Science.gov

Sample records for energy nuclear beams

  1. Low-energy nuclear reaction studies with RI beams in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; Kato, S.

    2003-07-01

    After a brief discussion on the recent development in nuclear astrophysics, two reaction studies of typical astrophysical reactions at low energies where nuclear reactions play the main contributions to the nucleosynthesis in the universe, are discussed. One is the proton capture reaction, 11C(p, γ)12N, studied by the direct method using a 11C beam produced with a new low-energy RIB separator CRIB at CNS, Japan. The second one is the 13C(α, n)16O rearrangement reaction, which is believed to be the main neutron source for the s-process at low temperatures, investigated by an indirect method using the direct α-transfer reaction 13C(6Li, d)17O. Detailed investigations are suggested on the nuclear reactions relevant.

  2. Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure Studies Using Low-energy RI Beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-05-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, Many measurements on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (α,p) reactions, and others were peformed in recent years, mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the 7Be+p and 7Li+α resonance scatterings are presented.

  3. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  4. Nuclear Astrophysical studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kurihara, Y.; Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Niikura, M.; Khiem, L. H.

    2009-05-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo, used for various studies covering nuclear-astrophysical topics. An application of the RI beam at CRIB for the astrophysical studies is a new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on 7Be. The measurement was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, ans the excitation function above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of 7Be(p,γ)8B, which is the key reaction in the solar 8B neutrino production. A preliminary result of the 7Be+p experiment is presented.

  5. Nuclear Astrophysical studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kurihara, Y.; Kubono, S.; Niikura, M.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Khiem, L. H.

    2009-05-04

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo, used for various studies covering nuclear-astrophysical topics. An application of the RI beam at CRIB for the astrophysical studies is a new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be. The measurement was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, ans the excitation function above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. A preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be+p experiment is presented.

  6. The Performance of the Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array GRETINA

    SciTech Connect

    Paschalis, S.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Campbell, C. M.; Cromaz, M.; Gros, S.; Pavin, J.; Qian, J.; Clark, R. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Doering, D.; Fallon, P.; Lionberger, C.; Loew, T.; Petri, M.; Stezelberger, T.; Zimmerman, S.; Radford, David C; Lagergren, Karin B; Weisshaar, D.; Winkler, R.; Glasmacher, T.; Anderson, J. T,; Beausang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-beam Nuclear Array (GRETINA) is a new generation high-resolution -ray spectrometer consisting of electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. GRETINA is capable of reconstructing the energy and position of each -ray interaction point inside the crystal with high resolution. This enables -ray energy tracking which in turn provides an array with large photopeak efficiency, high resolution and good peak-to-total ratio. GRETINA is used for nuclear structure studies with demanding -ray detection requirements and it is suitable for experiments with radioactive-ion beams with high recoil velocities. The GRETINA array has a 1 solid angle coverage and constitutes the first stage towards the full 4 array GRETA. We present in this paper the main parts and the performance of the GRETINA system.

  7. Low energy nuclear reactions with RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Mendes, D. R.; Zamora, J. C.; Morais, M. C.; Condori, R. P.; Benjamim, E. A.; Monteiro, D. S.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion beam in Brasil, is a system based on superconducting solenoids which can produce low energy RNB (Radioactive Nuclear Beams) at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Secondary radioactive beams of light particles such as 6He, 7Be and 8Li have been produced and low energy elastic scattering and transfer reaction experiments have been performed. The recent scientific program using this facility includes elastic scattering and transfer reactions of 6He halo nucleus on 9Be, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn targets and 8Li on 9Be, 12C and 51V targets. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Also spectroscopic factors have been obtained from the transfer reactions.

  8. Nuclear Astrophysics Programs with Low-Energy RI Beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear astrophysics activities with CNS RI beam separator (CRIB) are reported together with the present status of the CRIB facility which is supported by the AVF upgrade project for the total development of the low-energy RIB facility. The activities include direct and indirect measurements of stellar reactions especially relevant to explosive burning processes such as nova and supernovae. Some recent results are discussed together with a scope of the facility.

  9. Nuclear Astrophysics Programs with Low-Energy RI Beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Binh, Dam N.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D. M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Komatsubara, T.; Kato, S.; Khiem, Le H.

    2010-04-30

    Nuclear astrophysics activities with CNS RI beam separator (CRIB) are reported together with the present status of the CRIB facility which is supported by the AVF upgrade project for the total development of the low-energy RIB facility. The activities include direct and indirect measurements of stellar reactions especially relevant to explosive burning processes such as nova and supernovae. Some recent results are discussed together with a scope of the facility.

  10. Correlation measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay using traps and polarized low energy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar

    2013-05-06

    Precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay provide sensitive means to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction and to determine some of the fundamental constants in semi-leptonic decays, like the coupling of the lightest quarks to charged weak bosons. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. In this contribution I will focus on two topics related to precision measurements in nuclear {beta}-decay: i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and ii) the search for exotic scalar or tensor contributions from {beta}{nu} angular correlations. The purpose is to underline the role being played by experimental techniques based on the confinement of radioactive species with atom and ion traps as well as the plans to use low energy polarized beams.

  11. Low energy antiproton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapisch, R.

    1992-04-01

    It was the invention of stochastic cooling by S. Van Meer that has allowed antiproton beams to become a powerful tool for the physicist. As a byproduct of the high energy proton-antiproton collider, a versatile low-energy facility, LEAR has been operating at CERN since 1984. The facility and its characteristics will be described as well as examples of its use for studying fundamental properties of the antiproton and for topics in atomic, nuclear and particle Physics.

  12. Combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy losses in solids irradiated with a dual-ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomé, Lionel; Debelle, Aurélien; Garrido, Frédérico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves; Velisa, Gihan; Miro, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    Single and dual-beam irradiations of oxide (c-ZrO2, MgO, Gd2Ti2O7) and carbide (SiC) single crystals were performed to study combined effects of nuclear (Sn) and electronic (Se) energy losses. Rutherford backscattering experiments in channeling conditions show that the Sn/Se cooperation induces a strong decrease of the irradiation-induced damage in SiC and MgO and almost no effects in c-ZrO2 and Gd2Ti2O7. The healing process is ascribed to electronic excitations arising from the electronic energy loss of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for both fundamental understanding of the ion-solid interactions and technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative Sn/Se effects may lead to the preservation of the integrity of nuclear devices.

  13. Formation of plasmid DNA strand breaks induced by low-energy ion beam: indication of nuclear stopping effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Jiang, B; Chen, Y; Ding, X; Liu, X; Chen, C; Guo, X; Yin, G

    1998-07-01

    Plasmid pGEM 3zf(+) was irradiated by nitrogen ion beam with energies between 20 and 100 keV and the fluence kept as 1x10(12)ions/cm2. The irradiated plasmid was assayed by neutral electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The yields of DNA with single-strand and double-strand breaks first increased then decreased with increasing ion energy. There was a maximal yield value in the range of 20-100 keV. The relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) cross-section and linear energy transfer (LET) also showed a peak-shaped distribution. To understand the physical process during DNA strand breaks, a Monte Carlo calculation code known as TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) was used to simulate energy losses due to nuclear stopping and to electronic stopping. It can be assumed that nuclear stopping plays a more important role in DNA strand breaks than electronic stopping in this energy range. The physical mechanisms of DNA strand breaks induced by a low-energy ion beam are also discussed. PMID:9728742

  14. Nuclear astrophysics with intense photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki

    2012-07-09

    Quasi-monochromatic photon beams generated by inverse Compton scattering of laser light with high energy electrons can be used for precise measurements of photoneutrons and resonant scattered {gamma} rays. Extremely high intensity and small energy spreading width of the photon beam expected at the ELI Nuclear Physics facility would increase the experimental sensitivities considerably. Possible photonuclear reaction measurements relevant to the p-process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  15. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  16. Combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy losses in solids irradiated with a dual-ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, Lionel; Debelle, Aurelien; Garrido, Frederico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves; Miro, Sandrine

    2013-04-08

    Single and dual-beam irradiations of oxide (c-ZrO{sub 2}, MgO, Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and carbide (SiC) single crystals were performed to study combined effects of nuclear (S{sub n}) and electronic (S{sub e}) energy losses. Rutherford backscattering experiments in channeling conditions show that the S{sub n}/S{sub e} cooperation induces a strong decrease of the irradiation-induced damage in SiC and MgO and almost no effects in c-ZrO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The healing process is ascribed to electronic excitations arising from the electronic energy loss of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for both fundamental understanding of the ion-solid interactions and technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative S{sub n}/S{sub e} effects may lead to the preservation of the integrity of nuclear devices.

  17. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened. PMID:20873683

  18. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  19. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  20. Recovery effects due to the interaction between nuclear and electronic energy losses in SiC irradiated with a dual-ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomé, Lionel; Velisa, Gihan; Miro, Sandrine; Debelle, Aurélien; Garrido, Frédérico; Sattonnay, Gaël; Mylonas, Stamatis; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Single and dual-beam ion irradiations of silicon carbide (SiC) were performed to study possible Synergetic effects between Nuclear (Sn) and Electronic (Se) Energy Losses. Results obtained combining Rutherford backscattering in channeling conditions, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques show that dual-beam irradiation of SiC induces a dramatic change in the final sample microstructure with a substantial decrease of radiation damage as compared to single-beam irradiation. Actually, a defective layer containing dislocations is formed upon dual-beam irradiation (Sn&Se), whereas single low-energy irradiation (Sn alone) or even sequential (Sn + Se) irradiations lead to full amorphization. The healing process is ascribed to the electronic excitation arising from the electronic energy loss of swift ions. These results shed new light on the long-standing puzzling problem of the existence of a possible synergy between Sn and Se in ion-irradiation experiments. This work is interesting for both fundamental understanding of the ion-solid interactions and technological applications in the nuclear industry where recovery Sn/Se effects may preserve the integrity of nuclear devices.

  1. Nuclear Science and Applications with the Next Generation of High-Power Lasers and Brilliant Low-Energy Gamma Beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; ELI-NP Team

    2015-10-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular High Energy, Nuclear and Astrophysics as well as societal applications in Material Science, Nuclear Energy and Medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW class lasers and a Back Compton Scattering High Brilliance and Intense Low Energy Gamma Beam, a marriage of Laser and Accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical and scientific status of the project as well as the applications of the gamma source will be discussed.

  2. CRYSTALLINE BEAMS AT HIGH ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; OKAMOTO, H.; YURI, Y.; SESSLER, A.; MACHIDA, S.

    2006-06-23

    Previously it was shown that by crystallizing each of the two counter-circulating beams, a much larger beam-beam tune shift can be tolerated during the beam-beam collisions; thus a higher luminosity can be reached for colliding beams [1]. On the other hand, crystalline beams can only be formed at energies below the transition energy ({gamma}{sub T}) of the accelerators [2]. In this paper, we investigate the formation of crystals in a high-{gamma}{sub T} lattice that also satisfies the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam [3].

  3. Low-energy RI beam technology and nuclear clusters in the explosive pp-chain breakout process

    SciTech Connect

    Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D. M.; Ohshiro, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamazaki, N.; Teranishi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kase, M.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Hashimoto, T.; Fukuda, Y.; He, J. J.; Goto, A.; Muto, H.

    2014-05-09

    The lecture includes two parts: One is a discussion on the technology for developing RIB beam facility based on the in-flight method and relevant experimental technology. The second part is a discussion on experimental efforts for studying the breakout process from the pp-chain region based on recent works with low energy RI beams. The discussion of the second part specifically covers the problem of the vp-process in type II supernovae in terms of alpha cluster nature for the reactions.

  4. Advanced charged particle beam ignited nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-06-01

    It is shown that the mass of the driver for nuclear microexplosion—Orion type—pulse propulsion can be substantially reduced with a special fusion-fast fission configuration, which permits to replace an inefficient laser beam driver with a much more efficient and less massive relativistic electron beam (or light ion beam) driver. The driver mass can be further reduced, and the propulsion efficiency increased, by surrounding the nuclear microexplosion assembly with a shell of conventional hydrogen-rich explosive, helping to ignite the nuclear reaction and dissipating the otherwise lost kinetic neutron energy in the shell which becomes part of the propellant.

  5. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments. PMID:21180342

  6. Inspection applications with higher electron beam energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, D. R.; Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Haskell, K. J.; Sterbentz, J. W.; Zabriskie, J. M.; Hunt, A. W.; Harmon, F.; Kinlaw, M. T.

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has developed prototype shielded nuclear material detection systems based on pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) techniques for the inspection of cargo containers. During this work, increased nuclear material detection capabilities have been demonstrated at higher electron beam energies than those allowed by federal regulations for cargo inspection. This paper gives a general overview of a nuclear material detection system, the PPA technique and discusses the benefits of using these higher energies. This paper also includes a summary of the numerical and test results from LINAC operations up to 24 MeV and discusses some of the federal energy limitations associated with cargo inspection.

  7. Nuclear Science and Applications with the Next Generation of High-Power Lasers and Brilliant Low-Energy Gamma Beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2015-11-01

    The development of high-power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular high-energy nuclear physics and astrophysics, as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10-PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  8. Radioactive nuclear beams of COMBAS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artukh, A. G.; Klygin, S. A.; Kononenko, G. A.; Kyslukha, D. A.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Mikhailova, T. I.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sereda, Yu. M.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Erdemchimeg, B.

    2016-01-01

    The basic ion-optical characteristics of the luminosity and the high-resolution of kinematic separator COMBAS realized for the first time on the strong focusing principle are presented. The developed facility allows to separate the high-intensity secondary radioactive beams in a wide range of mass numbers A and atomic numbers Z which are produced in heavy ion reactions in the energy range of 20 ≤ E ≤ 100 MeV/A (Fermi energy domain). Two distinct detector systems such as realized Si strip detector telescope and the promising development of the three dimension time-projection chamber are discussed. Program of the investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies of 20-100 MeV/A, measurement of the radii of unstable nuclei, study of the cluster structure of light nuclei near the nuclear drip-line and search of 26,28O resonances in exchange reactions is proposed. The upgrading of experimental facility by the integration of COMBAS separator with the Ion Catcher is discussed.

  9. Nuclear Science and Applications with the Next Generation of High-Power Lasers and Brilliant Low-Energy Gamma Beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular Particle and Nuclear Physics, Astrophysics as well as societal applications in Material Science, Nuclear Energy and Medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected a proposal based on these new premises called "ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  10. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013γ/s) due to special operation mode.

  11. Energy Focusability of Annular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astadjov, Dimo N.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation of coherent annular flat two-level beams by two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform is presented. After parameterization of the source beam (the `input') we examined the influence of its parameters on the shape and proportions of the output beam profile. The output pattern has a prominent central peak and faint rings concentrically surrounding it. The fraction of the central peak energy to the whole energy of beam, PF0 gives a notion of energy spread within the focal spot: PF0 is a function of beam annularity, k (i.e. `inside diameter/outside diameter' ratio) and the intensity dip, Idip of annulus central area (i.e. ring intensity minus central-bottom intensity, normalized). Up to k = 0.8 and Idip = 0.75, PF0 does not change too much—it is ⩾0.7 which is ⩾90% of PF0 maximum (0.778 at k = 0 and Idip = 0). Simulations revealed that even great changes in the shape of input beam annulus lead to small variations in the energy spread of output beam profile in the range of practical use of coherent annular beams.

  12. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. PMID:25813003

  13. Nuclear Physics with 10 PW laser beams at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.

    2014-05-01

    The field of the uncharted territory of high-intensity laser interaction with matter is confronted with new exotic phenomena and, consequently, opens new research perspectives. The intense laser beams interacting with a gas or solid target generate beams of electrons, protons and ions. These beams can induce nuclear reactions. Electrons also generate ions high-energy photons via bremsstrahlung processes which can also induce nuclear reactions. In this context a new research domain began to form in the last decade or so, namely nuclear physics with high power lasers. The observation of high brilliance proton beams of tens of MeV energy from solid targets has stimulated an intense research activity. The laser-driven particle beams have to compete with conventional nuclear accelerator-generated beams. The ultimate goal is aiming at applications of the laser produced beams in research, technology and medicine. The mechanism responsible for ion acceleration are currently subject of intensive research in many laboratories in the world. The existing results, experimental and theoretical, and their perspectives are reviewed in this article in the context of IZEST and the scientific program of ELI-NP.

  14. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  15. Intense low energy positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

  16. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  17. Nuclear structure studies with gamma-ray beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tonchev, Anton; Bhatia, Chitra; Kelley, John; Raut, Rajarshi; Rusev, Gencho; Tornow, Werner; Tsoneva, Nadia

    2015-05-28

    In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies below the neutron-separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in contrast to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the PDR is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in closed-shell nuclei using monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams are presented.

  18. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, {gamma}) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented.

  19. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  20. Excitation functions of (nat)Zn(p,x) nuclear reactions with proton beam energy below 18 MeV.

    PubMed

    Asad, Ali H; Chan, Sun; Morandeau, Laurence; Cryer, David; Smith, Suzanne V; Price, Roger I

    2014-12-01

    We measured the excitation functions of (nat)Zn (p,x) reactions up to 17.6MeV, using the stacked-foils activation technique. High-purity natural zinc (and copper) foils were irradiated with proton beams generated by an 18MeV isochronous cyclotron. Activated foils were measured using high-purity Ge gamma spectroscopy to quantify the radionuclides (61)Cu, (66)Ga, (67)Ga, and (65)Zn produced from the reactions. Thick-target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. These results were compared with the published literature and were found to be in good agreement with most reports, particularly those most recently compiled. PMID:25108597

  1. A Transport Model for Nuclear Reactions Induced by Radioactive Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Das, Champak B.; Das Gupta, Subal; Gale, Charles; Ko, C.M.; Yong, G.-C.; Zuo Wei

    2005-10-14

    Major ingredients of an isospin and momentum dependent transport model for nuclear reactions induced by radioactive beams are outlined. Within the IBUU04 version of this model we study several experimental probes of the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Comparing with the recent experimental data from NSCL/MSU on isospin diffusion, we found a nuclear symmetry energy of Esym({rho}) {approx_equal} 31.6({rho}/{rho}0)1.05 at subnormal densities. Predictions on several observables sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at supranormal densities accessible at GSI and the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) are also made.

  2. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  3. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  4. Nuclear Energy's Renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear energy is about to enter its renaissance. After almost 30 years of new plant construction dormancy, utilities are seriously preparing for ordering new plants in the next two years. This resurgence in interest is based on improved plant performance, new Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing processes, significant incentives introduced by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to encourage new orders, and new technologies that are competitive, simpler to operate and safer. These new evolutionary light water reactors will pave the way to more advanced high temperature gas reactors such as the pebble bed or prismatic reactors that will provide improved efficiency and safety leading to more process heat applications in oil extraction or hydrogen production. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) also authorized by the Energy Policy act will provide the fundamental technical basis for the future of these technologies. Progress continues on the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste disposal site enabling this expansion. When coupled with the long term strategy of waste minimization through reprocessing and actinide destruction as proposed in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, the future of nuclear energy as part of this nation's energy mix appears to be assured.

  5. Future developments of INFN-LNL nuclear beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoffi, G.

    2007-11-01

    The accelerator group at INFN-LNL has been mostly engaged, recently, in completing and commissioning the higher current injector of the linac booster ALPI (named PIAVE) and in constructing and assembling the front-end part of a high current driver linac for the RNB facility SPES. PIAVE, designed to accelerate ions with A/Q = < 8.5 up to 1.2 MeV/u, is now completed. The injector has been commissioned with O, Ar, Ne and Xe beams. Neon and argon beams have been delivered to experiments for a total of about 400 hours. A consolidation program of PIAVE and ALPI is planned, so as to deliver a larger variety of beams with a current range 10 div 100 pnA and with an energy exceeding the Coulomb barrier in relevant nuclear reaction cases. The RNB facility SPES, allowing a frontier program in RNB physics, is being designed and prototyped: beams of neutron rich medium-to-heavy mass nuclei will be produced inducing 238U fission with a 40 MeV 200μA proton beam impinging onto a multi-slice direct target. A further development of ALPI will make it best suitable for the re-acceleration of radioactive nuclear species, after charge breeding and isotope selection.

  6. Nuclear Data for Proton Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Carlson, B. V.

    2009-06-03

    The need for a program of work focused on the nuclear data evaluation of charged-particle reactions has arisen recently due to their increasing use in cancer therapy. This project, as part of that program, has as its main goal the selection and comparison of nuclear data for nuclear reactions induced by protons at low to intermediate energies (E<250 MeV). The methodology of selection was based on the data base EXFOR and the compilations of radionuclide production cross sections of N. Sobolevsky. For the purpose of comparison and evaluation, theoretical calculations with the reaction model code EMPIRE-II are being used.

  7. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

    SciTech Connect

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Evans, J. A.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  8. STAR results on strangeness production in beam energy scan program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    We present the recent STAR results on the production of strange hadrons (K0s, ϕ, Λ, Ξ and Ω) in √sNN= 7.7 — 39 GeV Au+Au collisions in the RHIC beam energy scan program. We investigate the strangeness enhancement and strangeness equilibration as a function of beam energy and system size at RHIC. Nuclear modification factors and particle ratios will be highlighted. Implications on partonic vs. hadronic dynamics as a function of the beam energy will be discussed.

  9. Isobar separator for radioactive nuclear beams project

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    In order to produce pure beams of radioactive products emanating from the production target/ion source system, both mass and isobar separation is required. A preliminary mass separation with a resolution {triangle}M/M of approximately 10{sup -3} will select the proper mass beam. An isobar separator is needed because the masses of adjacent isobars are usually quite close, especially for beams near stability. In general, a mass resolution of 5 x 10{sup -5} is needed for isobar separation in the A < 120 region, while a resolution of 3 x 10{sup -5} or better is needed for heavier masses. Magnets are used to obtain mass separation. However, in addition to having mass dispersion properties, magnets also have an equal energy dispersion. This means that an energy variation in the beam cannot be distinguished from a mass difference. This is important because ions emerge from the ion source having a small ({approximately} 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -4}) energy spread. In order to make the system respond only to mass differences, it must be made energy dispersion. This is normally accomplished by using a combination of electric and magnetic fields. The most convenient way of doing this is to use an electric deflection following the magnet separator. A preliminary isobar separator which achieves a mass resolution of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} is shown in Figure I-38. It uses two large 60{degrees} bending magnets to obtain a mass dispersion of 140 mm/%, and four electric dipoles with bending angles of 39{degrees} to cancel the energy dispersion. Sextupole and octupole correction elements are used to reduce the geometrical aberrations.

  10. Nuclear photofission studies with monochromatic γ ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csige, L.; Gulyás, J.; Habs, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2012-07-01

    Two new research facilities will be ready for operation very soon (MEGa-Ray at Liver-more National Laboratory) or start construction (ELI-Nuclear Physics in Bucharest), both providing highly brilliant γ beams with so far unprecedented properties via Compton backscattering of laser photons from a high-quality, relativistic electron beam. With these intense, monochromatic γ beams, a new era of photonuclear physics will be enabled. A new research campaign is proposed to exploit the unprecedented properties of these highly-brilliant, novel γ beams on highly-selective studies of extremely deformed nuclei in the multiple-humped potential energy landscape of the actinides via photofission. With the unique γ beam bandwidth of ΔE/E = 10-3, we can aim at resolving individual resonances which could never be achieved so far due to the limited γ bandwidth of bremsstrahlung beams. Exploratory, non-bremsstrahlung photofission experiments are going to be performed very soon at the HIγS facility (Duke University, USA) to investigate the fine structure of the sub-barrier transmission resonances of the actinides.

  11. Nuclear photofission studies with monochromatic {gamma} ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Habs, D.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2012-07-09

    Two new research facilities will be ready for operation very soon (MEGa-Ray at Liver-more National Laboratory) or start construction (ELI-Nuclear Physics in Bucharest), both providing highly brilliant {gamma} beams with so far unprecedented properties via Compton backscattering of laser photons from a high-quality, relativistic electron beam. With these intense, monochromatic {gamma} beams, a new era of photonuclear physics will be enabled. A new research campaign is proposed to exploit the unprecedented properties of these highly-brilliant, novel {gamma} beams on highly-selective studies of extremely deformed nuclei in the multiple-humped potential energy landscape of the actinides via photofission. With the unique {gamma} beam bandwidth of {Delta}E/E = 10{sup -3}, we can aim at resolving individual resonances which could never be achieved so far due to the limited {gamma} bandwidth of bremsstrahlung beams. Exploratory, non-bremsstrahlung photofission experiments are going to be performed very soon at the HI{gamma}S facility (Duke University, USA) to investigate the fine structure of the sub-barrier transmission resonances of the actinides.

  12. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  13. Do twisted laser beams evoke nuclear hyperpolarization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A. B.; Andrews, D. L.; Rohrbach, A.; Gohn-Kreuz, C.; Shatokhin, V. N.; Kiselev, V. G.; Hennig, J.; von Elverfeldt, D.; Hövener, J.-B.

    2016-07-01

    The hyperpolarization of nuclear spins promises great advances in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis by substantially increasing the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Current methods to produce a hyperpolarized sample, however, are arduous, time-consuming or costly and require elaborate equipment. Recently, a much simpler approach was introduced that holds the potential, if harnessed appropriately, to revolutionize the production of hyperpolarized spins. It was reported that high levels of hyperpolarization in nuclear spins can be created by irradiation with a laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (twisted light). Aside from these initial reports however, no further experimental verification has been presented. In addition, this effect has so far evaded a critical theoretical examination. In this contribution, we present the first independent attempt to reproduce the effect. We exposed a sample of immersion oil or a fluorocarbon liquid that was placed within a low-field NMR spectrometer to Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel laser beams at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and various topological charges. We acquired 1H and 19F NMR free induction decay data, either during or alternating with the irradiation that was parallel to B0. We observed an irregular increase in NMR signal in experiments where the sample was exposed to beams with higher values of the topological charge. However, at no time did the effect reach statistical significance of 95%. Given the measured sensitivity of our setup, we estimate that a possible effect did not exceed a hyperpolarization (at 5 mT) of 0.14-6%, depending on the assumed hyperpolarized volume. It should be noted though, that there were some differences between our setup and the previous implementation of the experiment, which may have inhibited the full incidence of this effect. To approach a theoretical description of this effect, we considered the interaction of an electron with a plane wave, which is known to be

  14. Do twisted laser beams evoke nuclear hyperpolarization?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A B; Andrews, D L; Rohrbach, A; Gohn-Kreuz, C; Shatokhin, V N; Kiselev, V G; Hennig, J; von Elverfeldt, D; Hövener, J-B

    2016-07-01

    The hyperpolarization of nuclear spins promises great advances in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis by substantially increasing the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Current methods to produce a hyperpolarized sample, however, are arduous, time-consuming or costly and require elaborate equipment. Recently, a much simpler approach was introduced that holds the potential, if harnessed appropriately, to revolutionize the production of hyperpolarized spins. It was reported that high levels of hyperpolarization in nuclear spins can be created by irradiation with a laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (twisted light). Aside from these initial reports however, no further experimental verification has been presented. In addition, this effect has so far evaded a critical theoretical examination. In this contribution, we present the first independent attempt to reproduce the effect. We exposed a sample of immersion oil or a fluorocarbon liquid that was placed within a low-field NMR spectrometer to Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel laser beams at a wavelength of 514.5nm and various topological charges. We acquired (1)H and (19)F NMR free induction decay data, either during or alternating with the irradiation that was parallel to B0. We observed an irregular increase in NMR signal in experiments where the sample was exposed to beams with higher values of the topological charge. However, at no time did the effect reach statistical significance of 95%. Given the measured sensitivity of our setup, we estimate that a possible effect did not exceed a hyperpolarization (at 5mT) of 0.14-6%, depending on the assumed hyperpolarized volume. It should be noted though, that there were some differences between our setup and the previous implementation of the experiment, which may have inhibited the full incidence of this effect. To approach a theoretical description of this effect, we considered the interaction of an electron with a plane wave, which is known to be

  15. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  16. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Driven by Incoherent Laser Beams with Frequency Detuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, A.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the direct-drive method of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the coupling of laser energy to target plasmas is strongly influenced by the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) between multiple driving laser beams. The laser -plasma interaction (LPI) model of CBET is based on the nonparaxial laser light propagation coupled with the low-frequency ion-acoustic-domain plasma response. Common ion waves driven by multiple laser beams play a very important role in CBET. The effect of the frequency detuning (colors) in the driving laser beams is studied and it is shown to significantly reduce the level of common ion waves and therefore the level of CBET. The differences between the LPI-based CBET model and the ray-based CBET model used in hydrocodes are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. High energy polarized beams from hyperon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of various ways to utilize lambda decays to obtain polarized beams of protons and antiprotons is emphasized. Examples described are the Fermilab polarized beam, now under construction, and the use of similar techniques at other energies. Beam transport, spin precession and reversal systems, and polarimeters are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  20. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  1. Unifying Theory of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterated/hydrogenated Metals, Acoustic Cavitation, Glow Discharge, and Deuteron Beam Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale and micro-scale quantum plasmas. It is shown that recently developed theoretical models based on Bose-Einstein Fusion (BEF) mechanism and Quantum Plasma Nuclear Fusion (QPNF) mechanism are applicable to the results of many different types of LENR and LETR experiments.

