (C-dots) and amine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed for the selective determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). C-dots have an intrinsic florescence emission depending on their exciting wavelength. In the presence of AuNPs, C-dots adsorb on the Au surfaces, and NPs treat as energy acceptor, which can receive light emitted by C-dots, leading to decrease the fluorescence intensity of C-dots. Furthermore, it is observed that nitroaromatic compounds, especially TNT, could restore this fluorescence due to selective interaction with AuNPs via amine groups, and so releasing the C-dots. Based on this effect, a sensitive and selective fluorescence turn-on probe was designed for the determination of TNT. Some important factors including AuNPs and C-dot concentrations and media pH, which would affect the efficiency of the probe, were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, good linear relationships in the range of 7 - 250 nmol L(-1) TNT with the detection limit of 2.2 nmol L(-1) were obtained. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of TNT in the environmental water samples. Compared with previous reports, the developed method has relatively high sensitivity, short analysis time, low cost and ease of operation. PMID:26860565

  8. CLUST - EVAP Monte Carlo Simulation Applications for Determining Effective Energy Deposition in Silicon by High Energy Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, Pat M.

    2000-01-01

    The CLUST-EVAP is a Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of high energy (25 - 400 MeV) protons with silicon nuclei. The initial nuclear cascade stage is modeled using the CLUST model developed by Indiana University over 30 years ago. The second stage, in which the excited nucleus evaporates particles in random directions, is modeled according to the evaporation algorithm provided by H. H. K. Tang of IBM. Using the CLUST-EVAP code to model fragment produ6tion and the Vavilov-Landau theory to model fluctuations in direct ionization in thin silicon layers, we have predicted energy deposition in silicon components for various geometrical configurations. We have compared actual measurements with model predictions for geometry's such as single, thin silicon particle detectors, telescopic particle detectors flown in space to measure the environment, and thin sensitive volumes of modern micro-electronic components. We have recently compared the model predictions with actual measurements made by the DOSTEL spectrometer flown in the Shuttle payload bay on STS-84. The model faithfully reproduces the features and aids in interpretation of flight results of this instrument. We have also applied the CLUST-EVAP model to determine energy deposition in the thin sensitive volumes of modern micro-electronic components. We have accessed the ability of high energy (200 MeV) protons to induce latch-up in certain devices that are known to latch up in heavy ion environments. However, some devices are not nearly as susceptible to proton induced latch-up as expected according to their measured heavy ion latch-up cross sections. The discrepancy is believed to be caused by the limited range of the proton-silicon interaction fragments. The CLUST-EV AP model was used to determine a distribution of these fragments and their range and this is compared to knowledge of the ranges required based on the known device structure. This information is especially useful in accessing the risk to on

  9. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of Pannonian earthquake magnitude series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Toth, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    The multifractality of the series of magnitudes of the earthquakes occurred in Pannonia region from 2002 to 2012 has been investigated. The shallow (depth less than 40 km) and deep (depth larger than 70 km) seismic catalogues were analysed by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The shallow and deep catalogues are characterized by different multifractal properties: (i) the magnitudes of the shallow events are weakly persistent, while those of the deep ones are almost uncorrelated; (ii) the deep catalogue is more multifractal than the shallow one; (iii) the magnitudes of the deep catalogue are characterized by a right-skewed multifractal spectrum, while that of the shallow magnitude is rather symmetric; (iv) a direct relationship between the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law and the multifractality of the magnitudes is suggested.

  10. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Gabriel V; Hunt, Patricia A; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study. PMID:26723704

  11. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-28

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the “mitosis” or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  12. Water droplet excess free energy determined by cluster mitosis using guided molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George; Ford, Ian J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role in affecting climate by influencing the properties and lifetimes of clouds and precipitation. Understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms involved in the nucleation of aerosol droplets from the vapour phase is therefore of great interest. One key thermodynamic quantity in nucleation is the excess free energy of cluster formation relative to that of the saturated vapour. In our current study, the excess free energy is extracted for clusters of pure water modelled with the TIP4P/2005 intermolecular potential using a method based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and the Jarzynski relation. The change in free energy associated with the "mitosis" or division of a cluster of N water molecules into two N/2 sub-clusters is evaluated. This methodology is an extension of the disassembly procedure used recently to calculate the excess free energy of argon clusters [H. Y. Tang and I. J. Ford, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023308 (2015)]. Our findings are compared to the corresponding excess free energies obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT) as well as internally consistent classical theory (ICCT). The values of the excess free energy that we obtain with the mitosis method are consistent with CNT for large cluster sizes but for the smallest clusters, the results tend towards ICCT; for intermediate sized clusters, we obtain values between the ICCT and CNT predictions. Furthermore, the curvature-dependent surface tension which can be obtained by regarding the clusters as spherical droplets of bulk density is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cluster size for the studied range. The data are compared to other values reported in the literature, agreeing qualitatively with some but disagreeing with the values determined by Joswiak et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4267 (2013)] using a biased mitosis approach; an assessment of the differences is the main motivation for our current study.

  13. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. Methods A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 117734 singleton births between 1988 and 2003. Models for after tax family income were also adjusted for neighborhood deprivation to gauge the relative magnitude of effects related to SEP at both levels. Effects of SEP were stratified by single- versus multiple-parent family composition, and by urban versus rural location of residence. Results The risk of small for gestational age and spontaneous preterm birth was higher across all the indicators of lower SEP, while risk for large for gestational age was lower across indicators of lower SEP. Higher risk of postneonatal death was demonstrated for several measures of lower SEP. Higher material deprivation in the neighborhood of residence was associated with increased risk for perinatal death, small for gestational age birth, and iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm birth. Family composition and urbanicity were shown to modify the association between income and some perinatal outcomes. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of understanding the definitions of SEP and the mechanisms that lead to the association between income and poor perinatal outcomes, and broadening the types of SEP measures used in some cases. PMID:24589212

  14. Determination of the displacement energy of O, Si and Zr under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-01-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 22} e m{sup -2} has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron-solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be {approx}400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  15. Determination of the Displacement Energies of O, Si and Zr Under Electron Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-03-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to ~1.5 x 10²²e m² has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron–solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be ~400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  16. Toward an Automatic Determination of Enzymatic Reaction Mechanisms and Their Activation Free Energies.

    PubMed

    Zinovjev, Kirill; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2013-08-13

    We present a combination of the string method and a path collective variable for the exploration of the free energy surface associated to a chemical reaction in condensed environments. The on-the-fly string method is employed to find the minimum free energy paths on a multidimensional free energy surface defined in terms of interatomic distances, which is a convenient selection to study bond forming/breaking processes. Once the paths have been determined, a reaction coordinate is defined as a measure of the advance of the system along these paths. This reaction coordinate can be then used to trace the reaction Potential of Mean Force from which the activation free energy can be obtained. This combination of methodologies has been here applied to the study, by means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations, of the reaction catalyzed by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyzes the methylation of guanidinoacetate by S-adenosyl-l-methionine, a reaction that involves a methyl transfer and a proton transfer and for which different reaction mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:26584125

  17. Energy level and half-life determinations from photonuclear reaction on Ga target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Bayram, Tuncay; Dulger, Fatih; Đapo, Haris; Boztosun, Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Photonuclear reactions are important tools in the understanding of the nucleus. These reactions are also interesting for realizing the element creation processes in stellar environment. The use of bremsstrahlung photons generated from clinic linear accelerator is practical for performing these type of reactions. In this study, the bremsstrahlung photons with endpoint energy of 18MeV have been used for activating gallium target material. After irradiation, the transition energies and half-lives associated with the decay of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes have been determined The values obtained for half-life of 68Ga, 70Ga and 72Ga isotopes are 67.5±0.9min, 21.1±0.9min and 13.8±0.4h, respectively. It has been seen that the values are consistent with the present literature values. In addition, the new measurements of gamma-ray energies for transition energies have been obtained comparable to the literature values with good uncertainties.

