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Sample records for energy plant cultivation

  1. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  2. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  3. Enhancement of efficiency in the use of light for cultivation of plants in controlled ecological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinsky, A. L.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Nechitailo, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of plant cultivation with the use of artificial lighting are related to energetics and, initially, to the lack of effective sources for photosynthesis, secondly to the necessity to supply a system with a considerable power in the form of light energy and to remove transformed thermal energy, and finally to economic considerations. These problems are solved by three ways: by the choice of effective radiation sources, design approaches, and technological methods of cultivation. Here we shall consider the first two ways.

  4. Wanted: Information on the Distribution of Cultivated Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Lack of documentation makes it very difficult to discover where species of cultivated plants may be found in the United States. Plead for compilation of "campus floras and herbarium collections. Need for a rational locator file of available plant materials. Lists and reviews present sources of information. Bibliography of campus floras. (EB)

  5. Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

    2011-01-01

    During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

  6. Experimental cultivation of cannabis plants in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Cortis, G; Luchi, P; Palmas, M

    1985-01-01

    In research carried out in 1982, which included the cultivation of cannabis plants with low, medium and high levels of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the authors have determined the parameters for individualization and classification of cannabis plants according to their intoxicant potential. This can help to provide courts of law with valid supportive expertise on cannabis trafficking cases. The parameters are the percentages of THC in cannabinoids and in the dried substance of a plant, as well as the percentage of cannabinoids in the dried substance. On the basis of these parameters, the authors have found that a cannabis plant in which the percentage of THC exceeds 50 per cent of the total amount of cannabinoids of the extractable resin and 0.3 per cent of the total amount of dried substance, and in which the amounts of resin and cannabinoids are substantial, has a considerable intoxicant potential and is liable to be used for illicit production of cannabis for abuse. On the contrary, a plant with a THC level below 50 per cent of the cannabinoids and 0.3 per cent of the dried substance, in addition to a low level of total cannabinoids, has low intoxicant potential and can be used in industry for the production of oil and rope. On the basis of these parameters it is also possible to predict the intoxicant potential of a young cannabis plant harvested at a relatively early stage of its development. PMID:3011161

  7. Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

    2010-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

  8. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  9. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  10. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  11. Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soils by single and combined plants cultivation.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Sardar Alam; Imran Khan, Muhammad; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Farooq, Muhammad; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Congkai; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-05-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate the capability of four plant species (tall fescue, ryegrass, alfalfa, and rape seed) grown alone and in combination to the degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in spiked soil. After 65 days of plant growth, plant biomass, dehydrogenase activity, water-soluble phenolic (WSP) compounds, plant uptake and accumulation and residual concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were determined. Our results showed that presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene from contaminated soils. Higher degradation rates of PAHs were observed in the combined plant cultivation (98.3-99.2% phenanthrene and 88.1-95.7% pyrene) compared to the single plant cultivation (97.0-98.0% phenanthrene and 79.8-86.0% pyrene). Contribution of direct plant uptake and accumulation of phenanthrene and pyrene was very low compared to the plant enhanced dissipation. By contrast, plant-promoted biodegradation was the predominant contribution to the remediation enhancement. The correlation analysis indicates a negative relation between biological activities (dehydrogenase activity and WSP compounds) and residual concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in planted soils. Our results suggest that phytoremediation could be a feasible choice for PAHs contaminated soil. Moreover, the combined plant cultivation has potential to enhance the process. PMID:20079966

  12. PERSPECTIVE: Cultivating Strategic Foresight for Energy and Environmental Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, David A.; Costigan, Sean; Daum, Keith; Lavoix, Helene; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Pallaris, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Disastrous social, economic, and political instability can result from limited energy resources or deteriorating environmental conditions. Historically, understanding and preparing for potential turbulent events posed significant challenges for governments, due in part to complex connections and dependencies associated with multiple, inter-related issues. Moving forward, we propose world governments can better mitigate and even avert energy and environmental disasters by cultivating a shared, diverse community of physical and social scientists, engineers, security analysts, and other professionals from related fields to share concerns, discuss ideas, and coalesce key concepts from the vast amount of data available about energy and environmental issues. Bringing relevant parties from multiple disciplines into a dynamic, diverse, and more transparent forum will produce a greater range of discussion, deliberation, and feasible solutions to help address uncertain, global energy and environmental concerns of both the present-day and our future.

  13. Biometry and diversity of Arabica coffee genotypes cultivated in a high density plant system.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W N; Tomaz, M A; Ferrão, M A G; Martins, L D; Colodetti, T V; Brinate, S V B; Amaral, J F T; Sobreira, F M; Apostólico, M A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was developed to respond to the need for an increase in crop yield in the mountain region of Caparaó (southern Espírito Santo State, Brazil), an area of traditional coffee production. This study aimed to analyze the diversity and characterize the crop yield of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. with potential for cultivation in high plant density systems. In addition, it also aimed to quantify the expression of agronomic traits in this cultivation system and provide information on the genotypes with the highest cultivation potential in the studied region. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 16 genotypes, four repetitions, and six plants per experimental plot. Plant spacing was 2.00 x 0.60 m, with a total of 8333 plants per hectare, representing a high-density cultivation system. Coffee plants were cultivated until the start of their reproductive phenological cycles and were evaluated along four complete reproductive cycles. Genotypes with high crop yield and beverage quality, short canopy, and rust resistance were selected. C. arabica genotypes showed variability in almost all characteristics. It was possible to identify different responses among genotypes grown in a high plant density cultivation system. Although the chlorophyll a content was similar among genotypes, the genotypes Acauã, Araponga MG1, Sacramento MG1, Tupi, and Catuaí IAC 44 showed a higher chlorophyll b content than the other genotypes. Among these, Sacramento MG1 also showed high leafiness and growth of vegetative structures, whereas Araponga MG1, Pau-Brasil MG1, and Tupi showed high fruit production. In addition, Araponga MG1 had also a higher and more stable crop yield over the years. PMID:26909972

  14. Human energy expenditure in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nawi, N M; Yahya, A; Chen, G; Bockari-Gevao, S M; Maraseni, T N

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production. PMID:22458015

  15. Training Programmes Can Change Behaviour and Encourage the Cultivation of Over-Harvested Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie J.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Clubbe, Colin; Gibbons, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of wild-harvested plant species has been proposed as a way of reducing over-exploitation of wild populations but lack of technical knowledge is thought to be a barrier preventing people from cultivating a new species. Training programmes are therefore used to increase technical knowledge to encourage people to adopt cultivation. We assessed the impact of a training programme aiming to encourage cultivation of xaté (Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti), an over-harvested palm from Central America. Five years after the training programme ended, we surveyed untrained and trained individuals focusing on four potential predictors of behaviour: technical knowledge, attitudes (what individuals think about a behaviour), subjective norms (what individuals perceive others to think of a behaviour) and perceived behavioural control (self assessment of whether individuals can enact the behaviour successfully). Whilst accounting for socioeconomic variables, we investigate the influence of training upon these behavioural predictors and examine the factors that determine whether people adopt cultivation of a novel species. Those who had been trained had higher levels of technical knowledge about xaté cultivation and higher belief in their ability to cultivate it while training was not associated with differences in attitudes or subjective norms. Technical knowledge and perceived behavioural control (along with socio-economic variables such as forest ownership and age) were predictors of whether individuals cultivate xaté. We suggest that training programmes can have a long lasting effect on individuals and can change behaviour. However, in many situations other barriers to cultivation, such as access to seeds or appropriate markets, will need to be addressed. PMID:22431993

  16. Fertilizers and Mixed Crop Cultivation of Chromium Tolerant and Sensitive Plants under Chromium Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dheeba, B.; Sampathkumar, P.; Kannan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Zea mays (maize) and Vigna radiata (green gram) are found to be the chromium (Cr) tolerant and sensitive plants, respectively. In the present paper, we investigate the reduction of the toxicity of Cr in the sensitive plants by the mixed crop cultivation in the field using various amendments. Further, the potassium dichromate was used as the source of hexavalent Cr. The results indicated that Cr adversely affects both the growth and yield of plants. The soil properties vary with Cr and different fertilizer amendments and the yield of both plants were affected by Cr. We conclude that metal accumulation of seeds of green gram was higher than corn and the application of single fertilizer either farm yard manure (FYM) or nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) enhances the growth and yield of both the tolerant and sensitive plants in the mixed crop cultivations. PMID:25709647

  17. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  18. Effects of hydraulic retention time on cultivation of indigenous microalgae as a renewable energy source using secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Yugo; Hidaka, Taira; Tsumori, Jun; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants is suitable media for cultivating microalgae as a renewable energy source, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) control in culture is important to conduct well-planned outdoor indigenous microalgae cultivation with secondary effluent. This study revealed cultivation characteristics under various HRT by continuous 6-month experiments. In addition, effects of HRT on cultivation were determined by a mathematical model that described indigenous microalgae growth. Cultivated biomass mainly consisted of Chlorophyceae and its detritus regardless of HRT, and 5.93-14.8g/m(2)/day of biomass yield was obtained. The cultivated biomass had a stable higher heating value of 16kJ/g. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that HRT control had great effects on biomass yield, and 2-3days of HRT were recommended to obtain maximum biomass yield under certain weather conditions (temperature: approximately 12-25°C and solar radiation: approximately 8-19MJ/m(2)/day). PMID:26897418

  19. Quantitative genetically nonequivalent reciprocal crosses in cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Aksel, R

    Quantitative expressions of character difference between reciprocal crosses have been studied by different researchers in a number of plant species, such as Epilobium, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Hordeum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Trifolium hybridum, Linum usitatissimum, Nicotiana rustica, and others. In all cases it was found that the nonequivalence of reciprocal crosses manifested itself beginning with the F1 generation, with the exception of some flax crosses in which reciprocals differed beginning with the F2 generation. The nonequivalence of reciprocal crosses usually manifested itself in the inequality of their F1 and/or F2 or backcross means; however, there were instances in which their means were the same but the variances were different. Both matroclinous and patroclinous inheritances were reported in plants. Because of the casual complexity of reciprocal differences the experimental results often lack a simple explanation. PMID:1032105

  20. Pellet plant energy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  1. The Performance of a Miniature Plant Cultivation System Designed for Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, Gerard; Kliss, Mark; Blackford, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    Constraints in both launch opportunities and the availability of in-flight resources for Shuttle and Space Station life science habitat facilities has presented a compelling impetus to improve the operational flexibility, efficiency and miniaturization of many of these systems. Such advances would not only invigorate the level of research being conducted in low Earth orbit but also present the opportunity to expand life science studies to outer space and planetary bodies. Work has been directed towards the development of a miniature plant cultivation module (PCM) capable of supporting the automated and controlled growth and spectral monitoring of small plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. This paper will present data on the operational performance and efficiency of the cultivation module, and the extent to which such a system may be used to support plant growth studies in low Earth orbit and beyond.

  2. Thermostability of plants in various light conditions of cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, Elena

    2004-12-01

    At various levels of PHAR with the help of measurement of parameters of a slow induction of chlorophyll fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm in light culture conditions the thermostable estimation of cenosises of plants of wheat and radish in reply to action of the raise and damaging temperatures of air (35°C 20 hours, 45°C 7 hours) is carried out. Without dependence from a level of light exposure, the exposition of cenosises at 35°C did not result in irreversible changes of the photosynthetic device of plants. The minimal damage of cenosises of wheat and radish at influence of temperature of 45°C is observed at 150W/m2 of PHAR, and maximal - at intensities, close to a level of a compensatory point of photosynthesis of cenosises (50-70 W/m2 PHAR at a temperature of air of 24°C). The index of viability is most sensitive parameter in comparison with other parameters determined by a method of a slow induction of fluorescence at 682 and 734 nm. The character of its change in reply to action of the stress-factor coincides with changes of intensity of photosynthesis researched of cenosises.

  3. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  4. Naturalization of plant populations: the role of cultivation and population size and density.

    PubMed

    Minton, Mark S; Mack, Richard N

    2010-10-01

    Field experimentation is required to assess the effects of environmental stochasticity on small immigrant plant populations-a widely understood but largely unexplored aspect of predicting any species' likelihood of naturalization and potential invasion. Cultivation can mitigate this stochasticity, although the outcome for a population under cultivation nevertheless varies enormously from extinction to persistence. Using factorial experiments, we investigated the effects of population size, density, and cultivation (irrigation) on the fate of founder populations for four alien species with different life history characteristics (Echinochloa frumentacea, Fagopyrum esculentum, Helianthus annuus, and Trifolium incarnatum) in eastern Washington, USA. The fate of founder populations was highly variable within and among the 3 years of experimentation and illustrates the often precarious environment encountered by plant immigrants. Larger founder populations produced more seeds (P < 0.001); the role of founder population size, however, differed among years. Irrigation resulted in higher percent survival (P < 0.001) and correspondingly larger net reproductive rate (R(0); P < 0.001). But the minimum level of irrigation for establishment, R(0) > 1, differed among years and species. Sowing density did not affect the likelihood of establishment for any species. Our results underscore the importance of environmental stochasticity in determining the fate of founder populations and the potential of cultivation and large population size in countering the long odds against naturalization. Any implementation of often proposed post-immigration field trials to assess the risk of an alien species becoming naturalized, a requisite step toward invasion, will need to assess different sizes of founder populations and the extent and character of cultivation (intentional or unintentional) that the immigrants might receive. PMID:20532919

  5. Community Composition of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Native and Cultivated Cerrados of Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. P.; Cares, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Communities of plant-parasitic nematodes collected from five different vegetation types (canopy woodland, savannah, gallery forest, cultivated perennial, and annual plants) and soils (yellowish red latosols, dark red latosols, arenosols, acrisols, and gleysols) were studied. Ninety percent of the soil samples collected from savannah contained at least four genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. The highest population densities were recovered from perennial plants and from acrisols. Nematodes from perennial and annual plants formed one cluster, which had a similar flexible-beta distance to that from the gallery forest. The distance in the native savannah and in canopy woodland was very different. Distance values for the soil aspect were similar for arenosols, yellowish, and dark red latosols. The value for acrisols was much larger than for the other soils. PMID:19277285

  6. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    . The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the near future. PMID:27154839

  7. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-01-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001–1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media. PMID:25997013

  8. Increase of a BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Lasseur, Christophe; Shikhov, V.; Anischenko, O.

    The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in a Biological Life Support System. The plants which are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas Pisum sativum L. Ambrosia cultivar and leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L., Vitamin variety, were taken as the investigation objects. The plants were grown by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregates in a vegetation chamber in constant environmental conditions. During the plants growth a definite amount of human mineralized waste was added daily in the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was not changed during the entire vegetation period. Estimation of the plant needs in macro elements was based on a total biological productivity equal to 0.04 kg.day--1 .m-2 . As the plant requirements in potassium exceeded the potassium content in human waste, water extract of wheat straw containing the required potassium amount was added to the nutrient solution. Knop's solution was used in the control experiments. The experiment and control plants did not show significant differences in their photosynthetic apparatus state and productivity. A small decrease in total productivity of the experimental plants was observed which can result in some reduction of ˆ2 production in a BLSS. Most I probably it is due to the reduced nitrogen use. Therefore in a real BLSS after the mineralization of human feces and urine, it will be efficient to implement a more complete oxidation of nitrogencontaining compounds system, including nitrification. In this case the plants, prospective representatives of the BLSS photosynthesizing unit, could be cultivated on the solutions mainly based on human mineralized waste.

  9. Increased BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Shikhov, V.; Kudenko, Yu.; Anischenko, O.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plant cultivation in a biological life support system (BLSS). Plants that are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas Pisum sativum L. Ambrosia cultivar and leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L., Vitaminny variety, were used. The plants were grown hydroponically on expanded clay aggregates in a vegetation chamber in constant environmental conditions. During plant growth, a determined amount of human mineralized waste was added daily to the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution remained unchanged throughout the vegetation period. Estimated plant requirements for macro-elements were based on a total biological productivity of 0.04 kg day -1 m -2. As the plant requirements for potassium exceeded the potassium content of human waste, a water extract of wheat straw containing the required amount of potassium was added to the nutrient solution. The Knop's solution was used in the control experiments. The experimental and control plants showed no significant differences in state or productivity of their photosynthetic apparatus. A small decrease in total productivity of the experimental plants was observed, which might result in some reduction of О 2 production in a BLSS.

  10. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Krupke, Christian H

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides to worldwide pollinator declines have focused on honey bees and the chronic levels of exposure experienced when foraging on crops grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds. However, few studies address non-crop plants as a potential route of pollinator exposure to neonicotinoid and other insecticides. Here we show that pollen collected by honey bee foragers in maize- and soybean-dominated landscapes is contaminated throughout the growing season with multiple agricultural pesticides, including the neonicotinoids used as seed treatments. Notably, however, the highest levels of contamination in pollen are pyrethroid insecticides targeting mosquitoes and other nuisance pests. Furthermore, pollen from crop plants represents only a tiny fraction of the total diversity of pollen resources used by honey bees in these landscapes, with the principle sources of pollen originating from non-cultivated plants. These findings provide fundamental information about the foraging habits of honey bees in these landscapes. PMID:27240870

  11. Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth Y.; Krupke, Christian H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to evaluate the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides to worldwide pollinator declines have focused on honey bees and the chronic levels of exposure experienced when foraging on crops grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds. However, few studies address non-crop plants as a potential route of pollinator exposure to neonicotinoid and other insecticides. Here we show that pollen collected by honey bee foragers in maize- and soybean-dominated landscapes is contaminated throughout the growing season with multiple agricultural pesticides, including the neonicotinoids used as seed treatments. Notably, however, the highest levels of contamination in pollen are pyrethroid insecticides targeting mosquitoes and other nuisance pests. Furthermore, pollen from crop plants represents only a tiny fraction of the total diversity of pollen resources used by honey bees in these landscapes, with the principle sources of pollen originating from non-cultivated plants. These findings provide fundamental information about the foraging habits of honey bees in these landscapes. PMID:27240870

  12. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods

    PubMed Central

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D’Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  13. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions. PMID:26467257

  14. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification. PMID:27530434

  15. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  17. Plant Succession at the Edges of Two Abandoned Cultivated Fields on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Sally A.; Rickard, William H.

    2002-12-01

    How vegetation recovers from disturbances is an important question for land managers. We examined 500 m2 plots to determine the progress made by native herbaceous plant species in colonizing the edges of abandoned cultivated fields at different elevations and microclimates, but with similar soils in a big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass steppe. Alien species, especially cheatgrass and cereal rye, were the major competitors to the natives. The native species with best potential for restoring steppe habitats were sulphur lupine, hawksbeard, bottlebrush squirreltail, needle-and-thread grass, Sandberg's bluegrass, and several lomatiums.

  18. Red and blue pulse timing control for pulse width modulation light dimming of light emitting diodes for plant cultivation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Aoi; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2011-09-01

    A pulse width modulation (PWM) light dimming system containing red and blue light emitting diodes was designed and constructed. Cultivation of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana under various light dimming wave patterns was compared. Control of the pulse timing (phase of wave pattern) between red and blue light in PWM light dimming was examined. Different plant growth was obtained by changing the phase of red and blue pulses. Pulse timing control of PWM light dimming for plant cultivation has the potential to act as a method for probing photosynthesis. PMID:21622005

  19. Influence of Plant Polymers on the Distribution and Cultivation of Bacteria in the Phylum Acidobacteria ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant bacteria in soil. Although they have been characterized as versatile heterotrophs, it is unclear if the types and availability of organic resources influence their distribution in soil. The potential for organic resources to select for different acidobacteria was assessed using molecular and cultivation-based approaches with agricultural and managed grassland soils in Michigan. The distribution of acidobacteria varied with the carbon content of soil: the proportion of subdivision 4 sequences was highest in agricultural soils (ca. 41%) that contained less carbon than grassland soils, where the proportions of subdivision 1, 3, 4, and 6 sequences were similar. Either readily oxidizable carbon or plant polymers were used as the sole carbon and energy source to isolate heterotrophic bacteria from these soils. Plant polymers increased the diversity of acidobacteria cultivated but decreased the total number of heterotrophs recovered compared to readily oxidizable carbon. Two phylogenetically novel Acidobacteria strains isolated on the plant polymer medium were characterized. Strains KBS 83 (subdivision 1) and KBS 96 (subdivision 3) are moderate acidophiles with pH optima of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Both strains grew slowly (μ = 0.01 h−1) and harbored either 1 (strain KBS 83) or 2 (strain KBS 96) copies of the 16S rRNA encoding gene—a genomic characteristic typical of oligotrophs. Strain KBS 83 is a microaerophile, growing optimally at 8% oxygen. These metabolic characteristics help delineate the niches that acidobacteria occupy in soil and are consistent with their widespread distribution and abundance. PMID:21097594

  20. Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernanda da S; Costa, Pedro B da; Souza, Rocheli de; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B; Vargas, Luciano K; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2016-03-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, bioinoculants usage as providers of a crop's needs is a method to limit environmental damage. In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce indolic compounds; phosphate solubilization and siderophores production formed a second group related to fewer genera, in which the genus Burkholderia has a great importance. The results obtained may help future studies aiming prospection of putative plant growth promoting bacteria regarding the desired organism and PGP trait. PMID:27007904

  1. Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Fernanda da S.; da Costa, Pedro B.; de Souza, Rocheli; Beneduzi, Anelise; Lisboa, Bruno B.; Vargas, Luciano K.; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture, bioinoculants usage as providers of a crop's needs is a method to limit environmental damage. In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce indolic compounds; phosphate solubilization and siderophores production formed a second group related to fewer genera, in which the genus Burkholderia has a great importance. The results obtained may help future studies aiming prospection of putative plant growth promoting bacteria regarding the desired organism and PGP trait. PMID:27007904

  2. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Duchovskis, P.; Bliznikas, Z.; Breive, K.; Ulinskaite, R.; Brazaityte, A.; Novickovas, A.; Zukauskas, A.

    2005-09-01

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  3. The soil-like substrate: problems and perspective of its use for higher plants cultivation in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..; Ushakova, Sofya; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Being the product of biological mineralization of plant wastes, the soil-like substrate (SLS) contains sufficient amount of nutrients required for plant growth and development. The multiple experiments carried out at the IBP SB RAS demonstrated the SLS fitness for cultivation of higher plant of phototrophic unit in biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS). Together with it, some problems demanding further investigations and solutions had revealed. One of the cardinal problems was interlinked with a relatively low allowance of assimilable nitrogen in comparison with other elements contained in the SLS. Different problems arising under a durational plant cultivation on the SLS in a regime of multi-species uneven-aged conveyer is considered. The work attends considerable attention to analysis of questions occurring at plant cultivation on a reusable SLS that resulted in a yield decrease. The ways of more effective exploitation of the SLS both as a bioreactor for plant wastes mineralization and as a substrate for plant cultivation in a long-functioning BTLSS of an increased closure level of mass exchange processes are suggested.

  4. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species. PMID:26974817

  5. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation.

    PubMed

    Mantzos, N; Karakitsou, A; Hela, D; Patakioutas, G; Leneti, E; Konstantinou, I

    2014-02-15

    A field dissipation and transport study of oxyfluorfen in a sunflower cultivation under Mediterranean conditions have been conducted in silty clay plots (cultivated and uncultivated) with two surface slopes (1% and 5%). The soil dissipation and transport of oxyfluorfen in runoff water and sediment, as well as the uptake by sunflower plants, were investigated over a period of 191 days. Among different kinetic models assayed, soil dissipation rate of oxyfluorfen was better described by first-order kinetics. The average half-life was 45 and 45.5 days in cultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1% respectively, and 50.9 and 52.9 days in uncultivated plots with soil slopes 5% and 1%. The herbicide was detected below the 10 cm soil layer 45 days after application (DAA). Limited amounts of oxyfluorfen were moved with runoff water and the cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.007% and 0.005% of the initial applied active ingredient, while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.002% and 0.001%. The maximum concentration of oxyfluorfen in sediment ranged from 1.46 μg g(-1) in cultivated plot with soil slope 1% to 2.33 μg g(-1) in uncultivated plot with soil slope 5%. The cumulative losses from tilled and untilled plots with slope 5% were estimated at 0.217% and 0.170% while for the plots with slope of 1%, the respective values were 0.055% and 0.025%. Oxyfluorfen was detected in sunflower plants until the day of harvest; maximum concentrations in stems and leaves (0.042 μg g(-1)) were observed 33 DAA and in roots (0.025 μg g(-1)) 36 DAA. In conclusion, oxyfluorfen hardly moves into silty clay soil and exhibited low run-off potential so it represents a low risk herbicide for the contamination of ground and adjacent water resources. PMID:24333999

  6. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant’s growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species. PMID:26974817

  7. Assessing the regional impacts of increased energy maize cultivation on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karoline; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The increasing cultivation of energy crops in Germany substantially affects the habitat function of agricultural landscapes. Precise ex ante evaluations regarding the impacts of this cultivation on farmland bird populations are rare. The objective of this paper was to implement a methodology to assess the regional impacts of increasing energy maize cultivation on the habitat quality of agricultural lands for farmland birds. We selected five farmland bird indicator species with varying habitat demands. Using a crop suitability modelling approach, we analysed the availability of potential habitat areas according to different land use scenarios for a real landscape in Northeast Germany. The model was based on crop architecture, cultivation period, and landscape preconditions. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of different crops varied between bird species, and scenario calculations revealed an increase and a decrease in the size of the potential breeding and feeding habitats, respectively. The effects observed in scenario 1 (increased energy maize by 15%) were not reproduced in all cases in scenario 2 (increased energy maize by 30%). Spatial aggregation of energy maize resulted in a negative effect for some species. Changes in the composition of the farmland bird communities, the negative effects on farmland bird species limited in distribution and spread and the relevance of the type of agricultural land use being replaced by energy crops are also discussed. In conclusion, we suggest a trade-off between biodiversity and energy targets by identifying biodiversity-friendly energy cropping systems. PMID:24323319

  8. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation. PMID:26994604

  9. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS : I. CULTIVATION OF HERPETOMONADS FROM INSECTS AND PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Tilden, E B

    1926-08-31

    Nine strains of herpetomonads have been isolated in pure culture from eight varieties of insects, and three strains from two species of plants. Four of the cultures were derived from latex-feeding insects (Oncopeltus fasciatus, Oncopeltus sp. ?, Lygaeus kalmii) and three from latex plants (Asclepias syriaca, Asclepias nivea), two from mosquitoes (Culex pipiens and Anopheles quadrimaculatus), one from the house fly (Musca domestica), and two from bluebottle flies. In addition impure cultures have been obtained from Oncopeltus cingulifer and from its plant host, Asclepias curassavica. The flagellates cultivated, all of which belong to the genus Herpetomonas, have been identified chiefly by their biological relationships, which will be described in detail in Part II of this report. The seven strains from latex-feeding insects and latex plants represent two distinct species, which have been designated H. oncopelti and H. lygaegorum. The two strains from mosquitoes proved to be the same organism and have been called Herpetomonas culicidarum. The culture obtained from Musca domestica contained larger individuals than those of any other strain, and the organism is morphologically distinct from either of the Calliphora strains. None of the fly flagellates cultivated could be identified with the. species H. muscae domesticae or H. calliphorae, and hence they have been given new names, Herpetomonas muscidarum, H. media, and H. parva. Blood agar plates were used for initial cultivation of the strains from insects and the semisolid leptospira medium for isolation of the plant flagellates. A number of the strains were purified by plating on acid blood agar, a procedure which reduces considerably the growth of bacterial contaminants. The Barber technique was utilized for isolation of the flagellates from flies, because of the very large number of bacteria found with them in these insects, and, in one or two instances, for the purification of impure cultures. Once they have been

  11. The content of macro- and microelements and the phosphatase activity of soils under a varied plant cultivation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowiak, A.; Lemanowicz, J.; Kobierski, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the analyses of selected physicochemical properties and the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the soils which differed in terms of plant cultivation technology. Profile sI represented arable land in the crop rotation with cereals dominating (medium intensive technology), without irrigation, while profile sII—represented arable land with vegetable crops cultivation (intensive technology), intensively fertilized and irrigated. The content of available phosphorus in the two soil profiles investigated ranged from 6.6 to 69.1 mg/kg. The highest contents of phosphorus available to plants were reported in the plough horizon of both soils, while the abundance of potassium and magnesium was highest in the illuvial horizon of both soils. The soil profiles investigated showed a significant variation in terms of the cultivation technologies applied. The contents of plant-available Cu and Zn in soil were low and they resulted in the inhibition of neither alkaline nor acid phosphatase. The intensive vegetable crops cultivation technology decreased the content of organic matter and increased the content of the nutrients in soil. Using the Ward method, it was found that relatively similar physicochemical and chemical properties were reported for the genetic horizons of both soil profiles, especially Ap horizon of the soil representing arable land with intensive cultivation of vegetable crops.

  12. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  13. Evaluation of hydrocarbon plants suitable for cultivation in Florida. [Euphorbia tirucalli, E. lathyris, and Asclepias curassavica

    SciTech Connect

    Dehgan, B.; Wang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the hydrocarbon plants reported in the literature are not suitable for cultivation under Florida conditions. Preliminary results of field and greenhouse trials have indicated two species; Euphorbia tirucalli, which is suitable only for south Florida and Asclepias curassavica which has shown promise for the entire state. The hydrocarbon content of E. tirucalli increases with age of the plants (8.19-11.90%), whereas, that of A. curassavica is influenced positively by fertilization (3.62%) and negatively by supplemental irrigation (2.75%). A comparison between the results of field trials with A. curassavica in Florida and E. lathyris in California shows similar biomass yields under unirrigated conditions, despite 3.6 to 7.8 times greater nitrogen application for E. lathyris. Because of environmental conditions in Florida, E. lathyris is not capable of good growth. It is suggested that future research on hydrocarbon plants should concentrate on selection of individuals or species with vigorous, upright growth habits, low fertilizer-irrigation requirements and high hydrocarbon contents. 18 references.

  14. Differences in energy transfer of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, grown in different cultivation media.

    PubMed

    Niki, Kenta; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Currently, cyanobacteria are regarded as potential biofuel sources. Large-scale cultivation of cyanobacteria in seawater is of particular interest because seawater is a low-cost medium. In the present study, we examined differences in light-harvesting and energy transfer processes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown in different cultivation media, namely modified A medium (the optimal growth medium for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and f/2 (a seawater medium). The concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions were varied in both media. Higher nitrate ion and/or phosphate ion concentrations yielded high relative content of phycobilisome. The cultivation medium influenced the energy transfers within phycobilisome, from phycobilisome to photosystems, within photosystem II, and from photosystem II to photosystem I. We suggest that the medium also affects charge recombination at the photosystem II reaction center and formation of a chlorophyll-containing complex. PMID:25577255

  15. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF O,P'-DDT AND P,P'-DDT BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake and phytotransformation of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were investigated in vitro using three axenically cultivated aquatic plants: parrot feather (Mariophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza), and elodea (Elodea canadensis). The decay profile of DDT from the aq...