  2. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-06

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  3. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  4. Monochromatic neutron beam production at Brazilian nuclear research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiulevicius, Roberto; Rodrigues, Claudio; Parente, Carlos B. R.; Voi, Dante L.; Rogers, John D.

    2000-12-01

    Monochomatic beams of neutrons are obtained form a nuclear reactor polychromatic beam by the diffraction process, suing a single crystal energy selector. In Brazil, two nuclear research reactors, the swimming pool model IEA-R1 and the Argonaut type IEN-R1 have been used to carry out measurements with this technique. Neutron spectra have been measured using crystal spectrometers installed on the main beam lines of each reactor. The performance of conventional- artificial and natural selected crystals has been verified by the multipurpose neutron diffractometers installed at IEA-R1 and simple crystal spectrometer in operator at IEN- R1. A practical figure of merit formula was introduced to evaluate the performance and relative reflectivity of the selected planes of a single crystal. The total of 16 natural crystals were selected for use in the neutron monochromator, including a total of 24 families of planes. Twelve of these natural crystal types and respective best family of planes were measured directly with the multipurpose neutron diffractometers. The neutron spectrometer installed at IEN- R1 was used to confirm test results of the better specimens. The usually conventional-artificial crystal spacing distance range is limited to 3.4 angstrom. The interplane distance range has now been increased to approximately 10 angstrom by use of naturally occurring crystals. The neutron diffraction technique with conventional and natural crystals for energy selection and filtering can be utilized to obtain monochromatic sub and thermal neutrons with energies in the range of 0.001 to 10 eV. The thermal neutron is considered a good tool or probe for general applications in various fields, such as condensed matter, chemistry, biology, industrial applications and others.

  5. Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1999-02-09

    A particle accelerator generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer and a neutron filter are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired. 18 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris; Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael

    1999-02-09

    A particle accelerator (12) generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target (14) is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target (14) produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer (44) and a neutron filter (42) are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired.

  7. Applications Using High Flux LCS gamma-ray Beams: Nuclear Security and Contributions to Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear nonproliferation and security are an important issue for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Many countries now collaborate together for preventing serious accidents from nuclear terrorism. Detection of hidden long-lived radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides in a non-destructive manner is useful for nuclear safeguards and management of nuclear wastes as well as nuclear security. After introducing the present situation concerning the nuclear nonproliferation and security in Japan, we plan to show the present activities of JAEA to detect the hidden nuclear materials by means of the nuclear resonance fluorescence with energy-tunable, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) with an electron beam. The energy recovery linac (ERL) machine is now under development with the KEK-JAEA collaboration for realizing the new generation of gamma-ray sources. The detection technologies of nuclear materials are currently developed using the existing electron beam facilities at Duke University and at NewSubaru. These developments in Japan will contribute to the nuclear security program in Japan and to the assay of melted nuclear fuels in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

  8. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR

    SciTech Connect

    Brugger, R.M.; Herleth, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deli1ver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, ideal beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  9. High-spin nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Baktash, C.

    1992-12-31

    Two important developments in the sixties, namely the advent of heavy-ion accelerators and fabrication of Ge detectors, opened the way for the experimental studies of nuclear properties at high angular momentum. Addition of a new degree of freedom, namely spin, made it possible to observe such fascinating phenomena as occurrences and coexistence of a variety of novel shapes, rise, fall and occasionally rebirth of nuclear collectivity, and disappearance of pairing correlations. Today, with the promise of development of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and construction of the third-generation Ge-detection systems (GAMMASPHERE and EUROBALL), the authors are poised to explore new and equally fascinating phenomena that have been hitherto inaccessible. With the addition of yet another dimension, namely the isospin, they will be able to observe and verify predictions for exotic shapes as varied as rigid triaxiality, hyperdeformation and triaxial octupole shapes, or to investigate the T = 0 pairing correlations. In this paper, they shall review, separately for neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei, these and a few other new high-spin physics opportunities that may be realized with RIB. Following this discussion, they shall present a list of the beam species, intensities and energies that are needed to fulfill these goals. The paper will conclude with a description of the experimental techniques and instrumentations that are required for these studies.

  10. Nuclear Dissipation via Peripheral Collisions with Relativistic Radioactive Actinides Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, C.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.-H.

    2007-05-22

    Peripheral collisions with radioactive actinide beams at relativistic energies are proposed as a relevant approach for the study of dissipation in nuclear matter. The characteristics of the systems resulting from the primary fragmentation of such beams are particularly well suited for probing the controversial existence of a sizeable delay in fission. Thanks to the radioactive beam facility at GSI an unusually large set of data involving about 60 secondary unstable projectiles between At and U has been collected under identical conditions. The properties of the set-up enabled the coincident measurement of the atomic number of both fission fragments, permitting a judicious classification of the data. The width of the fission-fragment charge distribution is shown to establish a thermometer at the saddle point which is directly related to the transient delay caused by the friction force. From a comparison with realistic model calculations, the dissipation strength at small deformation and the transient time are inferred. The present strategy is promoted as a complementary approach that avoids some complex problems inherent to conventional techniques. Combined to the paramount size of the data set, it sheds light on contradictory conclusions that have been published in the past. There is at this point no definite consensus on our understanding of the damping process in fission.

  11. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  12. Nuclear clusters studied with alpha resonant scatterings using RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kubono, S.; Suhara, T.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Moon, J. Y.; Kim, A.; Iwasa, N.; Lee, P. S.; Chae, K. Y.; Cha, S. M.; Gwak, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Milman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpha resonant scattering is a simple and promising method to study α-cluster structure in nuclei. It has several good features which enable us to perform measurements with short-lived and relatively low-intense RI beams. Several measurements on alpha resonant scattering have been carried out at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Recent α resonant scattering studies at CRIB, using 7Li, 7Be and 10Be beams with a helium gas target, are discussed.

  13. Effective Electron Beam Injection With Broad Energy Initial Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.H.; Hubbard, R.F.; Gordon, D.F.; Ting, A.; Sprangle, P.; Zigler, A.

    2004-12-07

    Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), in the resonant regime, require use of an injected electron beam. Several optical methods for generating electron bunches exist e.g., Laser Ionization and Ponderomotive Acceleration (LIPA) and Self-Modulated LWFA among others. Each of these schemes produces an electron bunch with a characteristic energy distribution. We examine the trapping characteristics in a resonant LWFA for an injection electron beam with a broad energy spread that can be characterized using a Boltzmann distribution with an 'effective temperature'. We present results of both analytic calculations and simulations which provide a methodology for optimizing the resulting accelerated electron bunch characteristics i.e., energy and energy spread, for a given LWFA configuration.

  14. Low energy beam transport system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  15. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Coutrakon, G. B.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Shahnazi, K.; Koss, P.; Sanders, E.

    2007-06-15

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of {+-}0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of {+-}0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  16. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  17. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Kortelainen, Erno M; Lesinski, Thomas; More, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sarich, J.; Schunck, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.; Wild, S.

    2010-01-01

    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  18. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Driven by Incoherent Laser Beams with Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, A. V.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become one of the most important challenges for the effective coupling of laser energy to the target in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (see, e.g., Ref. 1). CBET is based on the process of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) driven by multiple crossing laser beams in the regime of moderate SBS amplification gains, and is consequently sensitive to the frequency characteristics of the laser beams driving the ICF targets: smoothing by spectral dispersion or frequency shifts between the beams (colors). Different from reduced ray-type models used in large-scale hydrodynamic simulations with CBET, we have developed a laser-plasma interaction (LPI)-type model of CBET that is capable of capturing the effects of laser speckles and the non-paraxial propagation of multiple laser beams. The LPI-type CBET model has been applied to the interaction between incoherent laser beams with different colors and the differences from the ray-type CBET model have been shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Straight low energy beam transport for intense uranium beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C.; Groening, L.; Vormann, H.; Mickat, S.; Hollinger, R.; Adonin, A.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Maier, M.; Al-Omari, H.; Barth, W.; Kester, O. K.; Yaramyshev, S.

    2015-07-01

    A new high current uranium ion source and dedicated Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) will be built at the GSI High Current Injector (HSI). This LEBT will be integrated into the existing complex which already comprises two branches. The paper presents the design and dynamics simulation using the TRACE-3D and TRACK code. The simulation results illustrate that this straight LEBT can transport uranium beams over a wide range of space-charge compensation, and can provide 15.4 (14.2) mA U4+ inside of the effective acceptance of the subsequent RFQ assuming the space-charge is compensated to 100% (95%).

  20. 76 FR 78252 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of... Management Secretariat, General Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the Nuclear...

  1. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  2. Fundamentals of high energy electron beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turman, B. N.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Neau, E. L.

    High energy electron beam accelerator technology has been developed over the past three decades in response to military and energy-related requirements for weapons simulators, directed-energy weapons, and inertially-confined fusion. These applications required high instantaneous power, large beam energy, high accelerated particle energy, and high current. These accelerators are generally referred to as 'pulsed power' devices, and are typified by accelerating potential of millions of volts (MV), beam current in thousands of amperes (KA), pulse duration of tens to hundreds of nanoseconds, kilojoules of beam energy, and instantaneous power of gigawatts to teffawatts (10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) watts). Much of the early development work was directed toward single pulse machines, but recent work has extended these pulsed power devices to continuously repetitive applications. These relativistic beams penetrate deeply into materials, with stopping range on the order of a centimeter. Such high instantaneous power deposited in depth offers possibilities for new material fabrication and processing capabilities that can only now be explored. Fundamental techniques of pulse compression, high voltage requirements, beam generation and transport under space-charge-dominated conditions will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-06-15

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to {+-}21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than {+-}3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  4. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Wen C; Moyers, Michael F; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E; Farr, Jonathan B; Mascia, Anthony E; Schreuder, Andries N

    2009-06-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to +/-21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than +/-3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies. PMID:19610318

  5. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  6. Social Institutions and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear technologists can offer an all but infinite source of relatively cheap and clean energy" but society must decide whether the price of eternal vigilance needed to ensure proper and safe operation of its nuclear energy system" is worth the benefits. (Author/AL)

  7. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotti, M. E.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  8. High energy laser beam dump

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, John

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  9. NESST: A nuclear energy safety and security treaty-Separating nuclear energy from nuclear weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Fission and Fusion energy is matched by the need to completely separate civilian energy programmes from the production of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT, 1968) muddles these issues together. The case is presented here for making a new Nuclear Energy Security Treaty (NESST) which is rigorous, enforceable without violence, and separate from the political quagmire of nuclear weapons.

  10. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ˜ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  11. Theoretical aspects of science with radioactive nuclear beams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-09-01

    Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for 'normal' nuclei from the neighbourhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.

  12. RHIC low energy beam loss projections

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata,T.

    2009-08-01

    For RHIC low-energy operations, we plan to collide Au beams with energies of E = 2:5-10 GeV/u in RHIC. Beams are injected into collision optics, and RHIC runs as a storage ring with no acceleration. At these low energies, observed beam lifetimes are minutes, with measured beam lifetimes of 3.5 min (fast) and 50 min (slow) at E=4.6 GeV/u in the March 2008 test run. With these lifetimes we can operate RHIC as a storage ring to produce reasonable integrated luminosity. This note estimates beam losses and collimator/dump energy deposition in normal injection modes of low energy operation. The main question is whether a normal injection run is feasible for an FY10 10-15 week operations run from a radiation safety perspective. A peripheral question is whether continuous injection operations is feasible from a radiation safety perspective. In continuous injection mode, we fill both rings, then continuously extract and reinject the oldest bunches that have suffered the most beam loss to increase the overall integrated luminosity. We expect to gain a factor of 2-3 in integrated luminosity from continuous injection at lowest energies if implemented[1]. Continuous injection is feasible by FY11 from an engineering perspective given enough effort, but the required extra safety controls and hardware dose risk make it unappealing for the projected luminosity improvement. Low-energy electron cooling will reduce beam losses by at least an order of magnitude vs normal low-energy operations, but low energy cooling is only feasible in the FY13 timescale and therefore beyond the scope of this note. For normal injection low energy estimates we assume the following: (1) RHIC beam total energies are E=2.5-10 GeV/u. (Continuous injection mode is probably unnecessary above total energies of E=7-8 GeV/u.); (2) RHIC operates only as a storage ring, with no acceleration; (3) 110 bunches of about 0.5-1.0 x 10{sup 9} initial bunch intensities (50-100% injection efficiency, likely conservative

  13. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M.; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  14. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  15. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  16. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  17. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Den Durpel, Luc Van

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims at performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.

  19. TLD linearity vs. beam energy and modality

    SciTech Connect

    Troncalli, Andrew J.; Chapman, Jane

    2002-12-31

    Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is considered to be a valuable dosimetric tool in determining patient dose. Lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (TLD-100) is widely used, as it does not display widely divergent energy dependence. For many years, we have known that TLD-100 shows supralinearity to dose. In a radiotherapy clinic, there are multiple energies and modality beams. This work investigates whether individual linearity corrections must be used for each beam or whether a single correction can be applied to all beams. The response of TLD as a function of dose was measured from 25 cGy to 1000 cGy on both electrons and photons from 6 to 18 MeV. This work shows that, within our measurement uncertainty, TLD-100 exhibits supralinearity at all megavoltage energies and modalities.

  20. High-energy Laser-accelerated Electron Beams for Long-range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powers, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Umstadter, Donald; Vane, Randy; Schultz, David; Beene, James; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun

    2009-03-10

    We are studying the use of 0.1-1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  1. High-Energy Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams for Long-Range Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Cummingham, N. J.; Banerjee, Sudeep; Ramanathan, Vidya; Powell, Nathan; Chandler-Smith, Nate; Vane, C Randy; Schultz, David Robert; Pozzi, Sara; Clarke, Shaun; Beene, James R; Umstadter, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the use of 0.1 1.0 GeV laser-accelerated electron beams as active interrogation probes for long-standoff radiography or nuclear activation of concealed special nuclear material. Use of beams in this energy range is largely unexplored, but such beams could provide notable advantages over lower-energy beams and x-rays. High-energy laser-accelerated electrons exhibit large penetration range through air and solids, and low beam divergence for both direct beams and secondary Bremsstrahlung x-rays. We present laboratory measurements of radiography and activation, using the high-power Diodes laser system at the University of Nebraska, as well as MCNP and GEANT Monte Carlo simulation results used to aid experiment design and interpretation.

  2. SU-E-T-635: Quantitative Study On Beam Flatness Variation with Beam Energy Change

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J S; Eldib, A; Ma, C; Lin, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Beam flatness check has been proposed for beam energy check for photon beams with flattering filters. In this work, beam flatness change with beam energy was investigated quantitatively using the Monte Carlo method and its significance was compared with depth dose curve change. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations for a linear accelerator with flattering filter were performed with different initial electron energies for photon beams of 6MV and 10MV. Dose calculations in a water phantom were then perform with the phase space files obtained from the simulations. The beam flatness was calculated based on the dose profile at 10 cm depth for all the beams with different initial electron energies. The percentage depth dose (PDD) curves were also analyzed. The dose at 10cm depth (D10) and the ratio of the dose at 10cm and 20cm depth (D10/D20) and their change with the beam energy were calculated and compared with the beam flatness variation. Results: It was found that the beam flatness variation with beam energy change was more significant than the change of D10 and the ratio between D10 and D20 for both 6MV and 10MV beams. Half MeV difference on the initial electron beam energy brought in at least 20% variation on the beam flatness but only half percent change on the ratio of D10 and D20. The change of D10 or D20 alone is even less significant. Conclusion: The beam energy impact on PDD is less significant than that on the beam flatness. If the PDD is used for checking the beam energy, uncertainties of the measurement could possibly disguise its change. Beam flatness changes more significantly with beam energy and therefore it can be used for monitoring the energy change for photon beams with flattering filters. However, other factors which may affect the beam flatness should be watched as well.

  3. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2014-04-15

    This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs) and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  4. Accelerated radioactive nuclear beams: Existing and planned facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    An over-view of existing and planned radioactive nuclear beam facilities world-wide. Two types of production methods are distinguished: projectile fragmentation and the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) method. While most of the projectile fragmentation facilities are already in operation, almost all the ISOL-based facilities are in still the planning stage.

  5. Power beaming to space using a nuclear reactor-pumped laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Monroe, D.K.; Pickard, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    The present political and environmental climate may slow the inevitable direct utilization of nuclear power in space. In the meantime, there is another approach for using nuclear energy for space power. That approach is to let nuclear energy generate a laser beam in a ground-based nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL), and then beam the optical energy into space. Potential space applications for a ground-based RPL include (1) illuminating geosynchronous communication satellites in the earth`s shadow to extend their lives, (2) beaming power to orbital transfer vehicles, (3) providing power (from earth) to a lunar base during the long lunar night, and (4) removing space debris. FALCON is a high-power, steady-state, nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL) concept that is being developed by the Department of Energy with Sandia National Laboratories as the lead laboratory. The FALCON program has experimentally demonstrated reactor-pumped lasing in various mixtures of xenon, argon, neon, and helium at wavelengths of 0.585, 0.703, 0.725, 1.271, 1.733, 1.792, 2.032, 2.63, 2.65, and 3.37 {mu}m with intrinsic efficiency as high as 2.5%. Frequency-doubling the 1.733{minus}{mu}m line would yield a good match for photovoltaic arrays at 0.867 {mu}m. Preliminary designs of an RPL suitable for power beaming have been completed. The MWclass laser is fairly simple in construction, self-powered, closed-cycle (no exhaust gases), and modular. This paper describes the FALCON program accomplishments and power-beaming applications.

  6. Superintense ion beam with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikova, Galina

    2008-04-01

    The energy density of ion beam accumulated in a storage ring can be increased dramatically with using of space charge compensation as was demonstrated in experiments [1]. The intensity of said superintense beam can be far greater than a space charge limit without space charge compensation. The model of secondary plasma build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delayed electrons has been presented and discussed. This model can be used for explanation of bunched beam instability with electron surviving after gap, for prediction of e-cloud generation in coasting and long bunches beam, and can be important for pressure rise in worm and cold sections of storage rings. A fast desorption by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a ``first pulse Instability''. Application of this model for e-p instability selfstabilization and superintense circulating beam accumulation is considered. Importance of secondary plasma for high perveance ion beam stabilization in ion implantation will be considered. Preliminary results of simulation of electron and ion accumulation will be presented. [1]. Belchenko et al., Xth International Particle Accelerator Conference, Protvino, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.

  7. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I.

    2014-07-16

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however, a number of approaches (a beam rastering, in first place) are suggested to mitigate the issue. The efficiency of the considered EPD as a Materials Test Station (MTS) is also evaluated in this study.

  8. Nuclear Energy Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, I. H.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear power plants currently generate about 20% of US and 17% of world electricity, which makes nuclear the largest non-emitting energy source in current use. Concerns about global climate change have led to a remarkable transformation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. There remain key challenges that must be faced when considering expansion of its contribution. In summary they are: Economics, Safety, Waste Disposal, and Proliferation. Electricity from legacy fission plants is highly competitive with fossil, but perceived financial risks make the large capital cost fraction a key hurdle to new-construction, and costs of 2 per installed Watt electrical are currently considered only just economically attractive. Proliferation of nuclear-weapons-enabling technology is a major concern for global stability, in which fusion may have significant technical advantages over fission. But proliferation control requires a combination of both technical and political initiatives. The feasibility of supplying process heat or hydrogen from nuclear energy inspires additional research into novel reactor concepts and associated technologies. The presentation will lay out this overall context of the nuclear energy renaissance.

  9. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Patrick; Beach, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to (1) review and analyze the state-of-art in beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) by identifying potential game-changing applications, (2) formulate a roadmap of technology development, and (3) identify key near-term technology demonstrations to rapidly advance elements of BEP technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The two major areas of interest were launching payloads and space propulsion. More generally, the study was requested and structured to address basic mission feasibility. The attraction of beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is the potential for high specific impulse while removing the power-generation mass. The rapid advancements in high-energy beamed-power systems and optics over the past 20 years warranted a fresh look at the technology. For launching payloads, the study concluded that using BEP to propel vehicles into space is technically feasible if a commitment to develop new technologies and large investments can be made over long periods of time. From a commercial competitive standpoint, if an advantage of beamed energy for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) is to be found, it will rest with smaller, frequently launched payloads. For space propulsion, the study concluded that using beamed energy to propel vehicles from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and into deep space is definitely feasible and showed distinct advantages and greater potential over current propulsion technologies. However, this conclusion also assumes that upfront infrastructure investments and commitments to critical technologies will be made over long periods of time. The chief issue, similar to that for payloads, is high infrastructure costs.

  10. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Hoffman, C.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay [pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon] is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.3999[plus minus]0.0005 s[sup [minus]1]. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.394 [plus minus] 0.015 s[sup [minus]1]. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  11. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. |; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay {pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon} is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.3999{plus_minus}0.0005 s{sup {minus}1}. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.394 {plus_minus} 0.015 s{sup {minus}1}. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  12. Multipass Beam Breakup in Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Eduard Pozdeyev; Christopher Tennant; Joseph Bisognano; M Sawamura; R. Hajima; T.I. Smith

    2005-03-19

    This paper is a compilation of several presentations on multipass beam breakup (BBU) in energy recovery linacs (ERL) given at the 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Workshop on ERLs. The goal of this paper is to summarize the progress achieved in analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of the instability and outline available and proposed BBU mitigation techniques. In this paper, a simplified theory of multipass BBU in recirculating linacs is presented. Several BBU suppression techniques and their working principles are discussed. The paper presents an overview of available BBU codes. Results of experimental studies of multipass BBU at the Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) FEL Upgrade are described.

  13. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  14. Individual Beam Size And Length Measurements at the SLC Interaction Point Derived From the Beam Energy Loss During a Beam Beam Deflection Scan

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.; Field, R.Clive; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.C.; Slaton, T.; Traller, R.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    At the Interaction Point (IP) of the SLC Final Focus, beam-beam deflection scans routinely provide a measurement of the sum in quadrature of the electron and positron transverse beam sizes, but no information on the individual beam sizes. During the 1996 SLC run, an upgrade to the Final Focus beam position monitor system allowed a first measurement of the absolute beam energy loss of both beams on each step of the deflection scan. A fit to the energy loss distributions of the two beams provides a measurement not only of the individual transverse beam sizes at the IP but also of the individual bunch lengths.

  15. New frontiers in nuclear physics with high-power lasers and brilliant monochromatic gamma beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Negoita, F.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and applications for medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures has selected a proposal based on these new premises called the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). The ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a combination of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. This unique combination of beams that are unique worldwide allows us to develop an experimental program in nuclear physics at the frontiers of present-day knowledge as well as society driven applications. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility as well as the new perspectives in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  16. Overview of the APT high-energy beam transport and beam expanders

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.; Blind, B.; Gray, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    The APT high energy beam transport (HEBT) and beam expanders convey the 1700-MeV, 100-mA cw proton beam from the linac to the tritium target/blanket assembly, or a tuning beam stop. The HEBT includes extensive beam diagnostics, collimators, and beam jitter correction, to monitor and control the 170-MW beam prior to expansion. A zero-degree beamline conveys the beam to the beam stop, and an achromatic bend conveys the beam to the tritium production target. Nonlinear beam expanders make use of higher-order multipole magnets and dithering dipoles to expand the beam to a uniform-density, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high rectangular profile on the tritium-production target. The overall optics design will be reviewed, and beam simulations will be presented.

  17. 78 FR 70932 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  18. 77 FR 26274 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  19. 76 FR 67717 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  20. 75 FR 67351 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  1. 75 FR 13269 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  2. 78 FR 76599 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC) will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...

  3. 77 FR 67809 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  4. 78 FR 29125 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  5. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-11

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of {approx} 1.0 {mu}m at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5{mu}m FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  6. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  7. High energy nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation covers three broad topics: a brief introduction to the field of nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies; a discussion of several topics illustrating what`s been learned after more than a decade of fixed target experiments; and an indication of what the future may bring at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned at CERN.

  8. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, John

    2008-04-01

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  9. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, John

    2008-04-28

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  10. An Exploration Perspective of Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration is currently focused on flying the Space Shuttle safely to complete our Space Station obligations, retiring the Shuttle in 2010, then returning humans to the Moon and learning how to proceed to Mars and beyond. The NASA budget still includes funds for science and aeronautics but the primary focus is on human exploration. Fiscal constraints have led to pursuing exploration vehicles that use heritage hardware, particularly existing boosters and engines, with the minimum modifications necessary to satisfy mission requirements. So, pursuit of immature technologies is not currently affordable by NASA. Beamed energy is one example of an immature technology, from a human exploration perspective, that may eventually provide significant benefits for human exploration of space, but likely not in the near future. Looking to the more distant future, this paper will examine some of the criteria that must be achieved by beamed energy propulsion to eventually contribute to human exploration of the solar system. The analysis focuses on some of the implications of increasing the payload fraction of a launch vehicle, with a quick look at trans-lunar injection. As one would expect, there is potential for benefit, and there are concerns. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for some beamed energy propulsion components, indicating that TRL 2 is close to being completed.

  11. Present and future radioactive nuclear beam developments at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Decrock, P.

    1996-11-01

    A scheme for building an ISOL-based radioactive nuclear beam facility at the Argonne Physics Division, is currently evaluated. The feasibility and efficiency of the different steps in the proposed production- and acceleration cycles are being tested. At the Dynamitron Facility of the ANL Physics Division, stripping yields of Kr, Xe and Ph beams in a windowless gas cell have been measured and the study of fission of {sup 238}U induced by fast neutrons from the {sup 9}Be(dn) reaction is in progress. Different aspects of the post-acceleration procedure are currently being investigated. In parallel with this work, energetic radioactive beams such as {sup 17}F, {sup 18}F and {sup 56}Ni have recently been developed at Argonne using the present ATLAS facility.

  12. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  13. Resonant scattering experiments with radioactive nuclear beams - Recent results and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Teranishi, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uesaka, T.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kurihara, Y.; Bihn, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Watanabe, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Cuong, P. V.; Goto, A.

    2013-04-19

    Resonant scattering with low-energy radioactive nuclear beams of E < 5 MeV/u have been studied at CRIB of CNS and at RIPS of RIKEN. As an extension to the present experimental technique, we will install an advanced polarized proton target for resonant scattering experiments. A Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to study the feasibility of future experiments with the polarized target. In the Monte-Carlo simulation, excitation functions and analyzing powers were calculated using a newly developed R-matrix calculation code. A project of a small-scale radioactive beam facility at Kyushu University is also briefly described.

  14. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

  15. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (α, p) reactions, and other types of measurements (β-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of 7Li+α/7Be+α resonant scatterings are presented.

  16. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha}, p) reactions, and other types of measurements ({beta}-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}/{sup 7}Be+{alpha} resonant scatterings are presented.