  18. Structure of a micropipette-aspirated vesicle determined from the bending-energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The structure of the system consisting of an aspirating pipette and an aspirated vesicle is investigated with fixed total vesicle volume, total vesicle surface area, and aspirated volume fraction, based on the bending-energy model. Through an energetic consideration, the usage of an aspirated volume fraction can be converted to the aspirating pressure for the determination of a phase diagram; the procedure identifies a first-order transition, between a weakly aspirated state and the strongly aspirated state, as the pressure increases. The physical properties of the system are obtained from minimization of the bending energy by an implementation of the simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure, which searches for a minimum in a multivariable space. An analysis of the hysteresis effects indicates that the experimentally observed aspirating and releasing critical pressures are related to the location of the spinodal points.

  19. Determination of energy dissipation of a spider silk structure under impulsive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencastre, Jorge; Mago, Carlos; Rivera, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Various researches and studies have demonstrated that spider silk is much stronger and more deformable than a steel string of the same diameter from a mechanical approach. These excellent properties have caused many scientific disciplines to get involved, such as bio-mechanics, bio-materials and bio-mimetics, in order to create a material of similar properties and characteristics. It should be noted that the researches and studies have been oriented mainly as a quasi-static model. For this research, the analysis has taken a dynamic approach and determined the dissipation energy of a structure which is made of spider silk "Dragline" and produced by the Argiope-Argentata spider, through an analytical-experimental way, when being subjected to impulsive loading. Both experimental and analytical results, the latter obtained by using adjusted models, have given high levels of dissipation energy during the first cycle of vibration, which are consistent with the values suggested by other authors.

  20. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.; Hanel, R. A.; Pirraglia, J. A.; Coustenis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus.

  1. Determination of RW3-to-water mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio for absolute dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Hanlon, Peta M; Charles, Paul H

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of absorbed dose to water in a solid-phantom may require a conversion factor because it may not be radiologically equivalent to water. One phantom developed for the use of dosimetry is a solid water, RW3 white-polystyrene material by IBA. This has a lower mass-energy absorption coefficient than water due to high bremsstrahlung yield, which affects the accuracy of absolute dosimetry measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of mass-energy absorption coefficient ratios, relative to water, from measurements in plastic water and RW3 with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (6 and 10 MV photon beams) as well as Monte Carlo modeling in BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. From this, the solid-phantom-to-water correction factor was determined for plastic water and RW3. PMID:21960410

  2. Mass spectrometric determination of the dissociation energy of the AuMg diatomic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, G.; Ciccioli, A.; Gigli, G.; Kudin, L. S.

    2003-02-01

    The dissociation energy of the intermetallic molecule AuMg was for the first time determined by the Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry technique. Partial pressures of Au(g), Mg(g), AuMg(g) and Au 2(g) species produced under equilibrium vaporization of an appropriate alloy were monitored in the temperature range 1870-2333 K. The collected data were analyzed by the second- and third-law methods for the gaseous equilibria AuMg(g)=Au(g) + Mg(g) and AuMg(g) + Au(g)=Au 2(g) + Mg(g). The selected value for the dissociation energy of AuMg at 0 K is D0∘(AuMg)= 175.4±2.7 kJ/mol.

  3. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  4. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Hanel, R.A.; Pirraglia, J.A.; Coustenis, A. Paris, Observatoire, Meudon )

    1990-03-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus. 39 refs.

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Dissociation Energies of Dispersion-Dominated Aromatic Molecular Complexes.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jann A; Holzer, Christof; Klopper, Wim; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2016-05-11

    The dissociation energy (D0) of an isolated and cold molecular complex in the gas-phase is a fundamental measure of the strength of the intermolecular interactions between its constituent moieties. Accurate D0 values are important for the understanding of intermolecular bonding, for benchmarking high-level theoretical calculations, and for the parametrization of force-field models used in fields ranging from crystallography to biochemistry. We review experimental and theoretical methods for determining gas-phase D0 values of M·S complexes, where M is a (hetero)aromatic molecule and S is a closed-shell "solvent" atom or molecule. The experimental methods discussed involve M-centered (S0 → S1) electronic excitation, which is often followed by ionization to the M(+)·S ion. The D0 is measured by depositing a defined amount of vibrational energy in the neutral ground state, giving M(‡)·S, the neutral S1 excited state, giving M*·S, or the M(+)·S ion ground state. The experimental methods and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Based on the electronic structure of M and S, we classify the M·S complexes as Type I, II, or III, and discuss characteristic properties of their respective potential energy surfaces that affect or hinder the determination of D0. Current theoretical approaches are reviewed, which comprise methods based on a Kohn-Sham reference determinant as well as wave function-based methods based on coupled-cluster theory. PMID:27055105

  6. Heterogeneous in situ stress magnitudes due to the presence of weak natural discontinuities in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Jo, Yeonguk

    2015-11-01

    Two field examples of hydraulic fracturing stress measurements are reported, in which the determined stress magnitudes exhibit severe variations with depth. The stress measurements were conducted in vertical boreholes drilled in granites in two different locations in South Korea. Several isolated intervals of intact rocks in the boreholes were vertically fractured by injecting water. The magnitudes of the minimum horizontal principal compressive stress (Shmin) were determined from shut-in pressures. The magnitudes of the maximum horizontal principal compressive stress (SHmax) were estimated based on the Kirsch equation using tensile strengths determined from hollow cylinder tests and Brazilian tests, in which pressurization-rate effects on tensile strength were taken into account. The stress states in both locations are in reverse-faulting stress regimes. The magnitudes of SHmax are generally within a stress range defined by frictional limits of favorably oriented fractures having frictional coefficients of 0.6 and 1.0. However, SHmax magnitudes do not increase linearly with depth, but rather scatter quite severely. It is noted that near the depths where the measured stresses are relatively low, natural discontinuities with wide apertures containing weak filling material exist, whereas near the depths of high stress, such wide discontinuities are scarce. Wide aperture discontinuities are predominantly oriented such that their slip tendency is high under the given stress conditions, meaning that if excessive shear stress is exerted, the weak discontinuities would slip to release the excessive stress. Such local processes would restrict SHmax magnitudes within values that can only be sustained by the shear strengths of the discontinuities, leading to severe variations of SHmax with depth. This result suggests that stress magnitudes are controlled quite locally by the frictional property of natural discontinuities, and that the stress state in granitic rock might be

  7. Magnitude-frequency relations for earthquakes using a statistical mechanical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.B.

    1993-12-10

    At very small magnitudes, observations indicate that the frequency of occurrence of earthquakes is significantly smaller than the frequency predicted by simple Gutenberg-Richter statistics. Previously, it has been suggested that the dearth of small events is related to a rapid rise in scattering and attenuation at high frequencies and the consequent inability to detect these events with standard arrays of seismometers. However, several recent studies have suggested that instrumentation cannot account for the entire effect and that the decline in frequency may be real. Working from this hypothesis, we derive a magnitude-frequency relation for very small earthquakes that is based upon the postulate that the system of moving plates can be treated as a system not too far removed from equilibrium. As a result, it is assumed that in the steady state, the probability P[E] that a segment of fault has a free energy E is proportional to the exponential of the free energy P {proportional_to} exp[-E / E{sub N}]. In equilibrium statistical mechanics this distribution is called the Boltzmann distribution. The probability weight E{sub N} is the space-time steady state average of the free energy of the segment. Earthquakes are then treated as fluctuations in the free energy of the segments. With these assumptions, it is shown that magnitude-frequency relations can be obtained. For example, previous results obtained by the author can be recovered under the same assumptions as before, for intermediate and large events, the distinction being whether the event is of a linear dimension sufficient to extend the entire width of the brittle zone. Additionally, a magnitude-frequency relation is obtained that is in satisfactory agreement with the data at very small magnitudes. At these magnitudes, departures from frequencies predicted by Gutenberg-Richter statistics are found using a model that accounts for the finite thickness of the inelastic part of the fault zone.