  16. The Application of Advanced Cultivation Techniques in the Long Term Maintenance of Space Flight Plant Biological Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station (ISS) presents extensive opportunities for the implementation of long duration space life sciences studies. Continued attention has been placed in the development of plant growth chamber facilities capable of supporting the cultivation of plants in space flight microgravity conditions. The success of these facilities is largely dependent on their capacity to support the various growth requirements of test plant species. The cultivation requirements for higher plant species are generally complex, requiring specific levels of illumination, temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, and gas composition in order to achieve normal physiological growth and development. The supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen to the plant root system is a factor, which has proven to be particularly challenging in a microgravity space flight environment. The resolution of this issue is particularly important for the more intensive crop cultivation of plants envisaged in Nasa's advanced life support initiative. BioServe Space Technologies is a NASA, Research Partnership Center (RPC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. BioServe has designed and operated various space flight plant habitat systems, and placed specific emphasis on the development and enhanced performance of subsystem components such as water and nutrient delivery, illumination, gas exchange and atmosphere control, temperature and humidity control. The further development and application of these subsystems to next generation habitats is of significant benefit and contribution towards the development of both the Space Plant biology and the Advanced Life Support Programs. The cooperative agreement between NASA Ames Research center and BioServe was established to support the further implementation of advanced cultivation techniques and protocols to plant habitat systems being coordinated at NASA Ames Research Center. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of passive

  17. Proteomic Analyses Provide Novel Insights into Plant Growth and Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Forest Cultivated Panax ginseng (F. Ginseng)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Chen, Xuenan; Mei, Bing; Chang, Guijuan; Wang, Manying; Zhao, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    F. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is planted in the forest to enhance the natural ginseng resources, which have an immense medicinal and economic value. The morphology of the cultivated plants becomes similar to that of wild growing ginseng (W. Ginseng) over the years. So far, there have been no studies highlighting the physiological or functional changes in F. Ginseng and its wild counterparts. In the present study, we used proteomic technologies (2DE and iTRAQ) coupled to mass spectrometry to compare W. Ginseng and F. Ginseng at various growth stages. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on protein abundance revealed that the protein expression profile of 25-year-old F. Ginseng was more like W. Ginseng than less 20-year-old F. Ginseng. We identified 192 differentially expressed protein spots in F. Ginseng. These protein spots increased with increase in growth years of F. Ginseng and were associated with proteins involved in energy metabolism, ginsenosides biosynthesis, and stress response. The mRNA, physiological, and metabolic analysis showed that the external morphology, protein expression profile, and ginsenoside synthesis ability of the F. Ginseng increased just like that of W. Ginseng with the increase in age. Our study represents the first characterization of the proteome of F. Ginseng during development and provides new insights into the metabolism and accumulation of ginsenosides. PMID:26858731

  18. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  19. Natural radioactivity in cultivated land in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeji, Mark C.; Agwu, Kenneth K.; Idigo, Felicitas U.

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity in soil and vegetable samples in cultivated land in the vicinity of an active phosphate fertilizer plant in Kaduna, Nigeria was carried out to assess the potential radiological impact of the plant on its immediate environment. The activity counting was carried out using sodium iodide gamma spectrometry. The annual committed effective dose for two vegetables in the farmlands due to uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) was assessed. The mean activity concentration of radionuclides in the soil samples ranges from 20.5±7.3 to 31.6±4.1 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 19.6±1.6 to 53.2±3.7 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 203.9±6.3 to 253.6±9.5 Bq kg-1 for 40K. The annual intake of 238U and 232Th from consumption of okra were 1.9 Bq kg-1 and 5.22 Bq kg-1 and for tomatoes 2.66 Bq kg-1 and 5.1 Bq kg-1 respectively. The committed effective doses from consumption of okra and tomatoes were 0.1 μSv y-1 and 0.12 μSv y-1 respectively.

  20. Antagonistic interactions between endophytic cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Mengoni, Alessio; Bosi, Emanuele; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied the antagonistic interactions existing among cultivable bacteria isolated from three ecological niches (rhizospheric soil, roots and stem/leaves) of the traditional natural medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. The three compartments harboured different taxonomic assemblages of strains, which were previously reported to display different antibiotic resistance patterns, suggesting the presence of differential selective pressure due to antagonistic molecules in the three compartments. Antagonistic interactions were assayed by the cross-streak method and interpreted using a network-based analysis. In particular 'within-niche inhibition' and 'cross-niche inhibition' were evaluated among isolates associated with each compartment as well as between isolates retrieved from the three different compartments respectively. Data obtained indicated that bacteria isolated from the stem/leaves compartment were much more sensitive to the antagonistic activity than bacteria from roots and rhizospheric soil. Moreover, both the taxonomical position and the ecological niche might influence the antagonistic ability/sensitivity of different strains. Antagonism could play a significant role in contributing to the differentiation and structuring of plant-associated bacterial communities. PMID:26013664

  1. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  2. Photosynthesis and water relations in tomato plants cultivated long-term in media containing (+)-usnic acid.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, E; Lechowski, Z; Bialczyk, J; Pilarski, J

    2006-09-01

    The influence of (+)-usnic acid on rates of gas exchange (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration) in long-term cultivation of tomato plants was studied. The effect was dose-dependent. Plants grown in media containing the maximum concentration of (+)-usnic acid (30 muM) had photosynthetic and respiration rates reduced by 41% and 80%, respectively. The effect on photosynthesis rate may be the result of a multidirectional effect at various stages of this process, which at the highest usnic acid concentration underwent reduction: content of chlorophylls by 30%, carotenoids by 35%, and Hill reaction activity by 75%. Usnic acid also raises the susceptibility of chlorophyll to photodegradation. Under some conditions, transpiration was reduced by 2.1-fold in light and 3.7-fold in dark. This result was correlated with (1) an increase in the diffusive resistance of the stomata (3.1-fold in upper and 1.5-fold in lower surface of leaf), (2) a reduction of stomata density (by 60% on upper and 40% on lower surface), and (3) a 12.3-fold decrease in root hydraulic conductance. PMID:16902819

  3. Comparing anthracene and fluorene degradation in anthracene and fluorene-contaminated soil by single and mixed plant cultivation.

    PubMed

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Chouychai, Waraporn; Lee, Hung

    2014-01-01

    The ability of three plant species (sweet corn, cucumber, and winged bean) to remediate soil spiked with 138.9 and 95.9 mg of anthracene and fluorene per kg of dry soil, respectively, by single and double plant co-cultivation was investigated. After 15 and 30 days of transplantation, plant elongation, plant weight, chlorophyll content, and the content of each PAH in soil and plant tissues were determined. Based on PAH removal and plant health, winged bean was the most effective plant for phytoremediation when grown alone; percentage of fluorene and anthracene remaining in the rhizospheric soil after 30 days were 7.8% and 24.2%, respectively. The most effective combination of plants for phytoremediation was corn and winged bean; on day 30, amounts of fluorene and anthracene remaining in the winged bean rhizospheric soil were 3.4% and 14.3%, respectively; amounts of fluorene and anthracene remaining in the sweet corn rhizospheric soil were 4.1% and 8.8%, respectively. Co-cultivation of sweet corn and cucumber could remove fluorene to a higher extent than anthracene from soil within 15 days, but these plants did not survive and died before day 30. The amounts of fluorene remaining in the rhizospheric soil of corn and cucumber were only 14% and 17.3%, respectively, on day 15. No PAHs were detected in plant tissues. This suggests that phytostimulation of microbial degradation in the rhizosphere was most likely the mechanism by which the PAHs were removed from the spiked soil. The results show that co-cultivation of plants has merit in the phytoremediation of PAH-spiked soil. PMID:24912240

  4. Impacts of Woody Plant Encroachment and Cultivation on Soil Carbon and Soil Water Flux Across a Precipitation Gradient in Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Jackson, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    Land-use/cover changes affect flux and storages of water and carbon, which are becoming increasingly important in light of the projected climate change and water shortages around the world. Cultivation of food crops and woody-plant encroachment are two such changes that are prevalent in grassland ecosystems. We compared belowground water flux and carbon storage in adjacent stands of natural grasslands and woody- encroached or cultivated plots. Stands were located in 5 sites across a precipitation gradient in the Pampa grasslands of varying soil texture in Argentina. Soil cores were excavated to 9 meters or to groundwater level and analyzed for soil moisture and chloride to estimate groundwater recharge rates using the chloride mass balance and chloride displacement methods. Cores were also analyzed for soil organic and inorganic carbon. Comparison of soil chloride profiles under the land-use/cover change from the natural grasslands suggested reduced recharge and/or higher groundwater use under woody plants and enhanced recharge under cultivation compared to the grasslands. Chloride concentrations differed up to 3-fold between the grassland and the two land-use/cover changes. Soil organic carbon was similar or significantly higher under woody plants and lower under cultivation compared with grasslands. The changes in water yield are discussed in context of the estimated carbon sequestration measured at the sites. Valuation of such changes would help determine the optimum land-use/cover under global environmental changes.

  5. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brygadyrenko, Viktor V.; Nazimov, Sergii S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761) – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours), Euphorbia virgata (3.45), Solanum nigrum (3.32), Centauria scabiosa (2.47), Lamium album (2.41), Aristolochia clematitis (1.76), Chenopodium album (1.73), Arctium lappa (1.51), Asperula odorata (1.20). A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours), Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75), Tropaeolum majus (3.29), Nicotiana tabacum (2.66), Rumex acetosa (1.96), Beta vulgaris (1.27). Opatrum sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched. PMID:25685032

  6. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  7. Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus with domestic secondary effluent and energy evaluation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S S; Liu, H; Fan, J F; Yu, H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae cultivation in wastewater has gained significant attention as a cost-saving means for algae-based biofuel production. To evaluate the performance of Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in a 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using domestic secondary effluent (DSE), algal growth, nutrients removal and energy evaluation were conducted in four scenarios. Prior to the application of continuous cultivation, S. dimorphus was grown in a batch operated 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactor to test the growth feasibility and lipids accumulation of S. dimorphus in DSE. The highest biomass achieved in DSE was 244 mg L(-1)with lipid content at 26.06%. Simultaneously, 98.72% of total phosphorus (TP) and 98.04% of total nitrogen (TN) in DSE were removed. Then, S. dimorphus were inoculated in the 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using BG11, unsterilized DSE, N, P-added DSE and UV-sterilized DSE as the medium, respectively. Results showed that the highest biomass gained were 567, 174, 276 and 198 mg L(-1), respectively. TP removal rates in four scenarios were all above 90%. With adjustment to DSE, the overall TN removal rates increased up to 80%. Finally, energy evaluation demonstrated that although the case of BG11 as the medium provided the most energy production, the case using DSE with N and P supplementation was of the highest net energy rate, suggesting that microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production by DSE is of obvious potential and advantage over the synthesis medium like BG11. PMID:25253291

  8. [Analysis on the target product from sewage sludge pyrolysis and experiments on using the char for enhancing plant cultivation].

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Ding; Chen, De-Zhen; Wang, Zhong-Hui; He, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Characteristics of sewage sludge pyrolysis under low temperatures were studied and the influences of reaction temperature and moisture content on products distribution and their properties were also investigated with a purpose to select a proper target product. After a dissective comparison, char produced from the pyrolysis process was chosen as the target product and then its effect on plant cultivation was checked by using it to plant garlic when blended into normal soil; also its heavy metals contents and their transfer to the garlic were investigated. The primary research results showed that with the moisture content reduced to a certain level, char production was above 40% of sewage sludge when the pyrolysis process took place under 550 degrees C; ash content of the char is around 60% - 65%, but it is rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents. The heavy metal contents in the char meet up with the limitations for land use, and the garlic stems planted in the soil blended with the char grew much faster than those planted in normal soil with their averaged height being 3-4 cm higher; however the heavy metal contents in the fast-growing garlic stems were a little higher than that in the normal ones, which was not suitable for edible plants. The results obtained suggested that char produced from sewage sludge pyrolysis process could be a target product arranged for land use especially for non-edible plant cultivation. PMID:22165228

  9. Influence of plant genotype on the cultivable fungi associated to tomato rhizosphere and roots in different soils.

    PubMed

    Poli, Anna; Lazzari, Alexandra; Prigione, Valeria; Voyron, Samuele; Spadaro, Davide; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere and root-associated microbiota are crucial in determining plant health and in increasing productivity of agricultural crops. To date, research has mainly focused on the bacterial dimension of the microbiota. However, interest in the mycobiota is increasing, since fungi play a key role in soil ecosystems. We examined the effect of plant genotype, soil, and of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) on the cultivable component of rhizosphere and root-associated mycobiota of tomato. Resistant and susceptible varieties were cultivated on two different soils (A and B), under glasshouse conditions. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular approaches. Differences were found between the rhizosphere and the roots, which in general displayed a lower number of species. The structure of the mycobiota was significantly affected by the soil type in the rhizosphere as well as by the plant genotype within the roots (NPERMANOVA, p < 0.05). The addition of Fol changed the community structure, particularly in soil A, where Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp. were the dominant responding fungi. Overall, the results indicated that i) soil type and plant genotype affect the fungal communities; ii) plant roots select few species from the rhizosphere; and iii) the fungal community structure is influenced by Fol. PMID:27268246

  10. PFRU, a single dominant locus regulates the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction in cultivated strawberry.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Amèlia; Perrotte, Justine; Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Petit, Aurélie; Hernould, Michel; Rothan, Christophe; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2013-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) stands as an interesting model for studying flowering behaviour and its relationship with asexual plant reproduction in polycarpic perennial plants. Strawberry produces both inflorescences and stolons (also called runners), which are lateral stems growing at the soil surface and producing new clone plants. In this study, the flowering and runnering behaviour of two cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., 2n = 8× = 56) genotypes, a seasonal flowering genotype CF1116 and a perpetual flowering genotype Capitola, were studied along the growing season. The genetic bases of the perpetual flowering and runnering traits were investigated further using a pseudo full-sibling F1 population issued from a cross between these two genotypes. The results showed that a single major quantitative trait locus (QTL) named FaPFRU controlled both traits in the cultivated octoploid strawberry. This locus was not orthologous to the loci affecting perpetual flowering (SFL) and runnering (R) in Fragaria vesca, therefore suggesting different genetic control of perpetual flowering and runnering in the diploid and octoploid Fragaria spp. Furthermore, the FaPFRU QTL displayed opposite effects on flowering (positive effect) and on runnering (negative effect), indicating that both traits share common physiological control. These results suggest that this locus plays a major role in strawberry plant fitness by controlling the balance between sexual and asexual plant reproduction. PMID:23554259

  11. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-05-22

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  12. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  13. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  14. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  15. [Changes of plant community biomass and soil nutrients during the vegetation succession on abandoned cultivated land in desert steppe region].

    PubMed

    An, Hui; Yang, Xin-Guo; Liu, Bing-Ru; Li, Xue-Bin; He, Xiu-Zhen; Song, Nai-Ping

    2011-12-01

    By the method of substituting temporal serial with spatial serial, and taking five abandoned cultivated lands with different ages (1, 4, 9, 12, and 20 years) in desert steppe region as test objects, this paper studied the change characteristics of plant community biomass and soil nutrients during vegetation succession. With the increasing abandoned years, the plant community aboveground biomass on the abandoned lands increased after an initial decrease, whereas the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon contents, and carbon density in 0-60 cm soil layer increased first, decreased then, and increased again, with the maximum values of soil total nitrogen and phosphorus contents appeared on the abandoned lands with the ages 4 and 20 years. During vegetation succession, the effects of soil total nitrogen and organic carbon on plant community biomass were greater than those of soil total phosphorus and soil bulk density. PMID:22384580

  16. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K.; Flowers, Tim J.; Seal, Charlotte E.; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S

  17. Gene flow from weedy rice populations to cultivated rice varies by plant type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transfer from crops to its weedy and/or wild relatives has been the research focal point during the last decade. Little is known about the rate and consequences of gene transfer from wild or weedy relatives to the cultivated crops. Red rice, a weed which infests ~ 40% of rice acreage in the sou...

  18. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary goal of this research was to investigate the prokaryotic and fungal communities associated with the bulk soil, the rhizosphere, the phyllosphere, and the root and leaf endospheres, for three Agave species: the cultivated Agave tequilana and the native species, A. salmiana and A. deserti ...

  19. Cultivation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant staphylococci from input and output samples of German biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Sowinsky, Olivia; Brunner, Jana S; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were detected in two mesophilic German biogas plants (BGPs) using selective pre-enrichment methods combined with cultivation on CHROMagar media and antibiotic resistance gene screening. Genetic fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the presence of enterococci isolated by the VRE selective cultivation (67 isolates) in input and output samples of BGPs. In contrast, MRS (44 isolates) were detected in input, but in none of the output samples. Enterococcus isolates showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.8%) to E. lemanii, E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarium or E. devriesei/E. pseudoavium/E. viikkiensis and carried vanA, vanB and/or vanC1 genes. Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis VRE were not detected, but isolates closely related to those species (>99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) were detected by the MRS selective cultivation methods. Staphylococcus isolates shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>99.9%) with S. haemolyticus, S. lentus and S. sciuri and carried mecA genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were not detected. In summary, manure from livestock husbandry contained both, VRE and MRS. VRE were also detected in output samples, indicating that enterococci with vancomycin resistance genes could be release into the environment by the application of BGP output material as biofertilizers. PMID:26790463

  20. [Feasibility of the use of degraded inedible biomass of plants as a nutrient liquid for hydroponic cultivation].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D; Hou, W H; Shi, W W

    2001-10-01

    Objective. To demonstrate that the recycled liquid, which originated from lettuce inedible biomass degraded by fixed microorganism (correction of microorgannism) and enzyme, can be used as a nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Method. After biologically degrading the weighted, oven-dried and milled leaves and roots of lettuce in a biological reactor under aerobic condition, the original effluent and its supplemented effluent were used as nutrients for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Result. The average dried weight (ADW) of lettuce from the original effluent group was approximately half of that from the control group, and the ADW from supplemented effluent group was about equal to that from the control group; some qualities of the lettuce such as a relatively lower content of NO3- from both the original effluent group and the supplemented effluent one improved, and some of those such as a relatively higher content of NO2- dropped. Conclusion. The biologically-degraded effluent was able to be used as nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, although the effects of the inorganic ion-supplemented effluent were much better; the plants of lettuce from the biologically-degraded effluent were safely edible. PMID:11842852

  1. Cultivating Research Skills: An interdisciplinary approach in training and supporting energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, H.; Carbajales-Dale, P.; Alschbach, E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience and energy research has essentially separate and diverse tracks and traditions, making the education process labor-intensive and burdensome. Using a combined forces approach to training, a multidisciplinary workshop on information and data sources and research skills was developed and offered through several departments at Stanford University. The popular workshops taught required skills to scientists - giving training on new technologies, access to restricted energy-related scientific and government databases, search strategies for data-driven resources, and visualization and geospatial analytics. Feedback and data suggest these workshops were fundamental as they set the foundation for subsequent learning opportunities for students and faculty. This session looks at the integration of the information workshops within multiple energy and geoscience programs and the importance of formally cultivating research and information skills.

  2. Uncovering the cultivable microbial diversity of costa rican beetles and its ability to break down plant cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose. PMID:25411842

  3. Uncovering the Cultivable Microbial Diversity of Costa Rican Beetles and Its Ability to Break Down Plant Cell Wall Components

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Asensio, Gabriel; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Rivera, Beatriz; Hernandez, Myriam; Hernandez, Carlos; Soto-Montero, Silvia; Murillo, Catalina; Sherman, David H.; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Coleopterans are the most diverse insect order described to date. These organisms have acquired an array of survival mechanisms through their evolution, including highly efficient digestive systems. Therefore, the coleopteran intestinal microbiota constitutes an important source of novel plant cell wall-degrading enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. We isolated and described the cultivable fungi, actinomycetes and aerobic eubacteria associated with the gut of larvae and adults from six different beetle families colonizing decomposing logs in protected Costa Rican ecosystems. We obtained 611 isolates and performed phylogenetic analyses using the ITS region (fungi) and 16S rDNA (bacteria). The majority of fungal isolates belonged to the order Hypocreales (26% of 169 total), while the majority of actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces (86% of 241 total). Finally, we isolated 201 bacteria spanning 19 different families belonging into four phyla: Firmicutes, α, β and γ-proteobacteria. Subsequently, we focused on microbes isolated from Passalid beetles to test their ability to degrade plant cell wall polymers. Highest scores in these assays were achieved by a fungal isolate (Anthostomella sp.), two Streptomyces and one Bacillus bacterial isolates. Our study demonstrates that Costa Rican beetles harbor several types of cultivable microbes, some of which may be involved in symbiotic relationships that enable the insect to digest complex polymers such as lignocellulose. PMID:25411842

  4. Can the cultivation of microalgae meet U.S. energy demands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-08-01

    As biofuels such as ethanol and esters become increasingly attractive alternatives to nonrenewable resources such as oil and coal, scientists have become interested in determining the feasibility of biofuels to help meet U.S. energy demands in light of governmental efforts to develop cleaner-burning, renewable fuels. Of particular interest are microalgae—single-celled, photosynthetic organisms—which have been shown to have high biomass yields per acre cultivated. But does the United States have the resources to cultivate microalgae as a viable alternative to fossil fuel consumption? To answer this question, Wigmosta et al. sought to quantify how much water and land would be needed for commercial-scale algal biofuel production, based on where production could feasibly occur. They find that with current technology, the United States has the potential to produce 220 billion liters per year of microalgal oil, equivalent to about 48% of current domestic imports. However, they caution that meeting this potential would require that roughly 5.5% of land in the continental United States and 3 times the amount of water currently used for irrigation be devoted to algal production, though optimizing the locations of microalgae production to maximize efficiency of water usage could significantly reduce water demands. These optimal locations include areas around the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the southeastern seaboard; these coastal locations would allow a 75% reduction in freshwater use and a 67% reduction in land use to cultivate biofuel resources. Moreover, biofuel production through these optimized locations could substitute for up to 17% of oil currently imported for transportation, indicating that with proper planning, U.S. goals for renewable fuels could be met. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009966, 2011)

  5. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. PMID:24433330

  6. Interactions of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes plants cultivated in a gnotobiotic system.

    PubMed

    Jablasone, Julietta; Warriner, Keith; Griffiths, Mansel

    2005-03-01

    The growth and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on a diverse range of plant types over extended cultivation periods was studied. When introduced on the seed of carrot, cress, lettuce, radish, spinach and tomato all the pathogens became rapidly established shortly after germination, attaining cell densities of the order of 5.5-6.5 log cfu/g. In general, Es. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes became established and persisted at significantly higher levels on seedlings (9 days post-germination) than Salmonella. Es. coli O157:H7 became internalized in cress, lettuce, radish and spinach seedlings but was not recovered within the tissues of mature plants. Internalization of Salmonella was also observed in lettuce and radish but not cress or spinach seedlings. In contrast, L. monocytogenes did not internalize within seedlings but did persist on the surface of plants throughout the cultivation period. Co-inoculation of isolates recovered from the rhizosphere of plants did not significantly affect the numbers or persistence of human pathogens. The only exception was with Enterobacter cloacae, which reduced Es. coli O157:H7 Ph1 and L. monocytogenes levels by ca. 1 log cfu/g on lettuce. With the bioluminescent phenotype of Es. coli O157:H7 Ph1, it was demonstrated that the human pathogen became established on the roots of growing plants. Scanning electron micrographs of root seedlings suggested that Es. coli O157:H7 Ph1 preferentially colonized the root junctions of seedlings. It is proposed that such colonization sites enhanced the persistence of Es. coli O157:H7 on plants and facilitated internalization within developing seedlings. The results suggest that the risk associated with internalized human pathogens in salad vegetables at harvest is low. Nevertheless, the introduction of human pathogens at an early stage of plant development could enhance their persistence in the rhizosphere. The implications of the study

  7. [AM and its application in plant disease prevention of Chinese medicinal herbs cultivation].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanpin; Wang, Min

    2011-02-01

    To study the beneficial effect of AMF from the utilization achievement in the agroforestry research, we discuss the application of AM in medicinal plant disease prevention and control. This paper summarized the type of medicinal plant disease, the influence of plant disease and the commonly used prevention method in production. As for the adverse consequences caused by plant's non-infectious and infectious diseases, AM has some improvement function. Something will affect the function of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, for example, the relationship between AMF and the plants, the quantity, the time and the environmental factors about AMF inoculation and so on. In order to achieve the useful effect of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, we should choose the suitable condition during production in practice to carry on the vaccination. PMID:21585020

  8. Salicylic acid elicitation during cultivation of the peppermint plant improves anti-diabetic effects of its infusions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Pérez, Marely G; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-06-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) infusions represent an important source of bioactive compounds with health benefits, which can be enhanced by applying salicylic acid (SA) during plant cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SA (0, 0.5 and 2 mM) during peppermint cultivation on the chemical profile of saponins and alkaloids, as well as the anti-diabetic properties of the resulting infusions. The results showed that a 2 mM SA treatment significantly improved the chemical profiles of the infusions. Furthermore, the administration of 2 mM SA-treated peppermint infusions for 4 weeks to a high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats decreased serum glucose levels (up to 25%) and increased serum insulin levels (up to 75%) as compared with the diabetic control. This can be related to the observed protection on pancreatic β-cells. Furthermore, 0.5 and 2 mM SA-treated peppermint infusions decreased LDL (24 and 47%, respectively) and increased HDL levels (18 and 37%, respectively). In addition, all groups treated with peppermint infusions had lower serum and liver triglyceride contents, where 2 mM SA peppermint infusion showed the highest effect (44% and 56%, respectively). This is probably caused by its higher capacity to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity and lipid absorption. Moreover, SA-treated peppermint infusions improved the steatosis score in diabetic rat liver and decreased serum transaminase levels, probably as a result of the increase in steroidal saponins and alkaloids, such as trigonellin. Therefore, the application of 2 mM SA during cultivation of peppermint could be used to improve the anti-diabetic properties of peppermint infusions. PMID:25940690

  9. Mineral content of culinary and medicinal plants cultivated by Hmong refugees living in Sacramento, California.

    PubMed

    Corlett, Jan L; Clegg, Michael S; Keen, Carl L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2002-03-01

    Since the end of the American-Vietnamese War in 1975, more than 1.5 million refugees from Southeast Asia have resettled in the United States. Included among these displaced persons were the Hmong from Laos, a subsistence-based, shifting-cultivation, agricultural society. Hmong who resettled in urban areas have viewed vacant lots adjacent to urban dwellings as potential garden sites for production of familiar herbs and vegetables. In the present study exotic culinary and medicinal herbs grown by Hmong refugees in Sacramento, California were identified and analyzed for mineral composition. The herbs grown in these urban gardens were significant ingredients of Hmong recipes, and herb leaves, or infusions of steamed herb leaves were widely consumed as a component of pregnancy and post-partum diets. Six common species, Acorus gramineus, aff. Angelica, Dendranthema indicum, Eupatorium lindleyana, Sedum aff. sarmentosum, and Sedum aff. spectabile, were used in combination to season chicken. Polygonum odoratum, also widely cultivated, was used to season fish. Exotic culinary-medicinal species with highest mineral profiles included: Basella alba (Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn); Houttuynia cordata (Fe, Mg, Mn); Justica gendarussa (Ca, Mg, Zn); and Polygonum odoratum (Ca, Mg, Mn). While vacant lots sometimes are heavy metal contamination sites, we found no detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, or lead in the samples analyzed. PMID:11939106

  10. Changes in operational procedures to improve spaceflight experiments in plant biology in the European Modular Cultivation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Aanes, Gjert; Schiefloe, Mona; Coelho, Liz H. F.; Millar, Katherine D. L.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2014-03-01

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore topics in basic plant biology as well as applied research on the use of plants in bioregenerative life support systems. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seedling Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments performed in 2006 and 2010. Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: (1) improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies, (2) the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings, (3) modifications in procedures used in flight to improve the focus and overall quality of the images, and (4) changes in the atmospheric conditions in the EMCS incubator. In SG-1, a novel red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. The lessons learned from sequential experiments in the TROPI hardware provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology.

  11. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems. PMID:20167055

  12. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  13. [Survey and analysis of circulation and cultivation of medicinal plants in Tangchang county].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-cheng

    2014-12-01

    The article sort out the main planting information of Chinese medicinal materials in Tanchang county from 2012 to 2014, through doing a questionnaire survey, setting technical training and communicating with people who plant, process, and sell the Chinese medicinal materials in the main producing area in 25 villages and towns of Tanchang county. By analyzing the results, the author pointed out the current situation of Chinese medicinal material planting, processing, trading and also the existing problems, and gave a proposal and strategy to the industrial development of Chinese medicinal materials, therefore, set an example to the development of the county territory. PMID:25898598

  14. Energy biomass characteristics of chosen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszlak-Bargłowicz, J.; Zając, G.; Piekarski, W.

    2012-04-01

    The chosen energy plants species: willow, mallow and Miscanthus are presented. Result of analysis of combustion heat and heating value of these species biomass indicate on possibility of their utilization as fuel for combustion and energy and heat production.

  15. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  16. A N2-fixing endophytic Burkholderia sp. associated with maize plants cultivated in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Paulina; Mavingui, Patrick; Cournoyer, Benoit; Fontaine, Fanette; Balandreau, Jacques; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus

    2002-04-01

    In the frame of a survey of potentially endophytic N2-fixing Burkholderia associated with maize in Mexico, its country of origin, the soil of an indigenous maize field near Oaxaca was studied. Under laboratory conditions, plant seedlings of two ancient maize varieties were used as a trap to select endophyte candidates from the soil sample. Among the N2 fixers isolated from inside plant tissues and able to grow on PCAT medium, the most abundant isolates belonged to genus Burkholderia (API 20NE, rrs sequences). Representative isolates obtained from roots and shoots of different plants appeared identical (rrs and nifH RFLP), showing that they were closely related. In addition, their 16S rDNA sequences differed from described Burkholderia species and, phylogenetically, they constituted a separate deep-branching new lineage in genus Burkholderia. This indicated that these isolates probably constituted a new species. An inoculation experiment confirmed that these N2-fixing Burkholderia isolates could densely colonize the plant tissues of maize. More isolates of this group were subsequently obtained from field-grown maize and teosinte plants. It was hypothesized that strains of this species had developed a sort of primitive symbiosis with one of their host plants, teosinte, which persisted during the domestication of teosinte into maize. PMID:12030700

  17. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  18. [Study on the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake ability of four plants cultivated on floating-bed].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Cong-Jun; Cao, Yong

    2011-04-01

    Plant floating-bed tested engineering was constructed for eutrophication control in Dian-shan Lake, the characteristics and nutrient uptake abilities of Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria were compared. It shows that using upper and lower nylon nets to fix the plants on the floating-bed is beneficial for them to grow and reproduce rapidly. Survival rates of Canna indica, lris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Lythrum salicaria are 83.33%, 83.33%, 76.67% and 53.33% respectively. Ramets of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are 64 and 78 respectively in November, and the biomass (fresh weight) of these two plants are 32.0 and 38.6 kg per individual plant. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in stems/leaves of Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are greater than those in roots. The ratio between stems/leaves and roots of N, P content in Canna indica are 1.40 and 1.21 respectively, while 1.59 and 1.08 in Thalia dealbata. The difference of cumulative N, P content in plants is mostly on account of different plant biomass. N uptake ability of Thalia dealbata is the highest, which is 457.11 g per square; Canna indica has the highest P uptake ability, which is 41.29 g per square. N, P uptake ability of stems/leaves in Canna indica are 2.17 and 1.86 times higher than that of roots, while 1.73 and 1.17 times higher respectively in Thalia dealbata. Thus, Canna indica and Thalia dealbata are recommended as the floating-bed plants to control the eutrophication in Dian-shan Lake. PMID:21717738

  19. Ecological specialization of the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover on cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Carletto, J; Lombaert, E; Chavigny, P; Brévault, T; Lapchin, L; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, F

    2009-05-01

    Many plant-feeding insect species considered to be polyphagous are in fact composed of genetically differentiated sympatric populations that use different hosts and between which gene flow still exists. We studied the population genetic structure of the cotton-melon aphid Aphis gossypii that is considered as one of the most polyphagous aphid species. We used eight microsatellites to analyse the genetic diversity of numerous samples of A. gossypii collected over several years at a large geographical scale on annual crops from different plant families. The number of multilocus genotypes detected was extremely low and the genotypes were found to be associated with host plants. Five host races were unambiguously identified (Cucurbitaceae, cotton, eggplant, potato and chili- or sweet pepper). These host races were dominated by asexual clones. Plant transfer experiments using several specialized clones further confirmed the existence of host-associated trade-offs. Finally, both genetic and experimental data suggested that plants of the genus Hibiscus may be used as refuge for the specialized clones. Resource abundance is discussed as a key factor involved in the process of ecological specialization in A. gossypii. PMID:19635073

  20. Effect of Medicinal Plants Cultivation on the Physicochemical Properties of Leached Chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svistova, I. D.; Stekol'nikov, K. E.; Paramonov, A. Yu.; Kuvshinova, N. M.