  17. Energy compensation of slow extracted beams with RF acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Souda, Hikaru; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Noda, Koji

    2016-03-01

    In a conventional carbon-ion radiotherapy facility, a carbon-ion beam is typically accelerated up to an optimum energy, slowly extracted from a synchrotron ring by a resonant slow extraction method, and ultimately delivered to a patient through a beam-delivery system. At Japan's Gunma University, a method employing slow-beam extraction along with beam-acceleration has been adopted. This method slightly alters the extracted-beam's energy owing to the acceleration component of the process, which subsequently results in a residual-range variation of approximately 2 mm in water-equivalent length. However, this range variation does not disturb a distal dose distribution with broad-beam methods such as the single beam-wobbling method. With the pencil-beam 3D scanning method, however, such a range variation disturbs a distal dose distribution because the variation is comparable to slice thickness. Therefore, for pencil-beam 3D scanning, an energy compensation method for a slow extracted beam is proposed in this paper. This method can compensate for the aforementioned energy variances by controlling net energy losses through a rotatable energy absorber set fixed between the synchrotron exit channel and the isocenter. Experimental results demonstrate that beam energies can be maintained constant, as originally hypothesized. Moreover, energy-absorber positions were found to be significantly enhanced by optimizing beam optics for reducing beam-size growth by implementation of the multiple-scattering effect option.

  18. Overview of the APT High-Energy Beam Transport and Beam Expanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, R. E.; Blind, B.; Gray, E. R.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barlow, D.; Lawrence, G. P.

    1997-05-01

    The APT high energy beam transport (HEBT) and beam expanders transport the 1700-MeV, 100-mA cw proton beam from the linac to any of three end stations. The HEBT includes extensive beam diagnostics, collimators, and dejitter correction, to monitor and control the 170-MW proton beam prior to expansion. One zero-degree beam line and two achromatic bends transport the beam to one of three beam expanders. These nonlinear beam expanders, making use of higher order multipole magnets and dithering dipoles, expand the beam to a uniform density, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high rectangular profile on the tritium-production targets. The overall optics design will be reviewed, and beam simulations will be presented.

  19. Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Min; Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia; Zhang Fengshou

    2010-12-15

    The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20-250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semiempirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

  20. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  1. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the Spallation Neutron Source 1-MW beam operationa

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Baoxi; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Welton, Robert F; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Stockli, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    The H- injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the Spallation Neutron Source 1-MW beam operation with ~38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to ~1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: 1) inconsistent dependence of the post-RFQ beam current on the ion source tilt angle, and 2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  2. Beam lifetime and limitations during low-energy RHIC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.V.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Kayran, D.; Montag, C.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Wang, G.

    2011-03-28

    The low-energy physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), motivated by a search for the QCD phase transition critical point, requires operation at low energies. At these energies, large nonlinear magnetic field errors and large beam sizes produce low beam lifetimes. A variety of beam dynamics effects such as Intrabeam Scattering (IBS), space charge and beam-beam forces also contribute. All these effects are important to understand beam lifetime limitations in RHIC at low energies. During the low-energy RHIC physics run in May-June 2010 at beam {gamma} = 6.1 and {gamma} = 4.1, gold beam lifetimes were measured for various values of space-charge tune shifts, transverse acceptance limitation by collimators, synchrotron tunes and RF voltage. This paper summarizes our observations and initial findings.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-17

    DANESS is an integrated process model for nuclear energy systems allowing the simulation of multiple reactors and fuel cycles in a continuously changing nuclear reactor park configuration. The model is energy demand driven and simulates all nuclear fuel cycle facilites, up to 10 reactors and fuels. Reactor and fuel cycle facility history are traced and the cost of generating energy is calculated per reactor and for total nuclear energy system. The DANESS model aims atmore » performing dynamic systems analysis of nuclear energy development used for integrated analysis of development paths for nuclear energy, parameter scoping for new nuclear energy systems, economic analysis of nuclear energy, government role analysis, and education.« less

  4. What can nuclear energy do for society.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a compact and abundant source of energy. Its cost per unit of energy is less than that of fossil fuel. Disadvantages of nuclear fuel are connected with the high cost of capital equipment required for releasing nuclear energy and the heavy weight of the necessary shielding. In the case of commercial electric power production and marine propulsion the advantages have outweighed the disadvantages. It is pointed out that nuclear commercial submarines have certain advantages compared to surface ships. Nuclear powerplants might make air-cushion vehicles for transoceanic ranges feasible. The problems and advantages of a nuclear aircraft are discussed together with nuclear propulsion for interplanetary space voyages.

  5. What can nuclear energy do for society?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy and the predicted impact of future uses of nuclear energy are discussed. Areas of application in electric power production and transportation methods are described. It is concluded that the need for many forms of nuclear energy will become critical as the requirements for power to supply an increasing population are met.

  6. Energy metabolism in nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Folmes, Clifford D L; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear reprogramming with stemness factors enables resetting of somatic differentiated tissue back to the pluripotent ground state. Recent evidence implicates mitochondrial restructuring and bioenergetic plasticity as key components underlying execution of orchestrated dedifferentiation and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Aerobic to anaerobic transition of somatic oxidative energy metabolism into a glycolytic metabotype promotes proficient reprogramming, establishing a novel regulator of acquired stemness. Metabolomic profiling has further identified specific metabolic remodeling traits defining lineage redifferentiation of pluripotent cells. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism comprise a vital axis for biomarker discovery, intimately reflecting the molecular dynamics fundamental for the resetting and redirection of cell fate. PMID:22103608

  7. Energy metabolism in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Folmes, Clifford DL; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming with stemness factors enables resetting of somatic differentiated tissue back to the pluripotent ground state. Recent evidence implicates mitochondrial restructuring and bioenergetic plasticity as key components underlying execution of orchestrated dedifferentiation and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Aerobic to anaerobic transition of somatic oxidative energy metabolism into a glycolytic metabotype promotes proficient reprogramming, establishing a novel regulator of acquired stemness. Metabolomic profiling has further identified specific metabolic remodeling traits defining lineage redifferentiation of pluripotent cells. Therefore, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism comprise a vital axis for biomarker discovery, intimately reflecting the molecular dynamics fundamental for the resetting and redirection of cell fate. PMID:22103608

  8. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Radhey

    2016-05-01

    In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5) to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  9. Ion beam energy spectrum calculation via dosimetry data deconvolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Sharp, Andrew Clinton

    2010-10-01

    The energy spectrum of a H{sup +} beam generated within the HERMES III accelerator is calculated from dosimetry data to refine future experiments. Multiple layers of radiochromic film are exposed to the beam. A graphic user interface was written in MATLAB to align the film images and calculate the beam's dose depth profile. Singular value regularization is used to stabilize the unfolding and provide the H{sup +} beam's energy spectrum. The beam was found to have major contributions from 1 MeV and 8.5 MeV protons. The HERMES III accelerator is typically used as a pulsed photon source to experimentally obtain photon impulse response of systems due to high energy photons. A series of experiments were performed to explore the use of Hermes III to generate an intense pulsed proton beam. Knowing the beam energy spectrum allows for greater precision in experiment predictions and beam model verification.

  10. The role of electronic energy loss in ion beam modification of materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weber, William J.; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Thome, Lionel; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-10-05

    The interaction of energetic ions with solids results in energy loss to both atomic nuclei and electrons in the solid. In this article, recent advances in understanding and modeling the additive and competitive effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on the response of materials to ion irradiation are reviewed. Experimental methods and large-scale atomistic simulations are used to study the separate and combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion beam modification of materials. The results demonstrate that nuclear and electronic energy loss can lead to additive effects on irradiation damage production in some materials; while inmore » other materials, the competitive effects of electronic energy loss leads to recovery of damage induced by elastic collision cascades. Lastly, these results have significant implications for ion beam modification of materials, non-thermal recovery of ion implantation damage, and the response of materials to extreme radiation environments.« less

  11. The role of electronic energy loss in ion beam modification of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Thome, Lionel; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-10-05

    The interaction of energetic ions with solids results in energy loss to both atomic nuclei and electrons in the solid. In this article, recent advances in understanding and modeling the additive and competitive effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on the response of materials to ion irradiation are reviewed. Experimental methods and large-scale atomistic simulations are used to study the separate and combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion beam modification of materials. The results demonstrate that nuclear and electronic energy loss can lead to additive effects on irradiation damage production in some materials; while in other materials, the competitive effects of electronic energy loss leads to recovery of damage induced by elastic collision cascades. Lastly, these results have significant implications for ion beam modification of materials, non-thermal recovery of ion implantation damage, and the response of materials to extreme radiation environments.

  12. Longitudinal Density Modulation and Energy Conversion in Intense Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J; Neumann, J; Tian, K; O'Shea, P

    2006-02-17

    Density modulation of charged particle beams may occur as a consequence of deliberate action, or may occur inadvertently because of imperfections in the particle source or acceleration method. In the case of intense beams, where space charge and external focusing govern the beam dynamics, density modulation may under some circumstances be converted to velocity modulation, with a corresponding conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Whether this will occur depends on the properties of the beam and the initial modulation. This paper describes the evolution of discrete and continuous density modulations on intense beams, and discusses three recent experiments related to the dynamics of density-modulated electron beams.

  13. The symmetry energy in nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, W.

    2010-03-01

    The complementary aspects of the strength of the symmetry energy at nuclear densities below and above saturation are illustrated with recent results from experiments performed at the GSI laboratory with relativistic heavy-ion beams. A systematic study of isotopic effects in spectator fragmentation was performed at the ALADIN spectrometer with 124Sn primary and 107Sn and 124La secondary beams of 600 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The analysis within the Statistical Fragmentation Model reveals that the symmetry-term coefficient entering the liquid-drop description of the emerging fragments decreases significantly as the disintegration of the spectator system into fragments and light particles increases. Higher densities were probed in more central collisions of 197Au + 197Au nuclei at 400 MeV/nucleon. The results obtained from the analysis of the FOPI/LAND experimental data on neutron and hydrogen squeeze-out in comparison with UrQMD model predictions favor a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to (ρ with γ=0.9±0.3.

  14. Detectors for high energy nuclear collisions: problems, progress and promise

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Some perspective of the main issues in high energy nuclear collision physics is offered. How to identify and measure a quark-gluon plasma is considered to still be an open question. The types of detector configurations to be used in high-energy nucleus-nucleus experiments are discussed. Particular issues covered are measurements of lepton pair spectra, tracking systems and multitrack resolution, event-rate capabilities, backgrounds and other problems close to the beam, and calorimetry. 2 refs. (LEW)

  15. Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J; Was, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of the worldwide electrical power, and has emerged as a reliable baseload source of electricity. A number of materials challenges must be successfully resolved for nuclear energy to continue to make further improvements in reliability, safety and economics. The operating environment for materials in current and proposed future nuclear energy systems is summarized, along with a description of materials used for the main operating components. Materials challenges associated with power uprates and extensions of the operating lifetimes of reactors are described. The three major materials challenges for the current and next generation of water-cooled fission reactors are centered on two structural materials aging degradation issues (corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials and neutron-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels), along with improved fuel system reliability and accident tolerance issues. The major corrosion and stress corrosion cracking degradation mechanisms for light water reactors are reviewed. The materials degradation issues for the Zr alloy clad UO2 fuel system currently utilized in the majority of commercial nuclear power plants is discussed for normal and off-normal operating conditions. Looking to proposed future (Generation IV) fission and fusion energy systems, there are 5 key bulk radiation degradation effects (low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement, radiation-induced and modified solute segregation and phase stability, irradiation creep, void swelling, and high temperature helium embrittlement) and a multitude of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking effects (including irradiation-assisted phenomena) that can have a major impact on the performance of structural materials.

  16. Nuclear-Pumped Lasers. [efficient conversion of energy liberated in nuclear reactions to coherent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Nuclear pumped laser modeling, nuclear volume and foil excitation of laser plasmas, proton beam simulations, nuclear flashlamp excitation, and reactor laser systems studies are covered.

  17. Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Gasilov, S.; Lang, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Jentschel, M.; Diehl, R.; Schroer, C.; Barty, C. P. J.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    900, we can obtain small spots for each of the beamlets. While focusing the beamlets to a much smaller spot size, we can bend them effectively with micro wedges to e.g. parallel beamlets. We can monochromatize these γ beamlets within the rocking curve of a common Laue crystal, using an additional angle selection by a collimator to reach a strongly reduced band width of 10-4 - 10-6. We propose the use of a further lens/wedge arrays or Bragg reflection to superimpose the beamlets to a very small total γ beam spot. Many experiments gain much from the high beam resolution and the smaller focal spot. This new γ optics requires high resolution diagnostics, where we want to optimize the focusing, using very thin target wires of a specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) isotope to monitor the focusing for the resonance energy. With such beams we can explore new nuclear physics of higher excited states with larger level densities. New phenomena, like the transition from chaotic to regular nuclear motion, weakly-bound halo states or states decaying by tunneling can be studied. The higher level density also allows to probe parity violating nuclear forces more sensitively. This γ optics improves many applications, like a more brilliant positron source, a more brilliant neutron source, higher specific activity of medical radioisotopes or NRF micro-imaging.

  18. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  19. High Energy Polarized e+e‑ Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatunov, Yu.; Koop, I.; Otboev, A.; Mane, S.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the wide discussion about Higgs-factory design again returns to problem of high energy polarized electrons and positrons. It’s good known the radiative beam polarization at LEP-collider. It was obtained after spin resonance suppression at Z0 pick, but didn’t appear at energies above 70 GeV due to an enhancement of unavoidable depolarization effects. We examine in this paper various ideas for radiative polarization at TLEP/FCC-ee and formulate some estimates for the polarization buildup time and the asymptotic polarization. Using wigglers, a useful degree of polarization (for energy calibration), with a time constant of about 1 h, may be possible up to the threshold of W pair production. At higher energies such as the threshold of Higgs production, attaining a useful level of polarization may be difficult in a planar ring. With Siberian Snakes, wigglers and some imagination, polarization of reasonable magnitude, with a reasonable time constant (of not more than about 1 h), may be achievable at very high energies.

  20. Measurement of the nuclear energy loss under channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, H.; Mertens, A.

    2001-07-01

    Neutral Ne atoms with keV energies are scattered under channeling conditions, i.e. at a glancing angle of incidence, from a LiF(001) surface. By means of a time-of-flight method with a pulsed neutral beam we record energy distributions for scattered projectiles. For this specific system the small energy transferred to the crystal lattice ("nuclear energy loss") during channeling via binary collisions with large impact parameters dominates the dissipation of projectile energy. All other excitations of the solid can be brought to a negligible level.

  1. Study on astrophysical reactions using low-energy RI beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, low-energy RI beams can be produced in a good intensity and they have been used for studying many astrophysical reactions. One of the facilities producing low-energy RI beams is CRIB (CNS Radio-Isotope Beam separator) [1,2], an RI-beam separator of Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Taking CRIB as an example, recent improvements on the RI-beam production and experimental results on astrophysical studies are presented. Several experimental approaches have been taken for the studies on astrophysical reactions.The feature of each method are discussed based on real measurements performed at CRIB. One is the direct method, applied for measurements of reactions such as (α,p) [3]. Another is the measurement of proton/alpha resonance scattering using the thick target method in inverse kinematics, by which we can obtain information on the resonances relevant in astrophysical reactions [4,5]. A recent fruitful result was from a measurement of proton resonance scattering using a ^7Be beam [5]. The energy level structure of ^8B, revealed by the experiment, is especially of interest as it is related with the ^7Be(p,γ) ^8B reaction, responsible for the production of ^8B neutrinos in the sun. We successfully determined parameters of resonances in ^8B below 6.7 MeV, which may affect the ^7Be(p,γ)^8B reaction rate at the solar temparature. Indirect methods, such as ANC and the Trojan Horse Method, were also used in some of the measurements.[4pt] [1] S. Kubono et al., Eur. Phys. J. A13 (2002) 217.[0pt] [2] Y. Yanagisawa et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res., Sect. A 539 (2005) 74.[0pt] [3] M. Notani et al., Nucl. Phys. A 764 (2004) 113c.[0pt] [4] T. Teranishi et al., Phys. Lett. B 650 (2007) 129.[0pt] [5] H. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Lett. B 672 (2009) 230.

  2. Advanced energy conversion concept for beamed-energy propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1987-08-01

    Basic research was performed on an innovative power conversion concept for trans atmospheric, beamed energy propulsion: a new class of External Surface Impulse (ESI) thrusters. This advanced thruster principle could be used for atmospheric VTOL, high acceleration, and lateral flight (e.g., short-term cruise) propulsion of Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) beam-powered shuttlecraft of the next century. Three classes of ESI thrusters were initially examined: (1) simple thermal, (2) electrostatic, and (3) electromagnetic. Beam power wavelengths from 10 cm (microwave) to 0.3 micron (laser) were considered. The subsequent effort concentrated on the simple thermal repetitively-pulsed ESI thrusters, energized with laser power and using air as the working fluid. Laser frequencies were selected because of the relative wealth of experimental data and theoretical research on laser impulse coupling existing in the literature. The first year analytical effort has proven conclusively that such an engine can deliver high levels of thrust-to-beam-power at liftoff (e.g., at least an order of magnitude greater than beam-powered hydrogen-fueled rockets), with infinite specific impulse (decreased only, perhaps, by ablation of the thruster surface). Later along an orbital trajectory, the primary propulsion function would transition to other modes; upon leaving the atmosphere, the SSTO vehicle would continue in a pure rocket mode.

  3. Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph; Furnstahl, Richard; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out.

  4. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  5. Increasing beam power and energy with the SBS forward energy transfer instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; London, R. A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Michel, P. A.; Williams, E. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of the exchange of forward going power and energy between two crossing beams in a plasma [1] is now sufficiently developed that it can be used to enable access to new experimental configurations. The existing models of the process allow the design of beam combiners that will produce higher energy in individual beams for new applications in ignition and HED physics. For example the Energy Partitioning and Energy Coupling (EPEC) [2] program is simulating nuclear events in various environments by delivering energy to the center of a chamber through a narrow tube that allows minimal perturbation of the surrounding region. We will describe the design of gas filled targets that will allow a 2x to 5x increase in the energy in a single NIF quad to enable higher yield events to be simulated in EPEC. These designs as well as advanced ignition target designs will require models with improved precision to predict their performance accurately. We will also compare the predictions of existing and emerging models of wave saturation [3] with the existing experimental data to determine the uncertainty in the models.[4pt] [1] P. Michel Physics of Plasmas 2010.[0pt] [2] K. Fournier, these proceedings[0pt] [3] P. Michel, E. Williams, these proceedings.

  6. Nuclear energy in Malaysia - closing the gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Malaysian Nuclear Society (Mns,

    2013-06-01

    This article is prepared by the Malaysian Nuclear Society (MNS) to present the views of the Malaysian scientific community on the need for Malaysia to urgently upgrade its technical know-how and expertise to support the nuclear energy industry for future sustainable economic development of the country. It also present scientific views that nuclear energy will bring economic growth as well as technically sound industry, capable of supporting nuclear energy industry needs in the country, and recommend action items for timely technical upgrading of Malaysian expertise related to nuclear energy industry.

  7. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen V.

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  8. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    PubMed

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat. PMID:23949247

  9. Exact and geometrical optics energy trajectories in twisted beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; McDonald, K. T.

    2008-03-01

    Energy trajectories, that is, integral curves of the Poynting (current) vector, are calculated for scalar Bessel and Laguerre-Gauss beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The trajectories for the exact waves are helices, winding on cylinders for Bessel beams and hyperboloidal surfaces for Laguerre-Gauss beams. In the geometrical optics approximations, the trajectories for both types of beam are overlapping families of straight skew rays lying on hyperboloidal surfaces; the envelopes of the hyperboloids are the caustics: a cylinder for Bessel beams and two hyperboloids for Laguerre-Gauss beams.

  10. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  11. The Symmetry Energy in Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, W.; Bianchin, S.; Botvina, A. S.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Sfienti, C.; Buyukcizmeci, N.; Ogul, R.; Mishustin, I. N.; Chartier, M.; Wu, P. Z.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Pawłowski, P.; Pagano, A.; Russotto, P.; ALADIN Collaboration

    New results for the strength of the symmetry energy are presented which illustrate the complementary aspects encountered in reactions probing nuclear densities below and above saturation. A systematic study of isotopic effects in spectator fragmentation was performed at the ALADIN spectrometer with 124Sn primary and 107Sn and 124La secondary beams of 600 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The analysis within the Statistical Fragmentation Model shows that the symmetry-term coefficient entering the liquid-drop description of the emerging fragments decreases significantly as the multiplicity of fragments and light particles from the disintegration of the produced spectator systems increases. Higher densities were probed in the FOPI/LAND study of nucleon and light-particle flows in central and mid-peripheral collisions of 197Au+197Au nuclei at 400 MeV/nucleon incident energy. From the comparison of the measured neutron and hydrogen squeeze-out ratios with predictions of the UrQMD model a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to (ρ/ρ0)γ with γ = 0.9 ± 0.3 is favored.

  12. What can nuclear energy do for society.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    It is pointed out that the earth's crust holds 30,000 times as much energy in the form of fissionable atoms as fossil fuel. Moreover, nuclear fuel costs less per unit of energy than fossil fuel. Capital equipment used to release nuclear energy, on the other hand, is expensive. For commercial electric-power production and marine propulsion, advantages of nuclear power have outweighed disadvantages. As to nuclear submarines, applications other than military may prove feasible. The industry has proposed cargo submarines to haul oil from the Alaskan North Slope beneath the Arctic ice. Other possible applications for nuclear power are in air-cushion-vehicles, aircraft, and rockets.-

  13. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-01-01

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calcu-lated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies. PMID:27074488

  14. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  15. Nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal beam-helicity and beam-charge asymmetries in deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Ball, B.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; Leo, R. De; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Diefenthaler, M.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Guzey, V.; Haan, S.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; López Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, X.-G.; Lu, X.-R.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfré, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; de La Ossa, A. Martinez; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Haarlem, Y. Van; Hulse, C. Van; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; sHERMES Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The nuclear-mass dependence of azimuthal cross-section asymmetries with respect to charge and longitudinal polarization of the lepton beam is studied for hard exclusive electroproduction of real photons. The observed beam-charge and beam-helicity asymmetries are attributed to the interference between the Bethe-Heitler and the deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. For various nuclei, the asymmetries are extracted for both coherent and incoherent-enriched regions, which involve different (combinations of) generalized parton distributions. For both regions, the asymmetries are compared to those for a free proton, and no nuclear-mass dependence is found.

  16. The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2007-03-01

    The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. Edmund K Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in press (2006). Also see: http://www.lenr-canr.org/StudentsGuide.htm .

  17. Experiments on nuclear fission induced by radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N.K.

    1994-07-01

    The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi nuclear fission induced by secondary beams of {sup 6}He and {sup 4}He are measured under identical conditions. The experimental data are in good agreement with earlier results on the fission cross section of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. The measured values of the cross section of {sup 209}Bi fission induced by {sup 6}He ions are much higher than the cross sections of fission induced by {alpha}-particles. It is found that the fission threshold for the {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction is shifted as compared to that of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. Various factors that can be responsible for the observed peculiarities in the {sup 209}Bi fission induced by the {sup 6}He ions are analyzed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Acoustical problems in high energy pulsed E-beams lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, T. E.; Wylie, K. F.

    1976-01-01

    During the pulsing of high energy, CO2, electron beam lasers, a significant fraction of input energy ultimately appears as acoustical disturbances. The magnitudes of these disturbances were quantified by computer analysis. Acoustical and shock impedance data are presented on materials (Rayleigh type) which show promise in controlling acoustical disturbance in E-beam systems.

  19. Hadronic nuclear energy: An approach towards green energy

    SciTech Connect

    Das Sarma, Indrani B.

    2015-03-10

    Nuclear energy is undoubtedly the largest energy source capable of meeting the total energy requirements to a large extent in long terms. However the conventional nuclear energy involves production of high level of radioactive wastes which possesses threat, both to the environment and mankind. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review of Hadronic nuclear energy by intermediate controlled nuclear synthesis and particle type like stimulated neutron decay and double beta decay has been presented.

  20. Absolute beam energy measurements in e+e- storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placidi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The CERN Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) was dedicated to the measurement of the mass Mz and the width Γz of the Z0 resonance during the LEP1 phase which terminated in September 1995. The Storage Ring operated in Energy Scan mode during the 1993 and 1995 physics runs by choosing the beam energy Ebeam to correspond to a center-of-mass (CM) energy at the interaction points (IPs) ECMpeak±1762 MeV. After a short review of the techniques usually adopted to set and control the beam energy, this paper describes in more detail two methods adopted at LEP for precise beam energy determination that are essential to reduce the contribution to the systematic error on Mz and Γz. The positron beam momentum was initially determined at the 20-GeV injection energy by measuring the speed of a less relativistic proton beam circulating on the same orbit, taking advantage of the unique opportunity to inject two beams into the LEP at short time intervals. The positron energy at the Z0 peak was in this case derived by extrapolation. Once transverse polarization became reproducible, the Resonant Depolarization (RD) technique was implemented at the Z0 operating energies, providing a ⩽2×10-5 instantaneous accuracy. RD Beam Energy Calibration has been adopted during the LEP Energy Scan campaigns as well as in Accelerator Physics runs for accurate measurement of machine parameters.

  1. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  2. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Lühr, Armin; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In ion beam cancer therapy, range verification in patients using positron emission tomography (PET) requires the comparison of measured with simulated positron emitter yields. We found that (1) changes in modeling nuclear interactions strongly affected the positron emitter yields and that (2) Monte Carlo simulations with SHIELD-HIT10Areasonably matched the most abundant PET isotopes (11)C and (15)O. We observed an ion-energy (i.e., depth) dependence of the agreement between SHIELD-HIT10Aand measurement. Improved modeling requires more accurate measurements of cross-section values. PMID:23352823

  3. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  4. Laser-beam zooming to mitigate crossed-beam energy losses in direct-drive implosions.

    PubMed

    Igumenshchev, I V; Froula, D H; Edgell, D H; Goncharov, V N; Kessler, T J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; McKenty, P W; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, D T; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Skupsky, S

    2013-04-01

    Spherically symmetric direct-drive-ignition designs driven by laser beams with a focal-spot size nearly equal to the target diameter suffer from energy losses due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET). Significant reduction of CBET and improvements in implosion hydrodynamic efficiency can be achieved by reducing the beam diameter. Narrow beams increase low-mode perturbations of the targets because of decreased illumination uniformity that degrades implosion performance. Initiating an implosion with nominal beams (equal in size to the target diameter) and reducing the beam diameter by ∼ 30%-40% after developing a sufficiently thick target corona, which smooths the perturbations, mitigate CBET while maintaining low-mode target uniformity in ignition designs with a fusion gain ≫ 1. PMID:25166997

  5. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described. PMID:26932088

  6. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B. X.; Welton, R. F.; Murray, S. N. Jr.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.

    2012-02-15

    The H{sup -} injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with {approx}38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to {approx}1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  7. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Welton, Robert F; Pennisi, Terry R

    2012-01-01

    The H{sup -} injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with {approx}38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to {approx}1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  8. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  9. H{sup -} beam transport experiments in a solenoid low energy beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, C.; Back, J. J.; Faircloth, D. C.; Lawrie, S. R.; Letchford, A. P.; Izaola, Z.

    2012-02-15

    The Front End Test Stand (FETS) is located at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and aims for a high current, fast chopped 3 MeV H{sup -} ion beam suitable for future high power proton accelerators like ISIS upgrade. The main components of the front end are the Penning ion source, a low energy beam transport line, an radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) providing also a chopper section and rebuncher. FETS is in the stage of commissioning its low energy beam transport (LEBT) line consisting of three solenoids. The LEBT has to transport an H{sup -} high current beam (up to 60 mA) at 65 keV. This is the injection energy of the beam into the RFQ. The main diagnostics are slit-slit emittance scanners for each transversal plane. For optimizing the matching to the RFQ, experiments have been performed with a variety of solenoid settings to better understand the actual beam transport. Occasionally, source parameters such as extractor slit width and beam energy were varied as well. The paper also discusses simulations based on these measurements.