  8. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions.

    PubMed

    Maclot, S; Delaunay, R; Piekarski, D G; Domaracka, A; Huber, B A; Adoui, L; Martín, F; Alcamí, M; Avaldi, L; Bolognesi, P; Díaz-Tendero, S; Rousseau, P

    2016-08-12

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization. PMID:27563959

  9. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Piekarski, D. G.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Adoui, L.; Martín, F.; Alcamí, M.; Avaldi, L.; Bolognesi, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Rousseau, P.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization.

  10. Determination of Radiation Energy Response for Thermoluminescent Dosimeter TLD-100: Determination of Organ Dose in Diagnostic Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Deda, Antoneta; Telhaj, Ervis

    2009-04-19

    TLD-100 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) cards (chips) were calibrated using X-rays with energies of 25-250 kV produced by a Cs-137 source. The energy responses of lithium fluoride crystals for different energies of X-rays were studied. QA/QC was then performed in the Albanian Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory. Based on the QA/QC results, the chips were used to study the doses to different organs in diagnostic radiology. Organ dose was evaluated after calculation of e dose in air (Kair), using an ionizing chamber.

  11. Determination of Radiation Energy Response for Thermoluminescent Dosimeter TLD-100: Determination of Organ Dose in Diagnostic Radiology (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deda, Antoneta; Telhaj, Ervis

    2009-04-01

    TLD-100 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) cards (chips) were calibrated using X-rays with energies of 25-250 kV produced by a Cs-137 source. The energy responses of lithium fluoride crystals for different energies of X-rays were studied. QA/QC was then performed in the Albanian Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory. Based on the QA/QC results, the chips were used to study the doses to different organs in diagnostic radiology. Organ dose was evaluated after calculation of e dose in air (Kair), using an ionizing chamber.

  12. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  13. Simultaneous determination of the free energy profile and effective dynamics along a reaction coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    Often one can gain insight into the functioning of a biomolecular system by following its dynamics along a relevant reaction coordinate (RC). A proper description of the motion along the RC requires not only the determination of the corresponding free energy profile (PMF) but also the correct identification of the underlying stochastic model. While there exist several methods for determining the PMF from fast non-equilibrium pulling processes, for simplicity it is implicitly assumed that the dynamics along the RC is a simple overdamped Brownian motion with known diffusion coefficient. However, in general, the dynamics along the RC is non-Markovian that can be modeled with a generalized Langevin equation characterized by a friction memory kernel. Here we propose and demonstrate a method that permits the simultaneous determination of both PMF and friction memory kernel from fast bi-directional (forward and time-reversed) pulling processes. As a result, one can determine whether the diffusion along the RC is normal or anomalous (e.g., subdiffusion). The proposed method provides a novel approach for identifying and characterizing the effective dynamics along a RC of a biomolecular system studied by either single-molecule force microscopy or steered molecular dynamics simulations. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  14. Regional Triggering of Volcanic Activity Following Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Butler, Charley; Blackett, Matthew; Wright, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous reports of a spatial and temporal link between volcanic activity and high magnitude seismic events. In fact, since 1950, all large magnitude earthquakes have been followed by volcanic eruptions in the following year - 1952 Kamchatka M9.2, 1960 Chile M9.5, 1964 Alaska M9.2, 2004 & 2005 Sumatra-Andaman M9.3 & M8.7 and 2011 Japan M9.0. While at a global scale, 56% of all large earthquakes (M≥8.0) in the 21st century were followed by increases in thermal activity. The most significant change in volcanic activity occurred between December 2004 and April 2005 following the M9.1 December 2004 earthquake after which new eruptions were detected at 10 volcanoes and global volcanic flux doubled over 52 days (Hill-Butler et al. 2014). The ability to determine a volcano's activity or 'response', however, has resulted in a number of disparities with <50% of all volcanoes being monitored by ground-based instruments. The advent of satellite remote sensing for volcanology has, therefore, provided researchers with an opportunity to quantify the timing, magnitude and character of volcanic events. Using data acquired from the MODVOLC algorithm, this research examines a globally comparable database of satellite-derived radiant flux alongside USGS NEIC data to identify changes in volcanic activity following an earthquake, February 2000 - December 2012. Using an estimate of background temperature obtained from the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product (Wright et al. 2014), thermal radiance was converted to radiant flux following the method of Kaufman et al. (1998). The resulting heat flux inventory was then compared to all seismic events (M≥6.0) within 1000 km of each volcano to evaluate if changes in volcanic heat flux correlate with regional earthquakes. This presentation will first identify relationships at the temporal and spatial scale, more complex relationships obtained by machine learning algorithms will then be examined to establish favourable

  15. A scheme to set preferred magnitudes in the ISC Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    One of the main purposes of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) is to collect, integrate and reprocess seismic bulletins provided by agencies around the world in order to produce the ISC Bulletin. This is regarded as the most comprehensive bulletin of the Earth's seismicity, and its production is based on a unique cooperation in the seismological community that allows the ISC to complement the work of seismological agencies operating at global and/or local-regional scale. In addition, by using the seismic wave measurements provided by reporting agencies, the ISC computes, where possible, its own event locations and magnitudes such as short-period body wave m b and surface wave M S . Therefore, the ISC Bulletin contains the results of the reporting agencies as well as the ISC own solutions. Among the most used seismic event parameters listed in seismological bulletins, the event magnitude is of particular importance for characterizing a seismic event. The selection of a magnitude value (or multiple ones) for various research purposes or practical applications is not always a straightforward task for users of the ISC Bulletin and related products since a multitude of magnitude types is currently computed by seismological agencies (sometimes using different standards for the same magnitude type). Here, we describe a scheme that we intend to implement in routine ISC operations to mark the preferred magnitudes in order to help ISC users in the selection of events with magnitudes of their interest.

  16. Quantifying Heartbeat Dynamics by Magnitude and Sign Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    We review a recently developed approach for analyzing time series with long-range correlations by decomposing the signal increment series into magnitude and sign series and analyzing their scaling properties. We show that time series with identical long-range correlations can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign. We apply our approach to series of time intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis method we find that the magnitude series is long-range correlated, while the sign series is anticorrelated and that both magnitude and sign series may have clinical applications. Further, we study the heartbeat magnitude and sign series during different sleep stages — light sleep, deep sleep, and REM sleep. For the heartbeat sign time series we find short-range anticorrelations, which are strong during deep sleep, weaker during light sleep and even weaker during REM sleep. In contrast, for the heartbeat magnitude time series we find long-range positive correlations, which are strong during REM sleep and weaker during light sleep. Thus, the sign and the magnitude series provide information which is also useful for distinguishing between different sleep stages.

  17. Derivation of Johnson-Cousins Magnitudes from DSLR Camera Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woojin; Pak, Soojong; Shim, Hyunjin; Le, Huynh Anh N.; Im, Myungshin; Chang, Seunghyuk; Yu, Joonkyu

    2016-01-01

    The RGB Bayer filter system consists of a mosaic of R, G, and B filters on the grid of the photo sensors which typical commercial DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) cameras and CCD cameras are equipped with. Lot of unique astronomical data obtained using an RGB Bayer filter system are available, including transient objects, e.g. supernovae, variable stars, and solar system bodies. The utilization of such data in scientific research requires that reliable photometric transformation methods are available between the systems. In this work, we develop a series of equations to convert the observed magnitudes in the RGB Bayer filter system (RB, GB, and BB) into the Johnson-Cousins BVR filter system (BJ, VJ, and RC). The new transformation equations derive the calculated magnitudes in the Johnson-Cousins filters (BJcal, VJcal, and RCcal) as functions of RGB magnitudes and colors. The mean differences between the transformed magnitudes and original magnitudes, i.e. the residuals, are (BJ - BJcal) = 0.064 mag, (VJ - VJcal) = 0.041 mag, and (RC - RCcal) = 0.039 mag. The calculated Johnson-Cousins magnitudes from the transformation equations show a good linear correlation with the observed Johnson-Cousins magnitudes.