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, a nonspecific neutralizing effect of rhizodeposits of medicinal plants has been found in a leached chernozem. The neutralization of actual, exchangeable, and total acidity of the soil takes place against the background of a decrease in the activity of calcium ions in the soil solution. It can be supposed that this effect is due to the release of secondary metabolites of phenol nature in the rhizodeposits. These substances can change the anionic composition of the soil adsorption complex. Plant species with the maximum effect on the composition of the soil adsorption complex have been identified.

  1. Steviol glycosides targeted analysis in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) from plants cultivated under chilling stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Sihem; D'Urso, Gilda; Pizza, Cosimo; Rezgui, Salah; Bettaieb, Taoufik; Montoro, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener, sensitive to low temperature during the developmental stage. Stimulation of chilling stress with a pre-treatment with endogenous signalling components and in particular with salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) could induce tolerance to chilling and could constitute a suitable way to maintain quality and quantity of steviol glycosides under controlled artificial environment. In the present work the effects of different putative signalling molecules on the morpho-physiological parameters were evaluated, and a specific method for the quali-quantitative analysis of steviol glycosides in S. rebaudiana plants cultivated under controlled conditions was developed, by using LC-ESI-FT (Orbitrap) MS, LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS and multivariate data analysis. This approach underlined that the pre-treatment has influence on the production of secondary metabolites. In particular Stevia plants characterised by higher contents of rebaudioside A and stevioside, were identified. PMID:26213012

  2. Harvesting the biosynthetic machineries that cultivate a variety of indispensable plant natural products.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Christopher R; La Clair, James J; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2016-04-01

    Plants are a sustainable resource for valuable natural chemicals best illustrated by large-scale farming centered on specific products. Here, we review recent discoveries of plant metabolic pathways producing natural products with unconventional biomolecular structures. Prenylation of polyketides by aromatic prenyltransferases (aPTases) ties together two of the major groups of plant specialized chemicals, terpenoids and polyketides, providing a core modification leading to new bioactivities and downstream metabolic processing. Moreover, PTases that biosynthesize Z-terpenoid precursors for small molecules such as lycosantalene have recently been found in the tomato family. Gaps in our understanding of how economically important compounds such as cannabinoids are produced are being identified using next-generation 'omics' to rapidly advance biochemical breakthroughs at an unprecedented rate. For instance, olivetolic acid cyclase, a polyketide synthase (PKS) co-factor from Cannabis sativa, directs the proper cyclization of a polyketide intermediate. Elucidations of spatial and temporal arrangements of biosynthetic enzymes into metabolons, such as those used to control the efficient production of natural polymers such as rubber and defensive small molecules such as linamarin and lotaustralin, provide blueprints for engineering streamlined production of plant products. PMID:26851514

  3. Exploring Plants, Insects, and Animals: Opportunities for Cultivating Empathy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Imagine what a child can learn by slithering across the ground like a worm or snail! Children learn many things from their connections with beautiful living things such as flowers and rabbits. Many adults are surprised when young scientists identify with "yucky" animals and plants. A child who connects with creatures ranging from the cuddly to the…

  4. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  5. Do Cultivated Varieties of Native Plants Have the Ability to Outperform Their Wild Relatives?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Roland; Prasse, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    Vast amounts of cultivars of native plants are annually introduced into the semi-natural range of their wild relatives for re-vegetation and restoration. As cultivars are often selected towards enhanced biomass production and might transfer these traits into wild relatives by hybridization, it is suggested that cultivars and the wild × cultivar hybrids are competitively superior to their wild relatives. The release of such varieties may therefore result in unintended changes in native vegetation. In this study we examined for two species frequently used in re-vegetation (Plantago lanceolata and Lotus corniculatus) whether cultivars and artificially generated intra-specific wild × cultivar hybrids may produce a higher vegetative and generative biomass than their wilds. For that purpose a competition experiment was conducted for two growing seasons in a common garden. Every plant type was growing (a.) alone, (b.) in pairwise combination with a similar plant type and (c.) in pairwise interaction with a different plant type. When competing with wilds cultivars of both species showed larger biomass production than their wilds in the first year only and hybrids showed larger biomass production than their wild relatives in both study years. As biomass production is an important factor determining fitness and competitive ability, we conclude that cultivars and hybrids are competitively superior their wild relatives. However, cultivars of both species experienced large fitness reductions (nearly complete mortality in L. corniculatus) due to local climatic conditions. We conclude that cultivars are good competitors only as long as they are not subjected to stressful environmental factors. As hybrids seemed to inherit both the ability to cope with the local climatic conditions from their wild parents as well as the enhanced competitive strength from their cultivars, we regard them as strong competitors and assume that they are able to outperform their wilds at least over

  6. Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, O; Meier, M S; Schlatter, J; Frischknecht, P

    1999-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant tissues may contain up to several grams per kilogram. External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors induce their synthesis. The phenolic compounds resveratrol, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins have many ecologic functions and affect human health. Ecologic functions include defense against microbial pathogens and herbivorous animals. Phenolic compounds may have both beneficial and toxic effects on human health. Effects on low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets are beneficial because they reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Mutagenic, cancerogenic, and phototoxic effects are risk factors of human health. The synthesis of phenolic compounds in plants can be modulated by the application of herbicides and, to a lesser extent, insecticides and fungicides. The effects on ecosystem functioning and human health are complex and cannot be predicted with great certainty. The consequences of the combined natural and pesticide-induced modulating effects for ecologic functions and human health should be further evaluated. PMID:10229712

  7. Influence of plant roots on electrical resistivity measurements of cultivated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Blanchy, Guillaume; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity methods have been widely used for the last 40 years in many fields: groundwater investigation, soil and water pollution, engineering application for subsurface surveys, etc. Many factors can influence the electrical resistivity of a media, and thus influence the ERT measurements. Among those factors, it is known that plant roots affect bulk electrical resistivity. However, this impact is not yet well understood. The goals of this experiment are to quantify the effect of plant roots on electrical resistivity of the soil subsurface and to map a plant roots system in space and time with ERT technique in a soil column. For this research, it is assumed that roots system affect the electrical properties of the rhizosphere. Indeed the root activity (by transporting ions, releasing exudates, changing the soil structure,…) will modify the rhizosphere electrical conductivity (Lobet G. et al, 2013). This experiment is included in a bigger research project about the influence of roots system on geophysics measurements. Measurements are made on cylinders of 45 cm high and a diameter of 20 cm, filled with saturated loam on which seeds of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. are sowed. Columns are equipped with electrodes, TDR probes and temperature sensors. Experiments are conducted at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, in a growing chamber with controlled conditions: temperature of the air is fixed to 20° C, photoperiod is equal to 14 hours, photosynthetically active radiation is equal to 200 μmol m‑2s‑1, and air relative humidity is fixed to 80 %. Columns are fully saturated the first day of the measurements duration then no more irrigation is done till the end of the experiment. The poster will report the first results analysis of the electrical resistivity distribution in the soil columns through space and time. These results will be discussed according to the plant development and other controlled factors. Water content of the soil will also be detailed

  8. [Research on output and quality of Panax notoginseng and annual change characteristics of N, P and K nutrients of planting soil under stereo-cultivation].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-mei; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Lu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The output and agronomic characters of 3-year-old Panax notoginseng cultured under stereo structure (upper, middle and down layers) were investigated, and the annual change of N, P and K of its planting soil were also studied. Results showed that, compared with field cultured Panax notoginseng, growth vigour and output of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower. But the total production of the 3 layers was 1.6 times of field. The growth vigor and production of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer. The content of ginsenoside in rhizome, root tuber and hair root of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > field > middle layer > down layer. Organic matter content and pH of stereo-cultivation soil decreased with the prolonging of planting time, which with the same trend of yield. Organic matter content of stereo-cultivation soil was significantly higher than field, but the pH was significantly lower. Contents of total and available N, P and K in stereo-cultivation soil and field decreased with the prolonging of planting time. The content of N and P were in the order of upper layer > middle layer > yield > down layer, the content of K was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer > yield. Compared with field, the proportion of N and P in the organ of underground (rhizome, root tuber and hair root) of upper layer were increased, while decreased in middle and down layers. Proportion of K in underground decreased significantly of the 3 layers. In conclusion, the agronomic characters and production of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower than that of yield. But the total production of the 3 layers were significantly higher than field of unit area. And the aim of improving land utilization efficiency was achieved. Nutritions in the soil of stereo-cultivation were enough to support the development of P. notoginseng, which was not the cause of weak growth and low production. The absorbing ability of P

  9. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

  10. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  11. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  12. Sustained NIK-mediated antiviral signalling confers broad-spectrum tolerance to begomoviruses in cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Brustolini, Otávio J B; Machado, Joao Paulo B; Condori-Apfata, Jorge A; Coco, Daniela; Deguchi, Michihito; Loriato, Virgílio A P; Pereira, Welison A; Alfenas-Zerbini, Poliane; Zerbini, Francisco M; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K; Santos, Anesia A; Chory, Joanne; Silva, Fabyano F; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2015-12-01

    Begomovirus-associated epidemics currently threaten tomato production worldwide due to the emergence of highly pathogenic virus species and the proliferation of a whitefly B biotype vector that is adapted to tomato. To generate an efficient defence against begomovirus, we modulated the activity of the immune defence receptor nuclear shuttle protein (NSP)-interacting kinase (NIK) in tomato plants; NIK is a virulence target of the begomovirus NSP during infection. Mutation of T474 within the kinase activation loop promoted the constitutive activation of NIK-mediated defences, resulting in the down-regulation of translation-related genes and the suppression of global translation. Consistent with these findings, transgenic lines harbouring an activating mutation (T474D) were tolerant to the tomato-infecting begomoviruses ToYSV and ToSRV. This phenotype was associated with reduced loading of coat protein viral mRNA in actively translating polysomes, lower infection efficiency and reduced accumulation of viral DNA in systemic leaves. Our results also add some relevant insights into the mechanism underlying the NIK-mediated defence. We observed that the mock-inoculated T474D-overexpressing lines showed a constitutively infected wild-type transcriptome, indicating that the activation of the NIK-mediated signalling pathway triggers a typical response to begomovirus infection. In addition, the gain-of-function mutant T474D could sustain an activated NIK-mediated antiviral response in the absence of the virus, further confirming that phosphorylation of Thr-474 is the crucial event that leads to the activation of the kinase. PMID:25688422

  13. Cultivation-independent analysis of Pseudomonas species in soil and in the rhizosphere of field-grown Verticillium dahliae host plants.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rodrigo; Salles, Joana Falcão; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2006-12-01

    Despite their importance for rhizosphere functioning, rhizobacterial Pseudomonas spp. have been mainly studied in a cultivation-based manner. In this study a cultivation-independent method was used to determine to what extent the factors plant species, sampling site and year-to-year variation influence Pseudomonas community structure in bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of two Verticillium dahliae host plants, oilseed rape and strawberry. Community DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soil samples of flowering plants collected at three different sites in Germany in two consecutive years. Pseudomonas community structure and diversity were assessed using a polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) system to fingerprint Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from community DNA. Dominant and differentiating DGGE bands were excised from the gels, cloned and sequenced. The factors sampling site, plant species and year-to-year variation were shown to significantly influence the community structure of Pseudomonas in rhizosphere soils. The composition of Pseudomonas 16S rRNA gene fragments in the rhizosphere differed from that in the adjacent bulk soil and the rhizosphere effect tended to be plant-specific. The clone sequences of most dominant bands analysed belonged to the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage and showed closest similarity to culturable Pseudomonas known for displaying antifungal properties. This report provides a better understanding of how different factors drive Pseudomonas community structure and diversity in bulk and rhizosphere soils. PMID:17107555

  14. Propagation and Introduction of Arnica montana L. into Cultivation: A Step to Reduce the Pressure on Endangered and High-Valued Medicinal Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production. PMID:24282381

  15. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor. PMID:25911804

  16. Accumulation of lead, cadmium and chromium in some plants cultivated along the bank of river Ribila at Odo-nla area of Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinola, M O; Ekiyoyo, T A

    2006-07-01

    Heavy metal in soil samples and in washed and unwashed samples of Telfaria occidentalis (ugwu) and Talinum triangulare (waterleaf) cultivated on the bank of river Ribila in Odo-nla village were determined. The soil was moderately polluted with cadmium when compared with Federal Environmental Protection Agency standards. The difference between the unwashed and washed plant samples revealed that metal pollutants exist as superficial contaminants on the foliage surface which is the edible portion and if the foliage portion is washed thoroughly it may be safe for dietary consumption. There is no doubt that continuous discharge of effluent and gaseous emissions from the industries located in this area and dumping of domestic wastes into the river may lead to higher concentrations of these heavy metals in the soil and in the tissue of the leafy vegetables cultivated on the river bank over time. This can eventually lead to pollution of the soil and the cultivated plants, which are ready source of food for the people and other organisms in the food chain. PMID:17402256

  17. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  18. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  19. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  20. The Utilization of a Space Flight Plant Growth Chamber in the Cultivation of Salad Crop Species: A Prelude to a Salad Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Hoehn, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Kliss, M.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The application of bioregenerative life support systems provides an attractive approach to minimize resupply requirement and ultimate self-sufficiency on long duration manned missions in space. The on-board cultivation of salad-type vegetables for crew consumption has been proposed as a first step approach towards reducing a total reliance on the resupply of food. The recent advances in the development of space flight plant growth facilities such as the Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (PGBA) have established a firm technical basis upon which the implementation of a 'salad machine' concept may be achieved. A presentation on ground based studies will be made evaluating (a) the operational performance of the PGBA facility in a crop production mode and (b) the qualitative and quantitative value of salad plant material produced within the chamber.

  1. Building a field- and model-based climatology of local water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel - annual budgets and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Boulain, N.; Ramier, D.; Mainassara, I.; Charvet, G.; Boucher, M.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Maidaji, B.; Arpin-Pont, F.; Benarrosh, N.; Mahamane, A.; Nazoumou, Y.; Favreau, G.; Seghieri, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the African Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still extremely poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use types of the cultivated Sahelian belt, rainfed millet crop and fallow bush. These estimates build on the combination of a 7 year field dataset from two typical plots in southwestern Niger with detailed physically-based soil-plant-atmosphere modelling, yielding a continuous, comprehensive set of water and energy flux and storage variables over the 7 year period. In this study case in particular, blending field data with mechanistic modelling is considered as making best use of available data and knowledge for such purpose. It extends observations by reconstructing missing data and extrapolating to unobserved variables or periods. Furthermore, model constraining with observations compromises between extraction of observational information content and integration of process understanding, hence accounting for data imprecision and departure from physical laws. Climatological averages of all water and energy variables, with associated sampling uncertainty, are derived at annual to subseasonal scales from the 7 year series produced. Similarities and differences in the two ecosystems behaviors are highlighted. Mean annual evapotranspiration is found to represent ~82-85% of rainfall for both systems, but with different soil evaporation/plant transpiration partitioning and different seasonal distribution. The remainder consists entirely of runoff for the fallow, whereas drainage and runoff stand in a 40-60% proportion for the millet field. These results should provide a robust reference for the surface energy- and water-related studies needed in this region. The model developed in this context has the

  2. A simple HPLC-fluorescence detection of nitric oxide in cultivated plant cells by in situ derivatization with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Morinaka, Chieko; Ikenaga, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2002-06-01

    An HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of nitric oxide (NO) in cultivated plant cells (Agave pacifica, Agavaceae) was developed. NO was derivatized in situ with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) as a labeling reagent and converted to 1(H)-naphthotriazole. The maximum peak height of the derivative was observed by incubation for 3 h at 25 degrees C with 0.2 mM DAN. Excess reagent in cells was removed by washing 3 times with 5 ml of water. The calibration curve for authentic standard of DAN-NO spiked to cultivated plant cells showed a good linearity (r = 0.995) in the range of 5.0 to 50 pmol/g cell. The detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 3.4 pmol/g cells. The proposed method was successfully applied to the monitoring of NO concentration with cell growth. The effect of thermal treatment on the concentration of NO in plant cells was also examined. The concentration of NO in cells treated at 5 degrees C for 1 h was significantly higher than that treated at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C for 1 h (n = 3, p < 0.05). PMID:12083545

  3. Two parametric cell cycle analyses of plant cell suspension cultures with fragile, isolated nuclei to investigate heterogeneity in growth of batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Haas, Christiane; Hegner, Richard; Helbig, Karsten; Bartels, Kristin; Bley, Thomas; Weber, Jost

    2016-06-01

    Plant cell suspensions are frequently considered to be heterogeneous with respect to growth in terms of progression of the cells through the cell cycle and biomass accumulation. Thus, segregated data of fractions in different cycle phases during cultivation is needed to develop robust production processes. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and BrdU-antibodies or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) click-it chemistry are frequently used to acquire such information. However, their use requires centrifugation steps that cannot be readily applied to sensitive cells, particularly if nuclei have to be extracted from the protective cellular milieu and envelopes for DNA analysis. Therefore, we have established a BrdU-Hoechst stain quenching protocol for analyzing nuclei directly isolated from delicate plant cell suspension cultures. After adding BrdU to test Harpagophytum procumbens cell suspension cultures the cell cycle distribution could be adequately resolved using its incorporation for the following 72 h (after which BrdU slowed biomass accumulation). Despite this limitation, the protocol allows resolution of the cell cycle distribution of cultures that cannot be analyzed using commonly applied methods due to the cells' fragility. The presented protocol enabled analysis of cycling heterogeneities in H. procumbens batch cultivations, and thus should facilitate process control of secondary metabolite production from fragile plant in vitro cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1244-1250. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26614913

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. PMID:22033361

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans. PMID:27145570

  6. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  7. Analysis of life cycle assessment of food/energy/waste systems and development and analysis of microalgae cultivation/wastewater treatment inclusive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Kristina Ochsner

    Across the world, crises in food, energy, land and water resources, as well as waste and greenhouse gas accumulation are inspiring research into the interactions among these environmental pressures. In the food/energy/waste problem set, most of the research is focused on describing the antagonistic relationships between food, energy and waste; these relationships are often analyzed with life cycle assessment (LCA). These analyses often include reporting of metrics of environmental performance with few functional units, often focusing on energy use, productivity and environmental impact while neglecting water use, food nutrition and safety. Additionally, they are often attributional studies with small scope which report location-specific parameters only. This thesis puts forth a series of recommendations to amend the current practice of LCA to combat these limitations and then utilizes these suggestions to analyze a synergistic food/waste/energy system. As an example analysis, this thesis describes the effect of combining wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation on the productivity and scalability of the synergistic system. To ameliorate the high nutrient and water demands of microalgae cultivation, many studies suggest that microalgae be cultivated in wastewater so as to achieve large scale and low environmental costs. While cultivation studies have found this to be true, none explore the viability of the substitution in terms of productivity and scale-up. The results of this study suggest that while the integrated system may be suitable for low-intensity microalgae cultivation, for freshwater microalgae species or wastewater treatment it is not suitable for high intensity salt water microalgae cultivation. This study shows that the integration could result in reduced lipid content, high wastewater requirements, no greenhouse gas emissions benefit and only a small energy benefit.

  8. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  9. Impact of Biofuel Poplar Cultivation on Ground-Level Ozone and Premature Human Mortality Depends on Cultivar Selection and Planting Location.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Wild, Oliver; Eller, Allyson S D; Hewitt, C Nick

    2015-07-21

    Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks will contribute to future land use change, altering the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 commercially available poplar hybrids to assess the impact that the large-scale cultivation of poplar for use as a biofuel feedstock will have on air quality, specifically ground-level ozone concentrations, in Europe. We show that the increases in ground-level ozone across Europe will increase the number of premature deaths attributable to ozone pollution each year by up to 6%. Substantial crop losses (up to ∼9 Mt y(-1) of wheat and maize) are also projected. We further demonstrate that these impacts are strongly dependent on the location of the poplar plantations, due to the prevailing meteorology, the population density, and the dominant crop type of the region. Our findings indicate the need for a concerted and centralized decision-making process that considers all aspects of future land use change in Europe, and not just the effect on greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:26098452

  10. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment. PMID:22798164

  11. Solar energy applications at Army ammunition plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. P.; Moy, S. M.

    1982-06-01

    The Army Ammunition Plants use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide hot air for dry-houses, provide domestic hot water and heat for administration buildings, and provide hot water for manufacturing processes such as metal cleaning, phosphating, and X-ray film processing. Use of the flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, or solar ponds with the possible addition of a heat pump, offers reasonably economical means of applying solar technology to AAP needs.

  12. Diffusion and accumulation in cultivated vegetable plants of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from a plastic production factory.

    PubMed

    Du, Q Z; Wang, J W; Fu, X W; Xia, H L

    2010-08-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) concentrations in the atmosphere and in four vegetable crops including Brassica chinensis L. (bok choy), Brassica campestris L. (field mustard), Vigna unguiculata Walp. (cowpea), and Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) cultivated on land surrounding a plastic production factory were determined. The air DEHP concentrations (means) at the sites 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 km away from the plastic production building were about 9.4-12.8, 5.8-9.6, 1.6-5.0, and 0.04-0.27 microg m(-3) dry weight (DW), respectively. Wind direction is a key factor influencing the measurable DEHP concentration of the air, which was highest in the downwind direction and lowest in the upwind direction, and thus the vegetables accumulated the highest DEHP contents in the downwind direction and the lowest quantities in the upwind direction. The highest DEHP accumulations content of bok choy, field mustard, eggplant, and cowpea were 52.0 +/- 3.1, 43.1 +/- 2.2, 36.2 +/- 2.8, and 19.4 +/- 0.47 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Safety estimation on the basis of the daily intake limit referenced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) led to the conclusion that eating vegetables cultivated 0.2 km away from the plastic production building is not a food safety problem under normal conditions. A strong positive linear correlation between atmospheric DEHP concentration and DEHP content of the vegetable crops was found. The limits for air DEHP concentration for safe vegetable cultivation are 24.0, 34.8, 40.8, and 82.8 microg m(-3) for bok choy, field mustard, cowpea, and eggplant, respectively, by calculating from the equation of linear regression between air DEHP concentration and vegetable DEHP content. PMID:20496185

  13. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  14. Virtual Simulation of Vision 21 Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, Madhava; Felix, Paul E.; Osawe, Maxwell O.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Sloan, David G.; Zitney, Stephen E.; Joop, Frank; Cleetus, Joseph; Lapshin, Igor B.

    2001-11-06

    The Vision 21 Energy plants will be designed by combining several individual power, chemical, and fuel-conversion technologies. These independently developed technologies or technology modules can be interchanged and combined to form the complete Vision 21 plant that achieves the needed level of efficiency and environmental performance at affordable costs. The knowledge about each technology module must be captured in computer models so that the models can be linked together to simulate the entire Vision 21 power plant in a Virtual Simulation environment. Eventually the Virtual Simulation will find application in conceptual design, final design, plant operation and control, and operator training. In this project we take the first step towards developing such a Vision 21 Simulator. There are two main knowledge domains of a plant--the process domain (what is in the pipes), and the physical domain (the pipes and equipment that make up the plant). Over the past few decades, commercial software tools have been developed for each of these functions. However, there are three main problems that inhibit the design and operation of power plants: (1) Many of these tools, largely developed for chemicals and refining, have not been widely adopted in the power industry. (2) Tools are not integrated across functions. For example, the knowledge represented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of equipment is not used in process-level simulations. (3) No tool exists for readily integrating the design and behavioral knowledge about components. These problems must be overcome to develop the Vision 21 Simulator. In this project our major objective is to achieve a seamless integration of equipment-level and process-level models and apply the integrated software to power plant simulations. Specifically we are developing user-friendly tools for linking process models (Aspen Plus) with detailed equipment models (FLUENT CFD and other proprietary models). Such integration will

  15. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    PubMed

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the

  16. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  17. Cultivable bacteria populations associated with leaves of banana and plantain plants and their antagonistic activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Mosquera, Sandra; Angulo, Mónica; Mira, John J; Argel, Luz Edith; Uribe-Velez, Daniel; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Orduz-Peralta, Sergio; Villegas, Valeska

    2012-10-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the etiological agent of Black Sigatoka, a fungal disease that affects production of banana and plantain crops in tropical regions. The sizes of cultivable epiphytic and endophytic bacterial populations, aerobic endospore forming bacteria (AEFB), and antagonist bacteria against M. fijiensis isolated from three Musa spp. cultivars from Urabá (Colombia) were studied, in order to find a suitable screening strategy to isolate antagonistic bacteria. Most of the variability found in the epiphytic and endophytic bacterial community sizes among fruit trees was explained by the cultivar differences. We found population sizes ranging from 1.25 × 10(3) to 9.64 × 10(5) CFU/g of fresh leaf and found that 44 % of total cultivable bacteria belong to the AEFB group. We isolated 648 AEFB from three different cultivars and assessed their antagonistic activity against M. fijiensis using the cell-free supernatant obtained from bacterial liquid cultures in three different in vitro assays. Five percent of those bacteria showed higher percent inhibition than the positive control Bacillus subtilis UA321 has (percent inhibition = 84 ± 5) in the screening phase. Therefore, they were selected as antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen. The strains with the highest percentage of antagonism were found in older leaves for the three cultivars, given support to recommend this group of leaves for future samplings. Some of these isolated bacteria affected the mycelium and ascospores morphology of the fungus. They also presented in vitro characteristics related to a successful colonization of the phylloplane such as indolic compounds, surfactant production, and biofilm formation, which makes them possible, potential candidates as biological control agents. PMID:22562105

  18. Building a field- and model-based climatology of local water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel - annual budgets and seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Boulain, N.; Ramier, D.; Mainassara, I.; Charvet, G.; Boucher, M.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Maidaji, B.; Arpin-Pont, F.; Benarrosh, N.; Mahamane, A.; Nazoumou, Y.; Favreau, G.; Seghieri, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the sub-Saharan Sahel, energy and water cycling at the land surface is pivotal for the regional climate, water resources and land productivity, yet it is still very poorly documented. As a step towards a comprehensive climatological description of surface fluxes in this area, this study provides estimates of long-term average annual budgets and seasonal cycles for two main land use types of the cultivated Sahelian belt: rainfed millet crop and fallow bush. These estimates build on the combination of a 7-year field data set from two typical plots in southwestern Niger with detailed physically based soil-plant-atmosphere modeling, yielding a continuous, comprehensive set of water and energy flux and storage variables over this multiyear period. In the present case in particular, blending field data with mechanistic modeling makes the best use of available data and knowledge for the construction of the multivariate time series. Rather than using the model only to gap-fill observations into a composite series, model-data integration is generalized homogeneously over time by generating the whole series with the entire data-constrained model simulation. Climatological averages of all water and energy variables, with associated sampling uncertainty, are derived at annual to sub-seasonal scales from the time series produced. Similarities and differences in the two ecosystem behaviors are highlighted. Mean annual evapotranspiration is found to represent ~82-85% of rainfall for both systems, but with different soil evaporation/plant transpiration partitioning and different seasonal distribution. The remainder consists entirely of runoff for the fallow, whereas drainage and runoff stand in a 40-60% proportion for the millet field. These results should provide a robust reference for the surface energy- and water-related studies needed in this region. Their significance and the benefits they gain from the innovative data-model integration approach are thoroughly discussed

  19. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  20. Mono- and dichromatic LED illumination leads to enhanced growth and energy conversion for high-efficiency cultivation of microalgae for application in space.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Steinweg, Christian; Posten, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    Illumination with red and blue photons is known to be efficient for cultivation of higher plants. For microalgae cultivation, illumination with specific wavelengths rather than full spectrum illumination can be an alternative where there is a lack of knowledge about achievable biomass yields. This study deals with the usage of color LED illumination to cultivate microalgae integrated into closed life support systems for outer space. The goal is to quantify biomass yields using color illumination (red, blue, green and mixtures) compared to white light. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated in plate reactors with color compared to white illumination regarding PCE, specific pigment concentration and cell size. Highest PCE values were achieved under low PFDs with a red/blue illumination (680 nm/447 nm) at a 90 to 10% molar ratio. At higher PFDs saturation effects can be observed resulting from light absorption characteristics and the linear part of PI curve. Cell size and aggregation are also influenced by the applied light color. Red/blue color illumination is a promising option applicable for microalgae-based modules of life support systems under low to saturating light intensities and double-sided illumination. Results of higher PCE with addition of blue photons to red light indicate an influence of sensory pigments. PMID:27168092

  1. Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

  2. Early and Middle Holocene evidence for plant use and cultivation in the Middle Cauca River Basin, Cordillera Central (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, Francisco J.; Loaiza, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of research done in the Colombian Andean region known as Middle Cauca River Basin, an important location for the study of the origins of plant use and the dispersal of domesticates throughout the Americas due to its geographical position in northwest South America. We discuss human-environment interactions during Pleistocene/Holocene transition to middle Holocene (ca 10,000-4000 BP), specifically human-plant interaction and environmental factors that led to the adoption of horticultural practices. Three lines of evidence are analyzed: archaeological stratigraphy, lithic technology, and microbotanical remains. Our results suggest that early Holocene environmental stability allowed Middle Cauca settlers to use the diverse local resources for several millennia, altering the local vegetation, and leading to the development of horticultural practices that included the use of both local and foreign plants. These results inform the ongoing debate about the antiquity and nature of plant domestication and dispersals in the Americas.

  3. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothée B; Nabino, Victor B; Koh, Kwangoh; Kim, Hee Seon

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  4. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothée B.; Nabino, Victor B.; Koh, Kwangoh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  5. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR{trademark}). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  6. An evaluation of EDTA additions for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of different plants under various cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji; Xie, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that phytoremediation usually requires soil amendments, such as chelates, to mobilize low bioavailability heavy metals for better plant absorption and, consequently, for remediation efficiency. A total dry biomass of 3.39 and 0.0138 kg per plant was produced by a phytoremediator, Eucalyptus globulus, and a nitrogen fixing crop, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), respectively. The accumulation of Pb in E. globulus and chickpea reached 1170.61 and 1.33 mg per plant (700 and 324 mg kg(-1)), respectively, under an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, which was a five and sixfold increase over the value in untreated experiments, respectively. EDTA enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency and increased the heavy metal concentration in the soil solution. In pot experiments, approximately 27 % of the initial Pb leached from the spiked soil after EDTA and 25 mm artificial precipitation additions into soil without plants, which was considerably larger than the value under the same conditions without EDTA application (7 %). E. globulus planted in a mixed culture had higher water use efficiency than monocultures of either species in field experiments, and E. globulus intercepted almost all of the artificial precipitation in the pot experiments. This study demonstrates that E. globulus can maximize the potential of EDTA for improving the phytoremediation efficiency and minimizing its negative effects to the environment simultaneously by absorbing the metal-rich leachate, especially in a mixed culture of E. globulus and chickpeas. PMID:26846211

  7. Transcriptome analysis highlights changes in the leaves of maize plants cultivated in acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al(3+).