  10. Energy transfer between laser beams crossing in ignition hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P; Divol, L; Williams, E A; Thomas, C A; Callahan, D A; Weber, S; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Dixit, S; Hinkel, D E; Edwards, M J; MacGowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J

    2008-10-03

    The full scale modeling of power transfer between laser beams crossing in plasmas is presented. A new model was developed, allowing calculation of the propagation and coupling of pairs of laser beams with their associated plasma wave in three dimensions. The full laser beam smoothing techniques used in ignition experiments are modeled, and their effects on crossed-beam energy transfer is investigated. A shift in wavelength between the beams can move the instability off resonance and reduce the transfer, hence preserving the symmetry of the capsule implosion.

  11. Nuclear Energy for Water Desalting, A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, Helen F., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography includes 215 abstracts of publications on the use of nuclear energy in the production of potable water from saline or brackish waters. The uses of nuclear reactors, radioisotopic heat sources, and nuclear explosives are covered in relation to the various desalination methods available. Literature through April 1967 has been…

  12. On the nuclear halo of a proton pencil beam stopping in water.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Cascio, Ethan W; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S

    2015-07-21

    The dose distribution of a proton beam stopping in water has components due to basic physics and may have others from beam contamination. We propose the concise terms core for the primary beam, halo (see Pedroni et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 541-61) for the low dose region from charged secondaries, aura for the low dose region from neutrals, and spray for beam contamination. We have measured the dose distribution in a water tank at 177 MeV under conditions where spray, therefore radial asymmetry, is negligible. We used an ADCL calibrated thimble chamber and a Faraday cup calibrated integral beam monitor so as to obtain immediately the absolute dose per proton. We took depth scans at fixed distances from the beam centroid rather than radial scans at fixed depths. That minimizes the signal range for each scan and better reveals the structure of the core and halo. Transitions from core to halo to aura are already discernible in the raw data. The halo has components attributable to coherent and incoherent nuclear reactions. Due to elastic and inelastic scattering by the nuclear force, the Bragg peak persists to radii larger than can be accounted for by Molière single scattering. The radius of the incoherent component, a dose bump around midrange, agrees with the kinematics of knockout reactions. We have fitted the data in two ways. The first is algebraic or model dependent (MD) as far as possible, and has 25 parameters. The second, using 2D cubic spline regression, is model independent. Optimal parameterization for treatment planning will probably be a hybrid of the two, and will of course require measurements at several incident energies. The MD fit to the core term resembles that of the PSI group (Pedroni et al 2005), which has been widely emulated. However, we replace their T(w), a mass stopping power which mixes electromagnetic (EM) and nuclear effects, with one that is purely EM, arguing that protons that do not undergo hard single scatters continue to lose

  13. On the nuclear halo of a proton pencil beam stopping in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Cascio, Ethan W.; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S.

    2015-07-01

    The dose distribution of a proton beam stopping in water has components due to basic physics and may have others from beam contamination. We propose the concise terms core for the primary beam, halo (see Pedroni et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 541-61) for the low dose region from charged secondaries, aura for the low dose region from neutrals, and spray for beam contamination. We have measured the dose distribution in a water tank at 177 MeV under conditions where spray, therefore radial asymmetry, is negligible. We used an ADCL calibrated thimble chamber and a Faraday cup calibrated integral beam monitor so as to obtain immediately the absolute dose per proton. We took depth scans at fixed distances from the beam centroid rather than radial scans at fixed depths. That minimizes the signal range for each scan and better reveals the structure of the core and halo. Transitions from core to halo to aura are already discernible in the raw data. The halo has components attributable to coherent and incoherent nuclear reactions. Due to elastic and inelastic scattering by the nuclear force, the Bragg peak persists to radii larger than can be accounted for by Molière single scattering. The radius of the incoherent component, a dose bump around midrange, agrees with the kinematics of knockout reactions. We have fitted the data in two ways. The first is algebraic or model dependent (MD) as far as possible, and has 25 parameters. The second, using 2D cubic spline regression, is model independent. Optimal parameterization for treatment planning will probably be a hybrid of the two, and will of course require measurements at several incident energies. The MD fit to the core term resembles that of the PSI group (Pedroni et al 2005), which has been widely emulated. However, we replace their T(w), a mass stopping power which mixes electromagnetic (EM) and nuclear effects, with one that is purely EM, arguing that protons that do not undergo hard single scatters continue to lose

  14. Ion Beam Energy Dependant Study of Nanopore Sculpting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledden, Brad

    2005-03-01

    Experiments show that ion beams of various energies (1keV, 3keV, and 5keV) can be used to controllably ``sculpt'' nanoscale features in silicon nitride films using a feedback controlled ion beam sculpting apparatus. We report on nanopore ion beam sculpting effects that depend on inert gas ion beam energy. We show that: (1) all ion beam energies enable single nanometer control of structural dimensions in nanopores; (2) the ion beam energies above show similar ion beam flux dependence of nanopore formation; (3) the thickness of nanopores differs depending on ion beam energy. Computer simulations (with SRIM and TRIM) and an ``adatom'' surface diffusion model are employed to explain the dynamics of nanoscale dimension change by competing sputtering and surface mass transport processes induced by different ion beam irradiation. These experiments and theoretical work reveal the surface atomic transport phenomena in a quantitative way that allows the extraction of parameters such as the adatom surface diffusion coefficients and average travel distances.

  15. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow

    2014-03-05

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device.

  16. Beam losses and beam halos in accelerators for new energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Large particle accelerators are proposed as drivers for new ways to produce electricity from nuclear fusion and fission reactions. The accelerators must be designed to deliver large particle beam currents to a target facility with very little beam spill along the accelerator itself, in order that accelerator maintenance can be accomplished without remote manipulators. Typically, particle loss is preceded by the formation of a tenuous halo of particles around the central beam core, caused by beam dynamics effects, often coupled with the slight imperfections inevitable in a practical design. If the halo becomes large enough, particles may be scraped off along the accelerator. The tolerance for beam spill in different applications is discussed, halo mechanisms and recent work to explore and understand their dynamics are reviewed, and possible directions for future investigation are outlined. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q{sup 2}; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and {sup 12}C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of {sup 117}Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from {sup 13}C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of {sup 3}He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e{prime}p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N {yields} {Delta} Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q{sup 2} and A-Dependence of R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2{gamma} Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions.

  18. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  19. The energy stabilization for the SLC scavenger beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ian; Browne, M.; Himel, T.; Humphrey, R.; Jobe, K.; Ross, M.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Seeman, J.

    1990-08-01

    The energy of the SLC scavenger beam which is used to produce positrons must be carefully maintained so that the beam can be transported through the collimators in the dispersive region of the extraction line which leads from the Linac to the positron target. A feedforward control loop has been developed to compensate the energy fluctuations due to the beam intensity fluctuations. The loop detects the beam intensities in the damping rings and then calculates how much energy needs to be compensated due to beam loading effects. The energy is corrected by adjusting the acceleration phases of two sets of klystrons right before the extraction. Because there is feedback loop using the same controls, their interaction needs to be carefully treated. This paper presents an overview of the feedforward algorithms. 3 figs.

  20. Cyclotron laboratory of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2016-06-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that could be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99m Tc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. The building of the laboratory will be constructed nearby the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and the cyclotron together with all the equipment needed will be installed there.

  1. Prospects of Safe Nuclear Energy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    Lessons from the Chernobyl accident are summarized. The evolution of traditional nuclear reactor design, including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons) is presented. The Feoktistov reactor and the possibility of its realization are discussed.

  2. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  3. Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

  4. Beam energy dependence of the viscous damping of anisotropic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2013-10-01

    The flow harmonics v2 , 3 for charged hadrons, are studied for a broad range of centrality selections and beam collision energies in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7 . 7 - 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2 . 76 TeV) collisions. They validate the characteristic signature expected for the system size dependence of viscous damping at each collision energy studied. The extracted viscous coefficients, that encode the magnitude of the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density η / s , are observed to decrease to an apparent minimum as the collision energy is increased from √{sNN} = 7 . 7 to approximately 62.4 GeV; thereafter, they show a slow increase with √{sNN} up to 2.76 TeV. This pattern of viscous damping provides the first experimental constraint for η / s in the temperature-baryon chemical potential (T ,μB) plane, and could be an initial indication for decay trajectories which lie close to the critical end point in the phase diagram for nuclear matter. This research is supported by the US DOE under contract DE-FG02-87ER40331.A008.

  5. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Scrivens, R. Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T.

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  6. Precision measurements of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, J.; King, M.; Von Zanthier, C.; Watson, S.; Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.; Jung, C.K.; Nash, J.

    1989-03-01

    A method of precisely determining the beam energy in high energy linear colliders has been developed using dipole spectrometers and synchrotron radiation detectors. Beam lines implementing this method have been installed on the Stanford Linear Collider. An absolute energy measurement with an accuracy of better than deltaE/E = 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/4/ can be achieved on a pulse-to-pulse basis. The operation of this system will be described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Rick A.; Sumali, Hartono

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  8. Propagation of high-energy laser beams through metallic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Armstrong, R.L.

    1988-08-01

    By combining the results of the hydrodynamic code CON1D and the beam propagation code LASER, we investigate the propagation of high-energy laser beams through vaporizing metallic aerosols in the regime for which the plasma generation becomes important. An effective plasma absorption coefficient allows us to set up a coupled system of equations describing the system consisting of the beam and vapor. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Isotope-Shift Measurement of High-energy Highly Charged Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, S.; Ariga, T.; Inabe, N.; Kase, M.; Tanihata, I.; Wakasugi, M.; Yano, Y.

    2001-10-01

    Isotope-shift measurement by the laser spectroscopic method was aimed to apply for radioactive isotope beams up to uranium created by projectile fragmentation at RIKEN RI beam factory (T. Katayama, et al.,): Nucl. Phys., A626, 545c (1997).to make a systematic study of the mean square nuclear charge radii. The present work was started to verify the feasibility of the method. Projectile fragments are high-energy highly charged ions and weak currents. Therefore we designed ultralow-background photon-detection system (M. Wakasugi, et al.,): Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A419, 50 (1998).for collinear laser spectroscopy of such ion beams. To demonstrate isotope-shift measurement, we measured precisely the 1s2s ^3S_1-1s2p ^3P_0,1,2 transition energy of He-like ^12C ion accelerated up to 0.9 MeV/u and ^13C ion 0.6 MeV/u. For the precision measurement, the uncertainty coming from the ambiguity in the absolute ion beam velocity was suppressed by means of that the resonance energy was measured by two laser beams which propagate in parallel and anti-parallel directions to the ion beam. As the result, isotope shifts of these transitions were obtained with the accuracy of 10 %. The lower limit of the ion-beam intensity for the measurement is estimated to be 2000 ions/s.

  10. Australian Science and Technology with Relevance to Beamed Energy Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. David Jr

    2008-04-28

    Although Australia has no Beamed Energy Propulsion programs at the present time, it is accomplishing significant scientific and technological activity that is of potential relevance to Beamed Energy Propulsion (BEP). These activities include: continual upgrading and enhancement of the Woomera Test Facility, Which is ideal for development and test of high power laser or microwave systems and the flight vehicles they would propel; collaborative development and test, with the US and UK of hypersonic missiles that embody many features needed by beam-propelled flight vehicles; hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems that embody inlet-engine-nozzle features needed for beam-riding agility by air breathing craft; and research on specially conditioned EM fields that could reduce beamed energy lost during atmospheric propagation.

  11. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-12-09

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z = 8

  12. Beam energy tracking system on Optima XEx high energy ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu; Wu Xiangyang; Geary, Cindy; Deluca, James

    2012-11-06

    The Axcelis Optima XEx high energy implanter is an RF linac-based implanter with 12 RF resonators for beam acceleration. Even though each acceleration field is an alternating, sinusoidal RF field, the well known phase-focusing principle produces a beam with a sharp quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum. A magnetic energy filter after the linac further attenuates the low energy continuum in the energy spectrum often associated with RF acceleration. The final beam energy is a function of the phase and amplitude of the 12 resonators in the linac. When tuning a beam, the magnetic energy filter is set to the desired energy, and each linac parameter is tuned to maximize the transmission through the filter. Once a beam is set up, all the parameters are stored in a recipe, which can be easily tuned and has proven to be quite repeatable. The magnetic field setting of the energy filter selects the beam energy from the RF Linac accelerator, and in-situ verification of beam energy in addition to the magnetic energy filter setting has long been desired. An independent energy tracking system was developed for this purpose, using the existing electrostatic beam scanner as a deflector to construct an in-situ electrostatic energy analyzer. This paper will describe the system and performance of the beam energy tracking system.

  13. Magnetic Stoppers on Single Beam Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Y. S.; Vasic, D.; Costa, F.; Wu, W. J.

    The single beam structure has been long used in piezoelectric energy harvesting to harvest the vibrations of the circumstances. One of the critical defects of the structure is its narrow band of operating frequency. Many propose mechanical stoppers, rigid or non-rigid, such as another beam, to create a non-linear broadband effect. Moreover, with a piecewise linear PEG (Piezoelectric Energy Generator), or a simple cantilever beam with one or two mechanical stoppers laid on its sides, the constant driven amplitude of the beam displacement can be enlarged by a perturbation. It is also proposed that the stoppers prevent the piezoelectric pad from cracking due to over deformation. However, from a long-term point of view, the impact of the beam on the stoppers can also cause faster fatigue of the beam body, not to mention the noise that will hinder its practical application which maybe apparatuses nearby human. Therefore, this paper proposes a magnetic pair to serve as the stoppers for piezoelectric beam, so as to perform similar effects of bandwidth enlargement and also the amplification using perturbation. With no actual contacts, the single beam can be well protected, but also eliminated from over bending by the magnets. By placing the magnets on a beam on each side of the main beam. The magnetic force, which is distance dependent, can provide a smoother feedback to the beam, giving a greater displacement in comparison to the mechanical stopper. Moreover, the characteristic of the beam output is altered so that there exists two peaking frequencies, depending on the design of the stopper beams.

  14. Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of polar-drive-ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly effective over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to break the resonance between them and reduce energy transfer. Testing this process for direct drive has been limited because of the lack of sufficient detuning capabilities. However, the Naval Research Laboratory's Nike laser has the capability of providing a wide range of detuning between its main drive and backlighter beams. This paper explores the design of an experimental platform on Nike to directly evaluate the benefit of frequency detuning in mitigating CBET. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Flue gases treatment by simultaneous use of electron beam and streams of microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimek, Z.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Bulka, S.; Lysov, G. W.; Artukh, I. G.; Frank, N. W.

    1995-09-01

    The experimental set up for investigation of SO2 and NOX removal from flue gases has been built on the base of electron accelerator and two independent microwave generators in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. That allows to investigate a combined removal concept based on the simultaneous use the electron beam and streams of microwave energy to produce free radicals in reaction vessel. The preliminary experiment shows that is possible to find such condition with NH3 presence, where the efficiencies of the removal processes caused separately by electron beam and microwave energy are similar in described configuration of the experimental set up. The result of experiment where electron beam and microwave energy were used simultaneously indicates that total efficiency of the combined process is higher to compare with separate ones in certain experimental conditions.

  16. Beam loss and backgrounds in the CDF and D0 detectors due to nuclear elastic beam-gas scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandr I. Drozhdin; Valery A. Lebedev; Nikolai V. Mokhov

    2003-05-27

    Detailed simulations were performed on beam loss rates in the vicinity of the Tevatron Collider detectors due to beam-gas nuclear elastic interactions. It turns out that this component can drive the accelerator-related background rates in the CDF and D0 detectors, exceeding those due to outscattering from collimation system, inelastic beam-gas interactions and other processes [1, 2]. Results of realistic simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes are presented for the interaction region components and the CDF and D0 detectors. It is shown that a steel mask placed upstream of the detectors can reduce the background rates by almost an order of magnitude.

  17. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  18. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  19. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  20. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  1. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: 2007 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of low energy nuclear reactions, a subset of the field of condensed matter nuclear science. Condensed matter nuclear science studies nuclear effects in and/or on condensed matter, including low energy nuclear reactions, an entirely new branch of science that gained widespread attention and notoriety beginning in 1989 with the announcement of a previously unrecognized source of energy by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that came to be known as cold fusion. Two branches of LENR are recognized. The first includes a set of reactions like those observed by Fleischmann and Pons that use palladium and deuterium and yield excess heat and helium-4. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain these reactions, however there is no consensus for, or general acceptance of, any of the theories. The claim of fusion is still considered speculative and, as such, is not an ideal term for this work. The other branch is a wide assortment of nuclear reactions that may occur with either hydrogen or deuterium. Anomalous nuclear transmutations are reported that involve light as well as heavy elements. The significant questions that face this field of research are: 1) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? 2) If so, is there a release of excess energy? 3) If there is, is the energy release cost-effective?

  2. Nuclear Energy: Benefits Versus Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Walter H.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the benefits as well as the risks of nuclear-power plants. Suggests that critics who dwell on the risks to the public from nuclear-power plants should compare these risks with the present hazards that would be eliminated. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Seleznev, D. N.; Yakushin, P. E.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kozlov, A. V.; Koshelev, V. A.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J.

    2011-01-07

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) and carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  4. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Qiang, Ji; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-12-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  5. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  6. Experimental investigation of fatigue in a cantilever energy harvesting beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avvari, Panduranga Vittal; Yang, Yaowen; Liu, Peiwen; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2015-03-01

    Over the last decade, cantilever energy harvesters gained immense popularity owing to the simplicity of the design and piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) using the cantilever design has undergone considerable evolution. The major drawback of a vibrating cantilever beam is its vulnerability to fatigue over a period of time. This article brings forth an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of fatigue of a PEH cantilever beam. As there has been very little literature reported in this area, an effort has been made to scrutinize the damage due to fatigue in a linear vibrating cantilever PEH beam consisting of an aluminum substrate with a piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch attached near the root of the beam and a tip mass attached to the beam. The beam was subjected to transverse vibrations and the behavior of the open circuit voltage was recorded with passing time. Moreover, electro-mechanical admittance readings were obtained periodically using the same MFC patch as a Structural health monitoring (SHM) sensor to assess the health of the PEH beam. The results show that with passing time the PEH beam underwent fatigue in both the substrate and MFC, which is observed in a complimentary trend in the voltage and admittance readings. The claim is further supported using the variation of root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the real part of admittance (conductance) readings. Thus, this study concludes that the fatigue issue should be addressed in the design of PEH for long term vibration energy harvesting.

  7. High energy laser testbed for accurate beam pointing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dojong; Kim, Jae Jun; Frist, Duane; Nagashima, Masaki; Agrawal, Brij

    2010-02-01

    Precision laser beam pointing is a key technology in High Energy Laser systems. In this paper, a laboratory High Energy Laser testbed developed at the Naval Postgraduate School is introduced. System identification is performed and a mathematical model is constructed to estimate system performance. New beam pointing control algorithms are designed based on this mathematical model. It is shown in both computer simulation and experiment that the adaptive filter algorithm can improve the pointing performance of the system.

  8. MCNPX benchmark of in-beam proton energy deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, K.; Ferguson, P.; Morgan, G.; Quintana, D.; Waters, L.; Cooper, R.; Liljestrand, R.; Whiteson, A.

    2000-07-01

    The MCNPX code is being used to calculate energy deposition in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target/blanket system components. To ensure that these components are properly designed, the code must be validated. An energy deposition experiment was designed to aid in the code validation using thermocouple sensors in-beam and thermistor-type sensors in decoupler- and blanketlike regions. This paper focuses on the in-beam thermocouple sensors.

  9. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.; Chase, B. E.; Chaurize, S. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Seiya, K.; Pellico, W. A.; Sullivan, T. M.; Triplett, A. K.

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  10. Anomalous broadening of energy distributions in photoemitted electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, Vincenzo

    1996-06-01

    Photoemission is widely used to generate electron beams with an energy spread lower than by thermoemission. However, when a photocathode is illuminated by a multimode laser this feature is lost and an electron beam with several eV of energy spread is produced. We have developed an explanation for this anomalous behavior pointing out its origin in the combined effect of charge relaxation, taking place within the beam, together with the modulation of the laser power imposed by laser modes. The model permits a correct interpretation overall experimental evidences.

  11. Uncorrelated Energy Spread and Longitudinal Emittance of a Photoinjector Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Stupakov, G.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Longitudinal phase space properties of a photoinjector beam are important in many areas of high-brightness beam applications such as bunch compression, transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange, and high-gain free-electron lasers. In this paper, we discuss both the rf and the space charge contributions to the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam generated from a laser-driven rf gun. We compare analytical expressions for the uncorrelated energy spread and the longitudinal emittance with numerical simulations and recent experimental results.

  12. Laser-based profile and energy monitor for H beams

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly,R.; Alessi, J.; Bellavia, S.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Meng, W.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2008-09-29

    A beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams based on laser photoneutralization was built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)* for use on the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HMS) at Fermilab. An H{sup -} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser ({lambda}=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is stepped across the ion beam, removing electrons from the portion of the H{sup -} beam intercepted by the laser. These electrons are channeled into a Faraday cup by a curved axial magnetic field. To measure the energy distribution of the electrons, the laser position is fixed and the voltage on a screen in front of the Faraday cup is raised in small steps. We present a model which reproduces the measured energy spectrum from calculated beam energy and space-charge fields. Measurements are reported from experiments in the BNL linac MEBT at 750keV.

  13. The Future of Energy from Nuclear Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Taiwo, Temitope

    2013-04-13

    Nuclear energy is an important part of our current global energy system, and contributes to supplying the significant demand for electricity for many nations around the world. There are 433 commercial nuclear power reactors operating in 30 countries with an installed capacity of 367 GWe as of October 2011 (IAEA PRIS, 2011). Nuclear electricity generation totaled 2630 TWh in 2010 representing 14% the world’s electricity generation. The top five countries of total installed nuclear capacity are the US, France, Japan, Russia and South Korea at 102, 63, 45, 24, and 21 GWe, respectively (WNA, 2012a). The nuclear capacity of these five countries represents more than half, 68%, of the total global nuclear capacity. The role of nuclear power in the global energy system today has been motivated by several factors including the growing demand for electric power, the regional availability of fossil resources and energy security concerns, and the relative competitiveness of nuclear power as a source of base-load electricity. There is additional motivation for the use of nuclear power because it does not produce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or local air pollutants during its operation and contributes to low levels of emissions throughout the lifecycle of the nuclear energy system (Beerten, J. et. al., 2009). Energy from nuclear fission primarily in the form of electric power and potentially as a source of industrial heat could play a greater role for meeting the long-term growing demand for energy worldwide while addressing the concern for climate change from rising GHG emissions. However, the nature of nuclear fission as a tremendously compact and dense form of energy production with associated high concentrations of radioactive materials has particular and unique challenges as well as benefits. These challenges include not only the safety and cost of nuclear reactors, but proliferation concerns, safeguard and storage of nuclear materials associated with nuclear fuel

  14. Beam dynamics simulations of post low energy beam transport section in RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness) heavy ion accelerator of the rare isotope science project in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams to be used for various science programs. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams which are generated by an isotope separation on-line system with a wide range of nuclei and charges will be transported through the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to transport many kinds of rare isotope beams stably to the RFQ, the post LEBT should be devised to satisfy the requirement of the RFQ at the end of post LEBT, simultaneously with the twiss parameters small. We will present the recent lattice design of the post LEBT in the RAON accelerator and the results of the beam dynamics simulations from it. In addition, the error analysis and correction in the post LEBT will be also described.

  15. On the Role of Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    The author elaborates on the thesis that much of the confusion and argument about the role of nuclear energy in meeting the energy needs of the nation and the world is caused by failure to place the known facts in perspective with respect to time, to hazards that accompany the use of energy in any form, to economics, and to ultimate limitations in…

  16. Studying astrophysical reactions with low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Rapisarda, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Kubono, S.; Iwasa, N.; Teranishi, T.; Kawabata, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F.; Kiss, G.; Bishop, S.

    2016-05-01

    Studies on nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and other interests have been performed using the radioactive-isotope (RI) beams at the low-energy RI beam separator CRIB, operated by Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), the University of Tokyo. A typical measurement performed at CRIB is the elastic resonant scattering with the inverse kinematics. One recent experiment was on the α resonant scattering with 7Li and 7Be beams. This study is related to the astrophysical 7Li/7Be(α,γ) reactions, important at hot p-p chain and νp-process in supernovae. There have also been measurements based on other experimental methods. The first THM measurement using an RI beam has been performed at CRIB, to study the 18F(p, α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies via the three body reaction 2H(18F, α15O)n. The 18F(p, α) 15O reaction rate is crucial to understand the 511-keV γ-ray production in nova explosion phenomena, and we successfully evaluated the reaction cross section at novae temperature and below experimentally for the first time.

  17. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability

  18. Coherent parasitic energy loss of the recycler beam

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-07-14

    Parasitic energy loss of the particle beam in the Recycler Ring is discussed. The long beam confined between two barrier waves has a spectrum that falls off rapidly with frequency. Discrete summation over the revolution harmonics must be made to obtain the correct energy loss per particle per turn, because only a few lower revolution harmonics of real part of the longitudinal impedance contribute to the parasitic energy loss. The longitudinal impedances of the broadband rf cavities, the broadband resistive-wall monitors, and the resistive wall of the vacuum chamber are discussed. They are the main sources of the parasitic energy loss.

  19. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  20. Nuclear diffractive structure functions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Marquet,C.; Kowalski, H.; Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

    2008-08-08

    A future high-energy electron-ion collider would explore the non-linear weakly-coupled regime of QCD, and test the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) approach to high-energy scattering. Hard diffraction in deep inelastic scattering off nuclei will provide many fundamental measurements. In this work, the nuclear diffractive structure function F{sub 2,A}{sup D} is predicted in the CGC framework, and the features of nuclear enhancement and suppression are discussed.

  1. Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D.

    2012-02-15

    Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

  2. Energy harvesting from controlled buckling of piezoelectric beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented that can generate electricity from the weight of passing cars or crowds. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam, which buckles when the device is stepped on. The energy harvester can have a horizontal or vertical configuration. In the vertical (direct) configuration, the piezoelectric beam is vertical and directly sustains the weight of the vehicles or people. In the horizontal (indirect) configuration, the vertical weight is transferred to a horizontal axial force through a scissor-like mechanism. Buckling of the beam results in significant stresses and, thus, large power production. However, if the beam’s buckling is not controlled, the beam will fracture. To prevent this, the axial deformation is constrained to limit the deformations of the beam. In this paper, the energy harvester is analytically modeled. The considered piezoelectric beam is a general non-uniform beam. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the critical buckling force corresponding to each mode shape are calculated. The electro-mechanical coupling and the geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. The design criteria for the device are discussed. It is demonstrated that a device, realized with commonly used piezoelectric patches, can generate tens of milliwatts of power from passing car traffic. The proposed device could also be implemented in the sidewalks or integrated in shoe soles for energy generation. One of the key features of the device is its frequency up-conversion characteristics. The piezoelectric beam undergoes free vibrations each time the weight is applied to or removed from the energy harvester. The frequency of the free vibrations is orders of magnitude larger than the frequency of the load. The device is, thus, both efficient and insensitive to the frequency of the force excitations.

  3. Ion energy distribution near a plasma meniscus with beam extraction for multi element focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-15

    An earlier study of the axial ion energy distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma ion source showed that the axial ion energy spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal ion source, making it a promising candidate for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial ion energy distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the energy spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the ion energy analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.