  18. Determination of electron and proton auroral energy inputs from FUV-IMAGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J.; Hubert, B.; Meurant, M.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Immel, T.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2001-05-01

    The FUV experiment onboard the IMAGE spacecraft offers the unique possibility to obtain simultaneous snapshots of the global north aurora every 2 minutes in three different spectral channels. The WIC camera has a broadband channel covering the 135-190 nm interval including the N2 LBH bands, part of which may be absorbed by O2. The SI13 channel is centered on the OI 135.6 nm line which is optically thin and includes a ~ 40% LBH contribution. Finally, the SI12 camera images the Doppler-shifted Ly-α emission excited by the proton aurora. This set of instrumentation is combined with auroral models to determine the electron and the proton energy fluxes from the magnetosphere. Examples will be presented and compared with the values deduced from the NOAA satellites. Simultaneous in-situ measurements of the particle characteristic energy have been combined with the data extracted from the FUV images to validate the models and derive empirical relationships between the particle flux measured by the detectors and the brightness observed by FUV-IMAGE at the footprint of the same magnetic field line. Finally, we will assess the ability to deduce the characteristic energy of the auroral particles from the ratio of co-registered images in the WIC and SI13 cameras. This method is based on the difference of vertical distribution of the LBH and the OI 135.6 nm emissions. It offers the potential to globally remotely sense not only the energy flux from the magnetosphere but also the main features of the electron characteristic energy.

  19. Regression between earthquake magnitudes having errors with known variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Jose

    2016-06-01

    Recent publications on the regression between earthquake magnitudes assume that both magnitudes are affected by error and that only the ratio of error variances is known. If X and Y represent observed magnitudes, and x and y represent the corresponding theoretical values, the problem is to find the a and b of the best-fit line y = a x + b. This problem has a closed solution only for homoscedastic errors (their variances are all equal for each of the two variables). The published solution was derived using a method that cannot provide a sum of squares of residuals. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the goodness of fit for different pairs of magnitudes. Furthermore, the method does not provide expressions for the x and y. The least-squares method introduced here does not have these drawbacks. The two methods of solution result in the same equations for a and b. General properties of a discussed in the literature but not proved, or proved for particular cases, are derived here. A comparison of different expressions for the variances of a and b is provided. The paper also considers the statistical aspects of the ongoing debate regarding the prediction of y given X. Analysis of actual data from the literature shows that a new approach produces an average improvement of less than 0.1 magnitude units over the standard approach when applied to Mw vs. mb and Mw vs. MS regressions. This improvement is minor, within the typical error of Mw. Moreover, a test subset of 100 predicted magnitudes shows that the new approach results in magnitudes closer to the theoretically true magnitudes for only 65 % of them. For the remaining 35 %, the standard approach produces closer values. Therefore, the new approach does not always give the most accurate magnitude estimates.

  20. Regression between earthquake magnitudes having errors with known variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Recent publications on the regression between earthquake magnitudes assume that both magnitudes are affected by error and that only the ratio of error variances is known. If X and Y represent observed magnitudes, and x and y represent the corresponding theoretical values, the problem is to find the a and b of the best-fit line y = a x + b. This problem has a closed solution only for homoscedastic errors (their variances are all equal for each of the two variables). The published solution was derived using a method that cannot provide a sum of squares of residuals. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the goodness of fit for different pairs of magnitudes. Furthermore, the method does not provide expressions for the x and y. The least-squares method introduced here does not have these drawbacks. The two methods of solution result in the same equations for a and b. General properties of a discussed in the literature but not proved, or proved for particular cases, are derived here. A comparison of different expressions for the variances of a and b is provided. The paper also considers the statistical aspects of the ongoing debate regarding the prediction of y given X. Analysis of actual data from the literature shows that a new approach produces an average improvement of less than 0.1 magnitude units over the standard approach when applied to Mw vs. mb and Mw vs. MS regressions. This improvement is minor, within the typical error of Mw. Moreover, a test subset of 100 predicted magnitudes shows that the new approach results in magnitudes closer to the theoretically true magnitudes for only 65 % of them. For the remaining 35 %, the standard approach produces closer values. Therefore, the new approach does not always give the most accurate magnitude estimates.

  1. Bone strain magnitude is correlated with bone strain rate in tetrapods: implications for models of mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, B. R.; Iriarte-Diaz, J.; Blob, R. W.; Butcher, M. T.; Carrano, M. T.; Espinoza, N. R.; Main, R. P.; Ross, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypotheses suggest that structural integrity of vertebrate bones is maintained by controlling bone strain magnitude via adaptive modelling in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased tissue-level strain magnitude and rate have both been identified as potent stimuli leading to increased bone formation. Mechanotransduction models hypothesize that osteocytes sense bone deformation by detecting fluid flow-induced drag in the bone's lacunar–canalicular porosity. This model suggests that the osteocyte's intracellular response depends on fluid-flow rate, a product of bone strain rate and gradient, but does not provide a mechanism for detection of strain magnitude. Such a mechanism is necessary for bone modelling to adapt to loads, because strain magnitude is an important determinant of skeletal fracture. Using strain gauge data from the limb bones of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, we identified strong correlations between strain rate and magnitude across clades employing diverse locomotor styles and degrees of rhythmicity. The breadth of our sample suggests that this pattern is likely to be a common feature of tetrapod bone loading. Moreover, finding that bone strain magnitude is encoded in strain rate at the tissue level is consistent with the hypothesis that it might be encoded in fluid-flow rate at the cellular level, facilitating bone adaptation via mechanotransduction. PMID:26063842

  2. Detonation charge size versus coda magnitude relations in California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Magnitude-charge size relations have important uses in forensic seismology and are used in Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. I derive empirical magnitude versus detonation-charge-size relationships for 322 detonations located by permanent seismic networks in California and Nevada. These detonations, used in 41 different seismic refraction or network calibration experiments, ranged in yield (charge size) between 25 and 106 kg; coda magnitudes reported for them ranged from 0.5 to 3.9. Almost all represent simultaneous (single-fired) detonations of one or more boreholes. Repeated detonations at the same shotpoint suggest that the reported coda magnitudes are repeatable, on average, to within 0.1 magnitude unit. An empirical linear regression for these 322 detonations yields M = 0.31 + 0.50 log10(weight [kg]). The detonations compiled here demonstrate that the Khalturin et al. (1998) relationship, developed mainly for data from large chemical explosions but which fits data from nuclear blasts, can be used to estimate the minimum charge size for coda magnitudes between 0.5 and 3.9. Drilling, loading, and shooting logs indicate that the explosive specification, loading method, and effectiveness of tamp are the primary factors determining the efficiency of a detonation. These records indicate that locating a detonation within the water table is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for an efficient shot.