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Lucia; Begcy, Kevin; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Jorge, Renato A; Menossi, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidity limits crop yields worldwide and is a common result of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity, which is known to inhibit root growth. Here, we compared the transcriptome of leaves from maize seedlings grown under control conditions (soil without free Al) and under acidic soil containing toxic levels of Al. This study reports, for the first time, the complex transcriptional changes that occur in the leaves of maize plants grown in acidic soil with phytotoxic levels of Al. Our data indicate that 668 genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of plants grown in acidic soil, which is significantly greater than that observed in our previous work with roots. Genes encoding TCA cycle enzymes were upregulated, although no specific transporter of organic acids was differentially expressed in leaves. We also provide evidence for positive roles for auxin and brassinosteroids in Al tolerance, whereas gibberellin and jasmonate may have negative roles. Our data indicate that plant responses to acidic soil with high Al content are not restricted to the root; tolerance mechanisms are also displayed in the aerial parts of the plant, thus indicating that the entire plant responds to stress. PMID:25205121

  8. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A.; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  9. Regeneration of viable oil palm plants from protoplasts by optimizing media components, growth regulators and cultivation procedures.

    PubMed

    Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prüfer, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Oil palm protoplasts are suitable as a starting material for the production of oil palm plants with new traits using approaches such as somatic hybridization, but attempts to regenerate viable plants from protoplasts have failed thus far. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the regeneration of viable plants from protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures. We achieved a protoplast yield of 1.14×10(6) per gram fresh weight with a viability of 82% by incubating the callus in a digestion solution comprising 2% cellulase, 1% pectinase, 0.5% cellulase onuzuka R10, 0.1% pectolyase Y23, 3% KCl, 0.5% CaCl2 and 3.6% mannitol. The regeneration of protoplasts into viable plants required media optimization, the inclusion of plant growth regulators and the correct culture technique. Microcalli derived from protoplasts were obtained by establishing agarose bead cultures using Y3A medium supplemented with 10μM naphthalene acetic acid, 2μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2μM indole-3-butyric acid, 2μM gibberellic acid and 2μM 2-γ-dimethylallylaminopurine. Small plantlets were regenerated from microcalli by somatic embryogenesis after successive subculturing steps in medium with limiting amounts of growth regulators supplemented with 200mg/l ascorbic acid. PMID:23849119

  10. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  11. The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, O; Goh, W-K; Ding, H-B; Tay, J-H; Wang, J-Y

    2005-06-01

    Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients were added to subsoil together. The highest yield of biomass of I. aquatica was observed in artificial soil prepared by mixing subsoil with 4% (wet weight/wet weight) of horticultural compost and 2% (dry weight/wet weight) of sewage sludge. The contents of heavy metals in plants, grown in the artificial soil, were significantly lower than toxic levels. The artificial soil could be recommended for urban landscaping and gardening in Singapore. PMID:15668204

  12. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  13. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  14. Modeling effects of inter-annual variability in meteorological and land use conditions on coupled water and energy cycling in the cultivated African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Favreau, G.; Charvet, G.; Ramier, D.; Issoufou, H.; Boucher, M.; Mainassara, I.; Chazarin, J.; Oï, M.; Yahou, H.; Benarrosh, N.; Ibrahim, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the dry tropics in general and in the African Sahel in particular, hydro-ecosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In the Niamey region of South-West Niger, a severe multi-decadal drought together with large-scale vegetation clearing coincided with an unexpected increase in surface and ground water resources. Such an apparent paradoxical situation illustrates the complex way in which climate and land cover interactions control the Sahelian water cycle dynamics. This stresses the importance of understanding and reliably modeling water/energy transfers in the local soil-plant-atmosphere system, under contrasted meteorological and surface conditions. This study investigates the effects of the inter-annual variability of meteorological and land use conditions on the coupled water and energy cycles in the cultivated Sahel over a 5-year period. This is based on a comprehensive multi-year field dataset acquired for a millet crop field and a fallow savannah, the two main land cover types of South-West Niger (Wankama catchment in the mesoscale AMMA-CATCH Niger observatory, part of the French-initiated RBV network). It includes atmospheric forcing, seasonal course of vegetation phenology, soil properties and model validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes, soil heat/water profiles), for the two fields. The study area is typical of Central Sahel conditions, with 400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 month wet season. Soils are mainly sandy and prone to surface crusting, leading to a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The SiSPAT process-based model used solves the 1D mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, including vapor phase and coupled with a two-component (bare soil and vegetation) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface. The study explores whether such a model can be accurately calibrated and validated for the two sites using realistic-parameter values. The

  15. District Energy Corporation SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Davlin, Thomas

    2014-06-06

    The overall deliverable from the project is the design, construction and commissioning of a detention facility heating and cooling system that minimizes ownership costs and maximizes efficiency (and therefore minimizes environmental impact). The primary deliverables were the proof of concept for the application of geothermal systems for an institutional facility and the ongoing, quarterly system operating data downloads to the Department of Energy . The primary advantage of geothermal based heat pump systems is the higher efficiency of the system compared to a conventional chiller, boiler, cooling tower based system. The higher efficiency results in a smaller environmental foot print and lower energy costs for the detention facility owner, Lancaster County. The higher efficiency for building cooling is primarily due to a more constant compressor condensing temperature with the geothermal well field acting as a thermal “sink” (in place of the conventional system’s cooling tower). In the heating mode, Ground Couple Heat Pump (GCHP) systems benefits from the advantage of a heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) of approximately 3.6, significantly better than a conventional gas boiler. The geothermal well field acting as a thermal “source” allows the heat pumps to operate efficiently in the heating mode regardless of ambient temperatures. The well field is partially located in a wetland with a high water table so, over time, the project will be able to identify the thermal loading characteristics of a well field located in a high water table location. The project demonstrated how a large geothermal well field can be installed in a wetland area in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Finally, the SW 40th Street Thermal Energy Plant project demonstrates the benefits of providing domestic hot water energy, as well as space heating, to help balance well filed thermal loading in a cooling dominated application. During the period of August 2012 thru

  16. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). PMID:17708453

  17. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-05-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S.Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR™). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  18. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  19. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  20. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  1. Spatial-temporal variation of marginal land suitable for energy plants from 1990 to 2010 in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy plants are the main source of bioenergy which will play an increasingly important role in future energy supplies. With limited cultivated land resources in China, the development of energy plants may primarily rely on the marginal land. In this study, based on the land use data from 1990 to 2010(every 5 years is a period) and other auxiliary data, the distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants was determined using multi-factors integrated assessment method. The variation of land use type and spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants of different decades were analyzed. The results indicate that the total amount of marginal land suitable for energy plants decreased from 136.501 million ha to 114.225 million ha from 1990 to 2010. The reduced land use types are primarily shrub land, sparse forest land, moderate dense grassland and sparse grassland, and large variation areas are located in Guangxi, Tibet, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. The results of this study will provide more effective data reference and decision making support for the long-term planning of bioenergy resources. PMID:25056520

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of single-phase red-blue emitting Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors via Dy3+ addition for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Da-Jian; Mao, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Yan-Hua; Li, Xue-Zheng; Lu, Qi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence enhancement of red and blue concurrently emitting Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors for plant cultivation has been investigated by Dy3+ addition. The Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+,Dy3+(BMS-EMD) phosphors have two-color emissions at the wavelength peak values of 437 nm and 620 nm at the excitation of 350 nm. The two emission bands are coincident with the absorption spectrum for photosynthesis of plants. An obvious enhancement effect has been observed upon addition of Dy3+ with amount of 0.03 mol%, in which the intensities of both blue and red bands reach a maximum. The origin of red and blue emission bands is analysed. The photochromic parameters of the samples at the nearly UV excitation are tested. This fluoresence enhancement is of great significance for special solid state lighting equipment used in plant cultivation.

  3. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. PMID:20050665

  4. Design of an energy efficient solar powered water desalting plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, M.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a 6000 m/sup 3//day totally solar thermal energy powered seawater desalting plant. The objective was to design a process which would produce water at minimum cost using leading edge but commercial or near-commercial technology. Because the cost of solar energy is high, about half the cost of the plant is for solar equipment, minimum product water cost is achieved by minimizing energy consumption.

  5. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  6. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land.

    PubMed

    Brodie, B B; Good, J M; Jaworski, C A

    1970-07-01

    Five nematode species were studied for ability to develop on seven summer cover crops in rotation with tomato transplants grown every third year. Increase of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Trichodorus christiei, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Xiphinema americanum in newly cleared soil varied with different cover crops. No substantial nematode population increases occurred until the third summer of crop growth. All species except X. americanum and H. dihystera developed best on sudangrass and millet. Crotalaria caused substantial increase of H. dihystera and P. brachyurus but suppressed the other species. Marigold suppressed all species except X. americanum which increased substantially on marigold during the 5th year. Cotton favored rapid increase of T. christiei, and moderate increases of all species except T. claytoni which was suppressed. Beggarweed favored moderate increases of T. christiei and H. dihystera but suppressed the other species. Hairy indigo favored rapid increase of H. dihystera, moderate increases of T. christiei and X. americanum, and suppressed the other species. Number of marketable transplants was reduced after 2 years of sudangrass and cotton; these crops favored increases of T. christiei and T. claytoni. The better cover crops prevented increases of most plant parasitic nematodes in land cropped to tomato, a suitable host. PMID:19322300

  7. Population Dynamics of Plant Nematodes in Cultivated Soil: Effect of Summer Cover Crops in Newly Cleared Land

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B. B.; Good, J. M.; Jaworski, C. A.

    1970-01-01

    Five nematode species were studied for ability to develop on seven summer cover crops in rotation with tomato transplants grown every third year. Increase of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Trichodorus christiei, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Xiphinema americanum in newly cleared soil varied with different cover crops. No substantial nematode population increases occurred until the third summer of crop growth. All species except X. americanum and H. dihystera developed best on sudangrass and millet. Crotalaria caused substantial increase of H. dihystera and P. brachyurus but suppressed the other species. Marigold suppressed all species except X. americanum which increased substantially on marigold during the 5th year. Cotton favored rapid increase of T. christiei, and moderate increases of all species except T. claytoni which was suppressed. Beggarweed favored moderate increases of T. christiei and H. dihystera but suppressed the other species. Hairy indigo favored rapid increase of H. dihystera, moderate increases of T. christiei and X. americanum, and suppressed the other species. Number of marketable transplants was reduced after 2 years of sudangrass and cotton; these crops favored increases of T. christiei and T. claytoni. The better cover crops prevented increases of most plant parasitic nematodes in land cropped to tomato, a suitable host. PMID:19322300

  8. Energy Conservation Study on Darigold Fluid Milk Plant, Issaquah, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Seton, Johnson & Odell, Inc.

    1985-01-15

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at Darigold dairy products plant in Issaquah, Washington. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant, but does not address specific modifications to process equipment or the gas boilers. The Issaquah Darigold plant receives milk and cream, which are stored in large, insulated silos. These raw products are then processed into butter, cottage cheese, buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and powdered milk. This plant produces the majority of the butter used in the state of Washington. The Issaquah plant purchases electricity from Puget Sound Power and Light Company. The plant is on Schedule 31, primary metering. The plant provides transformers to step down the voltage to 480, 240, and 120 volts as needed. Based on utility bills for the period from July 1983 through July 1984, the Issaquah Darigold plant consumed 7,134,300 kWh at a total cost of $218,703.78 and 1,600,633 therms at a total cost of $889,687.48. Energy use for this period is shown in Figures 1.1 to 1.5. Demand charges account for approximately 23% of the total electrical bill for this period, while reactive charges account for less than 0.5%. The electrical usage for the plant was divided into process energy uses, as summarized in Figure 1.2. This breakdown is based on a 311-day processing schedule, with Sunday clean-up and holidays composing the 54 days of downtime.

  9. Integration of microalgae systems at municipal wastewater treatment plants: implications for energy and emission balances.

    PubMed

    Menger-Krug, Eve; Niederste-Hollenberg, Jutta; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Hiessl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Integrating microalgae systems (MAS) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to produce of bioenergy offers many potential synergies. Improved energy balances provide a strong incentive for WWTPs to integrate MAS, but it is crucial that WWTPs maintain their barrier function to protect water resources. We perform a prospective analysis of energy and emission balances of a WWTP with integrated MAS, based on a substance flow analysis of the elements carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). These elements are the main ingredients of wastewater, and the key nutrients for algae growth. We propose a process design which relies solely on resources from wastewater with no external input of water, fertilizer or CO(2). The whole process chain, from cultivation to production of bioelectricity, takes place at the WWTP. Our results show that MAS can considerably improve energy balances of WWTPs without any external resource input. With optimistic assumptions, they can turn WWTPs into net energy producers. While intensive C recycling in MAS considerably improves the energy balance, we show that it also impacts on effluent quality. We discuss the importance of nonharvested biomass for effluent quality and highlight harvesting efficiency as key factor for energy and emission balances of MAS at WWTP. PMID:23050661

  10. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Integrating cultivation history into EBIPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologically based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a systematic thinking and planning process to assist with applying the appropriate combination of tools and strategies to addrress the underlying cause of invasion rather than simply controlling invasive annual grass abundance. Cultivation his...

  12. AVESTAR Center for clean energy plant operators of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Clean energy plants in the modern grid era will increasingly exploit carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), fuel/product flexibility, and load following. Integrated power/process plants will require next generation of well-trained engineering and operations professionals. High-fidelity dynamic simulators are well suited for training, education, and R&D on clean energy plant operations. Combining Operator Training System (OTS) with 3D virtual Immersive Training System (ITS) enables simultaneous training of control room and plant field operators of the future. Strong collaboration between industry, academia, and government is required to address advanced R&D challenges. AVESTAR Center brings together simulation technology and world-class expertise focused on accelerating development of clean energy plants and operators of the future.

  13. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  14. Energy prices and substitution in United States manufacturing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Cheryl

    Persistent regional disparities in electricity prices, growth in wholesale power markets, and recent deregulation attempts have intensified interest in the performance of the U.S. electric power industry, while skyrocketing fuel prices have brought renewed interest in the effect of changes in prices of all energy types on the U.S. economy. This dissertation examines energy prices and substitution between energy types in U.S. manufacturing. I use a newly constructed database that includes information on purchased electricity and electricity expenditures for more than 48,000 plants per year and additional data on the utilities that supply electricity to study the distribution of electricity prices paid by U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. I find a large compression in the dispersion of electricity prices from 1963 to 1978 due primarily to a decrease in quantity discounts for large electricity purchasers. I also find that spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large, rises over time for smaller purchasers, and does not diminish as wholesale power markets expand in the 1990s. In addition, I examine energy type consumption patterns, prices, and substitution in U.S. manufacturing plants. I develop a plant-level dataset for 1998 with data on consumption and expenditures on energy and non-energy production inputs, output, and other plant characteristics. I find energy type consumption patterns vary widely across manufacturing plants. Further, I find a large amount of dispersion across plants in the prices paid for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal. These high levels of dispersion are accounted for by the plant's location, industry, and purchase quantity. Finally, I present estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for both the energy and non-energy production inputs.

  15. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    PubMed

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research. PMID:27294983

  16. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  17. Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

    1999-09-01

    Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

  18. Energy-Efficient Scheduling of Bedding Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desirable scheduling of garden plants includes producing a marketable crop for a specific date with the least amount of inputs as possible. A large contribution to input costs for greenhouse production are overhead expenses, and during winter and early spring production, heating can be a large comp...

  19. Bioluminescence for determining energy state of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ching, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    Bioluminescence produced by the luciferin-luciferase system is a very sensitive assay for ATP content in extracts of plant materials. The ATP test for seed and pollen viability and vigor is presented, along with prediction of high growth potential and productivity in new crosses and selections of breeding materials. ATP as an indicator for environmental quality, stresses, and metabolic regulation is also considered.

  20. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  1. Optimization of the genomic DNA extraction method of silverleaf nightshade/ (Solanum elaeagnifolium /Cav.), an invasive plant in the cultivated areas within the Mediterranean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The geographical origin of an invasive in the cultivated area within the Mediterranean region, silverleaf nightshade, Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav, (Solanaceae) should be identified through the analysis of genetic similarities between native and introduced populations using microsatellite markers. Bef...

  2. Variation in the number of capitate glandular trichomes in wild and cultivated sunflower germplasm and potential for use in host plant resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capitate glandular trichomes of wild sunflower (Helianthus spp.) are considered an effective defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst), but cultivated sunflowers are reportedly deficient in glandular trichomes. To investigate whether glandular trichomes have a role in protect...

  3. Using of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector for determination of naphthoquinones in plants and for investigation of influence of pH of cultivation medium on content of plumbagin in Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Mikelova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Havel, Ladislav; Sladky, Zdenek

    2006-09-14

    The interest of many investigators in naphthoquinones is due to their broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different pH values of cultivation medium on naphthoquinone content in Dionaea muscipula. For this purpose, we optimized the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly occurring naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone, juglone and plumbagin) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The most suitable chromatographic conditions were as follows: mobile phase: 0.1 mol l-1 acetic acid:methanol in ratio of 33:67 (%, v/v), flow rate: 0.75 ml min-1 and temperature: 42 degrees C. Moreover, we looked for the most suitable technique for preparation of plant samples (D. muscipula, Juglans regia, Paulownia tomentosa, Impatience glandulifera, Impatience parviflora, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spathulata and Drosera capensis) due to their consequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. It clearly follows from the results obtained that sonication were the most suitable technique for preparation of J. regia plants. We also checked the recoveries of the determined naphthoquinones, which were from 96 to 104%. Finally, we investigated the changes in content of plumbagin in D. muscipula plants according to different pH of cultivation medium. The content increased with increasing pH up to 5 and, then, changed gradually. The lower content of plumbagin at lower pH values was of interest to us. Therefore, we determined the content of this naphthoquinone in the cultivation medium, what has not been studied before. We discovered that the lower tissue content of plumbagin was due to secretion of this naphthoquinone into the cultivation medium. PMID:16765109

  4. Distribution of energy in corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenced by recent events in fossil fuel prices, both economic and environmental, as well as increased concerns about both climate change and energy independence, there is a growing interest in the development of renewable energy biomass feedstocks. These feedstocks include perennial grasses, timb...

  5. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  6. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-01-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. PMID:24151938

  7. IAC Energy Assessment of Spanish Fork Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

  8. Utica Corporation Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Report Final Summary (Entrance to Utica Corporation's Whitesboro Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Utica Corporation conducted a plant-wide energy assessment of the manufacturing processes and utilities at its facility in Whiteboro, NY. As a result of the assessment, the company is now implementing six energy conservation projects that will result in significant cost savings and efficiency improvements.

  9. Energy pattern analysis of a wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratima; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Kansal, Arun

    2012-09-01

    Various forms of energy are used during a wastewater treatment process like electrical, manual, fuel, chemical etc. Most of the earlier studies have focused only on electrical energy intensity of large-scale centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents a methodological framework for analysing manual, mechanical, chemical and electrical energy consumption in a small-scaled WWTP. The methodology has been demonstrated on a small-scale WWTP in an institutional area. Total energy intensity of the plant is 1.046 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. Electrical energy is only about half of the total energy consumption. Manual energy also has a significant share, which means that the small-scale treatment plants offer significant employment opportunities in newly industrializing countries and replaces fossil fuel-based energy with renewable. There is a lack of sufficient data in the literature for comparison, and few studies have reported values that vary significantly due to the difference in scale, scope of the study and the choice of the treatment technologies. Replication of similar studies and generation of data in this area will offer directions for decision on choice of the scale of wastewater treatment process from the considerations of energy and climate change mitigation strategies.

  10. Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

    1991-09-01

    In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  11. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  12. Plant residues as renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Aladjadjian, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The relatively large part of arable (38%) and forest (35%) land in Bulgaria is the reason for searching for ways of processing plant residues for energy. The total sown area in Bulgaria increased in the past 5 years because of changes in Bulgarian economics. The total forest area changed more slowly. The energy equivalent of forestry residues per year in Bulgaria is about 4 PJ or 99,000 tOE (metric tons, hereafter tonnes, of oil equivalent, 1 tOE = 7.3 barrels of OE). The corresponding value of agricultural residues per year is about 81 PJ or 1,900,000 tOE. The utilization of plant residues as a renewable energy source is a good prospect but it requires some investment. The price of energy from biomass is higher than that of nuclear energy. This contradiction must be resolved by some changes in tax policy in Bulgaria.

  13. Manual for using energy analysis for plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, H.T.; Lavine, M.J.; Wang, F.C.; Miller, M.A.; Alexander, J.F. Jr.; Butler, T.

    1983-02-01

    This is an instructional manual for choosing among possible sites for power plants by selecting the one with the least diversion of resources of the environment and of the economy. For each alternative site, changes of embodied energy in flows and storages are estimated in solar equivalent Calories. Then a dollar equivalent is estimated from the ratio of total solar equivalent flows to gross national product. Sample calculations are provided for LaSalle power plant west of Chicago considering alternatives of cooling reservoirs, cooling from a natural water body, and cooling towers. In order to facilitate calculation, an appendix provides procedures and data for evaluating embodied energy of the environment.

  14. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  15. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:26656884

  16. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE`s expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  17. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  18. Educators benefit from energy information centers at nuclear plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Krcma-Olson, L.

    1994-12-31

    While issues like dry storage, low-level waste storage, radiation, and license extension are projects with a technical perspective that need to be planned and executed at nuclear power plants, more difficult is the political perspective-gaining public acceptance to allow these projects to proceed. And public perception is predicated on the way plant neighbors and community members understand, accept, and trust the plants. Community educators are a key audience. Annually, U.S. information centers host about one million visitors; roughly half of them are school children who will soon join the ranks of voters, taxpayers, utility customers, and employees. Programs for educators and their classes vary from tours of centers that include computer games and video programs on energy-related topics to audio-visual presentations by center personnel. Some facilities have environmental activities such as hatcheries or nature trails, while others offer plant tours to specific age groups.

  19. Bayer Polymers: Plant Identifies Numerous Projects Following Plant-Wide Energy-Efficient Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-01

    The Bayer Corporation undertook a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment of its New Martinsville, West Virginia, plant in 2001. The objectives were to identify energy saving projects in the utilities area. The projects, when complete, will save the company the loss of an estimated 236,000 MMBtu ($1.16 million) annually in energy from burning and leaking fossil fuels. Certain other projects will save the company 6,300,000 kWh ($219,000) of electrical energy each year. All of the projects could be duplicated in other chemical manufacturing facilities and most of the projects could be duplicated in other industries utilizing steam, pumps, and/or compressed air.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a literature review of selected, published literature relative to the performance of certain pollution control technologies that have been applied to Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants. It discusses various environmental standards which have been adopted by three Eur...

  1. Potential and limitations of Burgundy truffle cultivation.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Ulrich; Egli, Simon; Tegel, Willy; Peter, Martina; Sproll, Ludger; Büntgen, Ulf

    2013-06-01

    Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum syn. Tuber uncinatum) are the highly prized fruit bodies of subterranean fungi always occurring in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with host plants. Successful cultivation can be achieved through artificial mycorrhization and outplanting of mostly oaks and hazel on suitable terrain. Here, we review ecological requirements, the influence of environmental factors, and the importance of molecular techniques for a successful cultivation of T. aestivum across Europe. The historical background and current knowledge of T. aestivum cultivation are discussed in light of its socioeconomic relevance. PMID:23666478

  2. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE's expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  3. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  4. A plant-wide energy model for wastewater treatment plants: application to anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a detailed and comprehensive plant-wide model for assessing the energy demand of different wastewater treatment systems (beyond the traditional activated sludge) in both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The proposed model makes it possible to calculate power and heat requirements (W and Q, respectively), and to recover both power and heat from methane and hydrogen capture. In order to account for the effect of biological processes on heat requirements, the model has been coupled to the extended version of the BNRM2 plant-wide mathematical model, which is implemented in DESSAS simulation software. Two case studies have been evaluated to assess the model's performance: (1) modelling the energy demand of two urban wastewater treatment plants based on conventional activated sludge and submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technologies in steady-state conditions and (2) modelling the dynamics of reactor temperature and heat requirements in an AnMBR plant in unsteady-state conditions. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to assess the energy performance of different wastewater treatment processes and would thus be useful, for example, WWTP design or upgrading or the development of new control strategies for energy savings. PMID:26829316

  5. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating. PMID:26360762

  6. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  7. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed. PMID:21461850

  8. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  9. Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, H.H.; Wright, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures increased, corrosion problems multiplied. The problems have been alleviated by covering the waterwalls with either refractory or weld overlays of nickel-based alloys and using high nickel-chromium alloys for superheater tubes. Changes in furnace design to provide uniform combustion and avoid reducing conditions in the waterwall zone and to lower the gas temperature in the superheater also have helped minimize corrosion.

  10. High Energy Utilization, Co-Generation Nuclear power Plants With Static Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel P.

    2002-07-01

    In addition to being cost effective, very small nuclear power plants with static energy conversion could meet the needs and the energy mix in underdeveloped countries and remote communities, which may include electricity, residential and industrial space heating, seawater desalination, and/or high temperature process heat or steam for industrial uses. These plants are also an attractive option in naval, marine, and undersea applications, when the absence of a sound signature is highly desirable. An Analysis is performed of Gas Cooled Reactor (CGR) and Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (LMR), very small nuclear power plants with static energy conversion, using a combination of options. These include Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) and both single segment and segmented thermoelectric converters. The total energy utilization of these plants exceeds 88%. It includes the fraction of the reactor's thermal power converted into electricity and delivered to the Grid at 6.6 kVA and those used for residential and industrial space heating at {approx}370 K, seawater desalination at 400 K, and/or high temperature process heat or steam at {approx}850 K. In addition to its inherently high reliability, modularity, low maintenance and redundancy, static energy conversion used in the present study could deliver electricity to the Grid at a net efficiency of 29.5%. A LMR plant delivers 2-3 times the fraction of the reactor thermal power converted into electricity in a GCR plant, but could not provide for both seawater desalination and high temperature process heat/steam concurrently, which is possible in GCR plants. The fraction of the reactor's thermal power used for non-electrical power generation in a GCR plant is {approx} 10 - 15% higher than in a LMR plant. (authors)

  11. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  12. Neutron dose and energy spectra measurements at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Soldat, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.; Faust, L.G.; Tomeraasen, P.L.

    1987-08-01

    Because some workers have a high potential for significant neutron exposure, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to verify the accuracy of neutron dosimetry at the plant. Energy spectrum and neutron dose measurements were made at the SRP calibrations laboratory and at several other locations. The energy spectra measurements were made using multisphere or Bonner sphere spectrometers,/sup 3/He spectrometers, and NE-213 liquid scintillator spectrometers. Neutron dose equivalent determinations were made using these instruments and others specifically designed to determine dose equivalent, such as the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Survey instruments, such as the Eberline PNR-4, and the thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo and track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also used. The TEPC, subjectively judged to provide the most accurate estimation of true dose equivalent, was used as the reference for comparison with other devices. 29 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Advanced energy plant operation and training of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    NETL presented its vision of future plant operations and training for advanced energy systems at the 14th Annual ARC World Industry Forum. Plant operations can be improved through increased use of innovative computational tools, immersive virtual simulation, advanced real-time optimization and model predictive control solutions, wireless sensor networks, and enhanced self-diagnosis and decision-making tools. This presentation emphasized real-time dynamic simulators with operator training system (OTS) capabilities, along with immersive training systems (ITS) that provide three-dimensional virtual plant walk-through environments for training field operators and engineers. It also highlighted NETL's Dynamic Simulator Research and Training (DSR&T) Center, which is scheduled to be launched in late 2010 with the deployment of a combined OTS/ITS solution for an IGCC reference plant with carbon capture. The plant-wide IGCC training system will make use of the Invensys Operations Management DynsimTM software for the OTS and EYESimTM software for the ITS. EYESimTM was recently selected as a Breakthrough Product of 2009 by Processing magazine and was featured, along with NETL's DSR&T Center, in a recent ARC Insights article.

  14. Dry matter and energy partitioning in plants under climatic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R.; Postl, W.F.; Meister, M.H.; Ledl, D.; Nemeth, K.; Ludlow, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    During ontogenesis plants distribute assimilates quite differently among their organs depending on the environmental conditions. In case of high sink capacity energetically cheap storing compounds such as carbohydrates and/or organic acids are formed, whereas during periods with low demand proteins and lipids may be accumulated. Besides ontogenesis, drought and increased CO{sub 2} are able to modify sink capacity and by this transients in the partitioning pattern of carbon are induced. Plants, well adapted to several dry seasons during the year are able to allocate carbon predominantly to below ground organs. During this period many leaves become senescent. In any case stems and remaining green leaves will loose dry matter and energy. With 80% of plants under investigation CO{sub 2} enrichment was shown to induce an enforced allocation of carbon to below ground organs. Roots and Rhizomes, beets and tubers act as a sink for the additionally fixed carbon. It was demonstrated that sink capacity is controlling photosynthetic activity. With respect to agricultural production, to ecosystems and to single plants, climatic change will modify productivity and plants distribution pattern as a consequence of quite different metabolic changes. These responses are depending on the effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the use of enhanced CO{sub 2} and on the allocation of additionally formed assimilates.

  15. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  16. Martinez Refinery Completes Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes how the Equilon Enterprises oil refinery in Martinez, California undertook a plant-wide energy assessment that focused on three key areas: waste minimization, process debottlenecking, and operations optimization. The assessment yielded recommendations, which, if implemented, can save more than 6,000,000 MMBtu per year and an estimated $52,000,000 per year, plus improve process control and reduce waste.

  17. Energy efficiency in municipal wastewater treatment plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) estimates that municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York State consume about 1.5 billion kWh of electricity each year for sewage treatment and sludge management based on the predominant types of treatment plants, the results of an energy use survey, and recent trends in the amounts of electricity WWTPs use nationwide. Electric utilities in New York State have encouraged demand-side management (DSM) to help control or lower energy costs and make energy available for new customers without constructing additional facilities. This report describes DSM opportunities for WWTPs in New York State; discusses the costs and benefits of several DSM measures; projects energy impact statewide of the DSM technologies; identifies the barrier to implementing DSM at WWTPs; and outlines one possible incentive that could stimulate widespread adoption of DSM by WWTP operators. The DSM technologies discussed are outfall hydropower, on-site generation, aeration efficiency, time-of-day electricity pricing, and storing wastewater.

  18. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janota, C. P.; Thompson, D. E.

    1982-06-01

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the sea-water pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHZ. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  19. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1983-07-01

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the seawater pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHz. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  20. Characterization of the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant as a biomass energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.; Guerboy, B.; Sanli, I.

    1999-11-01

    Oil seed plants are important biomass energy sources. The rapeseed plant, which yields a high amount of vegetable oil, has a major position among other oil seed plants. In this study the straw stalk of the rapeseed plant (type 00 Brassica napus L.) has been investigated as a candidate for a biomass energy source.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  2. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  3. Solar energy applications at Army Ammunition Plants. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, A.P.; Moy, S.M.

    1982-06-01

    The Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) use significant quantities of fossil fuels. To reduce dependence on these scarce, costly, and non-renewable fuels, a study was conducted to investigate potential solar energy applications at the AAPs. Solar energy is a low-level energy source which is best applied to low temperature applications. It can be used at the AAPs to preheat boiler feedwater, provide hot air for dry-houses, provide domestic hot water and heat for administration buildings, and provide hot water for manufacturing processes such as metal cleaning, phosphating, and x-ray film processing. Use of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, or solar ponds with the possible addition of a heat pump, offers reasonably economical means of applying solar technology to AAP needs.

  4. Energy conservation study on Agripac Processing Plant, Salem, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-15

    An energy study on electrical energy using systems was performed at Agripac plant No. 1 in Salem, Oregon, in the late summer and fall of 1984. The plant processes mainly green beans, corn and squash. The respective products are inspected, prepared and graded, after which they are either canned or frozen in freeze tunnels or cold storage cells. The canned products are sent through pressure cookers. In the case of green beans and corn, some of the product is frozen in freeze tunnels and dumped into tote bins for the repack operation, while some is packaged in cartons and quick frozen in blast freeze cells. For squash, all the product processed is put into cartons and frozen in the cells. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a simple payback analysis. Conservation measures have been evaluated interactively to avoid overestimating savings, assuming that measures that are cost effective will be implemented as a package. In some cases, mutually exclusive conservation measures have been considered for a single application. These have been presented as an either/or measure. Details of the options are included in the text and the calculation sheets.