  4. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation in Cryogenic Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Radha, P. B.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2015-11-01

    The OMEGA Laser System is used to study the physics of cryogenic implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the spherical ignition designs of the National Ignition Facility. Based on these experiments, cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been identified as the main mechanism reducing laser coupling and hydroefficiency. To mitigate CBET, target size Rt was increased with respect to the size of the beam focal spot Rb. This increases drive pressure, allowing for a thicker, more-stable target to reach ignition-relevant implosion velocities. The beam shape was optimized to minimize the nonuniformity produced when Rb/Rt <1. This talk will summarize the latest results in direct-drive implosions with different Rb/Rt. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. The nuclear energy outlook--a new book from the OECD nuclear energy agency.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Uichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key points of a report titled Nuclear Energy Outlook, published in 2008 by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which has 30 member nations. The report discusses the commitment of many nations to increase nuclear power generating capacity and the potential rate of building new electricity-generating nuclear plants by 2030 to 2050. The resulting decrease in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion resulting from an increase in nuclear power sources is described. Other topics that are discussed include the need to develop non-proliferative nuclear fuels, the importance of developing geological disposal facilities or reprocessing capabilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, and the requirements for a larger nuclear workforce and greater cost competitiveness for nuclear power generation. PMID:21399406

  6. New Pulsed Cold Neutron Beam Line for Fundamental Nuclear Physics at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Seo, P-N; Bowman, J D; Gericke, M; Gillis, R C; Greene, G L; Leuschner, M B; Long, J; Mahurin, R; Mitchell, G S; Penttila, S I; Peralta, G; Sharapov, E I; Wilburn, W S

    2005-01-01

    The NPDGamma collaboration has completed the construction of a pulsed cold neutron beam line on flight path12 at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). We describe the new beam line and characteristics of the beam. We report results of the moderator brightness and the guide performance measurements. FP12 has the highest pulsed cold neutron intensity for nuclear physics in the world. PMID:27308111

  7. New Pulsed Cold Neutron Beam Line for Fundamental Nuclear Physics at LANSCE

    PubMed Central

    Seo, P.-N.; Bowman, J. D.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Leuschner, M. B.; Long, J.; Mahurin, R.; Mitchell, G. S.; Penttila, S. I.; Peralta, G.; Sharapov, E. I.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NPDGamma collaboration has completed the construction of a pulsed cold neutron beam line on flight path12 at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). We describe the new beam line and characteristics of the beam. We report results of the moderator brightness and the guide performance measurements. FP12 has the highest pulsed cold neutron intensity for nuclear physics in the world. PMID:27308111

  8. Experiments with Exotic Spin-Oriented Nuclear Beams and Examples of Nuclear Moment Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balabanski, D. L.; Neyens, G.; Borremans, D.; Coulier, N.; Daugas, J. M.; Teughels, S.; Georgiev, G.; Lewitowicz, M.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2002-04-01

    An overview of a series of recent experiments aimed at the determination of the moments of exotic nuclei is presented. The spin-orientation: spin-alignment and spin-polarization of the nuclear ensemble, which is produced in fragmentation reactions, is of utmost importance for these studies. The discussion emphasizes on the open problems related to the production and the preservation of the orientation during the experiments. Pros and contras for experiments at both, intermediate and high energies are considered. Examples from nuclear moment measurements, which were performed using the LISE-III spectrometer at GANIL, are provided. The spin-alignment and the spin-polarization of the nuclear ensemble were studied by the β-LMR, β-NMR and TDPAD experimental techniques. The experimental results are discussed in the framework of the kinematical model of the fragmentation reaction.

  9. A nuclear reaction analysis and optical microscopy study on controlled growth of large SiC nanocrystals on Si formed by low-energy ion implantation and electron beam annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, A.; Lucas, F.; Rusterucci, J.; Kennedy, J.; Trompetter, W. J.; Rudolphi, M.; Ryan, M.; White, V.; Johnson, S.

    2006-08-01

    Ion implantation of 20 keV 12C+ ions into (1 0 0), p-type silicon with ion fluence of 8 × 1016 at. cm-2 followed by an electron beam annealing under high vacuum conditions has been performed to investigate the formation of crystalline nano-scale SiC features on the silicon surface. Depending on the implantation and annealing conditions, the SiC nanocrystal numbers and average spacing can be controlled by adjusting the implantation and annealing conditions. Typically 300-1000 SiC nanocrystals are produced per 1000 μm2 spaced 0.7-1.2 ± 0.1 μm. Nuclear reaction analysis measurements using the deuterium induced 12C(d, p)13C reaction show that carbon is present in the implanted and annealed samples and varies only to a small degree by the annealing time. However, by not using a liquid nitrogen trap surrounding the targets during implantation, the carbon contamination on the surface reduces the number of SiC nanocrystals and increases their average distance. Specific results are discussed.

  10. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  11. A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs.

  12. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Jose R.; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, H. Javier

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  13. Low electron beam energy CIVA analysis of passivated ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.; Henderson, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    Low Energy Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration (LECIVA) is a new scanning electron microscopy technique developed to localize open conductors in passivated ICs. LECIVA takes advantage of recent experimental work showing that the dielectric surface equilibrium voltage has an electron flux density dependence at low electron beam energies ({le}1.0 keV). The equilibrium voltage changes from positive to negative as the electron flux density is increased. Like Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration (CIVA), LECIVA images are produced from the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as an electron beam is scanned over the IC surface. LECIVA image contrast is generated only by the electrically open part of a conductor, yielding, the same high selectivity demonstrated by CIVA. Because LECIVA is performed at low beam energies, radiation damage by the primary electrons and x-rays to MOS structures is far less than that caused by CIVA. LECIVA may also be performed on commercial electron beam test systems that do not have high primary electron beam energy capabilities. The physics of LECIVA signal generation are described. LECIVA imaging examples illustrate its utility on both a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a commercial electron beam test system.

  14. Using Polarimetry to Determine the CEBAF Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2014-06-01

    As Jefferson Lab begins operations with its upgraded CEBAF a ccelerator, the lab once again needs to experimentally determine the absolute beam energy of the machine. Previously, the CE- BAF beam energy was determined using precision measurement s of the bending magnet integral fields along with beam position information. The result obta ined from this technique was cross- checked with elastic scattering from hydrogen where knowle dge of the scattering angles of the electron and proton allow the beam energy to be determined. Wh ile the field integral method will still work with the upgraded machine, the elastic cross sect ion becomes too small to make preci- sion measurements at angles that are large enough to be easil y accessible; thus a new technique for energy determination has been sought. It will be shown th at by making use of polarimetry, one can use CEBAF’s polarized electrons’ g-2 spin precessio n to determine the absolute beam energy. This can be done in a single hall if the parameters of t he machine, such as the injector energy and linac imbalance, are known or with two halls witho ut any knowledge of the machine parameters

  15. Diagnosing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using Beamlets of Unabsorbed Light from Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    A new diagnostic is now being fielded to record the unabsorbed laser light from implosions on OMEGA. Unabsorbed light from each OMEGA beam is imaged as a distinct ``spot'' in time-integrated images. Each spot is, in essence, the end point of a beamlet of light that originates from a specific region of a beam profile and follows a path determined by refraction. The intensity of light in the beamlet varies along that path because of absorption and cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) with other beamlets. This diagnostic allows for the detailed investigation of the effects of CBET on specific locations of the beam profile. A pinhole can be used to isolate specific spots, allowing the time-resolved spectrum of the beamlet to be measured. A fully 3-D CBET hydrodynamics code postprocessor is used to model the intensity and wavelength of each beamlet as it traverses the coronal plasma to the diagnostic. The model predicts that if a single beam in a symmetric implosion is turned off, the recorded intensity of nearby spots will decrease by ~ 15% as a result of loss of CBET from the dropped beam. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  16. Electron beam pumping of CdZnSe quantum well laser structures using a variable energy electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trager-Cowan, C.; Bagnall, D. M.; McGow, F.; McCallum, W.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Smith, P. C.; Wright, P. J.; Cockayne, B.; Prior, K. A.; Mullins, J. T.; Horsburgh, G.; Cavenett, B. C.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper we present experimental results on electron beam pumping of MBE and MOVPE lasers with CdZnSe single quantum wells. Laser emission in the gree and blue occurs under pulsed excitation, with threshold power densities typically less than 2 kW/cm 2 at low temperatures. Threshold curves obtained at different electron beam energies show that there is an optimum electron beam energy for wells at a given depth below the surface. This suggests that it is possible to match the electron beam energy to a given structure. Results are broadly consistent with Monte Carlo calculations of the depth dependence of the energy deposition of the electron beam.

  17. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S; Stoeckl, C

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  18. Ion energy distribution functions of low energy beams formed by wire extraction electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Vasquez, M. Jr.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    The two-electrode extractor system made of 0.1 mm diameter tungsten wires separated by 0.7 mm has formed an argon ion beam with 50 V extraction potential. Energy spreads of the extracted beams were typically less than 2 eV when the beam current density was low. The beam intensity rapidly decreased as the distance between the extractor and the beam detector increased, indicating space charge limited transport of the beam. Problems associated with the emittance measurements are also discussed.

  19. Nuclear Energy Encore in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishlock, David

    1991-01-01

    This article traces Sweden's decision to indefinitely delay their previous plan to phase out nuclear power generators which had been scheduled for 1995. Discussed as major factors in this delay are the excellent safety record of current reactors and the unacceptable economic, as well as environmental, consequences of switching to other power…

  20. High energy density plasma science with an ultrarelativistic electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Dodd, E.; Huang, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Wang, S.; Hogan, M. J.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.; Watz, D.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.

    2002-05-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful laser beams. For example, the 5 ps (full-width, half-maximum), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of >1020 W/cm-2 at a repetition rate of >10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse which interacts with the surface of a solid target, the particle beam can readily tunnel through tens of cm of steel. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite effectively by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly observable phenomena. The beam paraticles can be: (1) Deflected leading to focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or decelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron beam from the SLAC linac a series of experiments have been carried out that demonstrate clearly many of the above mentioned effects. The results can be compared with theoretical predictions and with two-dimensional and three-dimensional, one-to-one, particle-in-cell code simulations. These phenomena may have practical applications in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultrahigh gradient accelerators.

  1. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When so... documents or actions: Nuclear Energy Hazards and Nuclear Incidents (Applicable only to contracts for...

  2. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When so... documents or actions: Nuclear Energy Hazards and Nuclear Incidents (Applicable only to contracts for...

  3. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Nuclear energy hazards... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When so... documents or actions: Nuclear Energy Hazards and Nuclear Incidents (Applicable only to contracts for...

  4. Coulomb repulsion and the electron beam directed energy weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2004-09-01

    Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into small spots at large distances from defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Based on estimates, the nonreversible terms should be small - of the order of 0.1 mm. If this is true, it is possible to design a practical electron beam directed weapon not limited by Coulomb repulsion.

  5. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  6. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating.

    PubMed

    Deichuli, P; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Korepanov, S; Mishagin, V; Smirnov, A; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction. PMID:26628137

  7. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A. Mishagin, V.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-11-15

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  9. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  10. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  11. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  12. A fast chopper for medium energy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The key elements have been constructed for a fast chopper system capable of removing single 2.5 MeV proton bunches spaced at 325 MHz. The average chopping rate is ~ 1 MHz. The components include a pulse delaying microstrip structure for deflecting the beam, high voltage (1.2 kV) fast (ns rise time) pulsers, and an associated wideband combiner. Various designs for the deflecting structures have been studied. Measurements of the microstrip structures' coverage factors and pulse shapes are presented.

  13. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1990-09-30

    This paper discusses the following topics: antiproton nucleus interactions; strangeness production in heavy ion collisions; search for a J{sup PC} exotic hybrid meson; the SMC experiment; pion production in {rvec n}p scattering; spin transfer measurements for {rvec n}p elastic scattering; pion production in {rvec n}{rvec p} scattering; radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen; radiative decays of low-lying hyperons; photoproduction of jets in nuclei; cylindrical multiplicity detector; MWPC detectors and electronics; lead glass array; cylindrical wire chamber; beam calorimeter; shower counter; and muon veto hodoscope.

  14. A Nuclear Energy Elective for "Ungineers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, R. L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course in the technology of nuclear energy which responds to the immediate concerns of students in areas such as environmental effects, weapons effects, national energy needs, and medical and forensic applications. Includes a course outline and description of appropriate textbooks, (GS)

  15. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  16. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  17. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  18. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  19. Nuclear Energy for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system. Fusion and antimatter systems may also be viable in the future

  20. Polarimeters and Energy Spectrometers for the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, S.; Hildreth, M.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Monig, K.; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schreiber, H.J.; Schuler, P.; Torrence, E.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2009-02-24

    This article gives an overview of current plans and issues for polarimeters and energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC. It is meant to serve as a useful reference for the Detector Letter of Intent documents currently being prepared. Concepts for high precision polarization and energy measurements exist. These concepts have resulted in detailed system layouts that are included in the RDR description for the Beam Delivery System. The RDR includes both upstream and downstream polarimeters and energy spectrometers for both beams. This provides needed complementarity and redundancy for achieving the precision required, with adequate control and demonstration of systematic errors. The BDS polarimeters and energy spectrometers need to be a joint effort of the ILC BDS team and the Detector collaborations, with collaboration members responsible for the performance and accuracy of the measurements. Details for this collaboration and assigning of responsibilities remain to be worked out. There is also a demonstrated need for Detector physicists to play an active role in the design and evaluation of accelerator components that impact beam polarization and beam energy capabilities, including the polarized source and spin rotator systems. A workshop was held in 2008 on ILC Polarization and Energy measurements, which resulted in a set of recommendations for the ILC design and operation. Additional input and action is needed on these from the Detector collaborations, the Research Director and the GDE. Work is continuing during the ILC engineering design phase to further optimize the polarimeter and energy spectrometer concepts and fully implement them in the ILC. This includes consideration for alternative methods, detailed design and cost estimates, and prototype and test beam activities.

  1. Simulation of radiolysis in the near field of a nuclear repository and the spectrophotometric investigation of the formation of radiolysis by-products by applying high energy beam-like experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, T.; Paviet-Hartmann, P.; Wetteland, C. J.; Lu, N.; Ware, S. D.; Sage, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the event of inundation of a nuclear waste repository located in a geological salt formation, chloride brines in contact with nuclear waste will be exposed to different kind of radiation depending on waste-form conditions. Ionizing radiations, however, have the ability to significantly affect the groundwater chemistry of the brines through the formation of free radicals, ionic- and molecular species; among them the typical byproducts of a-radiolysis: hypochlorite (OC1-) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl). In the absence of effects which arc supposed to dominate the redox conditions in the repository (corrosion of metals, microbial activity) the presence of OC1- is known to increase the redox potential of the brines and further to influence the stability of actinide waste-forms by accelerating their dissolution arid - most importantly - to oxidize actinides to their higlier oxidation states, whicli are gcncrally the most soluble ones. We are presenting a new approach to determine the radiation-induced formation rates of hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid as a first step to assess long-term steady-state repository conditions. To ovt:rcome the serious constraints of conventional radiocheinical work with GBq activity levels, we are simulating a-irradiation of chloride brines by the adaptation of ion-beam-line experiments. Therefore, we irradiate liquid chloride brine targets with 5 MeV protons, and 5 MeV helium ions. The irradiation-induced formation rates of OCX- and HOC1 were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. To give an example, the measured G values for the HOCl formation in 3.7 M MgC12.6H20, pW 4.42, irradiated by 5 MeV protons was determined to be 0.0374 {+-} 0.0022, and 0.0536 {+-} 49 by irradiating with 5 MeV helium. The distinguished ltnowledge about the radiation-induced production of oxo-chloride species is the first step towards the assumption of their steady-state concentrations in the irradiation field of the repository.

  2. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity

  3. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  4. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  5. Symmetry energy of warm nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2014-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy coefficients of infinite nuclear matter and of finite nuclei is investigated. For infinite matter, both these coefficients are found to have a weaker dependence on temperature at densities close to saturation; at low but homogeneous densities, the temperature dependence becomes stronger. For finite systems, different definitions of symmetry energy coefficients are encountered in the literature yielding different values. A resolution to this problem is suggested from a global liquid-drop-inspired fit of the energies and free energies of a host of nuclei covering the entire periodic table. The hot nucleus is modeled in a subtracted finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi framework, with dynamical surface phonon coupling to nucleonic motion plugged in. Contrary to infinite nuclear matter, a substantial change in the symmetry energy coefficients is observed for finite nuclei with temperature.

  6. High Energy Density Science with Ultrarelativistic Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan

    2001-10-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful lasers. For example, the 5 ps (FWHM), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of > 10^20 W/cm^2 at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse, the particle beam can readily bore through several mm of steel due to the rigidity of its flux component. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite strongly by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly-observable phenomena. The beam can be: (1) deflected leading focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or de-accelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac we have carried out a series of experiments that demonstrate clearly the above mentioned effects. The results are compared with theoretical predictions and 3D, one-to-one PIC code simulations using the code OSIRIS. These phenomena may have practical application in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultra-high gradient accelerators.

  7. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  8. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  9. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2008-04-01

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose "to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large". The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed.

  10. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  11. Modeling crossed-beam energy transfer for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D. J. Y.; Debayle, A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-05-01

    We developed a numerical code that describes both the energy transfer occurring when two or more laser beams overlap in a weakly non-homogeneous plasma, and the beam energy losses associated with the electron-ion collisions. The numerical solutions are validated with both the exact analytical solutions in homogeneous plasmas, and with new approximate analytical solutions in non-homogeneous plasmas that include the aforementioned inverse bremsstrahlung effect. Comparisons with kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are satisfactory, provided the acoustic wave-breaking limit and the self-focusing regime are not reached. An application of the Cross-Beam Energy Transfer model is shown for a typical case of indirect-drive implosion in a gold hohlraum.

  12. Surface modification using low energy ground state ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of effecting modifications at the surfaces of materials using low energy ion beams of known quantum state, purity, flux, and energy is presented. The ion beam is obtained by bombarding ion-generating molecules with electrons which are also at low energy. The electrons used to bombard the ion generating molecules are separated from the ions thus obtained and the ion beam is directed at the material surface to be modified. Depending on the type of ion generating molecules used, different ions can be obtained for different types of surface modifications such as oxidation and diamond film formation. One area of application is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices from semiconductor wafers.

  13. Field energy and RMS emittance in intense particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.; Mills, R.S.; Reiser, M.

    1986-04-25

    An equation is presented for continuous beam with azimuthal symmetry and continuous linear focusing; the equation expresses a relationship between the rate of change for squared rms emittance and the rate of change for a quantity we call the nonlinear field energy. The nonlinear field energy depends on the shape of the charge distribution and corresponds to the residual field energy possessed by beams with nonuniform charge distributions. The equation can be integrated for the case of an rms matched beam to yield a formula for space-charge-induced emittance growth that we have tested numerically for a variety of initial distributions. The results provide a framework for discussing the scaling of rms emittance growth and an explanation for the well-established lower limit on output emittance.

  14. Computational Study of Low Energy Nuclear Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Justin; Hira, Ajit; Brownrigg, Clifton; Pacheco, Jose

    2013-04-01

    We continue our interest in the interactions between different nuclear species with a computational study of the scattering of the low-energy nuclei of H through F atoms ( Z<=9 ) from Palladium and other metals. First, a FORTRAN computer program was developed to compute stopping cross sections and scattering angles in Pd and other metals for the small nuclear projectiles, using Monte Carlo calculation. This code allows for different angles of incidence. Next, simulations were done in the energy interval from 10 to 140kev. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant experimental data. The data are further analyzed to identify periodic trends in terms of the atomic number of the projectile. Such studies have potential applications in nuclear physics and in nuclear medicine.

  15. Energy harvesting of two cantilever beams structure: interfacing circuit discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Yin; Vasic, Dejan

    2015-03-01

    Today research on supplying of low power consumption device is highly focused on piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibration. The most popular structure is a cantilever beam with piezoelectric patch to convert mechanical energy into electric energy. In the past researches, the theoretical analysis and interfacing circuit design of single cantilever beam structure is highly developed. In this study, the electrical interfacing circuit of two (or more) piezoelectric generators connected to only one load is proposed and discussed. The nonlinear synchronized switching technique SSHI (Synchronized Switching Harvesting in Inductor) is examined to increase the power efficiency effectively of each piezoelectric generator. In the multiple cantilever beam or flag structure application, the structure may be composed of many piezoelectric patches and the interfacing circuit becomes more complicated and important. From the theoretical analysis and the governing equation, the equivalent circuit of two cantilever beam will be proposed and simulated with the optimized synchronous electric charge extraction (OSECE) nonlinear technique to optimize the interfacing circuit and increase the power efficiency by using the Matlab and PSIM software. The experiments will also show the good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The interfacing circuit design concept in the two cantilever beams structure can be further used in the multi-piezoelectric patches energy harvesting system such as piezoelectric flag to optimize the circuit and increase the power efficiency.

  16. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  17. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  18. Nuclear and gravitational energies in stars

    SciTech Connect

    Meynet, Georges; Ekström, Sylvia; Courvoisier, Thierry

    2014-05-09

    The force that governs the evolution of stars is gravity. Indeed this force drives star formation, imposes thermal and density gradients into stars at hydrostatic equilibrium and finally plays the key role in the last phases of their evolution. Nuclear power in stars governs their lifetimes and of course the stellar nucleosynthesis. The nuclear reactions are at the heart of the changes of composition of the baryonic matter in the Universe. This change of composition, in its turn, has profound consequences on the evolution of stars and galaxies. The energy extracted from the gravitational, respectively nuclear reservoirs during the lifetimes of stars of different masses are estimated. It is shown that low and intermediate mass stars (M < 8 M{sub ⊙}) extract roughly 90 times more energy from their nuclear reservoir than from their gravitational one, while massive stars (M > 8 M{sub ⊙}), which explode in a supernova explosion, extract more than 5 times more energy from the gravitational reservoir than from the nuclear one. We conclude by discussing a few important nuclear reactions and their link to topical astrophysical questions.

  19. Criteria for Global Nuclear Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Michael J.

    2002-07-01

    Global energy consumption will at least double over the next fifty years due to population growth, increased consumption, and an urgent need to improve the standard of living in under-developed countries. Thirty percent of this growth will be for electricity. At the same time, carbon emissions must be significantly reduced to respond to concerns regarding global warming. The use of nuclear energy to meet this growing electricity demand without carbon emissions is an obvious solution to many observers, however real concerns over economics, safety, waste and proliferation must be adequately addressed. The issue is further complicated by the fact that developing countries, which have the most pressing need for additional electricity generation, have the least capability and infrastructure to deploy nuclear energy. Nevertheless, if the specific needs of developing countries are appropriately considered now as new generation reactors are being developed, and institutional arrangements based upon the fundamental principles of President Eisenhower's 1953 Atoms For Peace speech are followed, nuclear energy could be deployed in any country. From a technical perspective, reactor safety and accessibility of special nuclear material are primary concerns. Institutionally, plant and fuel ownership and waste management issues must be addressed. International safety and safeguards authority are prerequisites. While the IAEA's IMPRO program and the United States' Generation IV programs are focusing on technical solutions, institutional issues, particularly with regard to deployment in developing countries, are not receiving corresponding attention. Full-service, cradle-to-grave, nuclear electricity companies that retain custody and responsibility for the plant and materials, including waste, are one possible solution. Small modular reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor could be ideal for such an arrangement. While waste disposal remains a major obstacle, this is already

  20. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in

  1. Induction of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts from the Los Alamos High Energy Neutron Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The space radiation field includes a broad spectrum of high energy neutrons. Interactions between these neutrons and a spacecraft, or other material, significantly contribute to the dose equivalent for astronauts. The 15 degree beam line in the Weapons Neutron Research beam at Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center generates a neutron spectrum relatively similar to that seen in space. Human foreskin fibroblast (AG1522) samples were irradiated behind 0 to 20 cm of water equivalent shielding. The cells were exposed to either a 0.05 or 0.2 Gy entrance dose. Following irradiation, micronuclei were counted to see how the water shield affects the beam and its damage to cell nuclei. Micronuclei induction was then compared with dose equivalent data provided from a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

  2. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  3. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  4. Range and Energy Straggling in Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang

    2000-01-01

    A first-order approximation to the range and energy straggling of ion beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in energy loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation energy of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low energy by systematic energy scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.

  5. The development of nuclear energy in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C. )

    1992-01-01

    The paper traces the development of nuclear energy in the Philippines and outlines the program on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the country as well as the problems and prospects of nuclear energy development. Nuclear power is at a standstill but the other areas of nuclear energy development are underway. The projects on the application of nuclear energy in agriculture, industry, public health and safety, are being pursued. Technology transfer to end users is sometimes hampered by public acceptance issues, such as irradiated food being believed to become radioactive, dislike with anything associated with radiation, and plain inherent fear of nuclear energy.

  6. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  7. Beamed Energy Propulsion: Research Status And Needs--Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Birkan, Mitat

    2008-04-28

    One promising solution to the operationally responsive space is the application of remote electromagnetic energy to propel a launch vehicle into orbit. With beamed energy propulsion, one can leave the power source stationary on the ground or space, and direct heat propellant on the spacecraft with a beam from a fixed station. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance. This concept, which removes the mass penalty of carrying the propulsion energy source on board the vehicle, was first proposed by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972; he invoked an extremely powerful ground based laser. The same year Michael Minovich suggested a conceptually similar 'in-space' laser rocket system utilizing a remote laser power station. In the late 1980's, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funded continuous, double pulse laser and microwave propulsion while Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) funded ablative laser rocket propulsion. Currently AFOSR has been funding the concept initiated by Leik Myrabo, repetitively pulsed laser propulsion, which has been universally perceived, arguably, to be the closest for mid-term applications. This 2-part paper examines the investment strategies in beamed energy propulsion and technical challenges to be overcome. Part 1 presents a world-wide review of beamed energy propulsion research, including both laser and microwave arenas.

  8. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  9. Surface layer effect on nuclear deformation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Sanzhur, A. I.; Reznychenko, B. V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we apply the direct variational method to derive the nuclear deformation energy. The extended Thomas-Fermi approximation (ETFA) for the energy functional with Skyrme forces is used. We study the influence of the finite surface layer of the nuclear density profile function on the formation of the fission barrier and the scission configuration. Comparison of the variational approach with the traditional liquid drop model (LDM) is presented. We show the sensitivity of the numerical results to the surface diffuseness parameter.

  10. 76 FR 23798 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory...

  11. Optics and beam transport in energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg H.; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Owen, Hywel

    2006-02-01

    Here, we report on the working group "Optics and Beam Transport" of the 2005 Energy-Recovery-Linac Workshop. This workshop also had working groups on "Electron Guns and Injector Designs", "Superconducting RF and RF Control", and "Synchronization and Diagnostics/Instrumentation". Here, we are concerned with the many different ERL proposals that international laboratories have been working on. Subjects of concern are optics, accelerator design and modeling, stability requirements, designs of the merger that connects the conventional injector linac with the Energy Recovery Linac, longitudinal phase space manipulations to produce short pulses, beam dynamics and limitations by beam instabilities, and computational aspects of space-charge and synchrotron radiation effects. A coarse grain overview is given and reference is made to more detailed articles that were presented in this working group. Subjects are identified where collaborations should be encouraged and areas of future R&D are prioritized.

  12. Applications of power beaming from space-based nuclear power stations. [Laser beaming to airplanes; microwave beaming to ground

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.; Hertzberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Power beaming from space-based reactor systems is examined using an advanced compact, lightweight Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR). Closed Brayton power conversion efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40% can be achieved with turbines, with reactor exit temperatures on the order of 2000/sup 0/K and a liquid drop radiator to reject heat at temperatures of approx. 500/sup 0/K. Higher RBR coolant temperatures (up to approx. 3000/sup 0/K) are possible, but gains in power conversion efficiency are minimal, due to lower expander efficiency (e.g., a MHD generator). Two power beaming applications are examined - laser beaming to airplanes and microwave beaming to fixed ground receivers. Use of the RBR greatly reduces system weight and cost, as compared to solar power sources. Payback times are a few years at present prices for power and airplane fuel.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of a collimation system for low-energy beamline of ELI-NP Gamma Beam System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, P.; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Bagli, E.; Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2015-07-01

    ELI-nuclear physics (NP) Gamma Beam System (GBS) is an intense and monochromatic gamma beam source based on inverse Compton interaction, currently being built in Bucharest, Romania. The gamma beam produced, with energy ranging from 0.2 to 20 MeV, energy bandwidth 0.5% and flux of about 108photons/s, will be devoted to investigate a broad range of applications such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, material science and life sciences. The radiation produced by an inverse Compton interaction is not intrinsically monochromatic. In fact, the energy of the photons produced is related to the emission angle, therefore the energy bandwidth can be modified adjusting the collimation of the gamma beam. In order to define the optimal layout and evaluate the performance of a collimation system for the ELI-NP-GBS low-energy beamline (0.2-3.5 MeV), a detailed Monte Carlo simulation activity has been carried out. The simulation, using Geant4 and MCNPX codes, included the transport of the gamma beam from the interaction point to the experimental area passing through vacuum pipes, vacuum chambers, collimation system and relative shielding. The effectiveness of the collimation system, in obtaining the required energy distribution and avoiding the contamination due to secondary radiation production, was evaluated. Also, the background radiation generated by collimation and the shielding layout have been studied.