  3. Reinforcer magnitude affects delay discounting and influences effects of d-amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher A; Reilly, William J; Anderson, Karen G

    2016-09-01

    Impulsive choice in humans can be altered by changing reinforcer magnitude; however, this effect has not been found in rats. Current levels of impulsive choice can also influence effects of d-amphetamine. This study used a within-subject assessment to determine if impulsive choice is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and whether effects of d-amphetamine are related to current levels of impulsive choice. A discounting procedure in which choice was for a smaller reinforcer available immediately or a larger reinforcer available after a delay that increased within session was used. Reinforcer magnitude was manipulated between conditions and impulsive choice was quantified using area under the curve (AUC). In the Smaller-Magnitude (SM) Condition, choice was between one food pellet and three food pellets. In the Larger-Magnitude (LM) Condition, choice was between two food pellets and six food pellets. Impulsive choice was greater in the SM Condition compared to the LM Condition. Further, effects of d-amphetamine (0.1-1.8mg/kg) were related to differences in impulsive choice. d-Amphetamine increased impulsive choice in the LM Condition, but had no effect on impulsive choice in the SM Condition. Overall, these results show that impulsive choice in rats is sensitive to changes in reinforcer magnitude, and that effects of d-amphetamine are influenced by current levels of impulsive choice. PMID:27418423

  4. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. PMID:26847720

  5. How do magnitude and frequency of monetary reward guide visual search?

    PubMed

    Won, Bo-Yeong; Leber, Andrew B

    2016-07-01

    How does reward guide spatial attention during visual search? In the present study, we examine whether and how two types of reward information-magnitude and frequency-guide search behavior. Observers were asked to find a target among distractors in a search display to earn points. We manipulated multiple levels of value across the search display quadrants in two ways: For reward magnitude, targets appeared equally often in each quadrant, and the value of each quadrant was determined by the average points earned per target; for reward frequency, we varied how often the target appeared in each quadrant but held the average points earned per target constant across the quadrants. In Experiment 1, we found that observers were highly sensitive to the reward frequency information, and prioritized their search accordingly, whereas we did not find much prioritization based on magnitude information. In Experiment 2, we found that magnitude information for a nonspatial feature (color) could bias search performance, showing that the relative insensitivity to magnitude information during visual search is not generalized across all types of information. In Experiment 3, we replicated the negligible use of spatial magnitude information even when we used limited-exposure displays to incentivize the expression of learning. In Experiment 4, we found participants used the spatial magnitude information during a modified choice task-but again not during search. Taken together, these findings suggest that the visual search apparatus does not equally exploit all potential sources of spatial value information; instead, it favors spatial reward frequency information over spatial reward magnitude information. PMID:27270595

  6. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P < 0.05) in N retention and ME. There was a linear increase in DM, N, and energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P < 0.05) with age. Regression-derived MEn of bakery meal linearly increased (P < 0.05) as the age of birds increased, with values of 2,710, 2,820, and 2,923 kcal/kg DM for 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Based on these results, utilization of energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens. PMID:26944962

  7. Hydration energies of sodiated amino acids from gas-phase equilibria determinations.

    PubMed

    Wincel, Henryk

    2007-07-01

    The sequential hydration of a number of sodiated amino acids is investigated using a high-pressure mass spectrometer. Ions produced continuously by electrospray are injected into the reaction chamber in the pulsed mode where the hydration equilibria, AANa+(H2O)n-1+H2O=AANa+(H2O)n (AA=Val, Pro, Met, Phe, and Gln), and the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants are measured in the gas phase at 10 mbar (N2 bath gas and known pressure of H2O). The thermochemical properties, DeltaH degrees n, DeltaS degrees n, and DeltaG degrees n, for the hydrated systems are determined and discussed in conjunction with the structural forms. The results show that the binding energies of water to the AANa+ complexes decrease with the increasing number of water molecules. The present results from equilibrium measurements are compared to those from earlier studies obtained by other techniques. A correlation between the free energy changes for the addition of the first and second water molecules to AANa+, and the corresponding sodium ion affinities, is observed. Generally, the hydration free energy becomes weaker as the AA-Na+ bond strength increases. PMID:17559201

  8. LDEF (Prelaunch), M0002-01 : Trapped-Proton Energy Spectrum Determination, Tray G12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Trapped Proton Energy Spectrum Determination Experiment is one of four (4) experiments located in a three (3) inch deep LDEF end center tray. Additional Trapped Proton Energy Experiments are located in peripheral LDEF integrated experiment trays in the D03 and D09 tray locations. The identifica tion plate on the lower right corner of the experiment mounting plate identifies the experiments location and orientation in the experiment tray. The Trapped Proton Energy experiment, located in the upper left quadrant of the integrated tray, consist of a primary experiment and three (3) sub experiments mounted on an aluminum mount ing plate. The primary experiment components include six (6) stacks of CR-39 passive detectors in individual aluminum housings and an aluminum mounting structure, configured to provide the desired exposure for the detector stacks. The secondary experiments consist of the Neutron and Proton Activation experiment that expose metal samples to the ambient flux throughout the mis sion, the Microsphere Dosimetry experiment housed in a cylindrical aluminum container and the Flux Measurement by Ion Trapping experiment consisting of a variety of sample materials that are exposed to the space environment for the total mission. The exterior surfaces of the mounting plate, the experiment housings and the support structure are coated with IITRI S13G-LO white paint.The experiment is assembled using non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners and safety wire.

  9. Determination of Energy Independent Neutron Densities using Dirac Phenomenology based on the RIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.; Kerr, L. J.; Hama, S.; Mercer, R. L.

    2002-04-01

    A new method for extracting neutron densities from intermediate energy elastic proton-nucleus scattering observables using a global Dirac phenomenological (DP) approach based on the Relativistic Impulse Approximation (RIA) is presented. (B. C. Clark, et al.) BAPS Vol 46, No. 7 pg.139, 2001. We have considered data sets for ^40Ca, ^48Ca and ^208Pb and energies from 500 MeV to 1040 MeV. The global fits are successful in reproducing the data and in predicting data sets not included in the analysis. Using this global DP approach we have obtained energy independent neutron densities. The vector point proton density distribution, ρ^p_v, is determined from the empirical charge density after unfolding the proton form factor. The other densities, ρ^n_v, ρ^p_s, ρ^n_s, are parameterized using the cosh form given in our paper on global DP optical potentials.(E. D. Cooper, et al.) Phys Rev. 47C, pg. 297, 1993 Neutron skin thicknesses extracted using the global analysis are compared to predictions from theoretical models.

  10. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P; Chwalibog, A; Du Preez, J J

    1999-09-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature South African Black ostriches and 10 adult Australorp cockerels per ingredient. TMEn values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 MJ/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common reed, lupins, SBOCM, SFOCM and fishmeal, respectively, were found for ostriches in comparison to lower (P<0.05) values of 8.55, 4.50, 2.79, 9.40, 9.04, 8.89 and 13.95 MJ/kg for cockerels. The higher (P<0.05) ME values for ostriches confirm that the ostrich is capable of digesting foodstuffs, especially those with high fibre concentrations such as drought-resistant fodders, more effectively than poultry. Plant protein sources could make a considerable energy contribution to diets for ostriches. It is concluded that it is essential to use energy values of foodstuffs determined using ostriches and not extrapolated values derived from poultry in diet formulation for ostriches. PMID:10579407

  11. Energy Loss Calculations for Target Thickness Determinations using SRIM and Excel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, A. S.; Greene, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    The thickness of a thin target foil can be determined by measuring the energy loss of alpha particles that travel through it. In the Target Laboratory of the Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), this is accomplished by measuring the energy loss of the 5812 keV alpha particles emitted by a 2 49 Cf source using a silicon detector set-up. The energy loss is translated into the target foil thickness using the stopping power for 4He in the target material obtained from the stopping/range tables provided by SRIM. This calculation has until recently been carried out using a program developed for this purpose, ``ENELOSS.'' This program uses the stopping/range tables from the original work published by Ziegler. Additionally, due to its design, ENELOSS is unable to easily accommodate targets made from compounds. In order to perform theses measurements using the most recent SRIM data, and to better calculate the thickness of compound targets, we have developed a ``Thickness Calculation'' spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel. This spreadsheet approach is not limited to elemental targets and employs stopping/range tables from the most recent edition of SRIM available on the web. The calculations obtained allow for more accurate target thicknesses and automates the process conveniently for repetitive measurements. This work was supported by the U.S. DoE, Nuclear Physics Division, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38.