  5. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  6. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  7. Seaweed cultivation for renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.T.; Benson, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    In the 1970's and 80's, major research and development programs were launched to explore the possibility of using marine biomass as a source of energy. This volume, not only reviews the accomplishments of the aforementioned programs, but also describes how this research relates to seaweed cultivation for other products, such as food, feed, and high value chemicals. Topics covered include the features of marine biomass production, biotechnological manipulations of marine algae, and marine biomass conversion to energy, as well as economics. The chapters synthesize a large number of technical reports, journal articles, symposia and conference proceedings and technology transfer meetings.

  8. Evolution and classification of the cultivated potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated potato is one of the most important food plants worldwide, yet knowledge of the gene pool structure of the native South American landraces remains largely uninvestigated and has long been controversial. As a result, contrasting taxonomic treatments of the landraces have continued over...

  9. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  11. Ammonia plant designers talk of big energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, L.C.

    1980-08-27

    The ammonia plant that Pullman Kellogg has designed for Sherritt-Gordon Mines Ltd. in Alberta will require < 27 million Btu/ton of ammonia, and save $8.10/ton in energy costs because of improvements involving increased pressure in the primary reformer; more efficient use of the heat from the secondary reformer; carbon dioxide recovery by Allied Chemical Corp.'s Selexol process; the reduction of power requirements in the synthesis recycle loop; and the use of a horizontal reactor. C. F. Braun and Co. claims that its Purifier process will require < 25 million Btu/ton, due to the use of excess air in the secondary reformer. C-E Lummus offers a 1500 ton/day plant which, incorporating cryogenic recovery of hydrogen from purge gas and operation at a lower steam-to-carbon ratio, would require only 26 million Btu/ton; Haldor Topsoe Inc. offers a design rated at 26.3 million Btu/ton. According to L. C. Axelrod of Pullman Kellogg, ammonia plant construction will shift to gas-rich areas outside the U.S. and Europe. The 3% of the U.S. natural gas used by the fertilizer industry accounts for > 95% of ammonia feedstock.

  12. Phylogenic diversity and tissue specificity of fungal endophytes associated with the pharmaceutical plant, Stellera chamaejasme L. revealed by a cultivation-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Dengxue; Li, Chunjie; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zeng, Liming; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The fungal endophytes associated with medicinal plants have been demonstrated as a reservoir with novel natural products useful in medicine and agriculture. It is desirable to explore the species composition, diversity and tissue specificity of endophytic fungi that inhabit in different tissues of medicinal plants. In this study, a culture-independent survey of fungal diversity in the rhizosphere, leaves, stems and roots of a toxic medicinal plant, Stellera chamaejasme L., was conducted by sequence analysis of clone libraries of the partial internal transcribed spacer region. Altogether, 145 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units), represented by 464 sequences, were found in four samples, of these 109 OTUs (75.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 20 (13.8 %) to Basidiomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Zygomycota, 1 (0.7 %) to Chytridiomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to Glomeromycota. The richness and diversity of fungal communities were strongly influenced by plant tissue environments, and the roots are associated with a surprisingly rich endophyte community. The endophyte assemblages associated with S. chamaejasme were strongly shaped by plant tissue environments, and exhibited a certain degree of tissue specificity. Our results suggested that a wide variety of fungal assemblages inhabit in S. chamaejasme, and plant tissue environments conspicuously influence endophyte community structure. PMID:26194722

  13. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Z.; Gao, W.

    2013-12-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing with the

  14. Modernization of Controls Improves Productivity and Reduces Energy Costs at a Large Steel Plant (Weirton Steel Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    In 1996 and 1997, Weirton Steel upgraded the utilities control systems at its main steel manufacturing plant in Weirton, WV. In response to increasing energy costs and the need to remain competitive in the steel industry, Weirton Steel commissioned a comprehensive energy management study of the facility, which provided the basis for an energy management control strategy.

  15. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  16. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  17. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  18. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

    PubMed

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community's structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in the

  19. Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Fávaro, Léia Cecilia de Lima; Mendes, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Anderson; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated fungi are considered a vast source for biotechnological processes whose potential has been poorly explored. The interactions and diversity of sugarcane, one of the most important crops in Brazil, have been rarely studied, mainly concerning fungal communities and their interactions with transgenic plants. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this study was, based on culture dependent strategy, to determine the structure and diversity of the fungal community (root endophytes and rhizosphere) associated with two varieties of sugarcane, a non-genetically modified (SP80-1842) variety and its genetically modified counterpart (IMI-1, expressing imazapyr herbicide resistance). For this, the sugarcane varieties were evaluated in three sampling times (3, 10 and 17 months after planting) under two crop management (weeding and herbicide treatments). In addition, a strain of Trichoderma virens, an endophyte isolated from sugarcane with great potential as a biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production agent, was selected for the fungal-plant interaction assays. The results of the isolation, characterization and evaluation of fungal community changes showed that the sugarcane fungal community is composed of at least 35 different genera, mostly in the phylum Ascomycota. Many genera are observed at very low frequencies among a few most abundant genera, some of which were isolated from specific plant sites (e.g., the roots or the rhizosphere). An assessment of the possible effects upon the fungal community showed that the plant growth stage was the only factor that significantly affected the community’s structure. Moreover, if transgenic effects are present, they may be minor compared to other natural sources of variation. The results of interaction studies using the Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing T. virens strain T.v.223 revealed that this fungus did not promote any phenotypic changes in the host plant and was found mostly in

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  1. A Methodological Investigation of Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.; And Others

    Cultivation theory states that television engenders negative emotions in heavy viewers. Noting that cultivation methodology contains an apparent response bias, a study examined relationships between television exposure and positive restatements of cultivation concepts and tested a more instrumental media uses and effects model. Cultivation was…

  2. Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, Dionyssios; Favas, Charalampos; Lykouressis, Dionyssios; Fantinou, Argyro

    2007-05-01

    Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests in adjacent crops. However, to enhance their effectiveness in crops requires knowledge of their trophic relationships with host plants. In this study, the ecological relationships between the predator Macrolophus melanotoma (Costa) ( = M. caliginosus Wagner) and its most important natural host plant Dittrichia viscosa L. (W. Greuter) (Asteraceae) were investigated in the laboratory and in field studies. A 2-year field study of M. melanotoma populations on D. viscosa was made using the percentage of plants infested by C. inulae as a measure of aphid prey abundance. The field studies revealed that M. melanotoma populations were present throughout the year on D. viscosa reaching highest numbers in June and July despite very low levels of aphid infested plants. Laboratory life table studies were used to compare the survival and reproduction of the predator on D. viscosa leaves alone and leaves plus aphid prey ( Capitophorus inulae (Passerini)). Predators reared on D. viscosa leaves plus aphid prey had an average developmental time of 16.73 days, fecundity was 69.55 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0614/day. When fed only leaves, the developmental time was 21.13 days, fecundity was 10.80 eggs/female and the intrinsic rate of population increase was 0.0229/day. The results of the two studies suggest an important role for D. viscosa in conserving and augmenting M. melanotoma in agro ecosystems, and in the development of natural control augmentation strategies in vegetable crops.

  3. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    PubMed

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-01

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  4. Net energy payback and carbon dioxide emissions from helium-3 fusion and wind electrical power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Scott William

    1998-12-01

    A net energy analysis and life cycle CO2 emission analysis is performed on a D3He- fusion power plant using lunar helium-3 and five other electricity-generating power plant technologies, including a wind, conventional coal, PWR and two DT- fusion tokamak (UWMAK-I and ARIES-RS) power plants. The energy payback ratio is the amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure the fuel, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The analysis focused on D3He-fusion and particularly the acquisition of the helium-3 fuel from the Moon. The energy payback ratio varies widely for the six power plants with a low of 11 for a conventional coal plant to a high of 31 for a D3 He-fusion power plant. Energy payback ratios for wind (23), nuclear fission (16), ARIES-RS DT-fusion (24) and UWMAK-I DT- fusion (27) power plants all fall in between. The CO2 emissions for each power plant were calculated from the life-cycle energy' requirements data. The coal plant was responsible for the greatest emissions with 974 tonnes CO2/GWeh, followed by fission and wind (15), ARIES-RS DT-fusion (11), ARIES- 111 D3He-fusion (10) and UWMAK-I DT-fusion power plant (9).

  5. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maruca vitrata is a polyphagous insect pest on a wide variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis mitochondrial cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata c...

  6. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

  7. On the transplantation and cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chaoyuan; Li, Jiajun; Xia, Enzhan; Peng, Zhuosheng; Tan, Shuzhi; Li, Jun; Wen, Zongcun; Huang, Xiaohang; Cai, Zulin; Chen, Guojun

    1989-12-01

    A 2-year study on Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty introduced to Hainan Island from the Philippines in 1985 showed promising results. The average daily growth in weight reached 10% at a favourable temperature of about 26°C. Experimental results showed that timely cutting of the plant was an effective way to obtain new cuttings for cultivation and accelerate growth. New cuttings 0.05 kg in weight are suggested to be used as “seeds” and the old plant should be harvested. At present, artificial cultivation with a type of underwater raft applicable in places where there is strong wind will expand cultivation to more regions in Hainan Province.

  8. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  9. Akzo Nobel Morris Plant Implements a Site-Wide Energy Efficiency Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-01

    Akzo Nobel's Surface Chemistry plant in Morris, Illinois, implemented an energy efficiency plan, which included a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment. The assessment revealed opportunities to save an estimated $1.2 million per year in operating and energy costs, reduce environmental impacts, and improve production capacity.

  10. CONSOL Energy invests in West Virginia CTL plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-15

    Working with Synthesis Energy Systems (SES), America's leading bituminous coal producer assists with the engineering design package for a coal gasification and liquefaction plant to be located near Benwood in West Virginia. Coal will be converted to syngas using SES's proprietary U-GAS technology. The syngas is expected to be used to produce about 720,000 metric tons per year of methanol. The U-GAS technology is licensed from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The article explains how the GTI gasification process works. It is based on a surge-stage fluidised bed for production of low-to-medium calorific value synthesis gas from a variety of feedstocks, including coal. 2 figs.

  11. Isolation of plant-growth-promoting and metal-resistant cultivable bacteria from Arthrocnemum macrostachyum in the Odiel marshes with potential use in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Torre, S; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D

    2016-09-15

    Arthrocnemum macrostachyum is a halophyte naturally growing in southwest coasts of Spain that can tolerate and accumulate heavy metals. A total of 48 bacteria (30 endophytes and 18 from the rhizosphere) were isolated from A. macrostachyum growing in the Odiel River marshes, an ecosystem with high levels of contamination. All the isolates exhibited plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties and most of them were multiresistant to heavy metals. Although the presence of heavy metals reduced the capability of the isolates to exhibit PGP properties, several strains were able to maintain their properties or even enhance them in the presence of concrete metals. Two bacterial consortia with the best-performing endophytic or rhizospheric strains were selected for further experiments. Bacterial inoculation accelerated germination of A. macrostachyum seeds in both the absence and presence of heavy metals. These results suggest that inoculation of A. macrostachyum with the selected bacteria could ameliorate plant establishment and growth in contaminated marshes. PMID:27349383

  12. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  13. The use of benchmarking at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, F.G.; Burling, J.; Moncivais, G.C.; Skelton, R.; Fulton, J.T.; Hostick, C.J.; Tuttle, T.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pantex Plant, located in Amarillo, Texas, is responsible for the assembly, stockpile maintenance, and disassembly of nuclear weapons. Pantex is operated by the Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc. The following summarizes the pilot study that was designed to establish Pantex as a leader in using the continuous improvement tool of benchmarking within the DOE`s Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). The pilot study was conducted with Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co. and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel during 1992.

  14. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-07-21

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  15. Three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of Chlorella sorokiniana for treating dairy farm effluent and lipid enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hena, S; Fatihah, N; Tabassum, S; Ismail, N

    2015-09-01

    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production. PMID:26043271

  16. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  17. Carbon dioxide and oxygen budgets of a plant cultural system in a CELSS - A case of cultivation of lettuce and turnips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.; Yabuki, K.; Nitta, K.; Ikeda, A.; Nakayama, S.

    In order to collect basic data about CO2 and O2 budgets of a plant cultural system in a CELSS, the variation of the CO2 absorption rates of lettuce and turnips were observed during the growing period, under different conditions. The O2 release rates were deduced from the CO2 absorption rates multiplied by 32/44. As a result, when the light intensity, the photoperiod and the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased, the rates also increased. The effects on the turnips were more significant than those on the lettuce. Turnips at 310 μmol/m2/s of PPFD, 24 hours of photoperiod and 1100 ppm of CO2 concentration grew most actively in the present experimental conditions. One turnip absorbed 32.3 g CO2 and released 23.5 g O2 for 6 days between 24 days and 30 days after sowing.

  18. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: predictions of energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work perfomed in support of the preparaion of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. Energy requirements for each of the alternatives addressed in the EIS are discussed in this report. The present consumption of natural gas and electricity at the Pantex Plant is analyzed, and methods of reducing energy use are investigated. Predictions of energy requirements for all alternatives are developed.

  19. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  1. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  2. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits. PMID:26859143

  3. Uncovering a Nuisance Influence of a Phenological Trait of Plants Using a Nonlinear Structural Equation: Application to Days to Heading and Culm Length in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Onogi, Akio; Ideta, Osamu; Yoshioka, Takuma; Ebana, Kaworu; Yamasaki, Masanori; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Phenological traits of plants, such as flowering time, are linked to growth phase transition. Thus, phenological traits often influence other traits through the modification of the duration of growth period. This influence is a nuisance in plant breeding because it hampers genetic evaluation of the influenced traits. Genetic effects on the influenced traits have two components, one that directly affects the traits and one that indirectly affects the traits via the phenological trait. These cannot be distinguished by phenotypic evaluation and ordinary linear regression models. Consequently, if a phenological trait is modified by introgression or editing of the responsible genes, the phenotypes of the influenced traits can change unexpectedly. To uncover the influence of the phenological trait and evaluate the direct genetic effects on the influenced traits, we developed a nonlinear structural equation (NSE) incorporating a nonlinear influence of the phenological trait. We applied the NSE to real data for cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.): days to heading (DH) as a phenological trait and culm length (CL) as the influenced trait. This showed that CL of the cultivars that showed extremely early heading was shortened by the strong influence of DH. In a simulation study, it was shown that the NSE was able to infer the nonlinear influence and direct genetic effects with reasonable accuracy. However, the NSE failed to infer the linear influence in this study. When no influence was simulated, an ordinary bi-trait linear model (OLM) tended to infer the genetic effects more accurately. In such cases, however, by comparing the NSE and OLM using an information criterion, we could assess whether the nonlinear assumption of the NSE was appropriate for the data analyzed. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the NSE in revealing the phenotypic influence of phenological traits. PMID:26859143

  4. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  5. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  6. Accelerating progress toward operational excellence of fossil energy plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Turton, R. Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research (AVESTARTM). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This paper will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture.

  7. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dongshuang; Li, Mingxia; Shi, Lianxuan

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars. PMID:27442489

  8. Electrical efficiency in modern waste to energy plants -- The advanced solutions adopted in a new Italian plant (Milan)

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, F.M.; Pezzella, B.

    1998-07-01

    The paper has the goal to give a general overview of the current approach for the design of modern Waste to Energy (WtE) plants. The thermal treatment of solid waste is an environmentally sound method to get rid of the garbage produced by everyone and to recover energy simultaneously. A typical waste to energy plant is divided in four segments: incineration/boiler, air pollution control, residues treatment and power generation. Still in the 80's a WtE plant was simply consisting of a these four segments without any particular effort in putting them together into a coordinated plant; therefore the results were very poor in term of overall plant performances even if the single segments were properly designed. This paper shows how this approach is changing and how the synergism between the segments allows to reach interesting performances in term of electric efficiency, always keeping in mind that power must be considered a by-product of the incinerator. Therefore all these efforts have to be done without affecting the burning capacity of the station. The new Milan WtE plant is taken as example throughout the paper. The first section of the paper tries to consider the Municipal Solid Waste as standard fuel; then focal point becomes the electrical efficiency of the plant. In the fourth section the flue gas cleaning system is approached, pointing out the gas quality at stack. Then in the fifth and sixth paragraphs all most important and innovative technical solutions of the Milan plant are shown with some details on water/steam cycle, giving also some availability results. Chapter seven shows some interesting key-figures, related to the combustion of 1,000 kg of MSW at 11 MJ/kg, with also some economical evaluations in term of investment cost per ton of waste per day.

  9. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  10. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the dry tropics in general and, particularly in the African Sahel, agro-ecosystems and hydrosystems are very sensitive to climate variability and land management. In turn, it has been shown that soil moisture, vegetation and surface fluxes produce substantial feedback effects on rainfall-producing atmospheric convection. Therefore, it is of prime importance to understand and to model the dynamics of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in response to contrasted meteorological and terrestrial conditions for this area. The objective of this study is to produce a process-based model of water and energy transfers in the soil and land-atmosphere interface over an entire 5-year period, at local scale, for the two main land cover types of South-West Niger: millet-crop and fallow savannah. A comprehensive dataset is available over that whole period in two such fields of the Wankama catchment, making it a rather unique asset for West Africa. This area is typical of the central Sahel conditions, with ~400-600 mm annual rainfall concentrated in the 4-5 months wet season, followed by the 7-8 months dry season. Soils are essentially sandy and prone to surface crusting, which induces a strong vertical contrast in hydrodynamic properties. The dataset used here includes 5 years of atmospheric forcing (rainfall, wind speed, sun and atmosphere radiation, air temperature and moisture) and validation variables (net radiation, turbulent fluxes and soil temperature and moisture profiles), recorded every 30 min. The seasonal course of vegetation phenology (LAI, height, biomass) and soil characteristics (particle size and density profiles) are also available. The SiSPAT (Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer, Braud et al., 1995) physically-based model is used for this study. It solves the mass and heat transfer system of equations in the soil, with vapour phase, coupled with a two-component (bare soil and one vegetation layer) water and energy budget at the surface-atmosphere interface

  11. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others. PMID:24018008

  12. Capturing Solar Energy in the Classroom with Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiess, Elmer

    1977-01-01

    This newsletter is published eight times during the academic year for teachers in an open educational setting. This issue is concerned with the plant and its environment. Activities explore different types of soils and their implications for indoor gardening, plant propagation techniques, and preparation of potting soils. Each activity provides an…

  13. Efficient CO2 Fixation Pathways: Energy Plant: High Efficiency Photosynthetic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: UCLA is redesigning the carbon fixation pathways of plants to make them more efficient at capturing the energy in sunlight. Carbon fixation is the key process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into higher energy molecules (such as sugars) using energy from the sun. UCLA is addressing the inefficiency of the process through an alternative biochemical pathway that uses 50% less energy than the pathway used by all land plants. In addition, instead of producing sugars, UCLA’s designer pathway will produce pyruvate, the precursor of choice for a wide variety of liquid fuels. Theoretically, the new biochemical pathway will allow a plant to capture 200% as much CO2 using the same amount of light. The pathways will first be tested on model photosynthetic organisms and later incorporated into other plants, thus dramatically improving the productivity of both food and fuel crops.

  14. Impacts of biofuel cultivation on mortality and crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Wild, O.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-level ozone is a priority air pollutant, causing ~ 22,000 excess deaths per year in Europe, significant reductions in crop yields and loss of biodiversity. It is produced in the troposphere through photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The biosphere is the main source of VOCs, with an estimated 1,150TgCyr-1 (~ 90% of total VOC emissions) released from vegetation globally. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most significant biogenic VOC in terms of mass (around 500TgCyr-1) and chemical reactivity and plays an important role in the mediation of ground-level ozone concentrations. Concerns about climate change and energy security are driving an aggressive expansion of bioenergy crop production and many of these plant species emit more isoprene than the traditional crops they are replacing. Here we quantify the increases in isoprene emission rates caused by cultivation of 72Mha of biofuel crops in Europe. We then estimate the resultant changes in ground-level ozone concentrations and the impacts on human mortality and crop yields that these could cause. Our study highlights the need to consider more than simple carbon budgets when considering the cultivation of biofuel feedstock crops for greenhouse-gas mitigation.

  15. Assessment of arid lands plants as future energy crops for the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.E.; Brooks, W.H.

    1981-12-01

    This technical report has been prepared to assess and estimate the prospects of utilizing selected native arid lands plant species (terpene- and nonterpene-containing species) as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and to familiarize nonspecialists with some major problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies. The assessment includes descriptions of the processing and production technologies associated with the various plant species as well as recommendations for research procedures and development programs specific to arid lands. Suggestions about the agronomic and economic parameters of growing these plants as energy-source crops are also included.

  16. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ).

  17. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories

    PubMed Central

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems. PMID:27200016

  18. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems. PMID:27200016

  19. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  20. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  1. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  3. Water and energy balances in the soil-plant atmosphere continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy fluxes at soil-atmosphere and plant-atmosphere interfaces can be summed to zero because the surfaces have no capacity for energy storage. The resulting energy balance equations may be written in terms of physical descriptions of these fluxes; and have been the basis for problem casting and so...

  4. Design and cost of a utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, R.J.; Nakamura, T.; Schoenung, S.M.; Lieurance, D.W.; Hilal, M.A.; Rogers, J.D.; Purcell, J.R.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) has potential as a viable technology for use in electric utility load leveling. The advantage of SMES over other energy storage technologies is its high net roundtrip energy efficiency. This paper reports the major features and costs of a jointly developed 5000 MWh SMES plant design.

  5. Sugar and energy cane date of planting effects on cane, sucrose, and fiber yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy cane is believed to have more vigor than sugar cane because energy cane contains a higher percentage of alleles from Saccharum spontaneum relative to Saccharum officinarum. This research was conducted to determine if planting date affects yields of both sugar and energy canes. Three sugar can...

  6. Energy conservation study on Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, Hermiston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-21

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant in Hermiston, Oregon. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specifc modificiations to process equipment. The Hermiston plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products, including french fries, breakfast products, and a dinner product. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product but does not have on-site, long-term cold storage. The Hermiston plant purchases electricity from the Umatilla Rural Electrical Association (REA) on two main services: a 12.7 KV, three phase service for the electric boiler, and a three phase, 480 volt service that provides electricity for all other functions in the main plant (the wheelturning load).

  7. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  8. Reducing the Cost of Energy from Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar technology is the most proven and lowest cost large-scale solar power technology available today, primarily because of the nine large commercial-scale solar power plants that are operating in the California Mojave Desert. However, no new plants have been built during the past ten years because the cost of power from these plants is more expensive than power from conventional fossil fuel power plants. This paper reviews the current cost of energy and the potential for reducing the cost of energy from parabolic trough solar power plant technology based on the latest technological advancements and projected improvements from industry and sponsored R&D. The paper also looks at the impact of project financing and incentives on the cost of energy.

  9. The Population Genetics of Cultivation: Domestication of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Rui-Hong; Schaal, Barbara A.; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic cultivation of medicinal plants is an important strategy for protecting these species from over harvesting. Some species of medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation for more than hundreds years. Concerns about severe loss of genetic diversity and sustainable cultivation can potentially limit future use of these valuable plants. Genetic studies with comprehensive sampling of multiple medicinal species by molecular markers will allow for assessment and management of these species. Here we examine the population genetic consequences of cultivation and domestication in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. We used chloroplast DNA and genomic AFLP markers to clarify not only the effects of domestication on genetic diversity, but also determine the geographic origins of cultivars and their genetic divergence from native populations. These results will allow both better management of cultivated populations, but also provide insights for crop improvement. Results Twenty-one cpDNA haplotypes of S. ningpoensis were identified. Wild populations contain all haplotypes, whereas only three haplotypes were found in cultivated populations with wild populations having twice the haplotype diversity of cultivated populations. Genetic differentiation between cultivated populations and wild populations was significant. Genomic AFLP markers revealed similar genetic diversity patterns. Furthermore, Structure analysis grouped all wild populations into two gene pools; two of which shared the same gene pool with cultivated S. ningpoensis. The result of Neighbor-Joining analysis was consistent with the structure analysis. In principal coordinate analysis, three cultivated populations from Zhejiang Province grouped together and were separated from other cultivated populations. Conclusions These results suggest that cultivated S. ningpoensis has experienced dramatic loss of genetic diversity under anthropogenic influence. We postulate that strong artificial selection

  10. Non-linear Total Energy Optimisation of a Fleet of Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolle, Lars; Biegler-König, Friedrich; Deeskow, Peter

    In order to optimise the energy production in a fleet of power plants, it is necessary to solve a mixed integer optimisation problem. Traditionally, the continuous parts of the problem are linearized and a Simplex scheme is applied. Alternatively, heuristic "bionic" optimisation methods can be used without having to linearize the problem. Weare going to demonstrate this approach by modelling power plant blocks with fast Neural Networks and optimising the operation of multi-block power plants over one day with Simulated Annealing.

  11. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  12. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  13. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas’s Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  14. Cultivating Creativity: I Can't Promise You a Rose Garden; and Cultivating Creativity: A Gardener's Guide for the Complete English Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Beverly

    Creativity, a means of communicating a personal and unique response to life, should be nurtured and cultivated in the classroom. This document discusses the nature of creativity and, using the analogy of a gardener cultivating a garden, outlines nine steps a teacher may take in developing students' creativity--prepare the soil, plant the garden…

  15. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  16. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

  17. Roles of mitochondrial energy dissipation systems in plant development and acclimation to stress

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xiaojun; Lv, Xin; Tan, Tinghong; Fu, Faqiong; Qin, Gongwei; Lin, Honghui

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are sessile organisms that have the ability to integrate external cues into metabolic and developmental signals. The cues initiate specific signal cascades that can enhance the tolerance of plants to stress, and these mechanisms are crucial to the survival and fitness of plants. The adaption of plants to stresses is a complex process that involves decoding stress inputs as energy-deficiency signals. The process functions through vast metabolic and/or transcriptional reprogramming to re-establish the cellular energy balance. Members of the mitochondrial energy dissipation pathway (MEDP), alternative oxidases (AOXs) and uncoupling proteins (UCPs), act as energy mediators and might play crucial roles in the adaption of plants to stresses. However, their roles in plant growth and development have been relatively less explored. Scope This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of members of the MEDP in plant development as well as recent advances in identifying molecular components that regulate the expression of AOXs and UCPs. Highlighted in particular is a comparative analysis of the expression, regulation and stress responses between AOXs and UCPs when plants are exposed to stresses, and a possible signal cross-talk that orchestrates the MEDP, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium signalling and hormone signalling. Conclusions The MEDP might act as a cellular energy/metabolic mediator that integrates ROS signalling, energy signalling and hormone signalling with plant development and stress accumulation. However, the regulation of MEDP members is complex and occurs at transcriptional, translational, post-translational and metabolic levels. How this regulation is linked to actual fluxes through the AOX/UCP in vivo remains elusive. PMID:25987710

  18. Excitation energy transfer in vitro between phycobiliproteins and thylakoid photosystem II of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Tseng, C. K.

    1992-12-01

    The excitation energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoid PSII of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae transferred light energy absorbed to spinach PSII. The efficiency of energy transfer was dependent on the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by the thylakoids of Brassica chinensis, R-phycoerythin or C-phycocyanin did not transfer their excitation energy to PSII of Brassica chinensis unless allophycocyanin was present.

  19. Process energy inventory at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Lines 1, 2, and 3A. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.W.; Hadenfeldt, G.L.; McKay, R.E.; Krajkowski, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    A process energy audit was conducted at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. Lines 1, 2, and 3A were surveyed. Energy consumption baselines were established for eight production items: the Hawk, Stinger, Chaparral, Dragon, Copperhead and Improved TOW Warheads, the M549A1 RA Projectile, and the M718/M741 AT Projectile. A number of potential energy conservation projects were defined to reduce present energy use.

  20. Paramount Petroleum: Plant-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment Identifies Three Projects

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    The Paramount Petroleum plant-wide energy assessment identified a cost-effective electrical power and heat energy production facility and systems that could benefit from either fuel-burn adjustments or a new drive/control system. This could lead to independence from a local electric utility with much improved reliability, estimated annual energy savings of 1,200,000 kWh of electricity, and estimated annual savings of $4.1 million for energy reduction and other improvements.

  1. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  2. Microgrids, virtual power plants and our distributed energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Opportunities for VPPs and microgrids will only increase dramatically with time, as the traditional system of building larger and larger centralized and polluting power plants by utilities charging a regulated rate of return fades. The key questions are: how soon will these new business models thrive - and who will be in the driver's seat? (author)

  3. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  4. The Cultivated Mind: From Mental Mediation to Cultivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephs, Ingrid E.; Fuhrer, Urs

    1998-01-01

    Examines Simmel's principle of cultivation whereby the cultivated mind is constructed through ongoing transactions of people with their cultural environment, cultural forms currently overlooked. Cultural forms result from externalizations of former person-culture transactions. Argues that development is structured through person-culture…

  5. Endangered and threatened plant species on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Plant species considered endangered or threatened on the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) were identified through a review of pertinent literature and evaluation of herbarium voucher specimens. Thirteen plant species are on the official Tennessee list of endangered and threatened plants. Three of those species have been proposed for inclusion on the Federal list as rare in Tennessee. These rare plants will be given careful consideration in land-use planning. Protection of endangered and threatened species in their native habitat is considered the best method of ensuring their survival. In addition to habitat preservation, natural history studies of the rare species is important in determ

  6. An optimal operational advisory system for a brewery's energy supply plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Shiba, T.; Yokoyama, R. . Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering); Sakashita, S. . Mayekawa Energy Management Research Center)

    1994-03-01

    An optimal operational advisory system is proposed to operate rationally a brewery's energy supply plant from the economical viewpoint. A mixed-integer linear programming problem is formulated so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to constraints such as equipment performance characteristics, energy supply-demand relations, and some practical operational restrictions. This problem includes lots of unknown variables and a hierarchical approach is adopted to derive numerical solutions. The optimal solution obtained by this methods is indicated to the plant operators so as to support their decision making. Through the numerical study for a real brewery plant, the possibility of saving operational cost is ascertained.

  7. Model of yield response of corn to plant population and absorption of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Overman, Allen R; Scholtz, Richard V

    2011-01-01

    Biomass yield of agronomic crops is influenced by a number of factors, including crop species, soil type, applied nutrients, water availability, and plant population. This article is focused on dependence of biomass yield (Mg ha(-1) and g plant(-1)) on plant population (plants m(-2)). Analysis includes data from the literature for three independent studies with the warm-season annual corn (Zea mays L.) grown in the United States. Data are analyzed with a simple exponential mathematical model which contains two parameters, viz. Y(m) (Mg ha(-1)) for maximum yield at high plant population and c (m(2) plant(-1)) for the population response coefficient. This analysis leads to a new parameter called characteristic plant population, x(c) = 1/c (plants m(-2)). The model is shown to describe the data rather well for the three field studies. In one study measurements were made of solar radiation at different positions in the plant canopy. The coefficient of absorption of solar energy was assumed to be the same as c and provided a physical basis for the exponential model. The three studies showed no definitive peak in yield with plant population, but generally exhibited asymptotic approach to maximum yield with increased plant population. Values of x(c) were very similar for the three field studies with the same crop species. PMID:21297960

  8. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  9. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  10. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  11. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  12. Staff management of security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. , Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-25

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Security and Police Operations Department is responsible for protecting the US Department of Energy interests at the Portsmouth Plant from theft, sabotage, and other hostile acts that may adversely affect national security, the public health and safety, or property at the Department of Energy facility. This audit's purpose was to evaluate Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.'s staff management at the Portsmouth Plant Security Department. The Portsmouth Plant Security Department could reduce operating cost up to an estimated $4.4 million over 5 years by: (1) Eliminating up to 14 unnecessary staff positions, and (2) reducing the length of relief breaks. These economies could be realized through implementing written operating procedures and negotiating removal of certain labor union restrictions. 2 tabs.