  14. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  15. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  16. Large energy-spread beam diagnostics through quadrupole scans

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, Joel; Adli, Erik; Hogan, Mark; Raubenheimer, Tor

    2012-12-21

    The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) is a new user facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, servicing next-generation accelerator experiments. The 1.5% RMS energy spread of the FACET beam causes large chromatic aberrations in optics. These aberrations necessitate updated quadrupole scan fits to remain accurate.

  17. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii-e, Yoichi ); Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi )

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal.

  18. Spiral design and beam dynamics for a variable energy cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, A.J.; Chasman, C.; Thorn, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Beam-orbit studies were performed for the conversion of the SREL synchrocyclotron magnet for use as a room temperature, multiparticle, isochronous cyclotron. Based on model magnet measurements of field profiles for 8 to 23/sup 0/K gauss hill fields, a four sector spiral pole tip design has been realized which allows all isotope species of heavy ion beams to be accelerated to required final energies. The total spiral angle of 38/sup 0/ allows injection of the beams from the MP tandem into the cyclotron through a valley. The two valey RF system of 140 kV peak accelerates beams on harmonic numbers 2, 3, 4, 6 and 10 at 14 to 21 MHz. Computer calculations indicated acceptable ..nu../sub z/, ..nu../sub r/ and phase space beam characteristics and passing of resonances for typical beams considered: /sup 16/O at 8 and 150 MeV/amu, /sup 60/Ni at 100 MeV/amu and /sup 238/U at 2.5 and 16 MeV/amu. Single turn extraction is achieved with electrostatic deflection.

  19. A nuclear fragmentation energy deposition model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, D. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Fogarty, T. N.; Buck, W. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. A nuclear data base is recommended that agrees well with the measurements of McNulty et al. using surface barrier detectors. High-energy events observed by McNulty et al., which are not predicted by intranuclear cascade models, are well represented by the present work.

  20. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Vibration piezoelectric energy harvester with multi-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yan Zhang, Qunying Yao, Minglei; Dong, Weijie; Gao, Shiqiao

    2015-04-15

    This work presents a novel vibration piezoelectric energy harvester, which is a micro piezoelectric cantilever with multi-beam. The characteristics of the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film were measured; XRD (X-ray diffraction) pattern and AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) image of the PZT thin film were measured, and show that the PZT (Pb(Zr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47})O{sub 3}) thin film is highly (110) crystal oriented; the leakage current is maintained in nA magnitude, the residual polarisation Pr is 37.037 μC/cm{sup 2}, the coercive field voltage Ec is 27.083 kV/cm, and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 28 pC/N. In order to test the dynamic performance of the energy harvester, a new measuring system was set up. The maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam can achieve 80.78 mV under an acceleration of 1 g at 260 Hz of frequency; the maximum output voltage of the single beam of the multi-beam is almost 20 mV at 1400 Hz frequency. .

  2. The production and use of radioactive nuclear beams at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.

    1991-10-01

    Using the fragmentation process, radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are routinely produced at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Bevalac. Three beam lines are operational for production and transport of RNB: (1) a line for use in the radiotherapy treatment program (A {congruent} 20 amu), (2) a line for low mass (A {congruent} 20 amu) nuclear science studies and (3) a line for medium mass (A {congruent} 50 amu) nuclear science studies. A fourth beam line is under construction that will allow higher mass RNB (A {congruent} 100 amu) to be transmitted to the Bevalac`s Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer. Characteristics of RNB production and transport efficiency are described along with the RNB experimental program at the Bevalac.

  3. The production and use of radioactive nuclear beams at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.

    1991-10-01

    Using the fragmentation process, radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) are routinely produced at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three beam lines are operational for production and transport of RNB: (1) a line for use in the radiotherapy treatment program (A {congruent} 20 amu), (2) a line for low mass (A {congruent} 20 amu) nuclear science studies and (3) a line for medium mass (A {congruent} 50 amu) nuclear science studies. A fourth beam line is under construction that will allow higher mass RNB (A {congruent} 100 amu) to be transmitted to the Bevalac's Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer. Characteristics of RNB production and transport efficiency are described along with the RNB experimental program at the Bevalac.

  4. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  5. Stamps Tell the Story of Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    This document provides a summary history of the individual scientists principally responsible for the development of nuclear physics and a survey of modern utilization of atomic energy. Identified throughout the booklet are postage stamps illustrating each individual and topic discussed. (SL)

  6. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  7. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  8. Rare isotope beam energy measurements and scintillator developments for ReA3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling-Ying

    The ReAccelerator for 3 MeV/u beams (ReA3) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) in Michigan State University can stop rare isotope beams produced by in-flight fragmentation and reaccelerate them in a superconducting linac. The precise knowledge of the energy and the energy spread of the ion beams extracted from the ReA3 linac is essential for experimental requirement in many applications. Beam energy determination methods such as implantation on a Si detector and/or using calibrated linac settings are precise within a few tens of keV/u. In order to determine beam energies with good resolution of less than 0.5 % FWHM, a 45 degree bending magnet with a movable slit is used to determine the absolute beam energy based on the magnetic rigidity. Two methods have been developed for the energy calibration of the beam analyzing magnet: gamma-ray nuclear resonance reactions and a time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The resonance energies of gamma-ray resonant reactions provide well-known and precise calibration points. The gamma ray yields of the 27Al(p,gamma)28Si at Ep= 992 keV and 632 keV resonances and 58Ni(p,gamma)59Cu at Ep= 1843 keV resonance have been measured with the high efficiency CAESAR (CAESium iodide ARray) and SuN (Summing NaI(Tl)) detectors. By fitting the observed resonant gamma-ray yields, not only the beam energy can be precisely correlated with the magnetic field but also beam energy spread can be obtained. The measured beam energy spread is consistent with beam optics calculations. A time-of-flight system for determining the absolute energy of ion beams and calibrating the 45 degree magnetic analyzer has been developed in ReA3 by using two identical secondary electron monitors (grid-MCP detectors) with appropriate separation. The TOF technique is applicable to the variety of beam energies and ion particles. Velocities of ion beam are determined by simultaneously measuring the arrival time of beam bunches at the two detectors with

  9. Energy harvesting under excitation of clamped-clamped beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Ashok; Alomari, Almuatasim; Aggarwal, Mohan; Bandyopadhyay, Alak

    2016-04-01

    In this article, a piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed experimentally and theoretically based on Euler- Bernoulli Theory. A PVDF piezoelectric thick film has attached along of clamped-clamped beam under sinusoidal base excitation of shaker. The results showed a good agreement between the experimental and simulation of suggested model. The voltage output frequency response function (FRF), current FRF, and output power has been studied under short and open circuit conditions at first vibration mode. The mode shape of the clamped-clamped beam for first three resonance frequency has been modeled and investigated using COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB.

  10. The production and use of ultralow energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, R. D.; Armour, D. G.; van den Berg, J. A.; Cook, C. E. A.; Whelan, S.; Zhang, S.; Knorr, N.; Foad, M. A.; Ohno, H.

    2000-02-01

    An ion accelerator, purpose built to produce beams at energies down to 10 eV with current densities in the 10-100 μA cm-2 range, is described. Fitted with dual ion source assemblies, the machine enables ultralow energy ion implantation and the growth of films and multilayers to be carried out under highly controlled conditions. The accelerator delivers ion beams into an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, containing a temperature controlled target stage (range -120 to +1350 °C), where they are used to study the fundamental physics relating to the interaction of ultralow energy ions with surfaces. This knowledge underlies a wide range of ion-beam and plasma-based technologies and, to illustrate its importance, results are presented from investigations designed to determine the optimum conditions for the growth of diamond-like and aluminum films by ion-beam deposition and the formation of ultrashallow junctions in semiconductors by 2.5 keV As+ implantation. The later investigation shows how transient arsenic diffusion, which occurs during post-implant thermal processing, can be controlled by manipulating the substrate temperature during implantation.

  11. Determination of the beam quality index of high-energy photon beams under nonstandard reference conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmans, Hugo

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: At some modern radiotherapy machines it is not possible to achieve reference conditions for the measurement of beam quality indices used in dosimetry codes of practice, such as IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51. This work aims at providing self-consistent and simpler expressions and more accurate fits for a limited range of beams of interest than have been proposed previously for deriving these beam quality indices from measurements. Methods: The starting point is a formula proposed by Sauer [Med. Phys. 36, 4168-4172 (2009)] for deriving the beam quality index used in IAEA TRS-398, TPR{sub 20,10}, from a measurement of the tissue phantom ratio at depths of 20 cm and 10 cm in water for an s Multiplication-Sign s cm{sup 2} (equivalent) square field, TPR{sub 20,10}(s). First, a self-consistent version of this formula is established followed by a simpler version by making a linear approximation. A similar approach is proposed to derive the beam quality index used in AAPM TG-51, %dd(10){sub X}, from a measurement of PDD{sub 10}(s), the percentage depth dose at 10 cm for a square field with size s. All models were fitted to subsets of relevant data from BJR supplement 25. Results: The linear models for TPR{sub 20,10}(s) and exponential models for PDD{sub 10}(s) as a function of the (equivalent) square field size can reproduce the beam quality within 0.3% and beam quality correction factors within 0.05% for square field sizes ranging from 4 cm to 12 cm and nominal photon energies from 4 MV to 12 MV. For higher energy beams the errors are only slightly worse but for %dd(10){sub X}, an additional uncertainty component has to be considered for the electron contamination correction. Conclusions: The models proposed here can be used in practical recommendations for the dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields.

  12. Application of Nuclear Energy to Bitumen Upgrading and Biomass Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoru Numata; Yasushi Fujimura; Takayuki Amaya; Masao Hori

    2006-07-01

    Key drivers for the increasing use of nuclear energy are the need to mitigate global warming and the requirement for energy security. Nuclear energy can be applied not only to generate electricity but also as a heat source. Moreover, nuclear energy can be applied for hydrogen as well as water production. The application of nuclear energy to oil processing and biomass production is studied in this paper. (authors)

  13. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  14. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  15. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  17. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  18. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-28

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  19. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-01

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  20. Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-05-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.

  1. Beam-energy-spread minimization using cell-timing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, C. R.; Ekdahl, C.; Schulze, M.

    2012-04-01

    Beam energy spread, and related beam motion, increase the difficulty in tuning for multipulse radiographic experiments at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility’s axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). In this article, we describe an optimization method to reduce the energy spread by adjusting the timing of the cell voltages (both unloaded and loaded), either advancing or retarding, such that the injector voltage and summed cell voltages in the LIA result in a flatter energy profile. We developed a nonlinear optimization routine which accepts as inputs the 74 cell-voltage, injector voltage, and beam current waveforms. It optimizes cell timing per user-selected groups of cells and outputs timing adjustments, one for each of the selected groups. To verify the theory, we acquired and present data for both unloaded and loaded cell-timing optimizations. For the unloaded cells, the preoptimization baseline energy spread was reduced by 34% and 31% for two shots as compared to baseline. For the loaded-cell case, the measured energy spread was reduced by 49% compared to baseline.

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas, N. P.; Arstila, K.; Battistig, G.; Bianconi, M.; Dytlewski, N.; Jeynes, C.; Kótai, E.; Lulli, G.; Mayer, M.; Rauhala, E.; Szilágyi, E.; Thompson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  3. Manufactured Doubt: The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear electricity is a CO2 free technology with a proven track record of large scale commercial deployment. For example, France generates 78% of its electrical power with nuclear plants. France has the lowest pre-tax cost of electricity in Europe at 4.75 eurocents per KWH and France is the world's largest exporter of electricity. There are large world reserves of uranium sufficient for hundreds of years, even without breeder technology. Additionally, thorium, another radioactive mineral is in even more plentiful supply. Although present-day nuclear technology has proven to be safe and reliable, waiting in the wings is new generation technology that promises great improvements in both safety and cost. Yet, there has been a calculated and sophisticated campaign in the later part of the 20th century to create doubt and fear concerning nuclear power. In the United States this campaign has essentially destroyed the nuclear industry. No new plants have been commissioned for decades. Leadership in the nuclear power field has been ceded to other countries. The great paradox is that the very organizations that express great alarm concerning CO2 emissions are the same organizations that led the campaign against nuclear power decades ago. Representatives of these organizations will say privately that they are taking a new look at nuclear power, but no major organization has reversed course and become a supporter of nuclear power. To do so would involve a loss of face and create doubts concerning the credibility of the organization. As recently as 2001 environmentalist lobbyists made great efforts to ensure that no credit could be given for nuclear power under the Kyoto accords and the associated clean development mechanism. They succeeded and nuclear power receives unfavorable treatment under the Kyoto accords even though it is a proven solution for reducing CO2 emissions. The technique used to destroy nuclear energy as a viable alternative in the United States had two

  4. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    1998-01-01

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible.

  5. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.F.

    1998-04-21

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs.

  6. Curing Composite Materials Using Lower-Energy Electron Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Catherine A.; Bykanov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    In an improved method of fabricating composite-material structures by laying up prepreg tapes (tapes of fiber reinforcement impregnated by uncured matrix materials) and then curing them, one cures the layups by use of beams of electrons having kinetic energies in the range of 200 to 300 keV. In contrast, in a prior method, one used electron beams characterized by kinetic energies up to 20 MeV. The improved method was first suggested by an Italian group in 1993, but had not been demonstrated until recently. With respect to both the prior method and the present improved method, the impetus for the use of electron- beam curing is a desire to avoid the high costs of autoclaves large enough to effect thermal curing of large composite-material structures. Unfortunately, in the prior method, the advantages of electron-beam curing are offset by the need for special walls and ceilings on curing chambers to shield personnel from x rays generated by impacts of energetic electrons. These shields must be thick [typically 2 to 3 ft (about 0.6 to 0.9 m) if made of concrete] and are therefore expensive. They also make it difficult to bring large structures into and out of the curing chambers. Currently, all major companies that fabricate composite-material spacecraft and aircraft structures form their layups by use of automated tape placement (ATP) machines. In the present improved method, an electron-beam gun is attached to an ATP head and used to irradiate the tape as it is pressed onto the workpiece. The electron kinetic energy between 200 and 300 keV is sufficient for penetration of the ply being laid plus one or two of the plies underneath it. Provided that the electron-beam gun is properly positioned, it is possible to administer the required electron dose and, at the same time, to protect personnel with less shielding than is needed in the prior method. Adequate shielding can be provided by concrete walls 6 ft (approximately equal to 1.8 m) high and 16 in. (approximately

  7. A description of a wide beam saddle field ion source used for nuclear target applications

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Schiel, S.L.; Thomas, G.E.

    1997-07-01

    A description is given of a new, wide beam saddle field sputter source used for the preparation of targets applied in nuclear physics experiments. The ion source characteristics are presented and compared with published results obtained with other sources. Deposition rates acquired utilizing this source are given for a variety of target materials encountered in nuclear target production. New applications involving target thinning and ion milling are discussed.

  8. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  9. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  10. Low energy beam transport in the NSLS UV-FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1993-06-01

    A design of the injection low energy transport line for the proposed NSLS UV-FEL is presented. The main concern is to control the beam transverse emittance dilution due to space charge, energy spread and non-linear forces introduced by magnetic elements. The design considerations to optimize the transport line are discussed including the deleterious effects of space charge and energy spread as modeled by the particle code PARMELA. The results from PARMELA are analyzed, and the concept of slice emittance is used to examine the causes of emittance growth.

  11. Low energy beam transport in the NSLS UV-FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A design of the injection low energy transport line for the proposed NSLS UV-FEL is presented. The main concern is to control the beam transverse emittance dilution due to space charge, energy spread and non-linear forces introduced by magnetic elements. The design considerations to optimize the transport line are discussed including the deleterious effects of space charge and energy spread as modeled by the particle code PARMELA. The results from PARMELA are analyzed, and the concept of slice emittance is used to examine the causes of emittance growth.

  12. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J.L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-26

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, 'novel' x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic 'structure' of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR)

  13. Feasibility of ceramic joining with high energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Joining structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for producing joints with high temperature capability. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the adjacent ceramic. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 NTa have been measured for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Mo-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These modest strengths are due to beam non-uniformity and the limited area of bonding. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide reaction layer. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joints with no metal layer were also produced, apparently bonded an yttrium apatite grain boundary phase.

  14. Interaction of turbulence with flexible beams in fluidic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesh Yazdi, Amir Hossein

    Advances in the development and fabrication of microelectronics have enhanced the energy efficiency of these devices to such an extent that they can now operate at very low power levels, typically on the order of a few microwatts or less. Batteries are primarily thought of as the most convenient source of power for electronic devices, but in instances where a device needs to be deployed in a difficult-to-access location such as under water, the added weight and especially maintenance of such a power source becomes costly. A solution that avoids this problem and is particularly attractive in a "deploy & forget" setting involves designing a device that continuously harvests energy from the surrounding environment. Piezoelectric energy harvesters, which employ the direct piezoelectric effect to convert mechanical strain into electrical energy, have garnered a great deal of attention in the literature. This work presents an overview of the experimental and analytical results related to fluidic energy extraction from vortex and turbulent flow using piezoelectric cantilever beams. In particular, the development of the FTGF (Fourier Transform-Green's Function) solution approach to the coupled, continuous electromechanical equations governing piezoelectric cantilever beams and the associated TFB (Train of Frozen Boxcars) method, which models the flow of vortices and turbulent eddies over the beams, is discussed. In addition, the behavior of fluidic energy harvesters in decaying isotropic, homogeneous grid turbulence generated by passive, semi-passive and active grids is examined and a novel grid-turbulence forcing model is introduced. An expression for the expected power output of the piezoelectric beam is obtained by utilizing this forcing function model in the single degree-of-freedom electromechanical equations. Furthermore, approximate, closed-form solutions to the theoretical expected power are derived from deterministic turbulence forcing models and are compared with

  15. Losses of ion energy in the multicomponent beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanov, Ilkham S.; Gurbanov, Ilgar I.; Akbarov, Elchin M.

    2015-03-01

    Energy losses of near axis ions and decreases in ion current density in the center of a beam were observed in a liquid metal source operating under a charged nanodroplets (In, Sn, Au, Ge) generation regime. In experiments, nanodroplets with the sizes of 2-20 nanometers and a characteristic specific charge of 5 × 104 C/kg were revealed. Energy spectra of ions were defined by means of the filter of speeds with cross-section static electromagnetic fields. A reduction of 4% of the In+ ions energy was observed under the conditions of the curried out measurements. The stream of nanoparticles, in contrast to an ion beam, has a small radial divergence; outside of this stream, change of ion speeds is not observed. Energy losses of ions occur during their flight through small nanoparticles. Penetration depth of the accelerated ions in liquid indium is estimated within the framework of the Lindhard-Scharff-Schiott model. Similar interaction between components occurs in ion-beam systems of complex composition where there is a relative movement of various charged particles.

  16. Beamed Energy Propulsion: Research Status And Needs--Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Birkan, Mitat

    2008-04-28

    One promising solution to the operationally responsive space is the application of remote electromagnetic energy to propel a launch vehicle into orbit. With beamed energy propulsion, one can leave the power source stationary on the ground or space, and direct heat propellant on the spacecraft with a beam from a fixed station. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance. This concept, which removes the mass penalty of carrying the propulsion energy source on board the vehicle, was first proposed by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972; he invoked an extremely powerful ground based laser. The same year Michael Minovich suggested a conceptually similar 'in-space' laser rocket system utilizing a remote laser power station. In the late 1980's, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funded continuous, double pulse laser and microwave propulsion while Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) funded ablative laser rocket propulsion. Currently AFOSR has been funding the concept initiated by Leik Myrabo, repetitively pulsed laser propulsion, which has been universally perceived, arguably, to be the closest for mid-term applications. This 2-part paper examines the investment strategies in beamed energy propulsion and technical challenges to be covers Part 2 covers the present research status and needs.

  17. High energy electron beam irradiation of water, wastewater and sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    Research on the use of high energy electrons for treating water, wastewater and wastewater sludge has been under way for approximately twenty years. Much of this work has been supported by the National Science Foundation and an overview of that support has been reported on by Bryan. The results of recent work, especially the most recent project at the Miami Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF), has stimulated great interest in the area of utilizing this technology for treating environmental problems. This facility is located at the Miami Dade Central District (Virginia Key) Wastewater Treatment Plant in Miami, Florida, and is unique in that it is the only electron beam system set up for large scale treatment of wastewater. High energy electron beam irradiation as a treatment process has potential application in many areas of water, wastewater and industrial waste treatment and in the area of toxic/hazardous waste disposal. This chapter will discuss these applications and present selected results to date. Electron beam technology is described and the underlying chemistry is reviewed to provide a basis for interpretation of results obtained so far, and to point out the necessary information on water quality that is required to quantitatively describe the effectiveness of the process. 55 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A method for calculating strain energy release rate based on beam theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Pandey, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Timoshenko beam theory was used to model cracked beams and to calculate the total strain energy release rate. The root rotation of the beam segments at the crack tip were estimated based on an approximate 2D elasticity solution. By including the strain energy released due to the root rotations of the beams during crack extension, the strain energy release rate obtained using beam theory agrees very well with the 2D finite element solution. Numerical examples were given for various beam geometries and loading conditions. Comparisons with existing beam models were also given.

  19. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  20. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. 1316.9 Section 1316.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When...

  1. 18 CFR 1316.9 - Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. 1316.9 Section 1316.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... Text of Conditions and Certifications § 1316.9 Nuclear energy hazards and nuclear incidents. When...

  2. Decoding the nuclear genome using nuclear binding and fusion energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2015-04-01

    In several publications the author has presented the theory that protons and neutrons and other baryons are the chromo-magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory and used that to deduce the up and down current quark masses from the tightly-known Q = 0 empirical electron mass and the neutron minus proton mass difference with commensurately high precision. This is then used as a springboard to closely fit a wide range of empirical nuclear binding and fusion energy data and to obtain the proton and neutron masses themselves within all experimental errors. This presentation will systematically pull all of this together and a) establishes that this way of defining current quark masses constitutes a valid measurement scheme, b) lays out the empirical support for this theory via observed nuclear binding and fusion energies as well as the proton and neutron masses themselves, c) solidifies the interface used to connect the theory to these empirical results and uncovers a mixing between the up and down current quark masses, and d) presents clearly how and why the underlying theory is very conservative, being no more and no less than a deductive mathematical synthesis of Maxwell's classical theory with both the electric and magnetic field equations merged into one, Yang-Mills gauge theory, Dirac fermion theory, the Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion Principle, and to get from classical chromodynamics to QCD, Feynman path integration.

  3. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  4. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  5. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  6. Radiation damage in zircon by high-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Spence, John C. H.

    2009-06-15

    Radiation damage induced by high-energy (200 keV) electron irradiation in zircon has been studied thoroughly using imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy techniques in transmission electron microscopy. Both structural and compositional changes during the damage were measured using the above techniques in real time. It was found that the damage was mainly caused by the preferential sputtering of O. The loss of O occurred initially within small sporadic regions with dimension of several nanometers, resulting in the direct transformation of zircon into Zr{sub x}Si{sub y}. These isolated patches gradually connect each other and eventually cover the whole area of the electron beam. These differ from the previous observations either in the self-irradiated natural and synthetic zircon or in ion-beam irradiated thin zircon specimen.

  7. Developments in low energy electron beam machinery and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, S. V.; Chrusciel, J.; Cleghorn, D. A.; Rangwalla, I.

    2003-08-01

    The engineering and development of a new generation of low energy, high power electron beam equipment is presented. Operating voltages range from 80 to 125 kV at widths to 1.65 m. At 110 kV these systems deliver 1000 Mrad m min -1 at 110 kV. Equipment operating power levels and their impact on reducing equipment size and cost are reviewed. The advantages of electron curing at these reduced operating voltages are described. The principles of the electron beam fluidized bed process for the treatment of powders and particulates in high-speed pneumatic transport are discussed. Typical system performances for polymer dissociation and crosslinking, or for agroproduct disinfestation and disinfection are presented. A process for the sterilization of polymer food containers employing the injection of low energy electrons through the open mouth has been developed. Some of its sterilization capabilities for bottles up to 2 l capacity are described.

  8. Enhanced aeroelastic energy harvesting with a beam stiffener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liya; Yang, Yaowen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we propose an easy but quite effective method to significantly enhance the power generation capability of an aeroelastic energy harvester. The method is to attach a beam stiffener to the substrate of the harvester, which works as an electromechanical coupling magnifier. It is shown to be effective for all three considered types of harvesters based on galloping, vortex-induced vibration and flutter, leading to a superior performance over the conventional designs without the beam stiffener, with dozens of times the increase in power and an almost 100% increase in the power extraction efficiency yet with comparable or even smaller transverse displacement. Choice guidelines of optimal types of energy harvesters are also suggested based on the given wind situations where the electronic device is located.

  9. Filter/moderator system for a BNCT beam of epithermal neutrons at nuclear reactor MARIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminska, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a very promising form of cancer therapy, consisting in irradiating a stable isotope of boron (10B) concentrated in tumor cells with a low energy neutron beam. This technique makes it possible to destroy tumor cells, leaving healthy tissues practically unaffected. In order to carry out the therapy in the proper way, the proper range of the neutron beam energy has to be chosen. In this paper we present a filter/moderator system modeled with MCNP code in order to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT post at MARIA reactor in Swierk.

  10. Nuclear Energy Innovation Workshops. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd; Jackson, John; Hildebrandt, Phil; Baker, Suzy

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear energy innovation workshops were organized and conducted by INL on March 2-4, 2015 at the five NUC universities and Boise State University. The output from these workshops is summarized with particular attention to final summaries that were provided by technical leads at each of the workshops. The current revision includes 3-4 punctuation corrections and a correction of the month of release from May to June.

  11. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  12. Accelerator Driven Nuclear Energy: The Thorium Option

    ScienceCinema

    Raja, Rajendran

    2010-01-08

    Conventional nuclear reactors use enriched Uranium as fuel and produce nuclear waste which needs to be stored away for over 10,000 years.   At the current rate of use, existing sources of Uranium will last for 50-100 years.  We describe a solution to the problem that uses particle accelerators to produce fast neutrons that can be used to burn existing nuclear waste and produce energy.  Such systems, initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia and collaborators in the 1990's, are being seriously considered by many countries as a possible solution to the green energy problem.  Accelerator driven reactors operate in a sub-critical regime and, thus, are safer and can obtain energy from plentiful elements such as Thorium-232 and Uranium-238. What is missing is the high intensity (10MW) accelerator that produces 1 GeV protons. We will describe scenarios which if implemented will make such systems a reality.  