  12. Semiconductor Surface Structure Determination via Low Energy Positron Diffraction: Cleavage Faces of Cadmium-Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsky, Thomas Neil

    Low energy positron diffraction (LEPD) is used to determine the surface structure of the wurtzite CdSe(1010) and CdSe(1120) cleavage faces. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) is also performed, utilizing a beam optical system which produces both a e^+ and e ^- beam with the same phase-space characteristics, i.e. 1 mm-deg. Both e^+ and e^- measurements were collected from the same sample surface of each cleavage face, removing systematic errors from the comparison. Dynamical calculations were performed for both the LEPD and LEED using the R-factor methodology of Duke et al. For the (1010) surface, the calculations and analyses were performed at Brandeis via link to the John Von Neumann Supercomputer Center at Princeton, NJ. For the (1120) surface, the LEPD calculations and analysis was performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, while the LEED calculations were performed by Princeton University. Resulting surface structures for CdSe(1010) are in accord with the proposed reconstruction model of Wang and Duke, indicating a bond-length-conserving rotation of the surface dimer. The best-fit values of the bond-rotation angle omega are 15^circ +/- 5^circ as determined by LEPD and omega = 21.5^ circ +/- 4^ circ as determined by LEED. These values are in agreement with the predicted value of omega = 17^circ. For CdSe(1120), the best-fit LEPD results indicate an omega of 27^circ +/- 7^circ while preliminary LEED results indicate an omega of 35^circ +/- 5^circ. Both values for this previously undetermined surface are also in agreement with the theoretically predicted value of omega = 32^circ . These results serve to confirm a universal model of reconstruction which describes the surface structures of both the zincblende and wurtzite compound semiconductor cleavage faces.

  13. Increasing urban flood magnitudes: Is it the drainage network?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahner, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2004-05-01

    It has been long thought that increases in impervious area had the greatest impact on urban runoff volume and increased flood peaks. This theory was recently challenged by a study in Charlotte, North Carolina that concluded that the increase in storm drainage connectivity and hence hydraulic efficiency played the greatest role in increasing flood magnitudes. Prediction of hydrologic conditions in urbanized watersheds is increasingly turning to distributed-parameter models, as these methods are capable of describing land-surface modifications and heterogeneity. One major deficiency of many of these models, however, is their inability to explicitly handle storm drainage networks. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of subsurface storm drainage networks on the formation of floods. Factors considered include changes in network topology as described by the drainage width function and the relative importance of improved drainage efficiency relative to imperviousness. The Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), a square-grid (raster) hydrologic model that solves the equations of transport of mass, energy, and momentum, has been modified to include storm drainage capability. This has made it possible to more accurately model the complexity of an urban watershed. The SUPERLINK scheme was chosen to model flow in closed conduits. This method solves the St. Venant equations in one dimension and employs the widely used "Preissmann slot" to extend their applicability to storm sewer flow. The SUPERLINK scheme is significantly different from the Preissmann scheme in that it is able to robustly simulate traditional flows as well as moving shocks. The coupled GSSHA SUPERLINK model will be used to simulate the effect of a subsurface drainage network on an urbanizing catchment.

  14. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  15. Number games, magnitude representation, and basic number skills in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance in all posttest measures and facilitated a shift from a logarithmic to a linear representation of numerical magnitude, emphasizing the importance of spatial cues in estimation. Exposure to the number card games involving nonsymbolic magnitude judgments and association of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities, but without any linear spatial cues, improved some aspects of children's basic number skills but not numerical estimation precision. PMID:18331146

  16. On the macroseismic magnitudes of the largest Italian earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Vittori, T.; Mulargia, F.

    1987-07-01

    The macroseismic magnitudes MT of the largest Italian earthquakes ( I0 ⩾ VIII, MCS) have been computed by using the intensity magnitude relationships recently assessed by the authors (1986) for the Italian region. The Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica (PFG) catalog of the Italian earthquakes, covering the period 1000-1980 (Postpischl, 1985) is the source data base and is reproduced in the Appendix: here the estimated values of MT are given side by side with the catalog macroseismic magnitudes MK i.e. the magnitudes computed according to the Karnik laws (Karnik, 1969). The one-sigma errors Δ MT are also given for each earthquake. The basic aim of the paper is to provide a handy and useful tool to researchers involved in seismicity and seismic-risk studies on Italian territory.

  17. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  18. Magnitude-frequency distribution of volcanic explosion earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masato; Hendrasto, Mohammad; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Yamada, Taishi; Ripepe, Maurizio; Genco, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Magnitude-frequency distributions of volcanic explosion earthquakes that are associated with occurrences of vulcanian and strombolian eruptions, or gas burst activity, are examined at six active volcanoes. The magnitude-frequency distribution at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan, shows a power-law distribution, which implies self-similarity in the system, as is often observed in statistical characteristics of tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. On the other hand, the magnitude-frequency distributions at five other volcanoes, Sakurajima and Tokachi-dake in Japan, Semeru and Lokon in Indonesia, and Stromboli in Italy, are well explained by exponential distributions. The statistical features are considered to reflect source size, as characterized by a volcanic conduit or chamber. Earthquake generation processes associated with vulcanian, strombolian and gas burst events are different from those of eruptions ejecting large amounts of pyroclasts, since the magnitude-frequency distribution of the volcanic explosivity index is generally explained by the power law.

  19. Frequency-Magnitude Relationship of Hydraulic Fracture Microseismicity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, S.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismicity has become a common imaging technique for hydraulic fracture stimulations in the oil and gas industry, offering a wide range of microseismic data sets in different settings. Typically, arrays of 3C sensors are deployed in single monitoring wells presenting processing challenges associated with the limited acquisition geometry. However, the proximity of the sensors to the fracture network results in good sensitivity to detect small magnitude microseisms (down to about moment magnitude -3 in some cases). This sensitivity allows a comparison of the magnitude-frequency relationship between microseisms attributed to hydraulic fracturing with those related to activation of interaction with a pre-existing fault. A case study will be presented showing a clear change in the frequency-magnitude characteristics as the injection interacts with a known fault.

  20. A General Method to Estimate Earthquake Moment and Magnitude using Regional Phase Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2009-11-19

    This paper presents a general method of estimating earthquake magnitude using regional phase amplitudes, called regional M{sub o} or regional M{sub w}. Conceptually, this method uses an earthquake source model along with an attenuation model and geometrical spreading which accounts for the propagation to utilize regional phase amplitudes of any phase and frequency. Amplitudes are corrected to yield a source term from which one can estimate the seismic moment. Moment magnitudes can then be reliably determined with sets of observed phase amplitudes rather than predetermined ones, and afterwards averaged to robustly determine this parameter. We first examine in detail several events to demonstrate the methodology. We then look at various ensembles of phases and frequencies, and compare results to existing regional methods. We find regional M{sub o} to be a stable estimator of earthquake size that has several advantages over other methods. Because of its versatility, it is applicable to many more events, particularly smaller events. We make moment estimates for earthquakes ranging from magnitude 2 to as large as 7. Even with diverse input amplitude sources, we find magnitude estimates to be more robust than typical magnitudes and existing regional methods and might be tuned further to improve upon them. The method yields a more meaningful quantity of seismic moment, which can be recast as M{sub w}. Lastly, it is applied here to the Middle East region using an existing calibration model, but it would be easy to transport to any region with suitable attenuation calibration.