  13. Several aspects of cultivating leaf greens in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Sychev, V. N.

    Available results of theoretical and empirical studies of closed eco-systems lay the ground for the common opinion concerning desirability of incorporating higher plant cultivation equipment in the life support systems of closed habitats of varying purpose (space stations, Martian expedition, hyperbaric complexes in deep waters etc.) in order to add fresh greens to food rations, regenerate air and water, and to better the psychological climate. Design and functional features of this equipment and choice of plants are determined by the dimensions of habitat, power generation, length of self-sustained existence beyond Earth's biosphere and other factors. We are going to consider a particular case of fresh green biomass production for space crew nutrition with limited size and energy resources. The paper presents results of ground and space experimental investigations of a number of aspects of cultivating leaf plant species as applied to research and productive greenhouses. Goals of the investigations were to prepare for flight experiments in greenhouses LADA aboard ISS, and determination of specifications for future productive greenhouses for a Martian mission and its prototyping in ground-based simulations. The following objectives were pursued: - selection of the seeding surface shape and spatial configuration of productive and research greenhouses that can be proposed for the orbital station or a Martian vehicle comparison of productivity of leaf greens cultivated on different substrates; - determination of the maximal plant biomass yield and number of crops that can be gathered from root module without substrate change; - choice of leaf culture cultivars and species featured by very quick biomass buildup and pleasant taste qualities.

  14. How to cultivate Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick T; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the standard procedure for growing Ectocarpus in the laboratory. The culture is started with partheno-sporophyte (or sporophyte) filaments because this is the stage that is usually maintained in strain collections. The standard medium is Provasoli-enriched natural seawater (PES), but Ectocarpus can also be grown in artificial seawater, which allows more precise control over the culture conditions. The algae can be cultivated either in plastic Petri dishes or in 10-L bottles with bubbling, if large amounts of biomass are required. Standard growth conditions are 13°C with a 12h/12h d/night cycle and 20 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) irradiance using daylight-type fluorescent tubes. All manipulations of Ectocarpus cultures should be performed in a clean environment (if possible, under a laminar flow hood). Forceps should be dipped in ethanol and allowed to dry under the hood. PMID:22301662

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  16. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  17. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  18. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  19. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

  20. A Space Flight Cultivation Protocol for Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H. G.

    2008-06-01

    A tube-based method is presented for the cultivation and manipulation of Arabidopsis thaliana during space flight experimentation. Seeds were germinated on rock-wool plugs and subsequently transferred into modified polypropylene conical tubes (cut to 5 cm lengths) at 7 days after planting. Each tube contained four side-situated slits through which capillary mat strips were woven. An additional capillary mat wick extended from below the tube up through the bottom to the mid-interior portion. The incorporation of Fibrous Ion Exchange Resin Substrate provided nutrients. The tubes were transferred to plant compartments containing a horticulture foam matrix that received water inputs. Vigorous seedling development through to seed production was achieved. Dispersed seeds frequently germinated on top of the foam substrate, yielding a 2nd generation of seedlings. The methods used herein could be applied to other plant species to be flown in space.

  1. Energy Conservation Study on Simplot Potato Processing Plant Heyburn, Idaho, Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Seton, Johnson & Odell, Inc.

    1985-03-01

    This group of appendices, B--G, of the ''Simplot Potato Processing Plant Energy Conservation Study'', covers processing equipment, refrigeration equipment, water systems, air conditioning systems and lighting systems. Data on these systems related to cost and energy consumption are given. (JF)

  2. On the enhancement of the efficiency of the energy complexes of crude hydrocarbon processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolotovskij, I. V.; Larin, E. A.; Dolotovskaja, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    A method for circuit-parametric analysis of the efficiency of the heat-and-power system of the energy complexes at gas and natural-gas condensate processing plants is proposed. An energy complex of an alternative structure with an independent source of thermal and electric energy integrated into the production line has been developed. The energy carriers are produced accompanied by recovery of the secondary energy resources, waste, and effluents. Using the developed information-analytical software, multicriterion assessment of the efficiency of the alternative energy complexes and its systems based on independent energy sources of the combined-cycle cogeneration plant type has been performed for the gas processing plant in Astrakhan and the most effective equipment composition variant has been determined. The effect of the basic technical and economic factors on the economic efficiency has been established. The investments in construction of the power- and water-supply system within the plant's energy complex pay off in 8-9 years.

  3. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic...

  4. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the J.R. Simplot company's Don Plant in Pocatello, Idaho, achieved annual savings of $335,000 and 75,000 MMBtu, with a simple payback of 6.5 months, after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment.

  5. Allelochemicals from the Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus hoantchy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; He, Xiaofeng; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Ren, Xia; Pan, Le; Qin, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Astragalus hoantchy, a widely cultivated medicinal plant species in traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine, has been often hampered by replant failure during cultivation, like many other herbs of the genus Astragalus. Root aqueous extracts of Astragalus herbs were reported to exhibit allelopathic activity against other plants and autotoxic activity on their own seedlings, but the allelochemicals released by Astragalus plants have not been specified so far. Ten compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere soil extract of cultivated A. hoantchy and elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-6 observably showed allelopathic activity against Lactuca sativa seedlings and autotoxic activity against A. hoantchy seedlings. The isolated compounds were further confirmed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the rhizosphere soil, with a total concentration of 9.78 μg/g (dry weight). These results specify and verify the allelochemicals released by cultivated A. hoantchy into the soil environment, which may provide new insights into the allelopathic mechanisms of this medicinal plant and probably assist in clarifying the replant problems of Astragalus plants. PMID:27074954

  6. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Matheus S; Damasio, André R de L; Crnkovic, Paula M; Pinto, Marcelo R; da Silva, Ana M; da Silva, Jean C R; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C; Jorge, João A; Polizeli, Maria de L T de M

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  7. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Matheus S.; Damasio, André R. de L.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; da Silva, Ana M.; da Silva, Jean C. R.; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria de L. T. de M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60–80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  8. Augusta Newsprint: Paper Mill Pursues Five Projects Following Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    Augusta Newsprint undertook a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment of its Augusta, Georgia, plant in 2001. The assessment helped the company decide to implement five energy efficiency projects. Four of the five projects will save the company 11,000 MWh of electrical energy (about$369,000) each year. The remaining project will produce more than$300,000 annually, from sale of the byproduct turpentine. The largest annual savings,$881,000, will come from eliminating Kraft pulp by using better process control. All of the projects could be applied to other paper mills and most of the projects could be applied in other industries.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  10. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  11. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grownmore » with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.« less

  12. Potential environmental consequences of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants. A workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.

    1981-05-01

    The concept of generating electrical power from the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean waters was advanced over a century ago. A pilot plant was constructed in the Caribbean during the 1920's but commercialization did not follow. The US Department of Energy (DOE) earlier planned to construct a single operational 10MWe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant by 1986. However, Public Law P.L.-96-310, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research, Development and Demonstration Act, and P.L.-96-320, the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, now call for acceleration of the development of OTEC plants, with capacities of 100 MWe in 1986, 500 MWe in 1989, and 10,000 MWe by 1999 and provide for licensing and permitting and loan guarantees after the technology has been demonstrated.

  13. Executive summary of Energy Saving Opportunity Survey (ESOS) for Indiana Army Ammunition Plant, Charlestown, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-31

    The Indiana Army Ammunition Plant in Charlestown, Indiana completed FY1985 with an energy use reduction of 8.5% from FY1984, surpassing the 8.1% goal. The 10-Year Energy Use Reduction Coal (Base Year FYl975) of 32.3% was achieved and surpassed in FY1985 with a 10-year reduction of 32.5%. This reduction occurred while increasing the plant`s staff by 15% and production by 28%. The energy conservation efforts at INAAP during FY1985 resulted in cost avoidances of $917,685 for base year FYl985 and $175,879 from FY1984. The achievement of these energy reductions had occurred by implementing a high priority action-oriented task plan utilizing short term and long term facility retrofit projects as well as people oriented programs and incentives.

  14. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  15. Coil protection for a utility scale superconducting magnetic energy storage plant

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.M.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Rogers, J.D.; Purcell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is proposed for electric utility load leveling. Attractive costs, high diurnal energy efficiency (greater than or equal to 92%), and rapid response are advantages relative to other energy storage technologies. Recent industry-led efforts have produced a conceptual design for a 5000 MWh/1000 MW energy storage plant which is technically feasible at commercially attractive estimated costs. The SMES plant design includes a protection system which prevents damage to the magnetic coil if events require a rapid discharge of stored energy. This paper describes the design and operation of the coil protection system, which is primarily passive and uses the thermal capacity of the coil itself to absorb the stored electromagnetic energy.

  16. Treatment of anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge using soilless cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchimura, Koki; Sago, Yuki; Kamahara, Hirotsugu; Atsuta, Yoichi; Daimon, Hiroyuki

    2014-02-01

    Soilless cultivation was carried out using anaerobic digestion effluent of sewage sludge as liquid fertilizer, with a preparation which cultures microorganisms in nutrient solution. As a result, ammonium ions contained in the effluent were nitrified into nitrate ions by the microorganisms. And then, Japanese mustard spinach (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated by soilless cultivation system. The plants were grown well using microbial nutrient solution, which similar to the plants using conventional inorganic nutrient solution. In contrast, the plants were grown poorly using the effluent as liquid fertilizer without microorganisms.

  17. Model of Yield Response of Corn to Plant Population and Absorption of Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Allen R.; Scholtz, Richard V.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass yield of agronomic crops is influenced by a number of factors, including crop species, soil type, applied nutrients, water availability, and plant population. This article is focused on dependence of biomass yield (Mg ha−1 and g plant−1) on plant population (plants m−2). Analysis includes data from the literature for three independent studies with the warm-season annual corn (Zea mays L.) grown in the United States. Data are analyzed with a simple exponential mathematical model which contains two parameters, viz. Ym (Mg ha−1) for maximum yield at high plant population and c (m2 plant−1) for the population response coefficient. This analysis leads to a new parameter called characteristic plant population, xc = 1/c (plants m−2). The model is shown to describe the data rather well for the three field studies. In one study measurements were made of solar radiation at different positions in the plant canopy. The coefficient of absorption of solar energy was assumed to be the same as c and provided a physical basis for the exponential model. The three studies showed no definitive peak in yield with plant population, but generally exhibited asymptotic approach to maximum yield with increased plant population. Values of xc were very similar for the three field studies with the same crop species. PMID:21297960

  18. Neville Chemical Company: Management Pursues Five Projects Following Plant-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    Neville Chemical conducted a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment of its Anaheim, California, plant in the spring of 2002. The assessment justified five projects that would significantly reduce electricity and fuel costs. Four of the five projects, when complete will save 436,200 kilowatt-hours, or $31,840 of electrical energy each year. The remaining project will save 7,473 million British thermal units or $43,600 in fossil fuel each year. One year later, the same assessment team applied its knowledge of Neville's processes in a plant-wide assessment at Neville's Pittsburgh plant, and identified 15 projects with more than $715,000 in projected annual savings.

  19. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology /OTEC/ with nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C. S.

    The use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Related Bottoming Cycle (ORBC) to recover the waste heat generated by a large nuclear or fossil power plant is considered. To take advantage of an ORBC, a plant must be located close to cold, deep ocean water, either open-ocean or shore-based. The ORBC can also be retrofitted to existing shore-based nuclear plants or it can be a part of the design of future plants. The increased efficiency of a nuclear floating system due to the ammonia bottoming cycle and ORBC systems is shown for the example of the proposed facility in Murata, Japan. It is noted that the size of the heat exchangers and the diameter of the cold water pipe would be relatively smaller for an ORBC than for a conventional ocean thermal energy conversion system.

  20. Department of Energy's Pantex Plant Saves $10 Million in Energy Costs. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) ESPC Case Study Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.

    2001-11-20

    This two-page case study describes how the U.S. Department of Energy's Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, will save approximately $10 million in energy costs over the next 18 years, thanks to a DOE Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) delivery order for energy efficiency improvements. The delivery order is the largest to date for a DOE facility. Primarily, the delivery order calls for a new, state-of-the-art energy management control system and a new water/steam piping system, which will be purchased and installed by the contracting energy services company (ESCO). The ESCO will then be repaid over the life of the contract out of the plant's resulting energy cost savings.

  1. Retrofitting the Williams Energy Services Ignacio Plant for higher throughput and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Pitman, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    The Ignacio Plant located near Durango, Colorado was originally designed to process 346 MMscfd of feed gas and to recover approximately 82% of the contained ethane. Based on increasing volumes of available feed gas, Williams Energy Services (WES) undertook a study to investigate alternatives for increasing plant capacity and ethane recovery. This study led to the selection of Ortloff's Recycle Split-Vapor (RSV) process for retrofitting the existing facility because it offered several very important advantages: maximum utilization of existing equipment, a 30% increase in plant feed handling capacity and an increase in average ethane recovery to 94% without adding residue compressors. This paper presents the comparative case analysis that led to the selection of the RSV design. It also describes the modifications required for the retrofit, all of which can be accomplished with minimum plant down time. The modified Ignacio Plant is scheduled for startup in March 1999.

  2. The Distribution of Genetic Variation in Cultivated Tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is known to have a narrow genetic base. COSII, EST-based, and several loci related to fruit quality traits were resequenced in a diverse panel of 30 Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) tomato accessions, line TA496, and Solanum peruvianum accession G 32591...

  3. Energy saving on wastewater treatment plants through improved online control: case study wastewater treatment plant Antwerp-South.

    PubMed

    De Gussem, Kris; Fenu, Alessio; Wambecq, Tom; Weemaes, Marjoleine

    2014-01-01

    This work provides a case study on how activated sludge modelling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can help to optimize the energy consumption of a treatment plant that is already equipped with an advanced control based on online nutrient measurements. Currently, aeration basins on wastewater treatment plant Antwerp-South are operated sequentially while flow direction and point of inflow and outflow vary as a function of time. Activated sludge modelling shows that switching from the existing alternating flow based control to a simultaneous parallel feeding of all aeration tanks saves 1.3% energy. CFD calculations also illustrate that the water velocity is still sufficient if some impellers in the aeration basins are shutdown. The simulations of the Activated Sludge Model No. 2d indicate that the coupling of the aeration control with the impeller control, and automatically switching off some impellers when the aeration is inactive, can save 2.2 to 3.3% of energy without affecting the nutrient removal efficiency. On the other hand, all impellers are needed when the aeration is active to distribute the oxygen. PMID:24622558

  4. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy. PMID:22788104

  5. Development of energy plants and their potential to withstand various extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Brini, Faiçal; Hanin, Moez; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biomass utilization is increasingly considered as a practical way for sustainable energy supply and long-term environment care around the world. In concerns with food security, starch or sugar-based bioethanol and edible-oilderived biodiesel are severely restricted for large scale production. Alternatively, conversion of lignocellulosic residues from food crops could be considered, but due to its recalcitrance, the current biomass process is unacceptably expensive. In this context, genetic breeding of energy crops appears as a promising solution. To fulfil the global world need as both food and biofuel sources, energy crops are expected to be produced with higher yields and especially in marginal lands. This review focus on recent progress and patents dealing with energy plants and the challenges associated with bioenergy development. We also discuss the potential use of molecular approaches including genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation for improving specific traits or generating new cultivars of energy plants. PMID:22779438

  6. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Citation Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and $45,000. With a total project cost of $67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  7. Citation Corporation: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Forging Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-05-01

    In the 1990s, a subsidiary of the Citation Corporation, Interstate Forging, implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Milwaukee, Wisconsin, forging plant. This improvement enabled the plant to maintain an adequate and stable pressure level using fewer compressors, which led to improved product quality and lower production downtime. The project also yielded annual energy savings of 820,000 kWh and$45,000. With a total project cost of$67,000, the plant achieved a simple payback of just 1.5 years.

  8. A simulator designated to the help sizing of waste incineration plant with energy valorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoult, B.

    1998-07-01

    The integrated waste treatment (sorting, recycling, composting, incineration, tip) concept is increasing. In this concept, incineration remains the last way of destruction before tipping of refuse. With the aim to improve thermal and economic efficiencies of this kind of treatment, thermal and/or electrical energy are produced in incineration plants. If environmental rules lead to a steady increase of such plants, a lot of data have to be evaluated to find the best size, especially under economic aspects, for a given project. The author presents the specification of the software ARTEMIS, which helps a project manager to find the optimal size of a plant, to quantify the effect of various technical options, and to compare some operating management. Garbage deposit (quantity and quality), energy valorization (electricity price, thermal needs), machines (furnace, high and low pressure turbines, heat exchanger, auxiliary boiler) are taken into account. Energy and economic annual balance are also calculated with a hourly simulation step.

  9. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of osmotic energy recovery at a reverse osmosis desalination plant.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Benjamin J; Ramon, Guy Z; Hoek, Eric M V

    2013-03-19

    Recent years have seen a substantial reduction of the specific energy consumption (SEC) in seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination due to improvements made in hydraulic energy recovery (HER) as well as RO membranes and related process technologies. Theoretically, significant potential for further reduction in energy consumption may lie in harvesting the high chemical potential contained in RO concentrate using salinity gradient power technologies. Herein, "osmotic energy recovery" (OER) is evaluated in a seawater RO plant that includes state-of-the-art RO membranes, plant designs, operating conditions, and HER technology. Here we assume the use of treated wastewater effluent as the OER dilute feed, which may not be available in suitable quality or quantity to allow operation of the coupled process. A two-stage OER configuration could reduce the SEC of seawater RO plants to well below the theoretical minimum work of separation for state-of-the-art RO-HER configurations with a breakeven OER CAPEX equivalent to 42% of typical RO-HER plant cost suggesting significant cost savings may also be realized. At present, there is no commercially viable OER technology; hence, the feasibility of using OER at seawater RO plants remains speculative, however attractive. PMID:23331042

  11. They`re up! They`re down! They`re waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Varrasi, J.

    1996-03-01

    Burning garbage - either just to get rid of it, or to recover its latent energy as heat or electricity - has never been a sweet-sounding or -smelling idea. Long before the first boiler and turbine/generator were integrated with a trash incinerator - turning it into a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant - public concern about the air pollution produced by burning municipal solid waste (MSW) began placing an upper bound on the growth of the WTE industry, as it continues to do today. This paper describes some statistics, benefits and problems related to WTE plants.

  12. Independent domestications of cultivated tree peonies from different wild peony species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun-Hui; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Hu, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of plant domestication history provides insights into general mechanisms of plant adaptation and diversification and can guide breeding programmes that aim to improve cultivated species. Cultivated tree peonies (genus Paeonia L.) are among the most popular ornamental plants in the world; yet, the history of their domestication is still unresolved. Here, we explored whether the domestication in China of historically cultivated peonies, that is, the common and flare cultivated tree peonies, was a single event or whether independent domestications occurred. We used 14 nuclear microsatellite markers and a comprehensive set of 553 tree peonies collected across China, including common tree peonies, flare tree peonies and the wild species or subspecies that are potential contributors to the cultivated tree peonies, that is, Paeonia rockii ssp. rockii, P. rockii ssp. atava, P. jishanensis and P. decomposita. Assignment methods, a principal component analysis and approximate Bayesian computations provided clear evidence for independent domestications of these common tree and flare tree peonies from two distinct and allopatric wild species, P. jishanensis and P. rockii ssp. atava, respectively. This study provides the first example of independent domestications of cultivated trees from distinct species and locations. This work also yields crucial insight into the history of domestication of one of the most popular woody ornamental plants. The cultivated peonies represent an interesting case of parallel and convergent evolution. The information obtained in this study will be valuable both for improving current tree peony breeding strategies and for understanding the mechanisms of domestication, diversification and adaptation in plants. PMID:24138195

  13. Modelling of a magma energy geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, R.F.; Berg, D.L.; Jr.; Ortega, A.

    1987-01-01

    We are currently investigating the engineering feasibility of drilling into an active magma body at a depth of roughly 5 km from the earth's surface, establishing a downhole heat exchange region, and extracting thermal energy from the magma body by circulating fluid through this heat exchange region. In the present paper, we evaluate the overall thermodynamic performance of various conceptual magma energy systems in which energy is added as heat to the fluid within the magma region and is converted to useful work in a power conversion cycle at the surface. Unusually high return temperatures and pressures may be available at the wellhead of such a circulating well. Cycles investigated here are an open Rankine power system in which steam from the magma well is circulated directly through a power conversion cycle and a closed Rankine cycle where the heated fluid from downhole is circulated through an aboveground heat exchanger to heat the cycle fluid. The downhole heat exchange region is established during the drilling process. As drilling proceeds into the magma, a solidified layer forms about the drilling tube due to heat exchange to the fluid. This solidified layer thermally fractures because of large temperature gradients between the cooled inner region and the heated outer region, thereby opening secondary flow paths. Two models of the downhole behavior have been used. In the simplest approach, denoted as the ''infinite area model,'' the water entering the pipe to return to the surface is assumed to be always at the temperature of the magma, independent of mass flow rate and other parameters. The other model is more detatiled and the fractured heat exchange region is modelled as a cylindrical porous layer through which fluid flows vertically. The net power and the performance aspects for the systems are investigated in terms of various parameters, including the characteristics of the downhole heat transfer.

  14. Mass and energy balances of sludge processing in reference and upgraded wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mininni, G; Laera, G; Bertanza, G; Canato, M; Sbrilli, A

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary assessment of a platform of innovative upgrading solutions aimed at improving sludge management and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants. The effectiveness of the upgrading solutions and the impacts of their integration in model reference plants have been evaluated by means of mass and energy balances on the whole treatment plant. Attention has been also paid to the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus in sludge processing and to their recycle back to the water line. Most of the upgrading options resulted in reduced production of dewatered sludge, which decreased from 45 to 56 g SS/(PE × day) in reference plants to 14-49 g SS/(PE × day) in the upgraded ones, with reduction up to 79% when wet oxidation was applied to the whole sludge production. The innovative upgrades generally entail an increased demand of electric energy from the grid, but energy recovery from biogas allowed to minimize the net energy consumption below 10 kWh/(PE × year) in the two most efficient solutions. In all other cases the net energy consumption was in the range of -11% and +28% of the reference scenarios. PMID:25598155

  15. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  16. Evaluation of the surface free energy of plant surfaces: toward standardizing the procedure

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Plant surfaces have been found to have a major chemical and physical heterogeneity and play a key protecting role against multiple stress factors. During the last decade, there is a raising interest in examining plant surface properties for the development of biomimetic materials. Contact angle measurement of different liquids is a common tool for characterizing synthetic materials, which is just beginning to be applied to plant surfaces. However, some studies performed with polymers and other materials showed that for the same surface, different surface free energy values may be obtained depending on the number and nature of the test liquids analyzed, materials' properties, and surface free energy calculation methods employed. For 3 rough and 3 rather smooth plant materials, we calculated their surface free energy using 2 or 3 test liquids and 3 different calculation methods. Regardless of the degree of surface roughness, the methods based on 2 test liquids often led to the under- or over-estimation of surface free energies as compared to the results derived from the 3-Liquids method. Given the major chemical and structural diversity of plant surfaces, it is concluded that 3 different liquids must be considered for characterizing materials of unknown physico-chemical properties, which may significantly differ in terms of polar and dispersive interactions. Since there are just few surface free energy data of plant surfaces with the aim of standardizing the calculation procedure and interpretation of the results among for instance, different species, organs, or phenological states, we suggest the use of 3 liquids and the mean surface tension values provided in this study. PMID:26217362

  17. Evaluation of the surface free energy of plant surfaces: toward standardizing the procedure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Plant surfaces have been found to have a major chemical and physical heterogeneity and play a key protecting role against multiple stress factors. During the last decade, there is a raising interest in examining plant surface properties for the development of biomimetic materials. Contact angle measurement of different liquids is a common tool for characterizing synthetic materials, which is just beginning to be applied to plant surfaces. However, some studies performed with polymers and other materials showed that for the same surface, different surface free energy values may be obtained depending on the number and nature of the test liquids analyzed, materials' properties, and surface free energy calculation methods employed. For 3 rough and 3 rather smooth plant materials, we calculated their surface free energy using 2 or 3 test liquids and 3 different calculation methods. Regardless of the degree of surface roughness, the methods based on 2 test liquids often led to the under- or over-estimation of surface free energies as compared to the results derived from the 3-Liquids method. Given the major chemical and structural diversity of plant surfaces, it is concluded that 3 different liquids must be considered for characterizing materials of unknown physico-chemical properties, which may significantly differ in terms of polar and dispersive interactions. Since there are just few surface free energy data of plant surfaces with the aim of standardizing the calculation procedure and interpretation of the results among for instance, different species, organs, or phenological states, we suggest the use of 3 liquids and the mean surface tension values provided in this study. PMID:26217362

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  19. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  20. Energy engineering analysis study report, Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee: Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-09-01

    This report is a summary of the Energy Engineering Analysis for the Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) in Milan, Tennessee. It includes the recommendations for the development of a Basewide Energy Plan consisting of energy conservation projects and other recommendations for reduction of the installation`s 1985 source energy consumption. Milan Army Ammunition Plant, containing 22,541 acres, is situated in both Gibson and Carroll Counties, Tennessee, and is approximately equally divided longitudinally into the two counties. The Milan area experiences typically short mild winters and long warm summers. With the exception of a few modernized facilities, the overwhelming majority of buildings at MAAP were constructed for World War II ammunition production.

  1. Study of energy efficient supercritical coal-fired power plant dynamic responses and control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Omar R. Ibrahim

    The world is facing the challenge of global warming and environment protection. On the other hand, the demand of electricity is growing fast due to economic growth and increase in population. Since the growth in demand is also a heavy factor in energy equations, then the renewable energy alone is not able to generate enough electricity to fill the gap within a short time of period. Therefore, fossil fuel such as coal fired power plants cannot be ruled out immediately due to their generation capacity and flexibility in load following. However, any new coal fired stations should be cleaner compared with traditional power plants. Supercritical power plants are one of the most suitable choices for environmental enhancement and higher efficiency. However, there has been an issue of whether or not to adopt this technology in the UK because it is not clear whether the performance for SC plants can satisfy the British Grid Code requirement. This thesis reports a study of dynamic responses of SC power plants through mathematical modelling, and simulation for Grid Code compliance. It also presents a new control strategy based on an alternative configuration of generalized predictive control for power plant control..

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  3. Revamping existing ammonia plants with a new low-energy process

    SciTech Connect

    Banquy, D.

    1984-01-01

    In this process, only part of the natural gas feed is treated in the primary reformer, and the rest is reformed directly in the secondary reformer using excess air. The excess nitrogen is removed in a cryogenic separation upstream of the synthesis loop. The features of this new low energy ammonia process, and the related advantages in terms of energy savings, make it suitable for revamping existing ammonia plants, with attractive economics.

  4. Energy conservation study on Smith Frozen Foods processing plant, Weston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-02

    A comprehensive energy study was performed at Smith Frozen Foods in Weston, Oregon, in the fall of 1984. The plant processes corn, peas, lima beans and carrots. The products are inspected, prepared and graded before being sent through freeze tunnels. The frozen products are dumped into tote bins which are transported into cold storage warehouses. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a modified return on investment analysis called a return on capital (ROC) analysis and current rate schedules.

  5. Optimal Path to a Laser Fusion Energy Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    There was a decision in the mid 1990s to attempt ignition using indirect-drive targets. It is now obvious that this decision was unjustified. The target design was too geometrically complex, too inefficient, and too far above plasma instability thresholds. By that same time, the mid 1990s, there had also been major advances in the direct-drive target concept. It also was not yet ready for a major test. Now, finally, because of significant advances in target designs, laser-target experiments, and laser development, the direct-drive fusion concept is ready for significant enhancements in funding, on the path to commercial fusion energy. There are two laser contenders. A KrF laser is attractive because of its shortest wavelength, broad bandwidth, and superb beam uniformity. A frequency-converted DPSSL has the disadvantage of inherently narrow bandwidth and longer wavelength, but by combining many beams in parallel one might be able to produce at the target the equivalent of an ultra-broad bandwidth. One or both of these lasers may also meet all of the engineering and economic requirements for a reactor. It is time to further develop and evaluate these two lasers as rep-rate systems, in preparation for a future high-gain fusion test.

  6. Agent-Based Modleing of Power Plants Placement to Evaluate the Clean Energy Standard Goal

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2014-01-01

    There is a political push for utilities to supply a specified share of their electricity sales from clean energy resources under the clean energy standard (CES). The goal is to achieve 80% clean energy by 2035. However, there are uncertainties about the ability of the utility industry to ramp up quickly even with the incentives that will be provided. Water availability from the streams is one of the major factors. The contiguous United States is divided into eighteen water regions, and multiple states share water from a single water region. Consequently, water usage decisions made in one state (located upstream of a water region that crosses multiple states) will greatly impact what is available downstream in another state. In this paper, an agent-based modeling approach is proposed to evaluate the clean energy standard goal for water-dependent energy resources. Specifically, using a water region rather than a state boundary as a bounding envelope for the modeling and starting at the headwaters, virtual power plants are placed based on the conditions that there is: (i) suitable land to site a particular power plant, (ii) enough water that meet regulatory guidelines within 20 miles of the suitable land, and (iii) a 20-mile buffer zone from an existing or a virtual power plant. The results obtained are discussed in the context of the proposed clean energy standard goal for states that overlap with one water region.

  7. Monitoring well installation plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The installation and development of groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which monitors groundwater quality and hydrologic conditions at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document is a groundwater monitoring well installation and development plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan formalizes well installation and construction methods, well development methods, and core drilling methods that are currently implemented at the Y-12 Plant under the auspices of the GWPP. Every three years, this plan will undergo a review, during which revisions necessitated by changes in regulatory requirements or GWPP objectives may be made.

  8. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  9. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  10. Electrical energy consumption and heating requirements of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. H.; Wang, L. K.

    1982-02-01

    Electrical energy consumption models were developed. The unit operations/processes of pumping, screening and comminution,, grit removal, sedimentation, chlorination, gravity thickening, anaerobic digestion, vacuum filtration, incineration, and diffused air flotation are examined. The mathematical models of total heating requirements of biological wastewater treatment plants are also presented.

  11. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14638). This exemption is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  12. MONITORING INTEGRATED ENERGY SYSTEMS AT A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A project was undertaken to monitor the performance of an integrated energy system at the Wilton, Maine, wastewater treatment plant. These systems included active and passive solar heating, effluent heat recovery, digester gas generation, air-to-air heat recovery, and electricity...

  13. Reactive Nitrogen Species in Mitochondria and Their Implications in Plant Energy Status and Hypoxic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Igamberdiev, Abir U.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic and anoxic conditions result in the energy crisis that leads to cell damage. Since mitochondria are the primary organelles for energy production, the support of these organelles in a functional state is an important task during oxygen deprivation. Plant mitochondria adapted the strategy to survive under hypoxia by keeping electron transport operative even without oxygen via the use of nitrite as a terminal electrons acceptor. The process of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide (NO) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain recycles NADH and leads to a limited rate of ATP production. The produced ATP alongside with the ATP generated by fermentation supports the processes of transcription and translation required for hypoxic survival and recovery of plants. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (called phytoglobins in plants) scavenge NO and thus contribute to regeneration of NAD+ and nitrate required for the operation of anaerobic energy metabolism. This overall operation represents an important strategy of biochemical adaptation that results in the improvement of energy status and thereby in protection of plants in the conditions of hypoxic stress. PMID:27047533

  14. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FROM PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS (TAMIL NADU, INDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in D...