  13. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  14. Trap-Based Beam Formation Mechanisms and the Development of an Ultra-High-Energy-Resolution Cryogenic Positron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natisin, Michael Ryan

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of a positron beam with significantly improved energy resolution over any beam resolution previously available. While positron interactions with matter are important in a variety of contexts, the range of experimental data available regarding fundamental positron-matter interactions is severely limited as compared to analogous electron-matter processes. This difference is due largely to the difficulties encountered in creating positron beams with narrow energy spreads. Described here is a detailed investigation into the physical processes operative during positron cooling and beam formation in state-of-the-art, trap-based beam systems. These beams rely on buffer gas traps (BGTs), in which positrons are trapped and cooled to the ambient temperature (300 K) through interactions with a molecular gas, and subsequently ejected as a high resolution pulsed beam. Experimental measurements, analytic models, and simulation results are used to understand the creation and characterization of these beams, with a focus on the mechanisms responsible for setting beam energy resolution. The information gained from these experimental and theoretical studies was then used to design, construct, and operate a next-generation high-energy-resolution beam system. In this new system, the pulsed beam from the BGT is magnetically guided into a new apparatus which re-traps the positrons, cools them to 50 K, and re-emits them as a pulsed beam with superior beam characteristics. Using these techniques, positron beams with total energy spreads as low as 6.9 meV FWHM are produced. This represents a factor of ˜ 5 improvement over the previous state-of-the-art, making it the largest increase in positron beam energy resolution since the development of advanced moderator techniques in the early 1980's. These beams also have temporal spreads of 0.9 mus FWHM and radial spreads of 1 mm FWHM. This represents improvements by factors of ˜2 and 10

  15. Validation of nuclear models in Geant4 using the dose distribution of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David C.; Makarova, Anastasia; Paganetti, Harald; Gottschalk, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A proton pencil beam is associated with a surrounding low-dose envelope, originating from nuclear interactions. It is important for treatment planning systems to accurately model this envelope when performing dose calculations for pencil beam scanning treatments, and Monte Carlo (MC) codes are commonly used for this purpose. This work aims to validate the nuclear models employed by the Geant4 MC code, by comparing the simulated absolute dose distribution to a recent experiment of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam stopping in water. Striking agreement is observed over five orders of magnitude, with both the shape and normalisation well modelled. The normalisations of two depth dose curves are lower than experiment, though this could be explained by an experimental positioning error. The Geant4 neutron production model is also verified in the distal region. The entrance dose is poorly modelled, suggesting an unaccounted upstream source of low-energy protons. Recommendations are given for a follow-up experiment which could resolve these issues.

  16. Nuclear theory and science of the facility for rare isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Carlson, J.; Dean, D. J.; Fuller, G. M.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Li, Bao-An; Nazarewicz, W.; Nunes, F. M.; Ormand, W. E.; Reddy, S.; Sherrill, B. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a world-leading laboratory for the study of nuclear structure, reactions and astrophysics. Experiments with intense beams of rare isotopes produced at FRIB will guide us toward a comprehensive description of nuclei, elucidate the origin of the elements in the cosmos, help provide an understanding of matter in neutron stars and establish the scientific foundation for innovative applications of nuclear science to society. FRIB will be essential for gaining access to key regions of the nuclear chart, where the measured nuclear properties will challenge established concepts, and highlight shortcomings and needed modifications to current theory. Conversely, nuclear theory will play a critical role in providing the intellectual framework for the science at FRIB, and will provide invaluable guidance to FRIB's experimental programs. This review overviews the broad scope of the FRIB theory effort, which reaches beyond the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, to explore exciting interdisciplinary boundaries with other areas.

  17. Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Yousry; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

  18. Ground-state energy of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, George A., Jr.; Benofy, L. P.; Fortes, Mauricio

    1988-07-01

    The low-density expansion of the ground-state energy for spin-dependent forces is given, through order k6F for the ladder approximation and through order k6FlnkF for the complete energy, in terms of derivatives with respect to the strength of the attractive part of the interaction defined by the Baker-Hind-Kahane potential. The ladder approximation is also computed by the numerical solution of the K-matrix equation. The resulting series gives a satisfactory representation of the energy at interesting densities. Using Padé extrapolation techniques, both in the density and in the attractive part of the interaction, we obtain the ground-state energy of nuclear matter.

  19. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  20. Design of a multiresonant beam for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shaofan; Shuttleworth, Roger; Olutunde Oyadiji, S.; Wright, Jan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes initial investigations into the behavior of a mechanical system for a proposed novel energy harvesting device. The device comprises a clamped-clamped beam piezoelectric fiber composite generator with side mounted cantilevers. These side mounted cantilevers are tuned by added masses to be resonant at different frequencies. A Rayleigh-Ritz model has been developed to predict the vibration response of the device and results from this model and from the real system are compared. The mechanical aspects of the device show a wide band energy harvesting characteristic in comparison to a single cantilever piezoelectric harvester.

  1. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  2. Upgrade of beam energy measurement system at BEPC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Cai, Xiao; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M. N.; Krasnov, A. A.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Pyata, E. E.; Mamoshkina, E. V.; Harris, F. A.

    2016-07-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. In order to meet the requirements of data taking and improve the measurement accuracy, the system has continued to be upgraded, which involves the updating of laser and optics subsystems, replacement of a view-port of the laser to the vacuum insertion subsystem, the use of an electric cooling system for a high purity germanium detector, and improvement of the data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrade system guarantees the smooth and efficient measurement of beam energy at BEPC-II and enables accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III. Supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(11375206, 10775142, 10825524, 11125525, 11235011), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856700, 2015CB856705), State key laboratory of particle and detection and electronics; and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP); the RFBR grant(14-02-00129-a), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, part of this work related to the design of ZnSe viewports is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (14-50-00080)

  3. SURFACE SYMMETRY ENERGY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONALS

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, N; Schunck, N; Nazarewicz, W; Bender, M; Pei, J

    2010-12-20

    We study the bulk deformation properties of the Skyrme nuclear energy density functionals. Following simple arguments based on the leptodermous expansion and liquid drop model, we apply the nuclear density functional theory to assess the role of the surface symmetry energy in nuclei. To this end, we validate the commonly used functional parametrizations against the data on excitation energies of superdeformed band-heads in Hg and Pb isotopes, and fission isomers in actinide nuclei. After subtracting shell effects, the results of our self-consistent calculations are consistent with macroscopic arguments and indicate that experimental data on strongly deformed configurations in neutron-rich nuclei are essential for optimizing future nuclear energy density functionals. The resulting survey provides a useful benchmark for further theoretical improvements. Unlike in nuclei close to the stability valley, whose macroscopic deformability hangs on the balance of surface and Coulomb terms, the deformability of neutron-rich nuclei strongly depends on the surface-symmetry energy; hence, its proper determination is crucial for the stability of deformed phases of the neutron-rich matter and description of fission rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  4. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO/sub 2/ induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Effective parameters in beam acoustic metamaterials based on energy band structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Hou, Mingming; Kuan, Lu; Shen, Li

    2016-07-01

    We present a method to calculate the effective material parameters of beam acoustic metamaterials. The effective material parameters of a periodic beam are calculated as an example. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of this beam are calculated. Subsequently, the effective material parameters of the beam are investigated by using the energy band structures. Then, the modal analysis and transmission properties of the beams with finite cells are simulated in order to confirm the correctness of effective approximation. The results show that the periodic beam can be equivalent to the homogeneous beam with dynamic effective material parameters in passband.

  6. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joe A.; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold:  First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties;  Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data;  Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  7. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  8. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R

    2005-03-31

    The authors propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, they propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  9. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-07-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  10. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  11. Energy-selective filtration of dental x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gelskey, D.E.; Baker, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    Samarium is known for its ability to filter simultaneously low- and high-energy x-ray photons from an x-ray beam that are not useful in producing a diagnostic radiograph. This study was undertaken to determine the optimum thickness of samarium required to minimize patient exposure and exposure time. The results indicate that use of a filter thickness of 0.16 mm. minimized patient radiation exposure and permitted the use of an exposure time sufficiently short to minimize motion unsharpness. The incorporation of a 0.16 mm. samarium filter in the x-ray beam reduced exposure by about 40 percent as compared to a 2.5 mm. aluminum filter; the exposure time must be increased approximately twice to obtain optical densities equivalent to those produced with aluminum filtration.

  12. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Golkovski, M. G.; Glukhov, I. A.; Eroshenko, A. Yu.; Bataev, V. A.; Fortuna, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  13. Equipment for Beam Current and Electron Energy Monitoring During Industry Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electron beam irradiation sterilization is placed first among all types of medical items sterilization. The quality of sterilization is determined by value of dose, which is in one's turn determined by beam current, electron energy and beam scanning system parameters. Therefore this parameters have to be controlled during the irradiation process. The equipment for beam current and electron energy monitoring allows to control beam current, electron energy spectrum and nominal deflection of electron beam when scanning during the irradiation process each scanning period or, for example, each tenth period by request.

  14. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  15. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  16. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  17. Nuclear binding energy and symmetry energy of nuclear matter with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hassaneen, Kh.S.A.; Abo-Elsebaa, H.M.; Sultan, E.A.; Mansour, H.M.M.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > The nuclear matter is studied within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach employing the most recent accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials. > The results come out by approximating the single particle self-consistent potential with a parabolic form. > We discuss the current status of the Coester line, i.e., density and energy of the various saturation points being strongly linearly correlated. > The nuclear symmetry energy is calculated as the difference between the binding energy of pure neutron matter and that of symmetric nuclear matter. - Abstract: The binding energy of nuclear matter at zero temperature in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials is studied. Both the standard and continuous choices of single particle energies are used. These modern nucleon-nucleon potentials fit the deuteron properties and are phase shifts equivalent. Comparison with other calculations is made. In addition we present results for the symmetry energy obtained with different potentials, which is of great importance in astrophysical calculation.

  18. Modern applications of high energy ion beams: From "single-event burnout" to human eye cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeyer, H.; Mahnke, H.-E.

    1996-12-01

    Energetic ion beams, originally the domain of nuclear physics, become increasingly important tools in many other fields of research and development. The choice of ion species and ion energy allows an enormously wide variation of the penetration depth and of the amount of the electronic stopping power. These features are utilized to modify or damage materials and living tissues in a specific way. Materials modification with energetic ion beams is one of the central aims of research and development at the ion beam laboratory, ISL-Berlin, a center for ion-beam applications at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin. In particular, energetic protons will be used for eye cancer treatment. Selected topics such as the "single-event burnout" of high power diodes and the eye cancer therapy setup will be presented in detail.

  19. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, Daniel David Schechtman

    There are two distinct components involved in using heavy ion collisions to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy. On one hand, observables sensitive to the symmetry energy must be identified and measured with enough precision to provide meaningful constraints. On the other hand, nuclear reaction simulations are used to predict those observables for different possible forms of the symmetry energy. Examination of both components and the interface between them is important to improve the constraints. This thesis contributes to both the experimental and theoretical parts of this endeavor. First, we examine the uncertainties in the simulation of the isospin diffusion observable by varying the input physics within the pBUU transport code. In addition to the symmetry energy, several other uncertain parts of the calculation affect isospin diffusion, most notably the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections and light cluster production. There is also a difference in the calculated isospin transport ratios depending on whether they are computed using the isospin asymmetry of the heavy residue or of all forward-moving fragments. We suggest that measurements comparing these two quantities would help place constraints on the input physics, including the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Second, we present a measurement of the neutron and proton kinetic energy spectra emitted from central collisions of 124Sn + 124Sn and 112Sn + 112Sn at beam energies of 50 MeV per nucleon and 120 MeV per nucleon. Previous transport simulations indicate that ratios of these spectra are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy and to the isovector momentum dependence of the mean field. Protons were detected in the Large Area Silicon Strip Array (LASSA) and neutrons were detected in the MSU Neutron Walls. The multiplicity of charged particles detected in the MSU Miniball was used to determine the impact parameter of the collisions. Several thin

  20. Nuclear structure at extremes of stability: Prospects for radioactive beam experiments and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.

    1995-08-11

    In the last few years, our understanding of nuclei at extremes of stability has undergone substantial development and change. It is now thought that there is every likelihood for truly new manifestations of structure at extreme N/Z ratios, unlike anything observed to date. Changes in shell structure, residual interactions, symmetries, collective modes, and the evolution of structure are envisioned. These developing ideas expand the opportunities for nuclear structure studies with radioactive beams and focus attention on the need to develop efficient experimental techniques and improved signatures of structure. These developments are discussed along with an overview of current and future radioactive beam projects in North America.

  1. Beamed energy for space craft propulsion - Conceptual status and development potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.; Frisbee, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a brief study that sought to identify and characterize beamed energy spacecraft propulsion concepts that may have positive impact on the economics of space industrialization. It is argued that the technology of beamed energy propulsion systems may significantly improve the prospects for near-term colonization of outer space. It is tentatively concluded that, for space industrialization purposes, the most attractive near-term beamed energy propulsion systems are based on microwave technology. This conclusion is reached based on consideration of the common features that exist between beamed microwave propulsion and the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept. Laser power beaming also continues to be an attractive option for spacecraft propulsion due to the reduced diffraction-induced beam spread afforded by laser radiation wavelengths. The conceptual status and development potential of a variety of beamed energy propulsion concepts are presented. Several alternative space transportation system concepts based on beamed energy propulsion are described.

  2. Energy characteristics of beam-plasma interaction in a closed volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klykov, I. L.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Shustin, E. G.

    2012-03-01

    Energy exchange between an electron beam and plasma during a beam-plasma discharge in a closed cavity excited by the electron beam is analyzed using computer simulations by the KARAT code. A method allowing one to analyze the beam-plasma interaction in the quasi-steady stage of the discharge is proposed. Qualitative characteristics of energy exchange (such as beam energy losses and the energy distributions of beam electrons and plasma particles leaving the discharge) both during spontaneous discharge excitation and in the presence of initial beam modulation by regular or noiselike signals are determined. The results obtained enable one to estimate the energy characteristics of a plasma processing reactor based on a beam-plasma discharge.

  3. Update on DOE's Nuclear Energy University Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambregts, Marsha J.

    2009-08-01

    The Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Office assists the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) by administering its University Program. To promote accountable relationships between universities and the Technical Integration Offices (TIOs)/Technology Development Offices (TDOs), a process was designed and administered which includes two competitive Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in the following areas: (1) Research and Development (R&D) Grants, (2) Infrastructure improvement, and (3) Scholarships and Fellowships. NEUP will also host periodic reviews of university mission-specific R&D that document progress, reinforce accountability, and assess return on investment; sponsor workshops that inform universities of the Department's research needs to facilitate continued alignment of university R&D with NE missions; and conduct communications activities that foster stakeholder trust, serve as a catalyst for accomplishing NEUP objectives, and provide national visibility of NEUP activities and accomplishments. Year to date efforts to achieve these goals will be discussed.

  4. Update on DOE's Nuclear Energy University Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha J.

    2009-08-19

    The Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Office assists the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) by administering its University Program. To promote accountable relationships between universities and the Technical Integration Offices (TIOs)/Technology Development Offices (TDOs), a process was designed and administered which includes two competitive Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and two Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in the following areas: (1) Research and Development (R and D) Grants, (2) Infrastructure improvement, and (3) Scholarships and Fellowships. NEUP will also host periodic reviews of university mission-specific R and D that document progress, reinforce accountability, and assess return on investment; sponsor workshops that inform universities of the Department's research needs to facilitate continued alignment of university R and D with NE missions; and conduct communications activities that foster stakeholder trust, serve as a catalyst for accomplishing NEUP objectives, and provide national visibility of NEUP activities and accomplishments. Year to date efforts to achieve these goals will be discussed.

  5. High intensity X/γ photon beams for nuclear physics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, L.; Alesini, D.; Bacci, N.; Bliss, N.; Cassou, K.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Dupraz, K.; Giribono, A.; Petrillo, V.; Palumbo, L.; Vaccarezza, C.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.

    2016-05-01

    In this manuscript we review the challenges of Compton backscattering sources in advancing photon beam performances in the 1 - 20 MeV energy range, underlining the design criteria bringing to maximum spectral luminosity and briefly describing the main achievements in conceiving and developing new devices (multi-bunch RF cavities and Laser recirculators) for the case of ELI-NP Gamma Beam System (ELI-NP-GBS).

  6. Strain energy release rate distributions for double cantilever beam specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A 24-ply composite double cantilever-beam specimen under mode I (opening) loading has been analyzed by a 3D FEM code that calculated along a straight delamination starter for several different specimen materials. An isotropic specimen was found to have a strain-energy release rate distribution which varied along its delamination front due to the boundary-layer effect and another effect associated with the anticlastic curvature of the bent specimen arms. A 0-deg graphite-reinforced epoxy specimen had a nearly-uniform strain-energy release rate distribution which dropped only near the edge, due to the boundary-layer effect, and a +/- 45-deg graphite/epoxy specimen exhibited a pronounced strain-energy release rate variation across the specimen width.

  7. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  8. Overview of Nuclear Energy: Present and Projected Use

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Stanculescu

    2011-09-01

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  9. Overview of nuclear energy: Present and projected use

    SciTech Connect

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  10. Overview of nuclear energy: Present and projected use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  11. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2009-03-16

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  12. An Assessment of Nuclear Isomers as an Energy Storage Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartouni, E P

    2008-12-08

    Nuclear Isomers have been suggested as a potential high energy density medium that might be used to store energy. This talk assesses the state of the science supporting key elements of using nuclear isomers in energy storage applications. The focus is on the nuclear isomer {sup 178m2}Hf which has been most widely suggested for energy storage applications. However, the science issues apply to all nuclear isomer. The assessment addresses the production of the nuclear isomer, and inducing the release of the isomer. Also discussed are novel speculations on photon and/or neutron chain reactions, both as a 'pure' material as well as mixed with other materials.

  13. Nuclear's role in 21. century Pacific rim energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Clifford; Taylor, J'Tia

    2007-07-01

    Extrapolations contrast the future of nuclear energy use in Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) to that of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Japan can expect a gradual rise in the nuclear fraction of a nearly constant total energy use rate as the use of fossil fuels declines. ROK nuclear energy rises gradually with total energy use. ASEAN's total nuclear energy use rate can rapidly approach that of the ROK if Indonesia and Vietnam make their current nuclear energy targets by 2020, but experience elsewhere suggests that nuclear energy growth may be slower than planned. Extrapolations are based on econometric calibration to a utility optimization model of the impact of growth of population, gross domestic product, total energy use, and cumulative fossil carbon use. Fractions of total energy use from fluid fossil fuels, coal, water-driven electrical power production, nuclear energy, and wind and solar electric energy sources are fit to market fractions data. Where historical data is insufficient for extrapolation, plans for non-fossil energy are used as a guide. Extrapolations suggest much more U.S. nuclear energy and spent nuclear fuel generation than for the ROK and ASEAN until beyond the first half of the twenty-first century. (authors)

  14. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2001-11-01

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  15. Energy dependence of nuclear transparency in C (p,2p) scattering.

    PubMed

    Leksanov, A; Alster, J; Asryan, G; Averichev, Y; Barton, D; Baturin, V; Bukhtoyarova, N; Carroll, A; Heppelmann, S; Kawabata, T; Makdisi, Y; Malki, A; Minina, E; Navon, I; Nicholson, H; Ogawa, A; Panebratsev, Y; Piasetzky, E; Schetkovsky, A; Shimanskiy, S; Tang, A; Watson, J W; Yoshida, H; Zhalov, D

    2001-11-19

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90 degrees c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)(2). We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies. PMID:11736334

  16. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-30

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG‐PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG‐PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ∼ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ∼ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG‐PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ∼160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission

  17. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-05-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U[sub 3]O[sub 8] over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer.

  18. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-01

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

  19. Application of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Fujita, K.; Azuma, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kato, Y.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, Raquel; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2013-11-01

    The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. A proton micro-beam with the beam diameter of ˜1.5 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used to analyze the positive electrode of the Li-ion battery with PIGE and PIXE. WThe PIGE and PIXE images of Li and Ni respectively for LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2(x = 0.75 ˜ 1.0) anodes have been taken. The PIGE images of LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles and the depth profile of the Li density have been obtained with high spatial resolution (a few μm). The images of the Li density distribution are very useful for the R&D of the Li ion battery. In order to make the in-situ ion beam analysis of the Li battery possible, a compact accelerator for a high quality MeV proton beam is necessary. Form this point of view, the diagnostics of Li ion battery is an appropriate field for the applications of laser produced ion beams.

  20. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.

    2009-12-15

    Measurements of the double-differential {pi}{sup {+-}} production cross section in the range of momentum 100{<=}p{<=}800 MeV/c and angle 0.35{<=}{theta}{<=}2.15 rad using {pi}{sup {+-}} beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/dp d{theta} at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. Large-angle production of charged pions with incident pion beams on nuclear targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, M.; Artamonov, A.; Bagulya, A.; Barr, G.; Blondel, A.; Bobisut, F.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.; Borghi, S.; Bunyatov, S.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chimenti, P.; Coney, L.; Capua, E. Di; Dore, U.; Dumarchez, J.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Ferri, F.; Gastaldi, U.; Giani, S.; Giannini, G.; Gibin, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Gößling, C.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Grégoire, G.; Grichine, V.; Grossheim, A.; Guglielmi, A.; Howlett, L.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kolev, D.; Krasnoperov, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Meurer, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mills, G. B.; Morone, M. C.; Novella, P.; Orestano, D.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pastore, F.; Piperov, S.; Polukhina, N.; Popov, B.; Prior, G.; Radicioni, E.; Schmitz, D.; Schroeter, R.; Skoro, G.; Sorel, M.; Tcherniaev, E.; Temnikov, P.; Tereschenko, V.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tsenov, R.; Tsukerman, I.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.

    2009-12-01

    Measurements of the double-differential π± production cross section in the range of momentum 100⩽p⩽800 MeV/c and angle 0.35⩽θ⩽2.15 rad using π± beams incident on beryllium, aluminum, carbon, copper, tin, tantalum, and lead targets are presented. The data were taken with the large-acceptance hadron production (HARP) detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The secondary pions were produced by beams in a momentum range from 3 to 12.9GeV/c hitting a solid target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was performed using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber placed inside a solenoidal magnet. Incident particles were identified by an elaborate system of beam detectors. Results are obtained for the double-differential cross sections d2σ/dpdθ at six incident-beam momenta. Data at 3,5,8, and 12GeV/c are available for all targets, while additional data at 8.9 and 12.9GeV/c were taken in positive particle beams on Be and Al targets, respectively. The measurements are compared with several generators of GEANT4 and the MARS Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Review of Recent Results from the Rhic Beam Energy Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh

    2013-10-01

    We review recent results from the RHIC beam energy scan (BES) program, aimed to study the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. The main goals are to search for the possible phase boundary, softening of equation of state or first order phase transition, and possible critical point. Phase-I of the BES program has recently concluded with data collection for Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energies (√ {sNN}) of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV. Several interesting results are observed for these lower energies where the net-baryon density is high at the mid-rapidity. These results indicate that the matter formed at lower energies (7.7 and 11.5 GeV) is hadron dominated and might not have undergone a phase transition. In addition, a centrality dependence of freeze-out parameters is observed for the first time at lower energies, slope of directed flow for (net)-protons measured versus rapidity shows an interesting behavior at lower energies, and higher moments of net-proton show deviation from Skellam expectations at lower energies. An outlook for the future BES Phase-II program is presented and efforts for the detailed study of QCD phase diagram are discussed.

  3. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  4. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (~2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size.

  5. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  6. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  7. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  8. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

  9. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-03-25

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 – 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 – 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change.

  10. Replacement of chemical rocket launchers by beamed energy propulsion.

    PubMed

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Arnault, Anthony; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-11-01

    Microwave Rocket is a beamed energy propulsion system that is expected to reach space at drastically lower cost. This cost reduction is estimated by replacing the first-stage engine and solid rocket boosters of the Japanese H-IIB rocket with Microwave Rocket, using a recently developed thrust model in which thrust is generated through repetitively pulsed microwave detonation with a reed-valve air-breathing system. Results show that Microwave Rocket trajectory, in terms of velocity versus altitude, can be designed similarly to the current H-IIB first stage trajectory. Moreover, the payload ratio can be increased by 450%, resulting in launch-cost reduction of 74%. PMID:25402933

  11. Beamed Energy Propulsion by Means of Target Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Benjamin A.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes hundreds of pendulum tests examining the beamed energy conversion efficiency of different metal targets coated with multiple liquid enhancers. Preliminary testing used a local laser with photographic paper targets, with no liquid, water, canola oil, or methanol additives. Laboratory experimentation was completed at Wright-Patterson AFB using a high-powered laser, and ballistic pendulums of aluminum, titanium, or copper. Dry targets, and those coated with water, methanol and oil were repeatedly tested in laboratory conditions. Results were recorded on several high-speed digital video cameras, and the conversion efficiency was calculated. Paper airplanes successfully launched using BEP were likewise recorded.

  12. Vacuum Chamber for the Measurement System of the Beam Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumova, E.; Achasov, M.; Dong, HaiYi; Qu, HuaMin; Krasnov, A.; Kosarev, A.; Muchnoi, N.; Pyata, E.; Xiao, Qiong; Mo, XiaoHu; Wang, YiFang; Zhukov, A.

    Vacuum chamber for the beam energy measurement system based on the Compton backscattering method is presented. The main elements of the chamber are GaAs entrance viewport and a copper mirror. The viewport design provides baking out of the vacuum chamber up to 250 °C. To produce the viewport, an original technology based on brazing GaAs plate by lead has been developed. The vacuum chambers were installed at the BEPC-II and VEPP-4 M colliders. After installation the residual gas pressure is about 10-10 Torr.

  13. Beamed Energy Propulsion by Means of Target Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Benjamin A.

    2004-03-30

    This paper describes hundreds of pendulum tests examining the beamed energy conversion efficiency of different metal targets coated with multiple liquid enhancers. Preliminary testing used a local laser with photographic paper targets, with no liquid, water, canola oil, or methanol additives. Laboratory experimentation was completed at Wright-Patterson AFB using a high-powered laser, and ballistic pendulums of aluminum, titanium, or copper. Dry targets, and those coated with water, methanol and oil were repeatedly tested in laboratory conditions. Results were recorded on several high-speed digital video cameras, and the conversion efficiency was calculated. Paper airplanes successfully launched using BEP were likewise recorded.

  14. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Carl R; Grimes, Steven M

    2006-03-30

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 and supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG03-03NA00074. Cross sections measured with high resolution have been subjected to an Ericson theory analysis to infer information about the nuclear level density. Other measurements were made of the spectral shape of particles produced in evaporation processes; these also yield level density information. A major project was the development of a new Hauser-Feshbach code for analyzing such spectra. Other measurements produced information on the spectra of gamma rays emitted in reactions on heavy nuclei and gave a means of refining our understanding of gamma-ray strength functions. Finally,reactions on light nuclei were studied and subjected to an R-matrix analysis. Cross sections fora network of nuclear reactions proceedingthrough a given compound nucleus shouldgreatly constrain the family of allowed parameters. Modifications to the formalism andcomputer code are also discussed.

  15. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  16. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  17. The Nuclear Energy Density Functional Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguet, T.

    The present document focuses on the theoretical foundations of the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method. As such, it does not aim at reviewing the status of the field, at covering all possible ramifications of the approach or at presenting recent achievements and applications. The objective is to provide a modern account of the nuclear EDF formalism that is at variance with traditional presentations that rely, at one point or another, on a Hamiltonian-based picture. The latter is not general enough to encompass what the nuclear EDF method represents as of today. Specifically, the traditional Hamiltonian-based picture does not allow one to grasp the difficulties associated with the fact that currently available parametrizations of the energy kernel E[g',g] at play in the method do not derive from a genuine Hamilton operator, would the latter be effective. The method is formulated from the outset through the most general multi-reference, i.e. beyond mean-field, implementation such that the single-reference, i.e. "mean-field", derives as a particular case. As such, a key point of the presentation provided here is to demonstrate that the multi-reference EDF method can indeed be formulated in a mathematically meaningful fashion even if E[g',g] does not derive from a genuine Hamilton operator. In particular, the restoration of symmetries can be entirely formulated without making any reference to a projected state, i.e. within a genuine EDF framework. However, and as is illustrated in the present document, a mathematically meaningful formulation does not guarantee that the formalism is sound from a physical standpoint. The price at which the latter can be enforced as well in the future is eventually alluded to.

  18. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  19. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mahinay, C. L. S. Ramos, H. J.; Wada, M.

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  20. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization.

    PubMed

    Mahinay, C L S; Wada, M; Ramos, H J

    2015-02-01

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV. PMID:25725835

  1. Tuning the implosion symmetry of ICF targets via controlled crossed-beam energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P; Divol, L; Williams, E; Weber, S; Thomas, C A; Callahan, D A; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Dixit, S; Hinkel, D E; Edwards, M J; MacGowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L

    2008-07-29

    Radiative hydrodynamics simulations of ignition experiments show that energy transfer between crossing laser beams allows tuning of the implosion symmetry. A new full-scale, three dimensional quantitative model has been developed for crossed-beam energy transfer, allowing calculations of the propagation and coupling of multiple laser beams and their associated plasma waves in ignition hohlraums. This model has been implemented in a radiative-hydrodynamics code, demonstrating control of the implosion symmetry by a wavelength separation between cones of laser beams.