  1. The UBV Color Evolution of Classical Novae. II. Color–Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    We have examined the outburst tracks of 40 novae in the color–magnitude diagram (intrinsic B ‑ V color versus absolute V magnitude). After reaching the optical maximum, each nova generally evolves toward blue from the upper right to the lower left and then turns back toward the right. The 40 tracks are categorized into one of six templates: very fast nova V1500 Cyg fast novae V1668 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, and LV Vul moderately fast nova FH Ser and very slow nova PU Vul. These templates are located from the left (blue) to the right (red) in this order, depending on the envelope mass and nova speed class. A bluer nova has a less massive envelope and faster nova speed class. In novae with multiple peaks, the track of the first decay is more red than that of the second (or third) decay, because a large part of the envelope mass had already been ejected during the first peak. Thus, our newly obtained tracks in the color–magnitude diagram provide useful information to understand the physics of classical novae. We also found that the absolute magnitude at the beginning of the nebular phase is almost similar among various novae. We are able to determine the absolute magnitude (or distance modulus) by fitting the track of a target nova to the same classification of a nova with a known distance. This method for determining nova distance has been applied to some recurrent novae, and their distances have been recalculated.

  2. Direct Magnitude Estimation of Articulation Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Martin, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the perceived articulation rate of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with that of chronologically age-matched (CA) boys and to determine segmental and/or prosodic factors that account for perceived rate. Method: Ten listeners used direct magnitude estimation procedures to judge the articulation rates of 7 boys with FXS only, 5…

  3. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  4. Magnitude knowledge: the common core of numerical development.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    The integrated theory of numerical development posits that a central theme of numerical development from infancy to adulthood is progressive broadening of the types and ranges of numbers whose magnitudes are accurately represented. The process includes four overlapping trends: (1) representing increasingly precisely the magnitudes of non-symbolic numbers, (2) connecting small symbolic numbers to their non-symbolic referents, (3) extending understanding from smaller to larger whole numbers, and (4) accurately representing the magnitudes of rational numbers. The present review identifies substantial commonalities, as well as differences, in these four aspects of numerical development. With both whole and rational numbers, numerical magnitude knowledge is concurrently correlated with, longitudinally predictive of, and causally related to multiple aspects of mathematical understanding, including arithmetic and overall math achievement. Moreover, interventions focused on increasing numerical magnitude knowledge often generalize to other aspects of mathematics. The cognitive processes of association and analogy seem to play especially large roles in this development. Thus, acquisition of numerical magnitude knowledge can be seen as the common core of numerical development. PMID:27074723

  5. High-orbit satellite magnitude estimation using photometric measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shixue

    2015-12-01

    The means to get the accurate high-orbit satellite magnitude can be significant in space target surveillance. This paper proposes a satellite photometric measurement method based on image processing. We calculate the satellite magnitude by comparing the output value of camera's CCD between the known fixed star and the satellite. We calculate the luminance value of a certain object on the acquired image using a background-removing method. According to the observation parameters such as azimuth, elevation, height and the situation of the telescope, we can draw the star map on the image, so we can get the real magnitude of a certain fixed star in the image. We derive a new method to calculate the magnitude value of a certain satellite according to the magnitude of the fixed star in the image. To guarantee the algorithm's stability, we evaluate the measurement precision of the method, and analysis the restrict condition in actual application. We have made plenty of experiment of our system using large telescope in satellite surveillance, and testify the correctness of the algorithm. The experimental result shows that the precision of the proposed algorithm in satellite magnitude measurement is 0.24mv, and this method can be generalized to other relative fields.

  6. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models. PMID:27531031

  7. An analysis of Greek seismicity based on Non Extensive Statistical Physics: The interdependence of magnitude, interevent time and interevent distance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The context of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP) has recently been suggested to comprise an appropriate tool for the analysis of complex dynamic systems with scale invariance, long-range interactions, long-range memory and systems that evolve in a fractal-like space-time. This is because the active tectonic grain is thought to comprise a (self-organizing) complex system; therefore, its expression (seismicity) should be manifested in the temporal and spatial statistics of energy release rates. In addition to energy release rates expressed by the magnitude M, measures of the temporal and spatial interactions are the time (Δt) and hypocentral distance (Δd) between consecutive events. Recent work indicated that if the distributions of M, Δt and Δd are independent so that the joint probability p(M,Δt,Δd) factorizes into the probabilities of M, Δt and Δd, i.e. p(M,Δt,Δd)= p(M)p(Δt)p(Δd), then the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related, not only to magnitude as the celebrated Gutenberg - Richter law predicts, but also to interevent time and distance by means of well-defined power-laws consistent with NESP. The present work applies these concepts to investigate the self-organization and temporal/spatial dynamics of seismicity in Greece and western Turkey, for the period 1964-2011. The analysis was based on the ISC earthquake catalogue which is homogenous by construction with consistently determined hypocenters and magnitude. The presentation focuses on the analysis of bivariate Frequency-Magnitude-Time distributions, while using the interevent distances as spatial constraints (or spatial filters) for studying the spatial dependence of the energy and time dynamics of the seismicity. It is demonstrated that the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related to the magnitude and the interevent time by means of well-defined multi-dimensional power-laws consistent with NESP and has attributes of universality,as its holds for a broad

  8. Order of magnitude reduction of fluoroscopic x-ray dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abhinav; Robert, Normand; Machan, Lindsay; Deutsch, Meir; Kisselgoff, David; Babyn, Paul; Rowlands, John A.

    2012-03-01

    The role of fluoroscopic imaging is critical for diagnostic and image guided therapy. However, fluoroscopic imaging can require significant radiation leading to increased cancer risk and non-stochastic effects such as radiation burns. Our purpose is to reduce the exposure and dose to the patient by an order of magnitude in these procedures by use of the region of interest method. Method and Materials: Region of interest fluoroscopy (ROIF) uses a partial attenuator. The central region of the image has full exposure while the image periphery, there to provide context only, has a reduced exposure rate. ROIF using a static partial attenuator has been shown in our previous studies to reduce the dose area product (DAP) to the patient by at least 2.5 times. Significantly greater reductions in DAP would require improvements in flat panel detectors performance at low x-ray exposures or a different x-ray attenuation strategy. Thus we have investigated a second, dynamic, approach. We have constructed an x-ray shutter system allowing a normal x-ray exposure in the region of interest while reducing the number of x-ray exposures in the periphery through the rapid introduction, positioning and removal of an x-ray attenuating shutter to block radiation only for selected frames. This dynamic approach eliminates the DQE(0) loss associated with the use of static partial attenuator applied to every frame thus permitting a greater reduction in DAP. Results: We have compared the two methods by modeling and determined their fundamental limits.

  9. A precise determination of the triplet energy of C sub 60 by photoacoustic calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, R.R.; Grabowski, J.J. )

    1991-08-08

    The relatively new technique of time-resolved, pulsed-laser photoacoustic calorimetry has been exploited to precisely determine the triplet-state energy of C{sub 60}, the newly discovered spheroidal allotrope of carbon. Excitation at 510 nm, in the long-wavelength absorption band of C{sub 60}, produces C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) with unit efficiency; in the presence of dioxygen, triplet C{sub 60} is readily quenched by energy transfer. Photoacoustic waves were recorded for C{sub 60} in argon-saturated, air-saturated, and partially argon-saturated toluene solutions. Each experimental wave was then fit to a two-component model, the first component of which corresponds to production of C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) and the second of which relates to its decay. The recovered heat-deposition parameters are {phi}{sub 1} = 0.359 {plus minus} 0.005 and {phi}{sub 2} = 0.237 {plus minus} 0.011; these correspond to the fraction of the absorbed photon energy that is released in forming C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) and in the quenching of C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) by dioxygen. Since the quantum yield for intersystem crossing of C{sub 60}, from S{sub 1} to T{sub 1}, is unity, {phi}{sub 1} corresponds to a C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) energy of 36.0 {plus minus} 0.6 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}. Since the energy of C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) is defined by {phi}{sub 1} and the energy of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{Delta}) is known {phi}{sub 2} is used to calculate a singlet oxygen sensitization quantum yield of 1.01 {plus minus} 0.03. The lifetime of C{sub 60}(T{sub 1}) in argon-saturated toluene is found to be > 10 {mu}s, and in air-saturated toluene, to be 290 {plus minus} 40 ns.