  15. Showcase Energy Efficiency, Cost Savings, and Process Improvements in Your Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    Hosting a Showcase Demonstration Event describes how industrial manufacturers can showcase energy efficiency technologies that they have implemented in their plants. Companies can gain access to a wide variety of technical assistance and resources when they agree to host a showcase demonstration and this fact sheet explains how to participate.

  16. 76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  17. [Artificial cultivation modes for Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; Yu, Qiao-Xian; Song, Xian-Shui; Shao, Wei-Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Since the beginning of the new century, the artificial cultivation of Dendrobium officinale has made a breakthrough progress. This paper systematically expounds key technologies, main features and cautions of the cultivation modes e.g. bionic-facility cultivation, the original ecological cultivation, and potting cultivation for D. officinale, which can provide useful information for the development and improvement of D. officinale industry. PMID:23713268

  18. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  19. Energy engineering analysis, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonik, D.M.

    1982-06-22

    This Energy Engineering Analysis consists of the main report, three appendices, and a summary of annual energy consumption on a per-building basis. The main report identifies the purpose of the study, describes the existing and anticipated energy use trends, and defines and summarizes specific energy conservation projects recommended to achieve the goals stated in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. Appendices I, II and III, and the Annual Energy Consumption Summary include building information, weather data, cost data, and detailed computer-generated and manual calculations for each individual project. The analysis will enable ammunition plant personnel to identify energy conservation measures and meet Army energy reduction goals. The report includes: Energy consumption by fuel type Energy consumption trends ECAM projects Other potential projects Quick-fix management form Description of analyzed buildings In addition, the Analysis is a detailed data base consisting of: An analysis of building energy use Energy Conservation Measures applied to each analyzed building to be improved A set of marked-up prints from the survey indicating the conditions when surveyed.

  20. Energy engineering analysis Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Burlington, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-10

    This Energy Engineering Analysis consists of the main report, three appendices, and a summary of annual energy consumption on a `per building` basis. The main report identifies the purpose of the study, describes the existing and anticipated energy use trends, and defines and summarizes specific energy conservation projects recommended to achieve the goals stated in the Army Facilities Energy Plan. Appendices I, II and III, and the Annual Energy Consumption Summary include building information, weather data, cost data, and detailed computer-generated and manual calculations for each individual project. The analysis will enable ammunition plant personnel to identify energy conservation measures and meet Army energy reduction goals. The report includes: Energy consumption by fuel type Energy consumption trends ECAM projects other potential projects Quick-fix management form Description of analyzed buildings. In addition-, the Analysis is a detailed data base consisting of: An analysis of building energy use Energy Conservation Measures applied to each analyzed building to be improved A set of marked-up prints from the survey indicating the conditions when surveyed.

  1. Allergenic Potential of Tomatoes Cultivated in Organic and Conventional Systems.

    PubMed

    Słowianek, Marta; Skorupa, Marta; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Leszczyńska, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are a widely consumed vegetables and contain many health beneficial micronutrients. Unfortunately, they may also cause adverse allergic reactions in sensitized people. Many studies, conducted in recent years, indicate that organically produced vegetables have higher nutritional value, improved sensory quality and contain more health-enhancing bioactive compounds than vegetables grown under the conventional system. However, the relation between organic methods of cultivation and allergenic potential of tomatoes has received little scientific attention. This study analyzed samples of five tomato cultivars taken from organic and conventional systems over three consecutive years. The content of profilin, Bet v 1 and lipid transfer protein (LTP) analogues in tomato samples was determined using an indirect ELISA assay. Substantial quantities of these proteins were found in certain cultivars across all three years of cultivation. On the basis of these findings, organically grown tomatoes appear to offer little advantage over conventionally cultivated plants in terms of reduced allergenic potential. PMID:26590604

  2. Plant Wide Assessment of Energy Usage Utilizing SitEModelling as a Tool for Optimizing Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ralf Janowsky, Ph.D.; Tracey Mole, Ph.D.

    2007-12-31

    The Evonik Degussa Corporation is the global market leader in the specialty chemicals industry. Innovative products and system solutions make an indispensable contribution to our customers' success. We refer to this as "creating essentials". In fiscal 2004, Degussa's 45,000 employees worldwide generated sales of 11.2 billion euros and operating profits (EBIT) of 965 million euros. Evonik Degussa Corporation has performed a plant wide energy usage assessment at the Mapleton, Illinois facility, which consumed 1,182,330 MMBTU in 2003. The purpose of this study was to identify opportunities for improvement regarding the plant’s utility requirements specific to their operation. The production is based mainly on natural gas usage for steam, process heating and hydrogen production. The current high price for natural gas in the US is not very competitive compared to other countries. Therefore, all efforts must be taken to minimize the utility consumption in order to maximize market position and minimize fixed cost increases due to the rising costs of energy. The main objective of this plant wide assessment was to use a methodology called Site Energy Modelling (SitE Modelling) to identify areas of potential improvement for energy savings, either in implementing a single process change or in changing the way different processes interact with each other. The overall goal was to achieve energy savings of more than 10% compared to the 2003 energy figures of the Mapleton site. The final savings breakdown is provided below: - 4.1% savings for steam generation and delivery These savings were accomplished through better control schemes, more constant and optimized loading of the boilers and increased boiler efficiency through an advanced control schemes. - 1.6% savings for plant chemical processing These saving were accomplished through optimized processing heating efficiency and batch recipes, as well as an optimized production schedule to help equalize the boiler load (e

  3. Evaluation of chiller plant energy conservation opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cler, G.L.; Chalifoux, A.T.; Parson, K.; Higgs, B.

    1997-06-01

    Chiller plant owning and operating costs represent substantial investments at Fort Hood, Texas. Primary objectives of this work are to evaluate the performance of major plants and associated distribution systems, and to identify relevant energy conservation opportunities (ECOs). Significant effort was expended to gather information and document the performance of plant cooling equipment. Data were obtained from site surveys, discussions with vendors and manufacturers, and reviews of previous studies. Performance was documented with field measurements. Subsequent analyses of ECOs were performed with simplified bin methods consistent with first-order conclusions and recommendations required from this work. Results for all ECOs were heavily influenced by the utility rate structure. At Fort Hood, 75 percent of annual chiller energy cost is determined by demand charges. Alternatives for chiller ECOs were also limited by the effects of recent regulations that govern the use of refrigerants. Therefore, realistic improvements that reduce chiller energy consumption necessarily involve replacement or major upgrade of most chillers. Other potential ECOs targeted reductions in chiller and pump energy by modulating speed in relation to cooling load. A select group of chillers will benefit from this technology. The higher capital costs combined with the unusually low energy charge preclude speed modulation for all other motors.

  4. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  5. Water Consumption for Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerman, K. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Water use may prove to be a central issue in the global and local development of the biofuel industry. While most literature on biofuel water use only considers the biorefinery phase, we studied water consumption for biofuel feedstock cultivation in major feedstock-producing regions of the United States. Using a spatially explicit Penman-Monteith model informed by field-level eddy covariance measurements, distributed climate data, and land use figures, we estimated water consumption and net water use for a number of scenarios of feedstock, location, and refining processes for biofuel development. We find that in California, for example, average water consumption for biofuels from different feedstocks ranges from about 900 to over 1500 gallons per gallon of fuel produced. Cellulosic feedstocks are found to be less water-intensive on average. Furthermore, we find feedstock cultivation to account for more than 99% of the life-cycle embedded water for fuels in California. In some regions and for some feedstock options, a shift to biofuel feedstock cultivation would reduce the strain on water resources, while in others we project it would greatly increase water demand. We are expanding this analysis to better capture both base-line ET from natural systems and ET of some of the less-studied cellulosic feedstocks, as well as to incorporate other regions in the U.S. and internationally. Thus far, we conclude that while water demand for processing is important for plant location and pollution, water consumption for feedstock growth may be (along with land resources) the limiting factor for bioenergy production in many regions.

  6. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  7. Energy performance indicators of wastewater treatment: a field study with 17 Portuguese plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Catarina; Rosa, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    The energy costs usually represent the second largest part of the running costs of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). It is therefore crucial to increase the energy efficiency of these infrastructures and to implement energy management systems, where quantitative performance metrics, such as performance indicators (PIs), play a key role. This paper presents energy PIs which cover the unit energy consumption, production, net use from external sources and costs, and the results used to validate them and derive their reference values. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese WWTPs (5-year period) were consistent with the results obtained through an international literature survey on the two key parcels of the energy balance--consumption and production. The unit energy consumption showed an overall inverse relation with the volume treated, and the reference values reflect this relation for trickling filters and for activated sludge systems (conventional, with coagulation/filtration (C/F) and with nitrification and C/F). The reference values of electrical energy production were derived from the methane generation potential (converted to electrical energy) and literature data, whereas those of energy net use were obtained by the difference between the energy consumption and production. PMID:26247748

  8. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  9. Plant polyphenols alter a pathway of energy metabolism by inhibiting fecal Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Xie, Jinli; Huang, Jiachen; Chen, Long; Gao, Lijuan; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-03-01

    The function of plant polyphenols in controlling body weight has been in focus for a long time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant polyphenols on fecal microbiota utilizing oligosaccharides. Three plant polyphenols, quercetin, catechin and puerarin, were added into liquid media for fermenting for 24 h. The pH values, OD600 of the cultures and the content of carbohydrates at 0, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h were determined. The abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in each culture was quantified with qPCR after 10 h of fermentation, and the bacterial composition was analyzed using the software Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology. The results revealed that all three plant polyphenols could significantly inhibit the growth of Bacteroidetes (P < 0.01) and Firmicutes (P < 0.01) while at the same time down-regulate the ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (P < 0.01). But the fecal bacteria could maintain the ability to hydrolyze fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) in vitro. Among the tested polyphenols, catechin presented the most intense inhibitory activity towards the growth of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and quercetin was the second. Only the samples with catechin had a significantly lower energy metabolism (P < 0.05). In conclusion, plant polyphenols can change the pathway of degrading FOS or even energy metabolism in vivo by altering gut microbiota composition. It may be one of the mechanisms in which plant polyphenols can lead to body weight loss. It's the first report to study in vitro gastrointestinal microbiota fermenting dietary fibers under the intervention of plant polyphenols. PMID:26882962

  10. Measurement of changes in water thickness in plant materials using very low-energy neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, U.; Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Nicolaï, B. M.

    2005-04-01

    Low-energy neutron radiographic images of Hedera leaves were obtained using the very cold neutron (VCN) beam at Institut Laue-Langevin, France. A change in hydrogen concentration measured in a short period by means of neutron radiography indicates a change in water concentration in the plant. A regression model was evaluated to estimate changes in water thickness of the leaves and, the resolution of this method was smaller than 5 μm. The method was effective to measure small changes in water thickness of thin plant leaves.

  11. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  12. Production of recombinant miraculin using transgenic tomatoes in a closed cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Fukukawa, Go; Kakuta, Hideo; Fukuda, Naoya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2010-05-26

    We constructed a cultivation system with a controlled light period, light intensity, temperature, and CO(2) concentration for mass production of the taste-modifying protein miraculin from transgenic tomatoes. The tomato plants exhibited normal growth and produced over 270 g of fresh weight (FW) fruit per plant, with the recombinant miraculin concentration reaching up to 90 microg per g FW of tomatoes. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes was compared to that of plants grown in a netted greenhouse. The recombinant miraculin content of transgenic tomatoes grown in a closed cultivation system was more stable than that of tomatoes grown in a netted greenhouse, suggesting that the closed cultivation system is suitable for the production of recombinant miraculin. We estimate that 45 tFW of tomatoes and 4 kg of recombinant miraculin per 1,000 m(2) of cultivation area can be harvested per year. PMID:20426470

  13. Ford Van Dyke: Compressed Air Management Program Leads to Improvements that Reduce Energy Consumption at an Automotive Transmission Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    Staff at the Ford Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, have increased the efficiency of the plant's compressed air system to enhance its performance while saving energy and improving production. After plant staff identified opportunities for system improvements, a qualified instructor from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Allied Partner, Scales Air Compressor Corporation, helped to clarify several of them. The resulting improvement measures are yielding energy savings for compressed air of more than 1 million kWh; energy and maintenance cost savings total $165,000. The total cost of planned upgrades and other measures was $336,000, for a 2-year simple payback.

  14. The DOE s In-Plant Training (INPLT) Model to Promote Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; De Fontaine, Mr. Andre; Schoeneborn, Fred C

    2013-01-01

    In-Plant Training (INPLT) is a new model for developing energy efficiency expertise within the US manufacturing companies participating in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program-a nationwide initiative to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity in 10 years. INPLTs are designed to fill a market niche by providing hands on training in a real world manufacturing plant environment. Through INPLTs, participants from multiple manufacturing plants, supply chains, utilities, and other external stakeholders learn how to conduct energy assessments, use energy analysis tools to analyze energy saving opportunities, develop energy management systems, and implement energy savings projects. Typical INPLT events are led by DOE-certified Energy Experts and range from 2-4 days. Topics discussed include: identification of cross-cutting or system specific opportunities; introduction to ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems; and energy project implementation and replication. This model is flexible, and can be tailored to suit the needs of specific industries. The INPLTs are a significant departure from the traditional single plant energy assessment model previously employed by DOE. INPLTs shift the focus from the concept of a single-plant s energy profile to a broader focus on training and capacity building among multiple industrial participants. The objective is to enable trainees to identify, quantify, implement and replicate future energy saving projects without continued external assistance. This paper discusses the INPLT model and highlights some of the initial outcomes from the successfully delivered INPLTs and the overall impact in terms of numbers of plants/participants trained, impacted energy footprints, and potential replication of identified opportunities.

  15. Assessment of geothermal energy as a power source for US aluminum reduction plants

    SciTech Connect

    Enderlin, W.I.; Blahnik, D.E.; Davis, A.E.; Jacobson, J.J.; Schilling, A.H.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using hydrothermal resources as a primary power source for both existing and future aluminum reduction plants in the United States is explored. Applicable hydrothermal resources that should be considered by the aluminum industry for this purpose were identified and evaluated. This work also identified the major institutional parameters to be considered in developing geothermal energy resources for aluminum industry use. Based on the findings of this study, it appears technically and economically feasible to power existing aluminum reduction plants in the Pacific Northwest using electricity generated at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. It may also be feasible to power existing plants located on the Gulf Coast from Roosevelt Hot Springs, depending on the cost of transmitting the power.

  16. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  17. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  18. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency proj

  19. Austin Energy: Pumping System Improvement Project Saves Energy and Improves Performance at a Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This two-page performance spotlight describes how, in 2004, Austin Energy (the electric utility for the city of Austin, Texas) began saving about $1.2 million in energy and maintenance costs annually as a direct result of a pumping system efficiency project.

  20. Smart LED lighting for major reductions in power and energy use for plant lighting in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Lucie

    Launching or resupplying food, oxygen, and water into space for long-duration, crewed missions to distant destinations, such as Mars, is currently impossible. Bioregenerative life-support systems under development worldwide involving photoautotrophic organisms offer a solution to the food dilemma. However, using traditional Earth-based lighting methods, growth of food crops consumes copious energy, and since sunlight will not always be available at different space destinations, efficient electric lighting solutions are badly needed to reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of life-support infrastructure to be launched and transported to future space destinations with sustainable human habitats. The scope of the present study was to demonstrate that using LEDs coupled to plant detection, and optimizing spectral and irradiance parameters of LED light, the model crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) can be grown with significantly lower electrical energy for plant lighting than using traditional lighting sources. Initial experiments aimed at adapting and troubleshooting a first-generation "smart" plant-detection system coupled to LED arrays resulted in optimizing the detection process for plant position and size to the limits of its current design. Lettuce crops were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber, where temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 level are controlled. Optimal irradiance and red/blue ratio of LED lighting were determined for plant growth during both lag and exponential phases of crop growth. Under optimizing conditions, the efficiency of the automatic detection system was integrated with LED switching and compared to a system in which all LEDs were energized throughout a crop-production cycle. At the end of each cropping cycle, plant fresh and dry weights and leaf area were measured and correlated with the amount of electrical energy (kWh) consumed. Preliminary results indicated that lettuce plants grown under

  1. Environmental monitoring at two Superfund sites, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site and Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site was established in southeastern Washington during the 1940s to produce plutonium during World War II. The Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle was originally used by the US Army for loading conventional ammunition shells and bombs. The Plant was rehabilitated and enhanced in the 1950s to assemble nuclear weapons. Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at both locations for several decades. Monitoring objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of facility operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils, and vegetation. Currently, measured concentrations of airborne radionuclides around the perimeters of both sites are below applicable guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River at Hanford are in compliance with applicable standards. Radiological and nonradiological water quality in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath the Pantex Plant is also in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with river water downstream from the Hanford Site show levels of radionuclides that are similar to those found in foodstuffs from control areas. The low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in some onsite Hanford wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from onsite and offsite at both locations are typical of those attributable to naturally occurring radioactivity and to worldwide fallout. The calculated dose potentially received by a maximally exposed individual (i.e., based on hypothetical, worst-case assumptions for all routes of exposure) at both sites in 1993 was {<=} 0.03 mrem.

  2. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel

  3. Cultivating Spontaneous Self-Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Draws on contemporary sources to provide strategies for cultivating self-discipline. Advocates self-healing for the adult to be free from destructive attitudes and personal history that can keep adults from being mindful of the child's needs, perspective, and potential. Concludes with ways to facilitate a truly Montessori approach to discipline.…

  4. Cultivating Spiritual Reflectivity in Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need to address spiritual beliefs in teacher education, arguing that: because spiritual impulses are so primary for many people, they must be addressed in teacher education; educators must recognize and cultivate students' spiritual motivations to teach and foster reflectivity; and student teachers must learn what they can legally…

  5. Overview of environmental monitoring at the US Department of Energy Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant is located on the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. Principal activities that include the assembly and disassembly of nuclear weapons; surveillance storage, maintenance, modification, repair, and non-explosive testing of nuclear weapons components; manufacturing of chemical high-explosive (HE) components; and more recently, environmental restoration. Monitoring for radionuclides has been conducted at Pantex for over 20 years. Data are used to calculate the radiological dose to the public and assess environmental effects of site operations. Monitoring the chemicals is another important part of the effort. This paper reviews Pantex Plant environmental monitoring and characterization activities, details the environmental surveillance program, and discusses changes being made to satisfy current environmental regulations and to answer questions posed by a knowledgeable public. The paper is based on data obtained through 1993.

  6. Continuous thermal hydrolysis and energy integration in sludge anaerobic digestion plants.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, F; Velazquez, R; Perez-Elvira, S I; Casas, C; del Barrio, D; Cantero, F J; Fdz-Polanco, M; Rodriguez, P; Panizo, L; Serrat, J; Rouge, P

    2008-01-01

    A thermal hydrolysis pilot plant with direct steam injection heating was designed and constructed. In a first period the equipment was operated in batch to verify the effect of sludge type, pressure and temperature, residence time and solids concentration. Optimal operation conditions were reached for secondary sludge at 170 degrees C, 7 bar and 30 minutes residence time, obtaining a disintegration factor higher than 10, methane production increase by 50% and easy centrifugation In a second period the pilot plant was operated working with continuous feed, testing the efficiency by using two continuous anaerobic digester operating in the mesophilic and thermophilic range. Working at 12 days residence time, biogas production increases by 40-50%. Integrating the energy transfer it is possible to design a self-sufficient system that takes advantage of this methane increase to produce 40% more electric energy. PMID:18469393

  7. Power plants of modular construction with quasi-paraboloidal concentrators of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. K.

    1984-02-01

    Solar electric power plants with parabolocylindrical concentrators are not as efficient as those of the tower type and, therefore, another modular construction is considered. The idea is to concentrate solar energy on a small spot and to locate the power plant, which consists of a heat collector and a Stirling, Brayton, or Rankine engine with an electric generator, near that spot. The solar energy concentrator is designed and built to perform like a paraboloidal mirror. The first 13 concepts are based on using plane, spherical, or double curvature facets made of silicate glass with silver backing or polymer film with aluminum coating. The next 4 concepts are based on using aluminized polymer film and forming it by means of air inflation. The last 5 concepts are based on using plane or cylindrical Fresnel mirrors, or a Fresnel lens. These concepts are in various stages of develoment and production.

  8. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as liquid pumping and internal compression. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  9. Methods of reducing energy consumption of the oxidant supply system for MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted to identify possible improvements to the oxidant supply system for combined cycle MHD power plants which would lead to higher thermal efficiency and reduction in the cost of electricity, COE. Results showed that the oxidant system energy consumption could be minimized when the process was designed to deliver a product O2 concentration of 70 mole percent. The study also led to the development of a new air separation process, referred to as 'liquid pumping and internal compression'. MHD system performance calculations show that the new process would permit an increase in plant thermal efficiency of 0.6 percent while allowing more favorable tradeoffs between magnetic energy and oxidant system capacity requirements.

  10. Parabolic trough collector power plant performance simulation for an interactive solar energy Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Mercedes; Frasquet, Miguel; Al Rished, Abdulaziz; Tuomiranta, Arttu; Gasim, Sami; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-01

    The collaboration between the Research Center for Renewable Energy Mapping and Assessment (ReCREMA) at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and the King Abdullah City for Atomic & Renewable Energy (KACARE) aims to create an interactive web tool integrated in the Renewable Resource Atlas where different solar thermal electricity (STE) utility-scale technologies will be simulated. In this paper, a methodology is presented for sizing and performance simulation of the solar field of parabolic trough collector (PTC) plants. The model is used for a case study analysis of the potential of STE in three sites located in the central, western, and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia. The plant located in the north (Tayma) has the lowest number of collectors with the best production along the year.

  11. A trial of production of the plant-derived high-value protein in a plant factory

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Goto, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of plant science is to test a hypothesis obtained by basic science and to apply it to agriculture and industry. A plant factory is one of the ideal systems for this trial. Environmental factors affect both plant yield and the accumulation of recombinant proteins for industrial applications within transgenic plants. However, there have been few reports studying plant productivity for recombinant protein in closed cultivation systems called plant factories. To investigate the effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on tomato fruit yield and the accumulation of recombinant miraculin, a taste-modifying glycoprotein, in transgenic tomato fruits, plants were cultivated at various PPFs from 100 to 400 (µmol m−2 s−1) in a plant factory. Miraculin production per unit of energy used was highest at PPF100, although miraculin production per unit area was highest at PPF300. The commercial productivity of recombinant miraculin in transgenic tomato fruits largely depended on light conditions in the plant factory. Our trial will be useful to consider the trade-offs between the profits from production of high-value materials in plants and the costs of electricity. PMID:21791976

  12. Maintenance Energy Demand and Starvation Recovery Dynamics of Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi Cultivated in a Retentostat with Complete Biomass Retention

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, W.; Laverman, A.; Bohland, M.; Braster, M.; Rittershaus, S.; Groeneweg, J.; van Verseveld, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi (strain “Engel”) were grown in ammonia-limited and nitrite-limited conditions, respectively, in a retentostat with complete biomass retention at 25°C and pH 8. Fitting the retentostat biomass and oxygen consumption data of N. europaea and N. winogradskyi to the linear equation for substrate utilization resulted in up to eight-times-lower maintenance requirements compared to the maintenance energy demand (m) calculated from chemostat experiments. Independent of the growth rate at different stages of such a retention culture, the maximum specific oxygen consumption rate measured by mass spectrometric analysis of inlet and outlet gas oxygen content always amounted to approximately 45 μmol of O2 mg−1 of biomass-C · h−1 for both N. europaea and N. winogradskyi. When bacteria were starved for different time periods (up to 3 months), the spontaneous respiratory activity after an ammonia or nitrite pulse decreased with increasing duration of the previous starvation time period, but the observed decrease was many times faster for N. winogradskyi than for N. europaea. Likewise, the velocity of resuscitation decreased with extended time periods of starvation. The increase in oxygen consumption rates during resuscitation referred to the reviving population only, since in parallel no significant increase in the cell concentrations was detectable. N. europaea more readily recovers from starvation than N. winogradskyi, explaining the occasionally observed nitrite accumulation in the environment after ammonia becomes available. From chloramphenicol (100 μg · ml−1) inhibition experiments with N. winogradskyi, it has been concluded that energy-starved cells must have a lower protein turnover rate than nonstarved cells. As pointed out by Stein and Arp (L. Y. Stein and D. J. Arp, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:1514–1521, 1998), nitrifying bacteria in soil have to cope with extremely low nutrient concentrations

  13. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  14. Effects of light-emitting diodes under capped daily energy consumption with combinations of electric power and photoperiod on cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhao; Bin, Hui; Lin, Jian; Chen, Feng; Miao, Xiaoling

    2016-04-01

    Effects of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different light intensities at photoperiod of 18:6h on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth were investigated. The microalgae exhibited the highest growth rate 89.0mgL(-1)d(-1) and growth efficiency 97.8mgL(-1)KWh(-1) at 110 and 90μmolm(-2)s(-1), respectively. Based on the discovery of this asynchronous phenomenon between growth rate and growth efficiency, influences of LEDs (red, blue and white) under capped daily energy consumption (0.80KWh d(-1)) with combinations of electric power (33.3, 44.4 and 66.6w) and photoperiod (24:0, 18:6 and 12:12h) were further investigated. The highest growth efficiency 106.4mgL(-1)KWh(-1) and growth rate 85.1mgL(-1)d(-1) were both obtained under white-33.3w-24h. Growth efficiency and growth rate were simultaneously improved 1.1 times through this method above. The order of growth efficiency under different LEDs were white>blue>red. PMID:26826572

  15. Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

    1990-07-01

    There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  17. Physiological Responses of Soybean Plants Grown in a Nitrogen-Free or Energy Limited Environment 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-xian; Schubert, Karel R.; Kohl, Daniel H.

    1991-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings grown in the absence of combined N and in an Ar:O2 (79:21, volume/volume) atmosphere had greater seedling and nodule mass, threefold higher acetylene reducing activity per gram fresh weight nodules, no observable increase in nitrogenase Fe-protein, and a higher energy charge than did control plants. A sharp fall in acetylene reducing activity and energy charge accompanying stem-girdling was prevented by exogenous succinate, a result consistent with a path from the roots to the nodule other than via the phloem. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668170

  18. High temperature thermal energy storage, including a discussion of TES integrated into power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Storage temperatures of 260 C and above are considered. Basic considerations concerning energy thermal storage are discussed, taking into account general aspects of thermal energy storage, thermal energy storage integrated into power plants, thermal storage techniques and technical considerations, and economic considerations. A description of system concepts is provided, giving attention to a survey of proposed concepts, storage in unpressurized fluids, water storage in pressurized containers, the use of an underground lined cavern for water storage, a submerged thin insulated steel shell under the ocean containing pressurized water, gas passage through solid blocks, a rock bed with liquid heat transport fluid, hollow steel ingots, heat storage in concrete or sand, sand in a fluidized bed, sand poured over pipes, a thermal energy storage heat exchanger, pipes or spheres filled with phase change materials (PCM), macroencapsulated PCM with heat pipe concept for transport fluid, solid PCM removed from heat transfer pipes by moving scrapers, and the direct contact between PCM and transport fluid.

  19. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  20. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  1. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Sandro C. S.; Carvalho, Paulo C. M.; Brito, Fábio T.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems. PMID:22346600

  2. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1982-06-17

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the sea-water pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHZ. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  3. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  4. Growth characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in a phytotron and in the field.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Iida, Osamu; Kitazawa, Takashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Kojoma, Mareshige; Makino, Yukiko; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2004-01-01

    Growth characteristics of Cannabis saliva L. are indispensable factors to verify the statements by the criminals of illegal cannabis cultivation. To investigate growth characteristics of C. sativa, two varieties, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-rich (CBDA-type) which being cultivated for fiber production and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-rich (THCA-type) which is used for drug abuse, were cultivated from seeds under the same growth environment in a phytotron. THCA-type showed high germination rate (100%) whereas only 39% of the CBDA-type seeds germinated 6 days after sowing. Plant height, number of true leaves, number of nodes, number of axillary buds and flowering of these two varieties were periodically observed. THCA-type grew more rapidly (plant height: 125.8 cm for THCA-type, 84.7 cm for CBDA-type, 75 days after cultivation) demonstrating vigorous axillary bud formation and earlier male-flowering (63 days for THCA-type, 106 days for CBDA-type, after sowing). Propagation of THCA-type was tested using the axillary shoot cuttings of female plants either with or without the main stem. All the cuttings with the main stem rooted after 21 days and grew healthily in a phytotron. However, all the newly developed leaves were single instead of palmate. In the field, THCA-type male-flowered after 155 days of cultivation after sowing on March 31. The height of the field-cultivated plants reached 260.9 cm 163 days after sowing. Despite the great differences in final plant heights, the increases of plant height per day during the vegetative growth stage were similar in the field and in the phytotron. Thus estimating the starting time of illegal cannabis cultivation might be possible if the plant is in the vegetative growth stage. PMID:15940897

  5. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  6. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  7. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  8. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain. PMID:27501538

  10. Differential response of cultivated and weedy (red) rice to recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a principle resource for plant growth; as such, the ongoing increase in its concentration may differentially affect the growth of cultivated and wild types of the same species. Red rice in the U.S. is a weedy relative of cultivated rice that represents a major production con...

  11. Competitive interactions between cultivated and red rice as a function of recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although carbon dioxide represents a fundamental resource for plant function, increases in atmospheric concentration may differentially stimulate cultivated and weedy types of the same species. Because wild types often represent a weedy constraint to cultivated crops in the field, any differential ...

  12. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 75 FR 1362 - Medical Area Total Energy Plant, Inc., New MATEP Inc.; Notice of Application for Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Medical Area Total Energy Plant, Inc., New MATEP Inc.; Notice of Application for Commission Certification of Qualifying Status of a Cogeneration Facility January 4, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009,...

  14. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    PubMed

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking. PMID:25413121

  15. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    HES [Pfenninger, 2015]. It has been specifically design to represent high shares of renewable energy, allowing for the estimation of the Swiss energy transition with high level of detail. Calliope includes topology characteristics of the electricity system, and variability of radiation and wind, which enables the analysis of intermittency in renewable electricity sources, in order to fulfil the electricity demand at all hours. Three energy scenarios are modelled; first, the higher energy production of renewables in Switzerland and the import of natural gas to supply the demand; second, imports of wind power from North Sea with high level of intermittency; and third, imports of solar power from North Africa, with less intermittency but with higher risk of internal turmoil. To summarise, we analyse in detail the energy scenarios of Switzerland when the nuclear power plants will be ceased. A gap currently present in academia, such as the future energy security in Switzerland, is covered by our Calliope modelling. References: Abt, M.; E. Bernhard, A. Kolliker, T. Roth, M. Spicher, L. Stieger, Volkswirtschaftliche Massnahmenanalyse zur Energiestrategie 2050: Tiel I: Gesamtergebnisse und Empfehlungen, Staatssekretariat fur Wirtschaft SECO, Bern, CH, 2012. Busser, M; T. Kaiser, E. Wassermann, K. Ammon, S. Reichen, A. Gunzinger, et al., Energiestrategie 2050 aus Sicht des Energie Trialogs, Energie Trialog Schweiz, 2013. Mathiesen, B. V. and Lund, H. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources. IET Renew. Power Gen. 3, 190-204 (2009). Mathys, N. 2012. Modelling contributions to the Swiss energy and environmental challenge. Special issue on energy modelling_introductory article.Swiss journal of economics and statistics. Pfenninger, Stefan. 2015. Calliope: a multi-scale energy systems (MUSES) modeling framework. Available at: http://www.callio.pe/ Piot, M. Energiestrategie 2050 der Schweiz, in: 13. Symp

  16. Modeling plant-level industrial energy demand with the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Neifer, M.J.; Ross, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Phase 1 of a project to help the US Department of Energy determine the applicability of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) database and the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) for industrial modeling and analysis. Research was conducted at the US Bureau of the Census; disclosure of the MECS/LRD data used as a basis for this report was subject to the Bureau`s confidentiality restriction. The project is designed to examine the plant-level energy behavior of energy-intensive industries. In Phase 1, six industries at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level were studied. The utility of analyzing four-digit SIC samples at the plant level is mixed, but the plant-level structure of the MECS/LRD makes analyzing samples disaggregated below the four-digit level feasible, particularly when the MECS/LRD data are combined with trade association or other external data. When external data are used, the validity of using value of shipments as a measure of output for analyzing energy use can also be examined. Phase 1 results indicate that technical efficiency and the distribution of energy intensities vary significantly at the plant level. They also show that the six industries exhibit monopsony-like behavior; that is, energy prices vary significantly at the plant level, with lower prices being correlated with a higher level of energy consumption. Finally, they show to what degree selected energy-intensive products are manufactured outside their primary industry.