  2. They don`t work for pay anymore: Nuclear retirees who promote nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Voiland, E.E.

    1997-12-01

    Here is how a group of retired nuclear scientists and engineers are promoting greater public acceptance of nuclear energy as a positive- and essential-element in modern society. They call themselves the Center for Future Reactor Information FRI.

  3. Relative energy risk: Is solar energy riskier than nuclear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inhaber, H.

    The discussion of risk analysis is divided into three parts: (1) a discussion of the methodology which can be used; (2) a listing of some of the major assumptions; and (3) the results of a comparison of eleven energy systems. The energy systems considered are divided into two groups: conventional, i.e., those in fairly widespread use, like coal or nuclear, and nonconventional, i.e., all others, like solar and wind. Compared to some conventional systems like natural gas and nuclear, technologies like solar and windpower have relatively high risk. Because of the dilute nature of the energy they handle, solar and wind systems, when compared on the quality of their energy production, require a considerable amount of apparatus as compared to other systems. In turn, this apparatus requires a large amount of material and construction labor to build and install. Associated with each ton of material and hour of labor is a definite number of accidents, diseases and deaths, according to labor statistics.

  4. Synthesis Of Noble Metal Nanoparticle Composite Glasses Using Low Energy Ion Beam Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Ranjana S.; Kothari, D. C.; Mahadkar, A. G.; Kulkarni, N. A.; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon coated thin films of Cu or Au on fused silica glasses have been irradiated using 100 keV Ar{sup +} ions at different fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 13} to 1x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2}. In this article, we explore a route to form noble metal nanoparticles in amorphous glass matrices without post irradiation annealing using low energy ion beam mixing where nuclear energy loss process is dominant. Optical and structural properties were studied using UV-Vis-NIR absorbance spectroscopy and Glancing angle X-ray Diffraction (GXRD). Results showed that Cu and Au nanoparticles are formed at higher fluence of 1x10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} used in this work without annealing. The diameters of metal nanoparticles obtained from UV-Vis NIR and GXRD are in agreement.

  5. BEAM INDUCED ENERGY DEPOSITION IN MUON STORAGE RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    MOKHOV,N.V.; JOHNSTONE,C.J.; PARKER,B.L.

    2001-06-18

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  6. Beam-induced energy deposition in muon storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolai V. Mokhov; Carol J. Johnstone; Brett Parker

    2001-06-22

    Beam-induced radiation effects have been simulated for 20 and 50 GeV muon storage rings designed for a Neutrino Factory. It is shown that by appropriately shielding the superconducting magnets, quench stability, acceptable dynamic heat loads, and low residual dose rates can be achieved. Alternatively, if a specially-designed skew focusing magnet without superconducting coils on the magnet's mid-plane is used, then the energy is deposited preferentially in the warm iron yoke or outer cryostat layers and internal shielding may not be required. In addition to the component irradiation analysis, shielding studies have been performed. Calculations of the external radiation were done for both designs but the internal energy deposition calculations for the 20 GeV Study-2 lattice are still in progress.

  7. Measuring the photon energy scale through test beam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Karina Flavia

    This dissertation aims at measuring the photon energy scale combining specialized Monte Carlo simulation with data taken during the combined ATLAS test beam in 2004. This work explains the steps taken to arrive at the photon energy scale, starting from the knowledge acquired for electrons. The chapters are structured as follows: Chapters 1 and 2 briefly introduce this work and the motivation behind it. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the LHC experiment and the ATLAS detector as a whole. Chapters 4 and 5 address in detail the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter and signal reconstruction at the cell level. Chapter 6 concentrates on the setup for the combined test beam with emphasis on the photon run. Chapter 7 details the event selection strategy used for the photon run analysis. Chapter 8 describes the generation and tuning of the special Monte Carlo for the photon run. Chapter 9 focuses on the highly specialized Monte Carlo studies that employed special calibration objects known as calibration hits. Chapter 10 details the methodology behind the measurement of the photon scale and evaluates it in terms of the electromagnetic calorimeter resolution. Chapters 11 and 12 present a summary of the results and the conclusions, respectively.

  8. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  9. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  10. The RHIC Beam Energy Scan: Present Challenges and Coming Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan is mapping the phase diagram of QCD, creating and probing quark-gluon plasma ``doped'' to varying degrees with an excess of quarks over antiquarks. Recent data from the first phase of the scan challenge us to understand intriguing non-monotonic collision energy dependence (and therefore doping dependence) of various observables. They hint at a reduction in the QGP pressure, long anticipated in collisions that form QGP at temperatures not far above the crossover region. As the collision energy is lowered, possible signs of the turning off of effects driven by the chiral anomaly, signaling the approximate restoration of chiral symmetry, have been seen. And, there are tantalizing indications of a substantial drop and a subsequent substantial rise in a fluctuation observable that is particularly sensitive to critical fluctuations and that has been predicted to do exactly that the doping increases if a critical point on the phase diagram is approached. Each of these points to opportunities for discovery in the second phase of the scan (BES-II), coming in 2019-20, with much higher statistics data at the low energies where the most tantalizing effects reside. Today, though, the ball is squarely in the theorists' court: the data demand a concerted, multifaceted, theoretical response, building a quantitative framework for modeling the salient features of lower energy heavy ion collisions. If we respond well to this present challenge, BES-II can turn today's trends and features into discoveries, conclusions, and new understanding.

  11. Future Physics Opportunities in Beam Energy Scan at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nu

    2015-10-01

    In the first phase of the beam energy scan program (BES-I) at RHIC, we have collected data from Au +Au collisions at the center of mass energy range from 7.7 GeV to 39 GeV, corresponding to the baryonic chemical potential of 420 MeV to 120 MeV, respectively. We have observed the disappearance of the suppression of leading hadrons at large pT, break down of the quark scaling in the identified particle elliptic flow, the net-proton directed flow slope dv1/dy shows a minimum with negative sign, and a non-monotonical behavior of the net-proton correlation function (the fourth order) at the energy less than 20 GeV. All of these observations indicate that the property of the medium at high baryon density is dramatically different from that created at the RHIC top energy where the baryon density is small and partonic interactions are dominant. In this talk I will first review what we have learned in RHIC BES-I. Then I will discuss the opportunities in the future bean energy scan program in order to address key questions regarding the QCD phase structure including the illusive critical point. I will stress that adequate detector upgrades, focused at the large baryon density region, are essential for the physics program.

  12. Transport of intense proton beam in the presence of subdominant species in a low energy beam transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P. Sing; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated low energy proton beam in the presence of H2+ and H3+ beams has been studied in a solenoid based transport system using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method. Multispecies envelope equation and random search technique have been used to transport and match the primary beam considering two options. The PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H2+ and H3+ beams around the proton beam in the first case where the waist of the proton beam is formed in between the solenoids and it is absent in the second case where the beam size is kept large in between the solenoids. Separation of hollow distribution appears more distinct as the proton fraction is increased and is almost independent of the combination of H2+ and H3+ beams for a given proton fraction. This effect helps to reject the unwanted species more effectively. The evolution of rms size and emittance of the proton beam has been studied in the presence of a circular aperture using KV and Gaussian distributions for the species in both the cases.

  13. A parallel particle-in-cell model for beam-beam interaction in high energy ring colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a self-consistent simulation model of colliding beams in high energy ring colliders. The model, which is based on a particle-in-cell method, uses a new developed shifted effective Green function algorithm for the efficient calculation of the beam-beam interaction with arbitrary separation and large aspect ratio. The model uses transfer maps to treat the external focusing elements and a stochastic map to treat radiation damping and quantum excitation of the beams. In the parallel implementation we studied various strategies to deal with the particular nature of the colliding beam system - a system in which there can be significant particle movement between beam-beam collisions. We chose a particle-field decomposition approach instead of the conventional domain decomposition or particle decomposition approach. The particle-field approach leads to good load balance, reduced communication cost, and shows the best scalability on an IBM SP3 among the three parallel implementations we studied. A performance test of the beam-beam model on a Cray T3E, IBM SP3, and a PC cluster is presented. As an application, we studied the flip-flop instability in an electron-positron collider.

  14. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  15. Universal nuclear dependence in high energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2007-02-01

    In this talk, I present a systematic calculation of process independent nuclear dependence to nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFS). In terms of the collinear QCD factorization approach, we calculate the leading-pole contributions to DGLAP evolution equations of nPDFs, and we evaluate both real and virtual Feynman diagrams without using the AGK cutting rule. Our result has an advantage for studying nuclear dependence in a region where active parton momentum fraction x is not too small.

  16. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26931839

  17. Generalized energy-aperture product limit for multi-beam and spotlight SARs

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, T.J.

    1995-12-21

    The SAR energy-aperture product limit is extended to multi-beam SARS, Spotlight and moving spotlight SARS. This fundamental limit bounds the tradeoff between energy and antenna size. The kinematic relations between design variables such as platform speed, pulse repetition frequency, beam width and area rate are analyzed in a unified framework applicable to a wide variety of SARs including strip maps, spotlights, vermer arrays and multi-beam SARS, both scanning and swept-beam. Then the energy-aperture product limit is derived from the signal-to noise requirement and the kinematic constraints. The derivation clarifies impact of multiple beams and spotlighting on SAR performance.

  18. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  19. Development of an external beam nuclear microprobe on the Aglae facility of the Louvre museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Ioannidou, E.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Salomon, J.

    2000-03-01

    The external beam line of our facility has been recently equipped with the focusing system previously mounted on a classical nuclear microprobe. When using a 0.1 μm thick Si 3N 4 foil for the exit window and flowing helium on the sample under analysis, a beam spot as small as 10 μm is attainable at a distance of 3 mm from the window. Elemental micromapping is performed by mechanical scanning. An electronic device has been designed which allows XY scanning by moving the sample under the beam by steps down to 0.1 μm. Beam monitoring is carried out by means of the weak X-ray signal emitted by the exit foil and detected by a specially designed Si(Li) detector cooled by Peltier effect. The characteristics of external beams of protons and alpha particles are evaluated by means of resonance scanning and elemental mapping of a grid. An example of application is presented, dealing with elemental micro-mapping of inclusions in gemstones.

  20. Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop: Report of Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Antkowiak, M.; Gossett, S.

    2011-12-01

    Two of the major challenges the U.S. energy sector faces are greenhouse gas emissions and oil that is both imported and potentially reaching a peak (the point at which maximum extraction is reached). Interest in development of both renewable and nuclear energy has been strong because both have potential for overcoming these challenges. Research in both energy sources is ongoing, but relatively little research has focused on the potential benefits of combining nuclear and renewable energy. In September 2011, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) convened the Nuclear and Renewable Energy Synergies Workshop at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to identify potential synergies and strategic leveraging opportunities between nuclear energy and renewable energy. Industry, government, and academic thought leaders gathered to identify potential broad categories of synergies and brainstorm topic areas for additional analysis and research and development (R&D). This report records the proceedings and outcomes of the workshop.

  1. Resonant photonuclear isotope detection using medium-energy photon beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Shima, Tatsushi

    2012-02-01

    Resonant photonuclear isotope detection (RPID) is a nondestructive detection/assay of nuclear isotopes by measuring γ rays following photonuclear reaction products. Medium-energy wideband photons of Eγ=12-16MeV are used for the photonuclear (γ,n) reactions and γ rays characteristic of the reaction products are measured by means of high-sensitivity Ge detectors. Impurities of stable and radioactive isotopes of the orders of μgr—ngr and ppm—ppb are investigated. RPID is used to study nuclear isotopes of astronuclear and particle physics interests and those of geological and historical interests. It is used to identify radioactive isotopes of fission products as well.

  2. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.

    2012-01-10

    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  3. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  4. Beam Fields and Energy Dissipation Inside the the BE Beam Pipe of the Super-B Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-09-10

    We study the bunch field diffusion and energy dissipation in the beam pipe of the Super-B detector, which consists of two coaxial Be thin pipes (half a millimeter). Cooling water will run between these two pipes. Gold and nickel will be sputtered (several microns) onto the beryllium pipe at different sides. The Maxwell equations for the beam fields in these thin layers are solved numerically for the case of infinite pipes. We also calculate the amplitude of the electromagnetic fields outside the beam pipe, which may be noticeable as the beam current can reach 4 A in each beam. Results of simulations are used for the design of this central part of the Super-B detector.

  5. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K. F.; Schneider, J. D.

    1991-05-01

    A visual diagnostic technique was developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position).

  6. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  7. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  8. Using the sound of nuclear energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garrett, Steven; Smith, James; Smith, Robert; Heidrich, Benden; Heibel, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The generation of sound by heat has been documented as an “acoustical curiosity” since a Buddhist monk reported the loud tone generated by a ceremonial rice-cooker in his diary, in 1568. Over the last four decades, significant progress has been made in understanding “thermoacoustic processes,” enabling the design of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Motivated by the Fukushima nuclear reactor disaster, we have developed and tested a thermoacoustic engine that exploits the energy-rich conditions in the core of a nuclear reactor to provide core condition information to the operators without a need for external electrical power. The heat engine is self-poweredmore » and can wirelessly transmit the temperature and reactor power level by generation of a pure tone which can be detected outside the reactor. We report here the first use of a fission-powered thermoacoustic engine capable of serving as a performance and safety sensor in the core of a research reactor and present data from the hydrophones in the coolant (far from the core) and an accelerometer attached to a structure outside the reactor. These measurements confirmed that the frequency of the sound produced indicates the reactor’s coolant temperature and that the amplitude (above an onset threshold) is related to the reactor’s operating power level. Furthermore, these signals can be detected even in the presence of substantial background noise generated by the reactor’s fluid pumps.« less

  9. Nuclear and High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Fridolin

    2003-10-01

    There has never been a more exciting time in the overlapping areas of nuclear physics, particle physics and relativistic astrophysics than today. Orbiting observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Chandra X-ray satellite, and the X-ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM) have extended our vision tremendously, allowing us to see vistas with an unprecedented clarity and angular resolution that previously were only imagined, enabling astrophysicists for the first time ever to perform detailed studies of large samples of galactic and extragalactic objects. On the Earth, radio telescopes (e.g., Arecibo, Green Bank, Parkes, VLA) and instruments using adaptive optics and other revolutionary techniques have exceeded previous expectations of what can be accomplished from the ground. The gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA VIRGO, and Geo-600 are opening up a window for the detection of gravitational waves emitted from compact stellar objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Together with new experimental forefront facilities like ISAC, ORLAND and RIA, these detectors provide direct, quantitative physical insight into nucleosynthesis, supernova dynamics, accreting compact objects, cosmic-ray acceleration, and pairproduction in high energy sources which reinforce the urgent need for a strong and continuous feedback from nuclear and particle theory and theoretical astrophysics. In my lectures, I shall concentrate on three selected topics, which range from the behavior of superdense stellar matter, to general relativistic stellar models, to strange quark stars and possible signals of quark matter in neutron stars.

  10. Implementation of a compact magnetic electron energy spectrometer for intense relativistic electron beams. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, J.A.; Antoniades, J.A.

    1993-11-05

    A diagnostic used for measuring the energy of 1 to 5 MEV pulsed electron beams by means independent of the beam generating device is investigated. The method employed is capable of collecting the required data optically in a single pulse. The beam energy is measured using a magnetic electron spectrometer coupled with a scintillating material. Using a polaroid camera to collect data, the energy of electron beams from two field emission diode accelerators is measured. The first is a nominal 1 MEV, 16 kA, 25 ns FWHM electron beam and the second is a nominal 5 MEV, 20 kA, 50 ns FWHM electron beam. A detailed study of measurement accuracy and possible sources of error was accomplished. Energy, Relativistic, Electron beam. Electron, Spectrometer.

  11. Future of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, Grazyna; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.

  12. Inverse planning of energy-modulated electron beams in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, John R. . E-mail: gentryj@gmh.org; Steeves, Richard; Paliwal, Bhudatt A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of megavoltage electron beams often poses a clinical challenge in that the planning target volume (PTV) is anterior to other radiosensitive structures and has variable depth. To ensure that skin as well as the deepest extent of the PTV receives the prescribed dose entails prescribing to a point beyond the depth of peak dose for a single electron energy. This causes dose inhomogeneities and heightened potential for tissue fibrosis, scarring, and possible soft tissue necrosis. Use of bolus on the skin improves the entrant dose at the cost of decreasing the therapeutic depth that can be treated. Selection of a higher energy to improve dose homogeneity results in increased dose to structures beyond the PTV, as well as enlargement of the volume receiving heightened dose. Measured electron data from a linear accelerator was used as input to create an inverse planning tool employing energy and intensity modulation using bolus (e-IMRT{sup TM}). Using tools readily available in a radiotherapy department, the applications of energy and intensity modulation on the central axis makes it possible to remove hot spots of 115% or more over the depths clinically encountered. The e-IMRT{sup TM} algorithm enables the development of patient-specific dose distributions with user-defined positions of peak dose, range, and reduced dose to points beyond the prescription point.

  13. Future of the beam energy scan program at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odyniec, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.

  14. Future of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Odyniec, Grazyna; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of themore » QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.« less

  15. Decay heat studies for nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algora, A.; Jordan, D.; Taín, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Caballero, L.; Nácher, E.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Molina, F.; Estevez, E.; Valencia, E.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M. D.; Gulyás, J.; Vitéz, A.; Csatlós, M.; Csige, L.; Eronen, T.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Burkard, K.; Hüller, W.; Batist, L.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.; Yoshida, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Peräjärvi, K.

    2014-01-01

    The energy associated with the decay of fission products plays an important role in the estimation of the amount of heat released by nuclear fuel in reactors. In this article we present results of the study of the beta decay of some refractory isotopes that were considered important contributors to the decay heat in reactors. The measurements were performed at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. In these studies we have combined for the first time a Penning trap (JYFLTRAP), which was used as a high resolution isobaric separator, with a total absorption spectrometer. The results of the measurements as well as their consequences for decay heat summation calculations are discussed.

  16. The angular and energy distribution of the primary electron beam.

    PubMed

    Keall, P J; Hoban, P W

    1994-09-01

    The angular distribution for electron beams produced by the Siemens KD-2 linear accelerator has been found by simulating electron transport through the scattering foils and air using two methods: Fermi-Eyges multiple Coulomb scattering calculations, and EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations. Fermi-Eyges theory gives solutions where both the angular and spatial fluence distributions are Gaussian, with the angular standard deviation being invariant with off-axis distance. The EGS4 results show slightly non-Gaussian angular and lateral distributions as a result of the use of Moliére theory rather than Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, as well as the simulation of discrete bremsstrahlung and Møller interactions. However, the results from both methods are very similar. The angular standard deviations obtained by these methods agree very closely with those found experimentally. The similar shape of the Monte Carlo and Fermi-Eyges results indicate that a Gaussian approximation to the incident angular distribution will be adequate for use in treatment planning algorithms. Furthermore, the angular standard deviation may be determined using Fermi-Eyges theory as an alternative to experimental methods. Both Monte Carlo simulations, and Fermi-Eyges theory predict that the mean electron angle is proportional to off axis distance for all useful field sizes. For a 15 MeV electron beam, an effective source position of 99 cm and 98 cm from the nominal 100 SSD plane was obtained from Fermi-Eyges and Monte Carlo results respectively for a 15 MeV beam. The effective source position found experimentally for this energy was 98 cm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980200

  17. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  18. Beam measurements on the H- source and Low Energy Beam Transport system for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Thomae, R.; Gough, R.; Keller, R.; Leung, K.N.; Schenkel, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2001-09-01

    The ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport section of the front-end systems presently being built by Berkeley Lab are required to provide 50 mA of H - beam current at 6% duty factor (1 ms pulses at 60 Hz) with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.20 p-mm-mrad. Experimental results, including emittance, chopping, and steering measurements, on the performance of the ion source and LEBT system operated at the demanded beam parameters will be discussed.

  19. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  20. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  1. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core

  2. Optical and chemical behaviors of CR-39 and Makrofol plastics under low-energy electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saftawy, Ashraf Ali; Abd El Aal, Saad Ahmed; Hassan, Nabil Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Moustafa Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, CR-39 and Makrofol plastic nuclear track detectors were irradiated with low-energy electron beams to study the effect of the induced changes on their optical and chemical properties. Surface chemical changes were recorded by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which showed successive degradation and crosslinking for CR-39 and decomposition for Makrofol. The optical band gap was determined by UV–vis spectroscopy. Also, the parameters of carbon cluster formation and disordering (Urbach’s energy) occurring on plastic surfaces were examined. The intrinsic viscosity changes were investigated as well. As a result, low-energy electron beams were found to be useful for the control of many properties of the surfaces of the investigated detectors.

  3. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, limiting fragmentation'' applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  4. A new Bernoulli-Euler beam model incorporating microstructure and surface energy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.-L.; Mahmoud, F. F.

    2014-04-01

    A new Bernoulli-Euler beam model is developed using a modified couple stress theory and a surface elasticity theory. A variational formulation based on the principle of minimum total potential energy is employed, which leads to the simultaneous determination of the equilibrium equation and complete boundary conditions for a Bernoulli-Euler beam. The new model contains a material length scale parameter accounting for the microstructure effect in the bulk of the beam and three surface elasticity constants describing the mechanical behavior of the beam surface layer. The inclusion of these additional material constants enables the new model to capture the microstructure- and surface energy-dependent size effect. In addition, Poisson's effect is incorporated in the current model, unlike existing beam models. The new beam model includes the models considering only the microstructure dependence or the surface energy effect as special cases. The current model reduces to the classical Bernoulli-Euler beam model when the microstructure dependence, surface energy, and Poisson's effect are all suppressed. To demonstrate the new model, a cantilever beam problem is solved by directly applying the general formulas derived. Numerical results reveal that the beam deflection predicted by the new model is smaller than that by the classical beam model. Also, it is found that the difference between the deflections predicted by the two models is very significant when the beam thickness is small but is diminishing with the increase of the beam thickness.

  5. Scheme for Low Energy Beam Transport with a Non-Neutralized Section

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.

    2015-04-23

    A typical Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) design relies on dynamics with nearly complete beam space charge neutralization over the entire length of the LEBT. This paper argues that, for a beam with modest perveance and uniform current density distribution when generated at the source, a downstream portion of the LEBT can be un-neutralized without significant emittance growth.

  6. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.

    PubMed

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-20

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities. PMID:26636849

  7. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-01

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV /u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  8. Nuclear apple and the solar orange: alternatives in world energy

    SciTech Connect

    Grenon, M.

    1981-01-01

    Future energy demands are discussed in relation to the depletion of fossil fuel resources, their relative merits and their social, economic, political, and environmental impacts. Four candidates are best able to replace fossil fuels: nuclear energy from fission, nuclear energy from fusion, solar energy, and geothermal energy. The problem of developing policies that can promote such dissimilar energy sources as nuclear and solar energy is evident in the unequal treatment they now receive. The abundance of remaining fossil fuels will allow time to make appropriate decisions and plan a transition to new energy forms. It is important to avoid making irreversible decisions too hastily and to reintroduce imagination into energy policy by using this time to explore the soft and flexible technologies. Although studying the future implications of energy alternatives is necessary, it is also important to avoid solutions that underestimate future energy needs or to become paralyzed by indecision. 8 figures, 9 tables. (DCK)

  9. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-29

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  10. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14638). This exemption is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  11. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... FR 14635). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville, Maryland, this 26th day of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0...

  12. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  13. Nuclear Inc. : the men and money behind nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hertsgaard, M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power has not provided the path to great riches that came with drilling oil, but the nuclear power industry in the US is not dead, despite its many setbacks. Those who declare its demise underestimate the power and influence of the economic interests of its backers, including 24 transnational corporations and the Reagan Administration. The author traces the evolution and the determination of the Atomic Brotherhood from its quiet beginning in the Atoms of Peace (and profit) era, through the proliferation debate and diversification stages, to the selection of electricity, generated by nuclear power, as a vehicle for the industry's comeback, and ending with an analysis of the industry as its own worst enemy. The solution for the Brotherhood lies in patience and the resolution of the long-term problems of making nuclear power both profitable and safe. Notes from interviews with industry personnel and sales data appear in the appendix.

  14. Low-Energy Run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's Beam Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; Fedotov, A.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-14

    In the context of the evaluation of possibly using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for the proposed low-energy RHIC run at BNL, operating the cooler at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main conclusion of this feasibility study is that the cooler's beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. The beam recirculation was stable for all tested parameters. In particular, a beam current of 0.38 A was achieved with the cathode magnetic field up to the maximum value presently available of 250 G. The energy ripple was measured to be 40 eV. A striking difference with running the 4.3 MeV beam (nominal for operation at FNAL) is that no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed. Electron cooling proposed to increase the luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon [1] needs a good quality, 0.9-5 MeV electron beam. Preliminary design studies indicate that the scheme of the Recycler's electron cooler at FNAL is suitable for low-energy RHIC cooling and most parts of the cooler can be re-used after the end of the Tevatron Run II. To analyze issues related to the generation of the electron beam in the energy recovery mode and to gain experience with the beam transport at lower beam energy, a dedicated study was performed at FNAL with a beam run through a short beam line (so called U-bend). This report summarizes our findings and observations in the course of the measurements.

  15. Chaotic control of a piezomagnetoelastic beam for improved energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiyer, Daniel; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2015-04-01

    Linear cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters do not typically operate efficiently through a large span of excitation frequencies. Beam theory dictates optimum displacement at resonance excitation; however, typical environments evolve and vary over time with no clear dominant frequency. Nonlinear, non-resonant harvesting techniques have been implemented, but none so far have embraced chaotic behavior as a desirable property of the system. This work aims to benefit from chaotic phenomena by stabilizing high energy periodic orbits located within a chaotic attractor to improve operating bandwidth. Delay coordinate embedding is used to reconstruct the system states from a single time series measurement of displacement. Orbit selection, local linearization, and control perturbation are all computed from the single time series independent of an explicit system model. Although chaos in non-autonomous systems is typically associated with harmonic inputs, chaotic attractor motion can also exist throughout other excitation sources. Accelerometer data from inside a commercial vehicle and a stochastic excitation signal are used to illustrate the existence of chaos in dynamic environments, allowing such environments to be likely candidates for the proposed bandwidth improving energy harvesting technique.

  16. Superharp: A wire scanner with absolute position readout for beam energy measurement at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, C.

    1994-09-07

    Superharp is an upgrade CEBAF wire scanner with absolute position readout from shaft encoder. As high precision absolute beam position probe ({Delta}x {approximately} 10{mu}m), three pairs of superharps are installed at the entrance, the mid-point, and the exit of Hall C arc beamline in beam switch yard, which will be tuned in dispersive mode as energy spectrometer performing 10{sup {minus}3} beam energy measurement. With dual sensor system: the direct current pickup and the bremsstrahlung detection electronics, beam profile can be obtained by superharp at wide beam current range from 1 {mu}A to 100 {mu}A.

  17. Development of Ultra Small Shock Tube for High Energy Molecular Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Nobuya; Nagata, Shuhei; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2008-12-01

    A molecular beam source exploiting a small shock tube is described for potential generation of high energy beam in a range of 1-5 eV without any undesirable impurities. The performance of a non-diaphragm type shock tube with an inner diameter of 2 mm was evaluated by measuring the acceleration and attenuation process of shock waves. With this shock tube installed in a molecular beam source, we measured the time-of-flight distributions of shock-heated beams, which demonstrated the ability of controlling the beam energy with the initial pressure ratio of the shock tube.

  18. Development of Ultra Small Shock Tube for High Energy Molecular Beam Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Nobuya; Nagata, Shuhei; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Takagi, Shu

    2008-12-31

    A molecular beam source exploiting a small shock tube is described for potential generation of high energy beam in a range of 1-5 eV without any undesirable impurities. The performance of a non-diaphragm type shock tube with an inner diameter of 2 mm was evaluated by measuring the acceleration and attenuation process of shock waves. With this shock tube installed in a molecular beam source, we measured the time-of-flight distributions of shock-heated beams, which demonstrated the ability of controlling the beam energy with the initial pressure ratio of the shock tube.

  19. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  20. Occupation-number-based energy functional for nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolli, Michael G.; Papenbrock, Thomas F; Wild, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of =1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.