  10. Burnup of rhodium SPND in VVER-1000: Method for determination of linear energy release by SPND readings

    SciTech Connect

    Kurchenkov, A. Yu.

    2011-12-15

    A method for determination of linear energy release of a VVER fuel assembly near a rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is described. The dependence of SPND burnup on the charge passing through it is specified.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of the interconversion energy barrier for dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, J; Krupcík, J; Májek, P; Skacáni, I; Jakubík, T; Sandra, P; Armstrong, D W

    2007-05-25

    The enantiomers of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate undergo interconversion during gas chromatographic separation on chiral stationary phases. In this paper the on-column apparent interconversion kinetic and thermodynamic activation data were determined for dimethyl, diethyl, propylbutyl and dibutyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers by gas chromatographic separation of the racemic mixtures on a capillary column containing a polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase coupled to 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tertbutyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin. A deconvolution method was used to determine the individual enantiomer peak areas and retention times that are needed to calculate the interconversion rate constants and the energy barriers. The apparent rate constants and interconversion energy barriers decrease slightly with an increase in the alkyl chain length of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate esters. The optimum conformation of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate molecules, their separation selectivity factors and apparent interconversion enthalpy and entropy data changes with the alkyl chain length. The dependence of the apparent interconversion energy barrier (deltaG(app)(a-->b), deltaG(app)(b-->a)) on temperature was used to determine the apparent activation enthalpy (deltaH(app)(a-->b), deltaH(app)(b-->a)) and apparent entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) (where a denotes the first and b second eluted enantiomer). The comparison of the activation enthalpy and entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) indicated that the interconversion of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series is an entropy driven process at 160 degrees C. Data obtained for dimethyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series at 120 degrees C (deltaG(app)(a-->b) = 123.3 and deltaG(app)(b-->a) = 124.4 kJ mol(-1)) corresponds (at the 95% confidence interval) with the value of deltaG(#) = 128+/-1 kJ mol(-1) found at this

  12. Complete description of ionization energy and electron affinity in organic solids: Determining contributions from electronic polarization, energy band dispersion, and molecular orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuto; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Sato, Naoki

    2015-08-01

    Ionization energy and electron affinity in organic solids are understood in terms of a single molecule perturbed by solid-state effects such as polarization energy, band dispersion, and molecular orientation as primary factors. However, no work has been done to determine the individual contributions experimentally. In this work, the electron affinities of thin films of pentacene and perfluoropentacene with different molecular orientations are determined to a precision of 0.1 eV using low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Based on the precisely determined electron affinities in the solid state together with the corresponding data of the ionization energies and other energy parameters, we quantitatively evaluate the contribution of these effects. It turns out that the bandwidth as well as the polarization energy contributes to the ionization energy and electron affinity in the solid state while the effect of the surface dipole is at most a few eV and does not vary with the molecular orientation. As a result, we conclude that the molecular orientation dependence of the ionization energy and electron affinity of organic solids originates from the orientation-dependent polarization energy in the film.

  13. Theoretical chemistry. Ab initio determination of the crystalline benzene lattice energy to sub-kilojoule/mole accuracy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hu, Weifeng; Usvyat, Denis; Matthews, Devin; Schütz, Martin; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2014-08-01

    Computation of lattice energies to an accuracy sufficient to distinguish polymorphs is a fundamental bottleneck in crystal structure prediction. For the lattice energy of the prototypical benzene crystal, we combined the quantum chemical advances of the last decade to attain sub-kilojoule per mole accuracy, an order-of-magnitude improvement in certainty over prior calculations that necessitates revision of the experimental extrapolation to 0 kelvin. Our computations reveal the nature of binding by improving on previously inaccessible or inaccurate multibody and many-electron contributions and provide revised estimates of the effects of temperature, vibrations, and relaxation. Our demonstration raises prospects for definitive first-principles resolution of competing polymorphs in molecular crystal structure prediction. PMID:25104379

  14. STANDARDIZING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS DATA REGRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Nordin, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel class of models for Type Ia supernova time-evolving spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and absolute magnitudes: they are each modeled as stochastic functions described by Gaussian processes. The values of the SED and absolute magnitudes are defined through well-defined regression prescriptions, so that data directly inform the models. As a proof of concept, we implement a model for synthetic photometry built from the spectrophotometric time series from the Nearby Supernova Factory. Absolute magnitudes at peak B brightness are calibrated to 0.13 mag in the g band and to as low as 0.09 mag in the z = 0.25 blueshifted i band, where the dispersion includes contributions from measurement uncertainties and peculiar velocities. The methodology can be applied to spectrophotometric time series of supernovae that span a range of redshifts to simultaneously standardize supernovae together with fitting cosmological parameters.

  15. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Elst, N.; Page, M. T.; Weiser, D. A.; Goebel, T.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Key questions with implications for seismic hazard and industry practice are how large injection-induced earthquakes can be, and whether their maximum size is smaller than for similarly located tectonic earthquakes. Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. McGarr (JGR 2014) showed that for earthquakes confined to the reservoir and triggered by pore-pressure increase, the maximum moment should be limited to the product of the shear modulus G and total injected volume ΔV. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network, with an absolute maximum magnitude that is notoriously difficult to constrain. A common approach for tectonic earthquakes is to use the magnitude-frequency distribution of smaller earthquakes to forecast the largest earthquake expected in some time period. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) distribution for tectonic earthquakes, with no assumption of an intrinsic upper bound. The GR law implies that the largest observed earthquake in a sample should scale with the log of the total number induced. We find that the maximum magnitudes at most sites are consistent with this scaling, and that maximum magnitude increases with log ΔV. We find little in the size distribution to distinguish induced from tectonic earthquakes. That being said, the probabilistic estimate exceeds the deterministic GΔV cap only for expected magnitudes larger than ~M6, making a definitive test of the models unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, however, it may be prudent to treat the hazard from induced earthquakes with the same probabilistic machinery used for tectonic earthquakes.

  16. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  17. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  18. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  19. A Study to Determine the Need for Development of a Vocational Education Program in Solar Energy Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Orsak, Charles G.

    To determine the need for the development of a vocational education program in solar energy, an advisory committee considered opportunities for solar energy technicians and the need for the development of training programs and curricula and formulated recommendations for a program and curriculum. They concluded that the immediate need for persons…

  20. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of bromate in flour based on energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Argüelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    Determination of bromate ions in contaminated flour samples by using a room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) optosensor is described. The optosensor is based on the non-radiative energy transfer from α-bromonaphthalene (a phosphorescent molecule insensitive to the presence of the analyte) acting as donor, to an energy acceptor bromate-sensitive molecule (trifluoperazine hydrochloride). The RTP emission of the selected donor greatly overlaps with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor, resulting in a decrease of the measured signal as the concentration of bromate ions increases. A simple and general procedure is proposed to carry out the incorporation of both the donor and acceptor molecules in an appropriate solid material (sensing phase) through the co-immobilization of the species in a sol-gel inorganic matrix. The optimum amounts of the sol-gel precursors, including silica precursors, type of catalysis, and concentrations of donor and acceptor molecules, have been evaluated in order to obtain the best analytical features of the proposed optosensor for bromate determination. The highly stable developed sensing phase shows a selective and reversible response towards bromate even in presence of dissolved oxygen (a well-known quencher of the RTP). The calibration graphs were linear up to 200 mg L(-1), with a detection limit for bromate dissolved in aqueous medium of 0.2 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of the proposed optosensor was about 18 measurements h(-1). Application of the developed sensing phase was successfully proved for the detection of bromate ions in commercial flours, obtaining good recoveries. PMID:24148398