  17. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.

    2001-11-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering C02 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25 percent.

  18. Environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Pinellas Plant, located in Largo, Florida, is part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons complex. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) has initiated an extremely aggressive, proactive Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Pinellas Plant. The ER program was started by AL to investigate environmental concerns associated with past waste management practices and procedures at DOE weapons installations. The Pinellas Plant has been involved with ER activities since the mid 1980's when the DOE's Pinellas Area Office (PAO) entered a voluntary cleanup agreement with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER). The agreement was for the remediation of an adjacent parcel of property previously owned, and used for disposal of drums containing waste solvents and resins. Remediation issues at the Pinellas Plant are equivalent to those experienced by many private industries; for example, limited volatile organic compound (VOC) and heavy metal contamination of the surficial aquifer system and heavy metal contamination of soils. ER activities in progress are aimed toward: confining, repositioning and remedying areas of heavy metal and VOC contaminants found within the surficial aquifer system; consistency with EPA's draft Corrective Action rules which state the corrective action program will be to expedite cleanup results by requiring (taking) sensible early action to control environmental problems;'' protection of a US Department of Interior (DOI) designated national wetland; and to ensure that risk to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the plants past, present and future operations are either eliminated or reduced to acceptable, safe levels. This paper will summarize the progress made and the strategies of the Pinellas Plant ER program as well as implementation of interim remedial actions.

  19. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants.

    PubMed

    Akbari, H

    2002-01-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering CO2 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25%. PMID:11833899

  20. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    PubMed

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. PMID:26028558

  1. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    SciTech Connect

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  2. A New Method for the Performance Analysis of a Concentrating Solar Power Energy Plant Using Remotely Sensed Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marco; Masini, Andrea; Potenza, Marco Alberto Carlo

    2012-11-01

    In the framework of the GMES project FP7-ENDORSE, we developed a new method for the performance analysis of a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) energy plant. We use a detailed model of a CSP parabolic trough plant and the solar radiation values at ground level derived from satellite imagery. This information, together with in-situ measured air temperature, allows to calculate every 15 minutes the expected power yield of the plant and, comparing it to the actual one measured, readily assess a possible malfunctioning and perform an overall plant performance analysis.Using this method we could monitor in near-real-time the daily behavior of the alternate current produced by the CSP plant and finally, using a temporal integration, obtain the expected daily energy yield by the plant.

  3. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  4. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  5. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented. PMID:23202552

  6. Application of Nuclear Energy for Seawater Desalination: Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faibish, R.S.; Konishi, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity. However, most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat, in which case nuclear energy could also play an important role. In particular, process heat for seawater desalination using nuclear energy has been of growing interest to some Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency over the past two decades. This growing interest stems from increasingly acute freshwater shortages in many arid and semi-arid zones around the world. Indeed, several national and international nuclear desalination demonstration programs are already under way or being planned. Of particular interest are projects for seawater nuclear desalination plants in coastal regions, where saline feed water can serve the dual purpose of cooling water for the nuclear reactor and as feed water for the desalination plant. In principle any nuclear reactor can provide energy (low-grade heat and/or electricity), as required by desalination processes. However, there are some additional requirements to be met under specific conditions in order to introduce nuclear desalination. Technical issues include meeting more stringent safety requirements (nuclear reactors themselves and nuclear-desalination integrated complexes in particular), and performance improvement of the integrated systems. Economic competitiveness is another important factor to be considered for a broader deployment of nuclear desalination. For technical robustness and economic competitiveness a number of design variants of coupling configurations of nuclear desalination integrated plant concepts are being evaluated. This paper identifies and discusses various factors, which support the attractiveness of nuclear desalination. It further summarizes some of the key approaches recommended for nuclear desalination complex design and gives an overview of various design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, which

  7. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  8. Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) with water hyacinths and duckweed to treat daily over 759 m/sup 3/ of domestic wastewater and 114 m/sup 3/ of chemical wastewater in four separate systems. The harvested plants from these systems have been used in various biomass utilization projects over the past five years. In laboratory batch studies of digesting vascular plants with anaerobic filters, NASA has found that 140 to 280 liters methane per kg dry weight can be obtained in an average of 23 days. Current NASA projects at NSTL seek to expand the technology required to design energy systems which produce methane through bioconversion with anaerobic filters and use the mineral residue as a nutrient source for producing new biomass.

  9. How useful are plant functional types in global simulations of the carbon, water, and energy cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, Paul B.

    2011-03-01

    Land-surface and vegetation models divide the globe into discrete vegetation classes or plant functional types (PFTs). The current study quantifies some of the limitations of this simplification on global predictions of carbon, water, and energy fluxes. First, a state-of-the-art land-surface model, JULES-SF, is optimized against a diversity of calibration data sets (eddy covariance fluxes, field measurements of net primary production (NPP), and remotely sensed surface albedo) in order to retrieve a range of values for four key plant parameters within each PFT. This is done for 112 sites and 1200 1° land points. Second, global simulations are compared in which the parameter values per PFT are either fixed (standard method) or vary according to either the retrieved parameter range or the satellite-observed range (new methods). Retrieved key plant parameters exhibit a broad range, and the range overlap between PFTs is significant. The impact on the global simulation depends on the surface flux/state in question. Thus, the difference between the new and old method is small for albedo, net shortwave radiation, and continental runoff (0.005, 0.7%, and 2%, respectively) compared to current model-observation differences (0.05, 7%, and 20%, respectively). In contrast, carbon fluxes are more sensitive to the categorization of plant properties, with predicted global NPP varying by ≤15% (6.2 Gt yr-1) according to whether the standard or one of the new methods is implemented.

  10. Plant tolerance to excess light energy and photooxidative damage relies on plastoquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ksas, Brigitte; Becuwe, Noëlle; Chevalier, Anne; Havaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Plastoquinone-9 is known as a photosynthetic electron carrier to which has also been attributed a role in the regulation of gene expression and enzyme activities via its redox state. Here, we show that it acts also as an antioxidant in plant leaves, playing a central photoprotective role. When Arabidopsis plants were suddenly exposed to excess light energy, a rapid consumption of plastoquinone-9 occurred, followed by a progressive increase in concentration during the acclimation phase. By overexpressing the plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis gene SPS1 (SOLANESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 1) in Arabidopsis, we succeeded in generating plants that specifically accumulate plastoquinone-9 and its derivative plastochromanol-8. The SPS1-overexpressing lines were much more resistant to photooxidative stress than the wild type, showing marked decreases in leaf bleaching, lipid peroxidation and PSII photoinhibition under excess light. Comparison of the SPS1 overexpressors with other prenyl quinone mutants indicated that the enhanced phototolerance of the former plants is directly related to their increased capacities for plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis. PMID:26039552

  11. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting

  12. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  13. Process energy inventory at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. Final report, November 1975-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.H.; Ogle, E.E.; Hedrick, R.E.; Krajkowski, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    Process operations at Radford Army Ammunition Plant were audited to measure energy consumption, identify areas of inefficiency, and identify changes which would reduce process energy requirements. The audited operations included nitrocellulose manufacture, propellant drying and solvent recovery. The study identified process changes available for immediate implementation which will result in annual energy savings of 1,435,000 MBTU under mobilization production rates. Further studies were proposed with an additional annual potential savings of 1,557,000 MBTU. This totals to an equivalent saving of approximately 460,000 barrels of oil or 107,000 tons of coal per year. Recommendations include automatic control of boiling tub steam, insulation of boiling tubs, heat recovery from wastewater, demand cycle control of the activated carbon solvent recovery operation, elimination of preheating of solvent laden air, and electric power generation using waste heat from hot condensate and exhaust gases via Organic Rankine Cycle Engines.

  14. Determination of reliable CO2 emission factors for waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    Obermoser, M; Fellner, J; Rechberger, H

    2009-11-01

    At Vienna University of Technology, the so-called balance method (BM) was developed to determine fossil and biogenic CO(2) emissions from waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. Meanwhile, the BM has been routinely applied to several WTE plants for some years, providing a large set of data. The average site-specific emission factors for fossil CO(2) were found to be in the range of 260- 780 kg CO(2) t(-1) waste, and 30-67 kg CO(2) GJ(-1) energy of the waste incinerated. These values are significantly different from the values that are found in the literature. Our results show that there is no such typical emission factor for WTE which could be applied to national CO(2) measurements or accurate emission trading. This study reveals that instead of generic emission factors the BM can be used as a standard for WTE plants, since its application requires either no or only a few additional installations. PMID:19808735

  15. Potassium (K+) gradients serve as a mobile energy source in plant vascular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gajdanowicz, Pawel; Michard, Erwan; Sandmann, Michael; Rocha, Marcio; Corrêa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Ramírez-Aguilar, Santiago J.; Gomez-Porras, Judith L.; González, Wendy; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; van Dongen, Joost T.; Dreyer, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The essential mineral nutrient potassium (K+) is the most important inorganic cation for plants and is recognized as a limiting factor for crop yield and quality. Nonetheless, it is only partially understood how K+ contributes to plant productivity. K+ is used as a major active solute to maintain turgor and to drive irreversible and reversible changes in cell volume. K+ also plays an important role in numerous metabolic processes, for example, by serving as an essential cofactor of enzymes. Here, we provide evidence for an additional, previously unrecognized role of K+ in plant growth. By combining diverse experimental approaches with computational cell simulation, we show that K+ circulating in the phloem serves as a decentralized energy storage that can be used to overcome local energy limitations. Posttranslational modification of the phloem-expressed Arabidopsis K+ channel AKT2 taps this “potassium battery,” which then efficiently assists the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in energizing the transmembrane phloem (re)loading processes. PMID:21187374

  16. North Star Steel Company: Iowa Mini-Mill Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Using a Total Assessment Audit

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    North Star Steel completed a plant-wide energy assessment at its plant in Wilton, Iowa. The assessment identified potential annual savings of 140,000 MMBtu in natural gas, nearly 39 million kWh in electricity, and more than $2.6 million.

  17. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Final report, February 1, 1979--January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  18. 75 FR 24755 - DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... quality of the human environment as documented in Federal Register (FR) notice 75 FR 20867, April 21, 2010... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste... and holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-9 issued for Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit...

  19. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  20. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  1. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  2. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant (Steam)

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  3. Ford Van Dyke: Compressed Air Management Program Leads to Improvements that Reduce Energy Consumption at an Automotive Transmission Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    Staff at the Ford Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, have increased the efficiency of the plant’s compressed air system to enhance its performance while saving energy and improving production.

  4. PMI: Plant-Microbe Interfaces (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schadt, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Christopher Schadt of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Plant-Microbe Interactions" in the context of poplar trees at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 held in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  5. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  6. Allelopathy as a potential strategy to improve microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bacellar Mendes, Leonardo Brantes; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for continuous productivity in microalgae cultivation is the presence of biological contaminants capable of eliminating large numbers of cells in a matter of days or even hours. However, a number of strategies are being used to combat and prevent contamination in microalgae cultivation. These strategies include the use of extreme conditions in the culture media such as high salinity and high pH to create an unfavorable environment for the competitive organisms or predators of the microalgae. Numerous studies have explored the potential of naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites, which are natural products from plants and microorganisms, as a source of such compounds. Some of these compounds are herbicides, and marine and freshwater microalgae are a source of these compounds. Microalgae produce a remarkable diversity of biologically active metabolites. Results based on the allelopathic potential of algae have only been described for laboratory-scale production and not for algae cultivation on a pilot scale. The adoption of allelopathy on microalgal strains is an unexplored field and may be a novel solution to improve algae production. Here we present information showing the diversity of allelochemicals from microalgae and the use of an allelopathic approach to control microalgae cultivation on a pilot scale based on R&D activities being carried out in Brazil for biodiesel production. PMID:24499580

  7. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  8. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  9. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  10. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and$2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  11. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and $2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  12. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  13. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Waghmode, Tatoba R.; Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001) reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance). BES significantly (P<0.001) reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation. PMID:26562416

  14. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Waghmode, Tatoba R; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M) and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1) were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001) reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance). BES significantly (P<0.001) reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control) was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation. PMID:26562416

  15. Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006

    SciTech Connect

    Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

    2006-08-25

    Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

  16. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Lung cancer risk assessment at receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Scungio, Mauro; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    The toxicity of particulate matter emitted from waste-to-energy plants, is associated to the compounds attached to the particles, several of which have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in the Group 1 carcinogens. In this paper a modified risk-assessment model, deriving from an existing one, was applied to estimate the lung cancer risk related to both ultrafine and coarse particles emitted from an incinerator whose people living nearby are exposed to. To this end, the measured values of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni) and PCDD/Fs (Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans) emitted from an incinerator placed in Italy were used to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) at the stack of the plant. The estimated ELCR was then used as input data in a numerical CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model that solves the mass, momentum, turbulence and species transport equations to study the influence of wind speed and chimney height on the ELCR at receptor sites. Furthermore, combining meteorological data (wind speed and direction), and hypothesizing different exposure scenarios on the basis of time-activity patterns of people living nearby the plant, specific risk maps were obtained by evaluating ELCR around the incinerator. Results show that with the increasing of wind speed, the ELCR value downwind at the plant decreases and its point of maximum risk becomes closer to the stack. On the other hand, increasing the stack height decreases the ELCR, moving away from the stack the point of maximum risk. Finally, the risk maps for people living or working nearby the plant have highlighted that the excess risk of lung cancer due to the presence of the incinerator is below the WHO target (1×10(-5)). PMID:27462027

  18. Hydrogen from renewable energy: A pilot plant for thermal production and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiorgis, L.; Santarelli, M.; Calì, M.

    In the mainframe of a research contract, a feasibility pre-design study of a hydrogen-fuelled Laboratory-Village has been carried out: the goals are the design and the simulation of a demonstration plant based on hydrogen as primary fuel. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis, from electric power produced by a mix of hydroelectric and solar photovoltaic plants. The plant will be located in a small remote village in Valle d'Aosta (Italy). This country has large water availability from glaciers and mountains, so electricity production from fluent water hydroelectric plants is abundant and cheap. Therefore, the production of hydrogen during the night (instead of selling the electricity to the grid at very low prices) could become a good economic choice, and hydrogen could be a competitive local fuel in term of costs, if compared to oil or gas. The H 2 will be produced and stored, and used to feed a hydrogen vehicle and for thermal purposes (heating requirement of three buildings), allowing a real field test (Village-Laboratory). Due to the high level of pressure requested for H 2 storage on-board in the vehicle, the choice has been the experimental test of a prototype laboratory-scale high-pressure PEM electrolyzer: a test laboratory has been designed, to investigate the energy savings related to this technology. In the paper, the description of the dynamic simulation of the plant (developed with TRNSYS) together with a detailed design and an economic analysis (proving the technical and economical feasibility of the installation) has been carried out. Moreover, the design of the high-pressure PEM electrolyzer is described.

  19. Life cycle assessment on microalgal biodiesel production using a hybrid cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Victoria O; Cadena, Erasmo; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G

    2014-07-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a putative biodiesel production plant in which the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris, was grown using an existing system similar to a published commercial-scale hybrid cultivation. The hybrid system couples airlift tubular photobioreactors with raceway ponds in a two-stage process for high biomass growth and lipid accumulation. The results show that microalgal biodiesel production would have a significantly lower environmental impact than fossil-derived diesel. Based on the functional unit of 1 ton of biodiesel produced, the hybrid cultivation system and hypothetical downstream process (base case) would have 42% and 38% savings in global warming potential (GWP) and fossil-energy requirements (FER) when compared to fossil-derived diesel, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential process parameters on the LCA results. The maximum reduction in GWP and FER was observed under mixotrophic growth conditions with savings of 76% and 75% when compared to conventional diesel, respectively. PMID:24852435

  20. The Community Land Model underestimates land-use CO2 emissions by neglecting soil disturbance from cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.

    2014-04-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) can simulate planting and harvesting of crops but does not include effects of cultivation on soil carbon decomposition. The biogeochemistry model DayCent does account for cultivation and provides a baseline for evaluating the CLM. With the goal of representing cultivation effects on soil carbon decomposition, we implemented the DayCent cultivation parameterization in the CLM and compared CLM and DayCent simulations at eight Midwestern United States sites with and without the cultivation parameterization. Cultivation decreases soil carbon by about 1350 gC m-2 in the CLM and 1660 gC m-2 in DayCent across the eight sites from the first cultivation (early 1900s) to 2010. CLM crop simulations without cultivation have soil carbon gain, not loss, over this period, in contrast to the expected declining trends in agricultural soil carbon. A global cultivation simulation for 1973-2004 reduces ecosystem carbon by 0.4 Pg yr-1 over temperate corn, soybean, and cereal crop areas, which occupy approximately 1/3 of global crop area. Earth System Models may improve their atmospheric CO2 and soil carbon simulations by accounting for enhanced decomposition from cultivation.

  1. Earth System Models that simulate crops underestimate CO2 emissions from land use by neglecting soil disturbance due to cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, S.; Hartman, M. D.; Bonan, G. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) can simulate planting and harvesting of crops but does not include effects of cultivation on soil carbon decomposition. The biogeochemistry model DayCent does account for cultivation and provides a baseline for evaluating the CLM. With the goal of representing cultivation effects on soil carbon decomposition, we implemented the DayCent cultivation parameterization in the CLM and compared CLM and DayCent simulations at eight Midwestern United States sites with and without the cultivation parameterization. Cultivation decreases soil carbon by about 1350 g C m-2 in the CLM and 1660 g C m-2 in DayCent across the eight sites from first cultivation (early 1900s) to 2010. CLM crop simulations without cultivation have soil carbon gain, not loss, over this period, in contrast to the expected declining trends in agricultural soil carbon. A global cultivation simulation for 1973-2004 reduces ecosystem carbon by 0.4 Pg yr-1 over temperate corn, soybean, and cereal crop areas, which occupy approximately 1/3 of global crop area. Earth System Models may improve their atmospheric CO2 and soil carbon simulations by accounting for enhanced decomposition from cultivation.

  2. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-01-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  3. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2003-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, along with its team members, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nexant Consulting, Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair, propose to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The ITN team is taking a novel approach to hydrogen separation membrane technology where fundamental engineering material development is fully integrated into fabrication designs; combining functionally graded materials, monolithic module concept and plasma spray manufacturing techniques. The technology is based on the use of Ion Conducting Ceramic Membranes (ICCM) for the selective transport of hydrogen. The membranes are comprised of composites consisting of a proton conducting ceramic and a second metallic phase to promote electrical conductivity. Functional grading of the membrane components allows the fabrication of individual membrane layers of different materials, microstructures and functions directly into a monolithic module. Plasma spray techniques, common in industrial manufacturing, are well suited for fabricating ICCM hydrogen separation modules inexpensively, yielding compact membrane modules that are amenable to large scale, continuous manufacturing with low costs. This program will develop and evaluate composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules will be fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed ICCM approach, including system integration issues, will also be assessed. This will result in a complete evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of ICCM hydrogen separation for implementation within the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The ICCM hydrogen separation technology is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of

  4. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  5. Bioenergy Landscape Design to Minimize the Environmental Impacts of Feedstock Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J.; Dinh, T.; Paustian, K.

    2012-12-01

    The United States has adopted aggressive mandates for the use of biofuels in an attempt to improve domestic energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector, and stimulate rural development. The Renewable Fuel Standard requires that the environmental impact of all conventional, advanced, and cellulosic biofuels be evaluated through standardized lifecycle assessment (LCA) techniques relative to a baseline of petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel fuels. A significant fraction of the energy use, GHG emissions, and water quality impact of the production of all types of biofuel occurs during the cultivation of feedstocks (either starch- or oil-based or lignocellulosic), which requires some combination of crop switching, land use change, or cultivation intensification. Furthermore, these impacts exhibit a high degree of spatial variability with local climate, soil type, land use history, and farm management practices. Here we present a spatially-explicit LCA methodology based on the DayCent soil biogeochemistry model capable of accurately evaluating cultivation impacts for a variety of biofuel feedstocks. This methodology considers soil GHG emissions and nitrate leaching as well as the embodied emissions of agricultural inputs and fuels used for field operations and biomass transport to a centralized collection point (biorefinery or transportation hub). Model results are incorporated into a biomass production cost analysis in order to identify the impact of different system designs on production cost. Finally, the resulting multi-criteria optimization problem is solved by monetizing all environmental externalities based on figures from the non-market valuation literature and using a heuristic optimization algorithm to identify optimal cultivation areas and collection point locations to minimize overall environmental impacts at lowest possible cost. Preliminary analysis results are presented for an illustrative case study of switchgrass

  6. [Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

    2010-12-01

    This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

  7. Enabling a flexible exchange of energy of a photovoltaic plant with the grid by means of a controlled storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, R.; Parma, C.; De Marco, A.; Bittanti, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a control strategy for a photovoltaic (PV) power plant equipped with an energy storage system (ESS), based on lithium-ion battery. The plant consists of the following units: the PV generator, the energy storage system, the DC-bus and the inverter. The control, organised in a hierarchical manner, maximises the self-consumption of the local load unit. In particular, the ESS action performs power balance in case of low solar radiation or surplus of PV generation, thus managing the power exchange variability at the plant with the grid. The implemented control strategy is under testing in RSE pilot test facility in Milan, Italy.

  8. Comparison of two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations, as well as the associated costs for two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant are compared. Both systems utilize waste heat from engine cooling water and waste heat from exhaust gases. Pressurized water heat recovery system is simple in nature and requires no engine modifications, but operates at lower temperature ranges. On the other hand, a two-phase ebullient system operates the engine at constant temperature, provides higher temperature water or steam to the load, but is more expensive.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  10. Efficient use of energy in anoxia-tolerant plants with focus on germinating rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Brian J; Greenway, Hank; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-04-01

    Anoxia tolerance in plants is distinguished by direction of the sparse supply of energy to processes crucial to cell maintenance and sometimes to growth, as in rice seedlings. In anoxic rice coleoptiles energy is used to synthesise proteins, take up K(+) , synthesise cell walls and lipids, and in cell maintenance. Maintenance of electrochemical H(+) gradients across the tonoplast and plasma membrane is crucial for solute compartmentation and thus survival. These gradients sustain some H(+) -solute cotransport and regulate cytoplasmic pH. Pyrophosphate (PPi ), the alternative energy donor to ATP, allows direction of energy to the vacuolar H(+) -PPi ase, sustaining H(+) gradients across the tonoplast. When energy production is critically low, operation of a biochemical pHstat allows H(+) -solute cotransport across plasma membranes to continue for at least for 18 h. In active (e.g. growing) cells, PPi produced during substantial polymer synthesis allows conversion of PPi to ATP by PPi -phosphofructokinase (PFK). In quiescent cells with little polymer synthesis and associated PPi formation, the PPi required by the vacuolar H(+) -PPi ase and UDPG pyrophosphorylase involved in sucrose mobilisation via sucrose synthase might be produced by conversion of ATP to PPi through reversible glycolytic enzymes, presumably pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase. These hypotheses need testing with species characterised by contrasting anoxia tolerance. PMID:25472708

  11. Plant names and classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

  12. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  13. Basewide energy studies in support of Energy Engineering Analysis Program for Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, Parsons, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-07-01

    The Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, a Government-owned Contractor-Operated military industrial installation under jurisdiction of Headquarters, U.S. Army Armament Material Readiness Command, is assigned responsibility to manufacture explosives (Lead Azide) and related products; and load, assemble, and pack ammunition items as directed; operation and maintenance of active facilities, and maintenance and/or layaway of standby facilities in such condition to permit rehabilitation and resumption of production within time limitations prescribed; procurement, receipt, storage, and issue of necessary supplies, equipment, components, and materials; receipt, surveillance, maintenance, renovation, demilitarization, salvage, storage, inventory, and issue of Field Service Stocks as directed; Industrial Preparedness Planning and Emergency Mobilization Planning. The present population at Kansas AAP consists of 830 Contractor personnel and 30 Government personnel. Under full mobilization the population would increase to 4,477 Contractor personnel and 115 Government personnel. The basic survey data for this energy engineering analysis was gathered during November, 1981, and furnished as an appendix to the preliminary submittal. An executive summary is included as a part of this report. It summarizes and explains the conclusions reached on energy conservation measures that were analyzed under Phase II of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program.

  14. Participation of the Nuclear Power Plants in the New Brazilian Electric Energy Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, S.G.

    2004-10-06

    A new regulation framework has been established for the Brazilian electric energy market by a law put into effect on March 15,2004. The main overall goals of this new regulation are: to allow the lowest possible tariffs for end users, while providing the necessary economic incentives for the operation of present installations (generating plants, transmission lines, distribution networks) and the expansion of the system; long-term planning of the extension of the installations required to meet the demand growth; separation of the generation, transmission and distribution activities by allocating them into different companies; new contracts between generating and distribution companies must result from bidding processes based on lowest-tariff criteria; and energy from new generating units required to meet the demand growth must be contracted by all distributing companies integrated to the National Interconnected Grid, in individual amounts proportional to their respective markets.

  15. Some Working Parameters and Energy Use in a Pistachio Nut Processing Plant: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Refik; Erol Ak, Bekir; Acar, Izzet

    This study was performed with the objective to investigate the work process, work capacity, work effectiveness, energy consumption and labor force requirements of basic units such as washing, dehulling, sorting, separating, roasting and packing in a pistachio processing plant which has been mechanized in the last years. As a result of this study, the work capacity in washing, sorting, breaking, drying, separating units was found to be 1.5, 1.5, 2, 1, 1.6 t h-1, respectively. The work effectiveness in sorting and breaking units was found to be 95% and that of separating unit was 99%. The total energy consumption of the units was found to be 20.42 kW h-1 and the total labor force requirement was found to be five workers.

  16. Micro-scale energy valorization of grape marcs in winery production plants.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of winery organic waste, with reference to two Italian red and white grapes (i.e. Nero Buono and Greco) by-products was investigated. The study was carried out to verify the possibility to reduce the production impact in a green-waste-management-chain-perspective. The possibility to efficiently utilize wine-related-by-products for energy production at a micro-scale (i.e. small-medium scale winery production plant) was also verified. Results showed as a good correlation can be established between the percentage of COD removal and the biogas production, as the winery can produce, from its waste methanization, about 7800 kW h year(-1) electrical and 8900 kW h year(-1) thermal. A critical evaluation was performed about the possibility to utilize the proposed approach to realize an optimal biomass waste management and an energetic valorization in a local-energy-production-perspective. PMID:25529134

  17. Understanding and engineering beneficial plant–microbe interactions: plant growth promotion in energy crops

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Kerrie; Bryant, David; Cope-Selby, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Plant production systems globally must be optimized to produce stable high yields from limited land under changing and variable climates. Demands for food, animal feed, and feedstocks for bioenergy and biorefining applications, are increasing with population growth, urbanization and affluence. Low-input, sustainable, alternatives to petrochemical-derived fertilizers and pesticides are required to reduce input costs and maintain or increase yields, with potential biological solutions having an important role to play. In contrast to crops that have been bred for food, many bioenergy crops are largely undomesticated, and so there is an opportunity to harness beneficial plant–microbe relationships which may have been inadvertently lost through intensive crop breeding. Plant–microbe interactions span a wide range of relationships in which one or both of the organisms may have a beneficial, neutral or negative effect on the other partner. A relatively small number of beneficial plant–microbe interactions are well understood and already exploited; however, others remain understudied and represent an untapped reservoir for optimizing plant production. There may be near-term applications for bacterial strains as microbial biopesticides and biofertilizers to increase biomass yield from energy crops grown on land unsuitable for food production. Longer term aims involve the design of synthetic genetic circuits within and between the host and microbes to optimize plant production. A highly exciting prospect is that endosymbionts comprise a unique resource of reduced complexity microbial genomes with adaptive traits of great interest for a wide variety of applications. PMID:25431199

  18. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. PMID:22445768

  19. Integration of evolutionary and desolvation energy analysis identifies functional sites in a plant immunity protein

    PubMed Central

    Casasoli, Manuela; Federici, Luca; Spinelli, Francesco; Di Matteo, Adele; Vella, Nicoletta; Scaloni, Flavio; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Plant immune responses often depend on leucine-rich repeat receptors that recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-specific virulence proteins, either directly or indirectly. When the recognition is direct, a molecular arms race takes place where plant receptors continually and rapidly evolve in response to virulence factor evolution. A useful model system to study ligand-receptor coevolution dynamics at the protein level is represented by the interaction between pathogen-derived polygalacturonases (PGs) and plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs). We have applied codon substitution models to PGIP sequences of different eudicotyledonous families to identify putative positively selected sites and then compared these sites with the propensity of protein surface residues to interact with protein partners, based on desolvation energy calculations. The 2 approaches remarkably correlated in pinpointing several residues in the concave face of the leucine-rich repeat domain. These residues were mutated into alanine and their effect on the recognition of several PGs was tested, leading to the identification of unique hotspots for the PGIP-PG interaction. The combined approach used in this work can be of general utility in cases where structural information about a pattern-recognition receptor or resistance-gene product is available. PMID:19372373

  20. Structure-based identification of energy sinks in plant light-harvesting complex II.

    PubMed

    Müh, Frank; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Renger, Thomas

    2010-10-28

    The local S(0) → S(1) transition energies (site energies) and corresponding excitonic couplings of chlorophyll a (Chla) and b (Chlb) pigments bound to trimeric, major light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) of higher plants are calculated on the basis of the two crystal structures (Liu et al. Nature 2004, 428, 287-292; Standfuss et al. EMBO J. 2005, 24, 919-928) by using a combined quantum chemical/electrostatic method (Müh et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007, 104, 16862-16867) that has been modified to cover membrane proteins and to account more realistically for the behavior of protonatable groups under the conditions of low-temperature optical spectroscopy. The obtained exciton levels are in reasonable agreement with experimental information (including linear absorption, linear dichroism, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra of native as well as wild-type-minus-mutant difference absorption spectra of recombinant LHCII) and differ from earlier treatments based on fitted site energies (Novoderezhkin et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 10493-10504) mainly by assigning a lower energy level to Chla 604 (in the nomenclature of Liu et al.) and Chlb 608 and a higher energy level to Chlb 605 and 609. The energy sink at cyrogenic temperatures is located at Chla 610 in the stromal layer of pigments, but structural changes at elevated temperatures may change the nature of the terminal emitter domain (including Chla 610/611/612). The site energy red-shift of Chla 610 is calculated to be significantly larger on the basis of the crystal structure of Standfuss et al. compared to that of Liu et al. due to conformational differences in the neighborhood of this pigment. A possible conformational change in the vicinity of Chla 604 involving tyrosine 112 and neoxanthin is found to strongly affect the site energy of this Chla and render it an alternative energy sink in the lumenal layer. A detailed, structure-based analysis of electrostatic pigment-protein interactions is